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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background Of The Problem English as international language has very important role and function. Miftahulja states that English language is the one of the international languages that used to communicate all over the world. It is badly needed in all sectors such as educations, economics, agricultures, technologies, sciences, and literatures. In Indonesia, English is taught since elementary school, as the ministerial degree no. 060/V/1993 that teaching English can be stated and introduced to the fourth grade of elementary school. Government and private schools all over the world have decided to introduce English at primary level. Childs ego is dynamic and growing and flexible through the age of puberty. From statement that English is possible to be taught starting from elementary school. The students can easily adapt the new language since their ego is dynamic and flexible for new things or idea. The essence of teaching and learning process on instruction is a process of communication it is the process of transmitting or sending information to the learners as the receiver. In studying English student have to deal with some aspects, such the vocabulary that has difficulties in each level, whereas vocabulary is a component from language material in learning English.
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In teaching and learning English a foreign language must deal with language skill are listening, speaking, reading and writing, while the component of language or subject matters of language a stock of word, that is vocabulary. So it is clear that in teaching English vocabulary is one of the important language skills beside the other language skill such as reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Especially for writing, students vocabulary mastery is very important to communicate. Through written language. The students have to able to write with the material that is given appropriately. In teaching and learning process. They have a lot of vocabulary problems. The factor can be caused by the individualized teacher, by the method that is used, by the less motivation of the student in learning English. By the less interest in learning English perhaps the students have difficulties in mastering vocabulary. In the fact, if the students have many vocabularies and patterns. So they are easily in mastering skill of English language. Learning is one the primary activities of student in the classroom. Successful learning is only on the right way to lead the process. Good learning atmosphere and method can guide the students to learn more and meaningful. To accomplish such condition, teacher must varitype and attractive methods for the class. The result from pre-survey as SDN I TANGGUL ANGIN the writer found many problem of English skill, especially in mastering vocabulary. It caused the

Teacher didnt use media. In teaching just write material on the lackboard and the student imitated, and then teacher explained the material and gave exercise to the students, go the process of learning was passive. I assumed it caused the teacher didnt give the variation teaching and only the direction. The result from pre-survey that was conducted in SDN I TANGGUL ANGIN of the fifth graders students there are thirty four students. Based on the result on November 12th, 2010 from the mid-term test, only 38, 3% the students who passed in the mid-term test and 61.7% the student failed with the highest grade 70 and the lowest grade 32,5 with the minimum requirement (KKM) 55 for English.

Table I The pre-survey data of mid-term test of the fifth graders of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011 NO 1 2 GRADE <55 >55 TOTAL EXPLANATION MOUNT FAIL PASS 21 13 PERCENTAGE 61.7% 38.3% 100%

Source: the teachers graded book of English at the first semester the fifth graders students of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011. The writer choose the vocabulary of verb material because in the fifth graders have studied about patterns and text, so they need verb for study it and

they must be difference between verbs and other words, so the writer uses class picture as media for teaching and learning English, so that it should be more effective to encourage student to learn English and also more interesting because they can guess and discuss with their friends and teacher.

B. Problem Identification Referring to the background above, the writer would like to assume that there are some problems as follows: a. Is there any correlation between writing and student vocabulary mastery? b. Is there any influence of method used by teacher toward students achievement? c. Is there any influence of students motivation toward their achievement in learning English? d. Is there any influence of using class picture media toward students verb mastery

C. Problem limitation The writer focuses on the influence of using class pictures on verb mastery of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011.

D. Based on the problem above, the writer formulated the problem as follow :

Is there any positive influence of using class picture on verb mastery of the fifth graders of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011.

E. Objective of study This research is aimed: a. To know wheter there is a positive and significant influence of using class picture onverb mastery of the fifth graders of SDN I TANGGULANGUN in academic year of 2010/2011. b. To increase the students verb mastery by using class picture.

F. Benefits On The Study a. The result of the research can be used as information to English teacher how to make to pupils fell fun in the classroom. b. The result of the research can be used an alternative way that class picture can solve the problem of teaching English, especially English verb.

CHAPTER II THE REVIEW OF RELATED THEORIES

A. Theoretical Review 1. Concept Teaching And Learning Teaching is conscious from the teacher correlated with guidance, direction and support to the student in teaching learning process: Teaching is an effort in giving stimulus, guidance, direction and support to the student in teaching learning process. Moreover, kuitable and earmezi in douglas brows said that teaching is defined as showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, providing with knowledge, tausing to know or understand. Teaching cannot be defined apart from learning. According to cronbach learning is shown by change in behavior as result of experience. While kingskey said that learning is the process by which behavior (in the broader serse) is originated or changed through practice or training, furthermore beach formulated that Learning is change is performance as a result of practice,so, learning can be defined as the steps of any relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience and interaction with environment that involved the process of cognitive, affective and psychometric.

