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Download this Document for Free 85 Table 1.Available micronutrient status (mg kg−1) of Cauvery Delta soils of Tami l Nadu, India (Source: Na garajan 1983) Old Delta New Delta Micronutrient (745 samples) (400 samples) (Centuries of(Past ve decades rice cultivation)of rice cul tivation) DTPA Zn Range 0.11–49.3 0.08–49.4 Mean 1.56 2.22 % soils de cient 80.4 47.0 DTPA Cu Range 0.15–26.0 0.20–23.2 Mean 59 1.97 % soils de cient 18.8 14.2 DTPA Fe Ran ge 1.0–500 2.5–270 Mean 60.4 44.2 % soils de cient 3.3 Nil DTPA Mn Range 2.50–100 1.50–50 .0 Mean 44.0 14.7 % soils de cient 0.30 Nil Research coordinated micronutrient sch eme.For ex ample, the DTPA extracted Zn varied from 0.45 to 2.0 mg kg−1 (a fourfo ld variation) in Indian soils. The cal careous soils testing less than 6.96 mg kg−1 DTPA Fe responded to Fe application (Table 2). De ciency of Cu, Mn, and B is ra re in rice; hence, less research has been done on the evaluation of extractants and xing of critical limits for these nutrients. Foliar analysis is an effective and rapid method of diagnosing limiting micronutrients in rice plants. Analysis of index leaves of rice at active tillering stage can predict the micronutrient supplying power of the soil better than preplant soil analysis. The results can, however, be used to correct de ciencies of succeeding crops. Zinc threshold value s (Table 3) for the rice plant re ect differences due to plant part tested, variet y, age at sampling, and location. The values were invariably higher for the whol e plant, compared with the third leaf.Neue (1994) gives the values for assessing the de ciency/toxicity/suf ciency status of the rice with reference to micronutrien ts. Table 2.Critical limits for available Zn and Fe content of rice soils of Ind ia (Source: Takkar et al., 1989) Critical Soil order Extractant limit (mg kg−1 ) A ndhra Pradesh Zinc Vertisol Ca Dithizone and NH4 OAc1.0 Vertisol Frb 2.0 Al sol DT PA 0.70 Inceptisol 0.6–1.0 Bihar Calci uvent DTPA 0.78 Chromustert 0.90 Chromustert EDTA NH4 OAc 2.07 Gujarat Inceptisol DTPA 0.90 Entisol Inceptisol 0.1 N HCI 2.10 Entisol Madhya Pradesh Inceptisol DTPA 0.45 Al sol 0.60 Vertisol Entisol Punjab T ypic DTPA 0.80 Ustochrept Tamil Nadu Al sol DTPA 2.0 Vertisol EDTA + (NH4 )2 CO3 1 .1 Bihar Iron Calciorthids DTPA 6.95 Udi uvents aCT=coarse texture. bFT= ne texture. Amelioration of micronutrient de ciency Zinc Because lowland rice experiences wid espread Zn de ciency in India, fertilization is common for Zn than for other mic ronutrients (Bansal and Nayyar,1989; 86 Table 3.Threshold values (mg kg−1 ) of micronutrients for rice plants in India (Source: Takkar et al., 1989) Micronutrient Variety Plant part/sampling stage Cr itical limit Zn IR20 Third leaf (45 DAS)a 9.8 Whole plant (45 DAS) 13.0 Kanchana Whole plant (50 DAS) 22.0 Sita Whole plant (50 DAS) 20.0 Jaya Third leaf (30 DA S) 12.0 Plant top (30 DAS) 16.0 Gonma Whole plant (30 DAS) 21.7 Plant top (30 DA S) 15.9 Cu Whole plant (90 DAS) 4.1 Fe Jaya Top half (30 DAS) 85.7 IR8 Leaves (5 5 DAS) 44.0 aDAS = days after seeding. Katyal, 1985; Takkar et al., 1989). Many sources of Zn can be applied by different methods. Well tested application metho ds for Zn include broadcast/band ap plication, foliar spray, soaking or dusting the seed in Zn solution/dust, nursery application, and dipping the roots in Zn suspension/slurry. Soil application of Zn Trials in different agroecological zon es of India showed that soil application of 25–50 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 is optimum for rice (Sadana and Takkar, 1983; Ra jagopalan and Palanisamy,1986).Increase in rice gr ain yield due to Zn fertilization varied from 0.14 to 6.5 t ha−1 (Table 4) with a v efold variation (0.29 – 1.4 t ha−1 ) in average response. Zn addition increased yiel d by 0.2–0.5 t ha−1 in 37% of the trials, less than 0.2 t ha−1 in 28%, and 0.5–1.0 t ha−1 in 24%. The wide variability in the response is natural, because it is mainly in u enced by the inherent Zn status of the soil. In another series of trials, a high response of 0.3 to 0.8 t ha was obtained in a Zn de cient soil, compared with soi ls having medium Zn status (0.1–0.4 t ha−1) (Takkar et al., 1989). Rice response to Zn fertilization rates varied with soil texture, available Zn status, and rice v

















