Meditations

Aurelius, Marcus

Published: 180 Categorie(s): Non-Fiction, Philosophy Source: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/2680

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About Aurelius: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. He was the last of the "Five Good Emperors", and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. Note: This book is brought to you by Feedbooks http://www.feedbooks.com Strictly for personal use, do not use this file for commercial purposes.

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INTRODUCTION
MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS was born on April 26, A.D. 121. His real name was M. Annius Verus, and he was sprung of a noble family which claimed descent from Numa, second King of Rome. Thus the most religious of emperors came of the blood of the most pious of early kings. His father, Annius Verus, had held high office in Rome, and his grandfather, of the same name, had been thrice Consul. Both his parents died young, but Marcus held them in loving remembrance. On his father's death Marcus was adopted by his grandfather, the consular Annius Verus, and there was deep love between these two. On the very first page of his book Marcus gratefully declares how of his grandfather he had learned to be gentle and meek, and to refrain from all anger and passion. The Emperor Hadrian divined the fine character of the lad, whom he used to call not Verus but Verissimus, more Truthful than his own name. He advanced Marcus to equestrian rank when six years of age, and at the age of eight made him a member of the ancient Salian priesthood. The boy's aunt, Annia Galeria Faustina, was married to Antoninus Pius, afterwards emperor. Hence it came about that Antoninus, having no son, adopted Marcus, changing his name to that which he is known by, and betrothed him to his daughter Faustina. His education was conducted with all care. The ablest teachers were engaged for him, and he was trained in the strict doctrine of the Stoic philosophy, which was his great delight. He was taught to dress plainly and to live simply, to avoid all softness and luxury. His body was trained to hardihood by wrestling, hunting, and outdoor games; and though his constitution was weak, he showed great personal courage to encounter the fiercest boars. At the same time he was kept from the extravagancies of his day. The great excitement in Rome was the strife of the Factions, as they were called, in the circus. The racing drivers used to adopt one of four colours—red, blue, white, or green—and their partisans showed an eagerness in supporting them which nothing could surpass. Riot and corruption went in the train of the racing chariots; and from all these things Marcus held severely aloof. In 140 Marcus was raised to the consulship, and in 145 his betrothal was consummated by marriage. Two years later Faustina brought him a daughter; and soon after the tribunate and other imperial honours were conferred upon him. Antoninus Pius died in 161, and Marcus assumed the imperial state. He at once associated with himself L. Ceionius Commodus, whom

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so this part of the story at least cannot be true. In Rome itself there was pestilence and starvation. The settlement made after these troubles might have been more satisfactory but for an unexpected rising in the east. while the war was left to his officers. the Catti. which commemorates these wars. Soon after Marcus had to face a more serious danger at home in the coalition of several powerful tribes on the northern frontier. By whatever means induced. and victory was due no less to his own ability than to his wisdom in choice of lieutenants. the other caused by floods which had destroyed vast quantities of grain. In the east. an able captain who had won renown in the Parthian wars. the Quadi (mentioned in this book). the Jazyges. the day seemed to be going in favour of the foe.Antoninus had adopted as a younger son at the same time with Marcus. The title of Thundering Legion is known at an earlier date. No sooner was Marcus settled upon the throne than wars broke out on all sides. but the aid of the storm is acknowledged by one of the scenes carved on Antonine's Column at Rome. In a battle against the Quadi in 174. In later days this storm was said to have been sent in answer to the prayers of a legion which contained many Christians. Verus was sent off in hot haste to quell this rising. the junior being trained as it were to succeed. the one brought from the east by Verus's legions. of Parthia began a long-meditated revolt by destroying a whole Roman Legion and invading Syria (162). and he fulfilled his trust by plunging into drunkenness and debauchery. he had conceived the project of proclaiming himself emperor as soon as Marcus. and effecting a settlement which made the empire more secure. but thus much is certain. Verus died. in 169. and one of them has become celebrated for the legend of the Thundering Legion. shown conspicuously in the case of Pertinax. Marcus was himself commander-in-chief. Chief among those were the Marcomanni or Marchmen. After all had been done possible to allay famine and to supply pressing needs—Marcus being forced even to sell the imperial jewels to find money—both emperors set forth to a struggle which was to continue more or less during the rest of Marcus's reign. when on a sudden arose a great storm of thunder and rain the lightning struck the barbarians with terror. During these wars. Vologeses III. the Sarmatians. Avidius Cassius. Henceforth the two are colleagues in the empire. 4 . giving him the name of Lucius Aurelius Verus. and they turned to rout. was at this time chief governor of the eastern provinces. and the name Thundering Legion should be given to it on this account. We have no means of following the campaigns in detail. that in the end the Romans succeeded in crushing the barbarian tribes. There were several important battles fought in these campaigns.