While another statement said that, language teaching is influenced by ideas on the nature of language and the learning condition that make learners to acquire the language, so it is clear, although teaching cannot be defined apart from learning but they have relationship. Learning is a result of repotition. The result of learning depends on the process of learning. So the teaches should use the suit table technique and media to make thestudents understand the English material and they should give the variety activities in the classroom to avold the students boredom and generate the students respond. In learning process, theteacher has very important role and function. Richard and Rodgers in bambangsetiyadi stated that some methods are totally dependent on the teacher as a source of knowledge, anddirection, others see the teachers role as a catalyst, consultant, guide, and model of learning.

2. Concept Of Human Brain The brain is the center of the human nervous system and is a highly complex organ. According to paulbroca in sutohan stated that the brain contains an averase of ten billions neurons or cells, each of which is linked with one thousand to ten thousand other neurons. The brain is divided into two toughly symmetrical hemispheres, sometimes called the right and left brains. The activity of the two cerebical

hemispheres is coordinated by a number of interconnecting nerve pathways, the largest of which is the corpus calloum. Specialized linguistic and perceptual skills are each associate with a particular hemisphere of the brain. Each brain has difference function. According to teacher that left brain dominant second language learners preferred a dedictive style of teaching. While right brain dominant learners appeared to be more successful in a inductive classroom enviroment. While paulbroca mentions some the major function under the control of each hemisphere as follows.

Left hemisphere Language Analytic reasoning Tempora; ordering Reading and writing Arithmetic

Right hemisphere Perception of nonlineouis Tic sound, music Vocal and spectial skills Patten recognition

3. Concept of picture Media is very helpful for student to understanding the material, especially learning vocabulary by using of physical object in English teaching that can be of assistance in creating experience. Therefore, the objective of

teaching English in elementary school is to generate students interest and delight in studying.Parter, chart, and magazine, picture, represent old fhasioned but effective teaching also. Picture is a two dimensional representation of persons, place, or thinks. There are any types of picture that may be used in teaching vocabulary, they are: texst picture, class picture, and films. And each type of pictures has difference functions, as follows. a. Text pictures Text pictures used for teaching content words and structural meaning b. Class pictures Class picture are visual media used for teaching vocabulary. Such as about animals, activities, flowers, fruits, part of body, ate, c. Film Film is very suitable for English teaching of content word and verb for begginers. Because using of film student will be easierto learn pronunciation and understand the context of the language as well.

4. Concept of vocabulary a. Concept of vocabulary In learning a forign language especially English language the learners need to enlarge their vocabulary, the learners will fall in their learning if they do not have and adequate vocabulary.

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English vocabulary can be classified to the eight groups, they are: 1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3. Adjective 4. Verb 5. Preposition 6. Adverb 7. Conjuntion 8. Interjection b. The concept of verb mastery means that expeift skill or knowledge.horn by defines mastery as great knowledge about understanding of particular thing. Auxiliaries verb in go before main verb in verb phrases. 1. Form of verbs. 1. Base 2. To infinitive 3. Ing- from 4. Past 5. Participle 2. Kinds of verb 1. Verb is to be 2. Be (am, is, are, as, were)

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c.

Teaching verb as vocabulary mastery Teaching some new vocabulary is one of duty of English teacher, choosing and effective strategy and media to be applied in the class is one of ways to make the teaching vocabulary activity runs fluently. Meanwhile the rentions of simple teaching verb can be done through four steps, those are:

Explanation: 1) Introduction: teacher introduces or knows new verb clearly and well pronunciation, using picture or realia. 2) Modeling: teaching gives an example with acting is like a model. 3) Practicing: teacher trains the student to follow and practice. 4) Applying: teacher apply in effective situation, and the teachers help them. Chodijah gives some tips for English teacher when teaching English. 1) Speaking not too fast.

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2) Using the easy and simple language that can be understood by student. 3) Always using English when speak or communicate to the student. 4) Using gesture, sign, or mime if they are needed. 5) Using audio visual aids, such as: picture, realia, puppers, etc. 1) to be is used for continuous form in passive and active sentence. E.g/- I am drinking a glass of milk. 2) Do(does,do) for negative and introgative sentence, negative, pupstio. Presents and past tense. E.g.-do youstudy English every day. 3) Have(has/had) is used to help the information of the perfect tense and the formation of passive sentence e.g. she has bought a new car.

B. Theoretical Frame Work And Paradigm 1. Theoretical frame work According to edikusnadi theoretical frame work is a concept that consist of casual relationship between independent variable and dependent variable to give temporary. Explanation toward indication to be the problem object in the research.From statement that the writer can conclude that theoretical frame work is foundation concept that supports relationship two or more variable.