ariety (Table 5). The optimum level seems to be 5.6 kg Zn ha−1 (25 kg ZnSO4 ha−1). T he level of Zn for sodic soil was quite high – 11.0 to 22.0 kg Zn ha−1 (Singh and Ab rol, 1985; Anand Swarup, 1991; Channel, 1992). Although different inorganic sour ces of Zn (ZnSO4 . 7 H2O, ZnCl2, ZnO, Zn frits) are available, the hepta hydrate d form is the cheapest and most commonly used Zn fertilizer.It outperformed all other sources in many experiments (Table 6) (Sajwan and Lindsay, 1988; Chibba et al., 1989, Deb, 1990). Mixing micronutrients with N, P, and K fertiliz ers wil l ensure uniform application and avoid sepa rate application (Deb, et al., 1986 ; Ilangovan, 1986; Mortvedt, 1994). The data in Table 7 show the use fulness of Zn urea, Zn DAP, and Zn superphosphate, compared with sole application of ZnSO4 . Soil application vs other methods of Zn application Basal Zn application may not correct Zn de ciency in some cases.For example,application of 25 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 i n two equal splits at transplanting and tillering proved to be on a par with the same level of Zn incorporated at transplanting, while two equal split applicati ons at transplanting and panicle initiation was not effective (Table 8). In such cases, Zn de cient crops can be saved by foliar sprays as an emergency treatment. Results reported by Sadana and Takkar, (1983), Takkar et al. (1989), and Sakal e t al. (1993). Data in Figure 1 show that foliar spray, root dipping, and seed so aking are either inferior to or just equal to soil application. The suspension m ade from 1 kg ZnO (2–4%) was suf cient to treat enough seedlings for planting 1 ha, and its yield was on a par with soil ap plication. Bulk handling of seedlings f or root dipping and protecting the treated seedlings from oodwater are tedious. R oot dipping practiced in the Philippines (Castro, 1977) is reported to be advant ageous (Sadana and Takkar, 1983). Rice yield is more limited by Zn de ciency dur ing rabi (winter) than during kharif (monsoon) season due to variation in temper ature and radiation (Figure 87 Table 4.Response of rice to Zn fertilizationin India (Source: Takkar et al., 1989) Statea No. of trials Response range (t ha−1 ) <0.2 0.2–0.5 0.5–1.0 >1.0 Average Andhra Pradesh 536 232 146 81 77 1.48 Bihar 807 95 343 298 71 0.54 Gujarat 67 38 11 9 9 0.70 Haana 75 13 35 8 19 0.58 Madhya Pradesh 27 14 8 4 1 0.50 Punjab 169 69 45 31 25 0.56 Tamil Nadu 176 64 91 17 4 0.32 Uttar Pradesh 18 1 7 9 1 0.29 A ll states 1875 526 686 457 207 0.62 % of total 100 28 37 24 11 – aMore than 50% of the sites gave grain yield increase of 0.2–1.0 t ha−1 due to Zn fertilization. Tabl e 5.Response of rice varieties (t ha−1) to Zn application (Source:Kr ishnasamy et al., 1994) Variety Zn Level (kg ha−1 )a 0 5.6 11.2 ADT36 5.28 5.80 5.96 (9.7) (12 .7) IR20 3.29 3.88 4.42 (17.1) (33.4) CO 41 2.78 2.18 3.57 (7.0) (28.1) Jaya 3.0 0 3.52 3.95 (9.8) (23.4) Kanchi 5.36 6.43 6.43 (20.0) (20.0) aFigures in parenth eses indicate per centage increase over control. Table 6.Comparative ef cacy of d ifferent sources of Zn on rice grain yield (t ha−1 ) Source Hissara Hyderabadb Lud hianaccd Control 6.14 4.90 1.7 ZnSO4 6.89 5.70 4.5 ZnO 6.66 5.40 3.6 Zn frits – 5. 