who is accused not only of unfaithfulness. should die. The emperors great grief was that he must needs engage in the horrors of civil strife. and a report having been conveyed to him that Marcus was dead. seeking only to do his duty as well as he could. he did not attempt to remodel the world on any preconceived plan. nor would he admit the men to his presence. and his reign of twelve years proved him to be a ferocious and bloodthirsty tyrant. He praised the qualities of Cassius. and when Marcus came to his own end only one of his sons still lived—the weak and worthless Commodus. Faustina had borne him several children. as he did with Verus. and took up once more the burden of war. he died in Pannonia. at no time robust. at all events. and to keep out corruption. Marcus. But before he could come to the east news had come to Cassius that the emperor still lived. Cassius did as he had planned.who was then in feeble health. but the emperor indignantly refused their gift. as an administrator he was prudent and conscientious. Immediately afterwards he repaired to Germany. As a soldier we have seen that Marcus was both capable and successful. and while there the murderers brought the head of Cassius to him. Although steeped in the teachings of philosophy. his followers fell away from him. who succeeded him. 180. Their innocent faces may still be seen in many a sculpture gallery. but the troubles of late years had been too much for his constitution. Scandal has made free with the name of Faustina herself. it must be admitted that these charges rest on no sure evidence. died. and expressed a heartfelt wish that Cassius might not be driven to do himself a hurt before he should have the opportunity to grant a free pardon. undid the work of many campaigns by a hasty and unwise peace. recalling with odd effect the dreamy countenance of their father. and under Diocletian this very precedent caused the Roman Empire to split into 5 . But they died one by one. loved her dearly. nor ever felt the slightest qualm of suspicion. On this journey his wife. and on March 17. His operations were followed by complete success. To create a compeer in empire. immediately patched up a peace and returned home to meet this new peril. of whom he was passionately fond. On his father's death Commodus. Marcus now went to the east. and he was assassinated. The good emperor was not spared domestic troubles. and the emperor. He did some unwise things. it is true. but of intriguing with Cassius and egging him on to his fatal rebellion. on hearing the news. At his return the emperor celebrated a triumph (176). was a dangerous innovation which could only succeed if one of the two effaced himself. He trod the path beaten by his predecessors. Faustina.