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2. Paradigm Based on the theoretical frame work above the researcher describe the paradigm as followins:

H Y P

Using Class picture

high average

The Students

high average

O T H E S I s

Verb
low low

marters

C. hypothesis formulation Based on the theoretical frame work above the researcher formulates the researcher formulates the hypothesis as follows: 1) Alternative hypothesis (Ha) There a passive and significant influence of using class picture on verb mastery of the fifth graders of SMP 1 TANGGUL ANGIN in the academic years of 2010/2011. 2) Null hypothesis (Ho)

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There a passive and significant influence of using class picture on verb mastery of the fifth graders of SDN 1 TANGGUL ANGIN in the academic years of 2010/2011.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design In this research the writer used the quantitative research emphasized to numeric data that will be processed by using statistic method. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether there is any positive a significant influence of using picture media toward the students vocabulary mastery at the fifth graders of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011.

B. Population And Sample 1. Population Suharsini Arikanto defines population as the whole subject which are complete and clear and will be the object of research.2Thepopulation of this research is the fifth graders of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011. 2. Sample According suharsimiarikanto sample is a part of population that had been observed. If the subject are less than 100 people, all subject are taken as the sample of the research but if the subject are more than 100 people, the subject involved are just 10%-15% or 20%-25%. The sample of this research

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is the students of class fifth which tonsist of 35 students. So, all subject in this research all involved.

C. The operational definitions of variables. Operational definition is the definition which based on characteristic of the things defined that can be observed and measured. Meanwhile, variable can be defined as an attribute of a person or of an object which varies from person to person of from object to object. Based on the quotation above, the operational definitions of variable as following. 1. Independent variable Independent variable in this research is the class picture. To increase the students vocabularymastery at the fifth graders of SDN I

TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011. The writer uses the media as instrument in the teaching English vocabulary of verb, namely class picture. The class pictures will be used in this research with size 3X4 cm, for helping the student learn about verb of base and Ing-form.

2. Dependent variable Dependent variable of this research is the students vocabulary mastery especially those vocabularies related to English verbs; it is verb about base

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and ing-form of the fifth graders of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011.

D. Data collection method 1. Test Edi Kusnadi explains that test is questions or statement that used to measure the aspects that as individual or group has such as, skill, knowledge, intelligence, and capability. Moreover, the researcher use test as data collection method to measure both of the variables. The researcher measures the vocabulary mastery of the students at the fifth graders of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011. By giving vocabulary test without pictures media (pre-test) and vocabulary test by using pictures media (post-test).

2. Documentation Edi Kusnadi defines documentations as the method which is used get information for written language or document (examples; book, magazine, note, and others).

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3. Observation Observation can be defined as election, modification, registration, and coding of the behavior and circumstance which is connected with organism based on the empiric purpose.

E. Research instrument 1. Instrument Suharsini Arianto defines instrument as the tool of research which is used in each method. Furthermore, the instrument involues : a. The instrument which will be used in documentation method is documentation guidance, as follows: 1. Documentation about the condition teacher and official employer in SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011. 2. Documentation about the quantity of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011. 3. Documentation about the organization structure of SDN I

TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011. b. The instrument which will be used in observation method is observance guidance, as follows : 1. Observation about the location sketch of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011.

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2. Observation about the establishment of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011. 3. Observation about the buildings of SDN I TANGGULANGIN in academic year of 2010/2011. c. To get the data from independent and dependent variables exactly, so the writer must measure design variable, they are as follows : a. Pre-test (the vocabulary test without class pictures media) the writer used the object test is multiple chaise test. The total of the items test is 25 items with 4 option (a, b, c, and d). The score of each item are 4 for the right answer, and 0 for the false answer. Post. Test (the vocabulary test with using class pictures media)the writer anrranges the item test based on the material given to the student. Total of the item test are 25items with 4 option (a. b, c, d). the score of every item is 4 for the right answer, and 0 for the false answer.

2. Instrument Calibration Instrument Calibration is the scale of measurement which will be used to decided the instrument standard which will be used, its suggested to try the instrument outside the population or sample. The test is multiple choice test which consisted of 25 questions. The total score of the multiple choices is 100 (25 items X 4=100).every question

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that can be answered correctly will be given score 4. Moreover, the writer has grillwork of verb test as follows :

Table I Verbs test grillwork (pre-test) aspect Category items Total items Vocabulary Ing-form of verb Base Total 1,2,3,6,8,9,10,11,13,14,15,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25 18 25 items 4,5,7,12,16,17,22 7

Aspect

Category

Table II (POST-TEST) Items

Total items

Vocabulary verb

Ing-form

,1,2,5,8,9,12,13,15,16,17,18,19,22,24,25

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Base Total

3,4,6,7,10,11,14,20,21,23

10 25 items

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F. Data analysis technique To investigate whether there is a positive and significant influence class picture on verb mastery, the researcher analyzes the data by using T-test (SPSS 12.0 Program).

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