Running head: FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOLOGY
Foundation of Psychology Sundra D. Daniels PSY 300 October 10. 2010 Jason Sapir
It was formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of William James.com/od/history of psychology) Instead of focusing on the concept of the mind.com/item/-history of psychology) Identify the major schools of thought in psychology and examine their underlying assumptions.(Robin M. it emphasized the role or function of psychological
.helium.(http://www. Structuralism Structuralism was one of the first foundations of psychology that was most famous in the 1800. Titchener believed that experimentation was the only approach methods for a science of psychology and that concept such as ³attention´ implied too much free will to be scientifically useful. 2005) Structuralism focused on the characteristics and examined the bases elements of experiences. (http://psychology. Wilhelm Wundt.( http://www. Because of his interest in studying the structure of consciousness.coursehero. much like the periodic table developed by chemists.about.com/file/ psychology-exam 1 study guide) Functionalism Functionalism was the other school of thought that was used in the 1800. It was advocated by the founder of the first psychology lab. Psychology.about. 4e. and describe the biological foundations of psychology. In(http://psychology.FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOLOGY
Foundation of Psychology ³Psychology is a science of behavior and mental performing that uses the quantitative and qualitative research studies to promote and test hypothesis and put forward theories and models that explain human behavior. Edward Titchener advocated the use of introspection in experiments with the hopes of devising a periodic table of the elements of human consciousness. this is how the school of thought came into existent. Kowalski.com/od/history of psychology) One of Wundt students.
(http://coursehero.(Robin M.com/psychology Exam 1 Study Guide) such as the mentally ill. 2005) Gestalt This viewpoint was built on Max Wertheimer. This approach to psychology began in Germany and
.helium. Gestalt psychology is based upon the idea that we experience things as unified wholes. Natural selection is a theory proposed by Darwin which states natural forces select traits in organism that help them adapt to their environment.(Robin M.4e. including not only introspection and experimentation but also the study of children.com/history of psychology) William James was the first to compose the first psychology textbook. Kowalski. Kowalski. psychology.2005) and focused on the belief that optimal learning conditions can be created by knowing how the brain uses and processes information. evolved because they helped our ancestors survive and rear healthy offspring. psychology.FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOLOGY
processes in helping individuals adapt to their environment. but was the first to propose a mechanism that could account for natural selection. It argues that many behavioral tendencies in humans.(http://www. James was instrumental in helping women emerge to their position within the field of psychology Evolutionary This viewpoint was built on Charles Darwin principle of natural selection which argues that human behavioral proclivities must be understood in the corner of their evolutionary and adaptive significance. James believed that knowledge about human psychology could come from many sources. Darwin argued that natural forces select adaptive traits in organism that help them adjust to and survive in their environment and that are likely to be passed on to their offspring. Darwin did not invent the concept of evolution. 4e. from the need to eat to concern for our children. other animals and people whose mind do not function adequately.
³There is no place in a scientific analysis of behavior for a mind or self.F. and retrieve information. psychology. The primary method of cognitive perspective is experimental. 4e.´ Cognitive Cognitive perspective focuses on the way people perceive. the gestalt psychologist believed that one must look at the world of experience. the behaviorist perspective focuses between external events and observable behavior. process. stated. The nervous. biological psychology studies the brain and the nervous system. It focuses on the way objects or events in the environment come to control behavior through learning. B.
. Rather that breaking down thoughts and behavior to the smallest element.com/od/historyof psychology) Behaviorism The perspective pioneered by John Watson focused on the relation between observable behaviors and environmental events or stimuli also called behaviorism. the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Cognitive psychology has its roots in experiments conducted by Wundt and others in the late nineteenth century that examined phenomena such as the influence of attention on perception and the ability to remember lists of words. how people solve problems and make decisions.FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOLOGY
Austria during the late ninthteenth century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism. (Robin M. According to the gestalt thinkers. Kowalski. (http://psychology. and similar questions.2005) Describe the biological foundations of psychology: Also called physiological or behavior neuroscience. Cognitive psychology is interest in how memory work. who developed behaviorism into full-fledged perspective years later. Skinner. John Watson considered mental events entirely outside the province of a scientific psychology.about.
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endocrine.) and behavior. Psychology
. Socyberty Foundations of psychology. Robin. (2005). Psychology (4th ed. feeling. Coursehero. and all human action occurs in the context of cultural belief and values that render it meaningful. Psychology. peripheral. central system is the big systems involved in biological psychology.helium.com/ school of thought. (http://www.com WWW. (Robin M. August. 2007
Kowalski. Laura. Hoboken. Biological Bases of Mental Life and Behavior. D. psychology. 2005)
Cherry. NJ: Wiley
UOP. All psychological processes occur through the interaction of cells in the nervous system. (2007)
WWW. Week One. Kowalski. remembering. Kendra. R. 4e.com/items/history of psychology) Psychology is the scientific investigation of mental processes (thinking. about.
Spear. The Study of Mental Processes and Behavior.com Kolaski.heliem.