70 3.3 ZnCO3 – 5.50 – LSD (5%) 0.18 0.50 0.40 aSource: Gupta et al. (1994). bSources :ICAR coordinated Scheme on Micronutrients, Annual Reports. cSource: Nayyar et a l. (1990). dSodic soil. Table 7.Effect of Zn blended fertilizers on rice yield ( Zn rate = 25 kg ha−1 ZnSO4 ) Source Punjaba ,b Bhavanisagarc Coimbatored Control 4 .80 2.94 5.19 ZnSO4 6.30 4.09 6.11 Zincated super – 5.90 3.56 Zincated DAP – – 6.23 LS D (5%) – 0.05 0.04 aSource: Nayyar et al. (1990). bMean of 16 trials. cSources. An nual Reports, Micronutrient Scheme (1983–84). dSource: Ilangovan (1986). 1). Resid ual effects of Zn fertilizers are substantial, as re ected in the response of subs equent crops (Chibba et al., 1989; Devarajan, 1989). Although the addition of 25 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 for every crop led to high total grain producti6n of 6 crops compar ed with other frequencies of Zn application, Zn fertilization in alternate crops was cost effective, with optimal maintenance supply of Zn in the soil (Figure 2 ). Organic manures and micronutrient availability Organic manures supply Zn and other micronutrients to plants. They also mobilize the native Zn through chelati on and complex formation with organic lig ands. Fractionation of Zn in the Zn e nriched organic manures re ected an increase in the content of com plexed Zn. The positive effect of organic manure and crop residues in supplying micronutrients to rice is well documented (Dravid and Goswami, 1987; Du raiswamy et al., 1988 ). The effect of added organic


















88 Table 8.Evaluation of methods and time of ZnSO4 applicationa to rice (Sakal e t al., 1993) Treatment Grain yield (t ha−1 )Total Zn uptake (g ha−1 ) Pusa Dholi Pus a Dholi Control 3.77 3.25 229 188 Basal (100%) 5.41 3.77 350 307 Basal (50%) + a t tillering (50%) 4.63 4.03 384 332 Basal (50%) + at panicle initiation (50%) 4. 18 LSD (5%) 0.19 0.14 32 91 aLevel=25 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 . Figure 1.Ef cacy of different methods of Zn applicationon grain yield (t ha−1 ). manures was more pronounced in sodic soils than in other soils.The effect on Zn availability, uptake of Zn, and grain yield was more for dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) than lignocellular coir p ith (Channel, 1992). Figure 2.Frequency of Zn fertilizationto rice – rice cropping system, grain yield and DTPA Zn (Devarajan, 1989). Figure 3.Zinc enriched organ ic manures for rice (Poongothai, 1993). 65Zn studies con rmed the low availability and use ef ciency of soil applied Zn (1–2%) (Rajarajan, 1991). The soluble inorgani c Zn, when added to soil, is readily adsorbed, xed and converted into less solu ble compounds. Zn enriched organic manures increase the availability of soil app lied Zn to rice (Sharma and Mitra, 1990; Poongothai, 1993). The use of Zn enric hed organic manures has to be encouraged due to their positive effect on yield a nd available Zn, with a 50% saving of Zn fertilizer (12.5 kg ZnSO4 ha−1) (Figure 3 ). Use of synthetic Zn chelates is minimal due to their high cost. Iron Iron chl orosis in rice often occurs on coarse textured soils with pH above 7.5, low orga nic matter content, low total Fe, and high CaCO3 . Iron de ciency is com mon on l ands where water cannot be impounded for a longer period to create a reduced atm osphere. More over, the Fe nutrition of the rice crop is a complex one due to t he involvement of nonspeci c mechanisms [pH and exudation of organic acids (Suguir a et al., 1981), and a speci c one (Fe phytosiderophores).Correcting Fe chlorosis by soil application of Fe is dif cult be cause applied Fe is readily converted in to unavailable di/trivalent iron hydrated oxides (Lindsay, 1972). Al though soi l application of FeSO4· 7 H2O at 10–20 kg Fe ha−1 (Figure 4) helped to correct Fe de cie ncy, the foliar spray of 1–2% FeSO4 was more effective. The optimum rate varies wi th soil type, environment, and available Fe status, coupled with mode of applica tion. Fifty six trials all over India (Bihar, Gujarat, Punjab and Tamil Nadu) sh owed a marked response – an in crease of 0.2–4.4 t h−1 grain yield (54 and 334%) over