and the Epicureans to freedom from all disturbance. To a thoughtful mind such a religion as that of Rome would give small satisfaction. but his life may be said roughly to be between the years 350 and 250 B. In this case all devout souls were thrown back upon philosophy. The Roman religion was in fact of the nature of a bargain: men paid certain sacrifices and rites. in Greece. is his treatment of the Christians. but it will be worth while to sketch the history and tenets of the Stoic sect. yet in the upshot the one has become a synonym of stubborn endurance. or Stoa. and public help was given to cities or districts which might be visited by calamity.halves. irrespective of right or wrong. The Stoics aspired to the repression of all emotion. The ideal set before each was nominally much the same. though to a less extent. to stand in place of father to the fatherless. yet it is quite likely that through Asia Minor he may have come in touch with the Far East. Marcus sought by-laws to protect the weak. In his reign Justin at Rome became a martyr to his faith. was born in Cyprus at some date unknown. and one hard indeed to explain. as they had been. Its legends were often childish or impossible. but he did not neglect other philosophical systems. the founder of Stoicism. which 6 . its teaching had little to do with morality. and the gods granted their favour. Zeno. and Polycarp at Smyrna. the other for unbridled licence. Stoicism and Epicureanism. The great blot on his name. and we hear of no measures taken even to secure that they should have a fair hearing. and if he did not he would have been the first to confess that he had failed in his duty. But from his own tone in speaking of the Christians it is clear he knew them only from calumny. After many years' study he opened his own school in a colonnade in Athens called the Painted Porch. In this respect Trajan was better than he. and we know of many outbreaks of fanaticism in the provinces which caused the death of the faithful. It is no excuse to plead that he knew nothing about the atrocities done in his name: it was his duty to know. He studied under the cynic Crates. The provinces were protected against oppression. There were under the early empire two rival schools which practically divided the field between them. With Epicureanism we have nothing to do now. and although we cannot grant any importance to a possible strain of Phoenician blood in him (for the Phoenicians were no philosophers). But the strong point of his reign was the administration of justice. to make the lot of the slaves less hard. Charitable foundations were endowed for rearing and educating poor children. He erred in his civil administration by too much centralising. Cyprus has been from time immemorial a meeting-place of the East and West.C.

into whom it will eventually be re-absorbed. the School of the Porch owes most to Chrysippus (280—207 b. They compared the new-born soul to a sheet of paper ready for writing. but for the good of the whole. The soul of man is thus an emanation from the godhead. and Ethics. the Criterion. as fire. prolhyeis When the impression was such as to be irresistible it was called (katalnptikh fantasia) one that holds fast. fantasias and by experience of a number of these the soul unconsciously conceives general notions koinai eunoiai or anticipations. The universe. but immanent in the material universe was a spiritual force which acted through them. Upon this the senses write their impressions. of whom the popular gods are manifestations. The highest good was the virtuous life. as Providence rules the universe. Of him it was said. who organised Stoicism into a system. the ruling principle.' The Stoics regarded speculation as a means to an end and that end was. In the individual it is virtue alone which enables him to do this.). one proceeding from truth. of phenomena alone really exist. Logic. aether. the Stoics held that material objects alone existed. spirit. This conforming of the life to nature oralogoumenwz th fusei zhn. to live in conformity with nature. to live consistently omologonuenws zhn or as it was later explained. or Prototypes. the Stoic system is noteworthy for their theory as to the test of truth. is God.' Of the Ethical application I have already spoken. reason. while legends and myths are allegorical. as Zeno put it. and this is the sense in which the Stoic tried to live in accord with nature. dealing with the universe and its laws. or as they explained it. was the Stoic idea of Virtue. The Stoic system of physics was materialism with an infusion of pantheism. 7 . but that was very far from the Stoic meaning. which trains the mind to discern true from false. so virtue in the soul must rule man. 'But for Chrysippus. it is necessary to know what nature is. This dictum might easily be taken to mean that virtue consists in yielding to each natural impulse. then. soul. The highest good of man is consciously to work with God for the common good.gave the Stoics their name. In order to live in accord with nature. the problems of divine government and teleology. which applies the knowledge thus gained and tested to practical life. Next to Zeno. manifesting itself under many forms. In Logic. The divine ruling principle makes all things work together for good. Ideas and inferences artificially produced by deduction or the like were tested by this 'holding perception. In contradiction to Plato's view that the Ideas. there had been no Porch.c. and to this end a threefold division of philosophy is made—into Physics.