the untreated plots.The large increase observed for 89 Fe fertilization re ects the serious nature of Fe de ciency in rice. The incorp oration of organic manures, in addition to puddling of the soil, helped to enhan ce the availability of native as well as applied Fe,and is often found advantage ous in amending Fe de cient soils (Figure 4). Combined Zn and Fe de ciency In Tamil Nadu, direct seeded, semidry rice is prone to Zn and Fe de ciencies. An increase o f 16.5 and 14.5% over NPK control was realized in the direct seeded, semidry ric e from soil application of 25 kg ZnSO4 and 50 kg FeSO4 or foliar spray of 0.5% Z nSO4 and 1.0% FeSO4 at 15, 25 and 35 d after seeding, respectively, in Typic Hap lustalf of Cauvery Delta (Krishnasamy, 1990). The best alternate strategy sugges ted for such nu trient stress conditions is the development of Zn and Fe ef cien t cultivars. Rice varieties identi ed as tol erant of Fe stress include CO 33 and CO 41.Rice varieties ADT36 and IET1722 are not recommended for Zn stress situat ions; resistant varieties IR5O and ASD16 should be used (Velu et al., 1982). Mn, Cu and B de ciencies The sodic soil and highly coarse textured soils in the rice ecosystem show low available Mn.Man ganese fertilization studies conducted in n orthern In dia showed that soil application of 50 kg MnSO4 ha−1 increased grain y ield up to 1.8 t ha−1. Nevertheless, a foliar spray of 1.0% MnSO4 is equally ef cien t and cost effective. Little literature is available regarding the fertiliza ti on of Cu and B because the problem is not severe in rice. However, the continuou s Zn fertilization of soils having marginal Cu status may cause Cu problem in th e long run. Mostly copper sulfate (CuSO4. 5H2O) is applied at 12.5 kg ha−1 to corr ect Cu de ciency. Drenching the foliage with 0.2% CuSO4 solution is practical beca use it is more cost effective. Scorching of the rice plant of sensitive varietie s (e.g. IR20) may occur. In calcareous, sodic, and excessively permeable soils i n riverine ood plains,B de ciency may be a problem. Studies showed that applying 1. 5–2.0 kg B ha−1 as borax will overcome B de ciency in such conditions. Figure 4.Iron f




























ertilizationof rice (Takkar et al., 1989). Nutrient toxicity Iron toxicity Iron toxicity occurs in poorly drained areas: depres sion, swampy areas, and lowland valleys with lateral seepage and/or upwelling Fe containing water (Sahu and Mit ra, 1992; Elsy et al., 1994). The Ultisols, Verti sols, young acid sulfate soil s, and acid Histosols show this disorder, which has been attributed to a concent ra tion of high Fe2+ levels (300–500 mg kg−1) and low pH (Makerim et al., 1991; Kon sten et al., 1994). These soils are recognizable by a red brown oily scum on the surface of stagnant water, which is more pronounced at the lowest elevation (Be nckiser et al., 1982; Suresh, 1996). Excessive uptake of Fe causes the physiolog ical disorder called bronzing, reported to be distributed in 1 million ha of cul tivated rice soils in Asia; it is re ected further in the reduced yield of rice. I n modem rice vari eties, excessive Fe applied alone, or combined Fe and Mn, may limit yields. Fe toxic soils are characterized by a relatively low cation excha nge capacity (10–15 mole p+ kg−1) weak base saturation, low buffering capacity, and limited supply of available nutrients par ticularly P, K, Ca, Mg Zn, and Cu (Ot tow et al., 1991). Further, Fe toxicity is aggravated by the low levels of P and K (Ismandaji and Ardjasa, 1989; Singh et al., 1992). Soil and Crop Management Technologies for Enhancing Rice Production Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport Document Info and Rating biosoft Share & Embed Related Documents PreviousNext p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. More from this user PreviousNext 10 p. 5 p. Add a Comment

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