and nothing but vice is bad. Two points in the Stoic system deserve special mention. It is again instructive to note that Christian sages insisted on the same thing. Those outside things which are commonly called good or bad. His philosophy is not an eager 8 . (kaqhkonta) These were neither virtuous nor vicious. and on man's duty as part of a great whole. He is no head of a school to lay down a body of doctrine for students. and to guide his opinion. but for us the chief interest lies elsewhere. nothing is good but virtue. (swfrosuum) and has also its parallel in Christian ethics. Moreover. are within the power of the will. Christians are taught that they are members of a worldwide brotherhood. The exaggeration in this statement was. held a middle place. whereas health. like the indifferent things. certain actions were proper. he does not even contemplate that others should read what he writes. and vice is unhappiness. This is a special application of the favourite Greek virtue of moderation. wealth and poverty. Some knowledge of it is necessary to the right understanding of the book. Carrying this theory to its extreme. though of course each has its special manifestations. so obvious. however. Desire and dislike. and other such are generally not so. where is neither Greek nor Hebrew. opinion and affection. are to him indifferent adiofora. to bring his whole being under the sway of the will or leading principle. but that each strove after it as an ideal much as the Christian strives after a likeness to Christ. but. such as health and sickness. One is a careful distinction between things which are in our power and things which are not. All these things are merely the sphere in which virtue may act. They also held that for him who had not attained to the perfect wisdom. Such is the system which underlies the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius. that the later Stoics were driven to make a further subdivision of things indifferent into what is preferable (prohgmena) and what is undesirable. autarkhs and knowing these truths. and it is here made cosmopolitan. wealth. Public spirit was the most splendid political virtue of the ancient world.Virtue alone is happiness. pleasure and pain. It is probable that no Stoic claimed for himself that he was this Wise Man. the Stoic said that there could be no gradations between virtue and vice. bond nor free and that they live their lives as fellow-workers with God. he will be happy even when stretched upon the rack. The ideal Wise Man is sufficient unto himself in all things. honour. The second point is a strong insistence on the unity of the universe. We do not come to Marcus Aurelius for a treatise on Stoicism. The Stoic was called upon to control his desires and affections. just as the universe is guided and governed by divine Providence.

but more what we should call religious feeling. says the Imitation.' The Christian. but without the self-contempt which makes the Christian 'vile in his own sight.' The Christian should sorrow more for other men's malice than for our own wrongs.' 'Let us set the axe to the root. and the 'cutting away of all lower delectations.' says the Christian. The Roman scrutinises his faults with severity.intellectual inquiry. humbleness and meekness. In the morning purpose. at least once a day.' But while the Roman's temper is a modest self-reliance. that we being purged of our passions may have a peaceable mind. the morning or the evening. but it is not the busy life of duty he has in mind so much as the contempt of all worldly things. it is not the first.' says the Christian. 'If all men were perfect. in the evening discuss the manner. and reliance on the presence and personal friendship of God.' To this end there must be continual self-examination. 'be in the mouths of men. the Imitation of Christ. in word. what had we then to suffer of other men for God?' The virtue of suffering in itself is an idea which does not meet us in the Meditations. the Roman to his own soul. The petty annoyances of injustice or unkindness are looked on by each with the same magnanimity. but the Roman would never have thought to add. 'If thou may not continually gather thyself together. if thou canst not suffer joyously. 'Why doth a little thing said or done against thee make thee sorry? It is no new thing. At best suffer patiently. 'Let not thy peace. There is the same ideal of self-control in both. work.' But it is to God's censure the Christian appeals. and every day to be stronger than himself. and thought. The uncompromising stiffness of Zeno or Chrysippus is softened and transformed by passing through a nature reverent and tolerant. what thou hast been this day. bids 'study to withdraw thine heart from the love of things visible'. Both alike realise that man is one of a great 9 . with such moral maxims and reflections as may help him to bear the burden of duty and the countless annoyances of a busy life. set down to ease it. gentle and free from guile. 'to overcome himself. like the Roman. namely sometimes do it. His book records the innermost thoughts of his heart. but the Roman is inclined to wash his hands of the offender. 'Study to be patient in suffering and bearing other men's defaults and all manner infirmities. It should be a man's task.' 'In withstanding of the passions standeth very peace of heart. the Christian aims at a more passive mood. if thou live long. It is instructive to compare the Meditations with another famous book. nor shall it be the last. the grim resignation which made life possible to the Stoic sage becomes in him almost a mood of aspiration.' Both rate men's praise or blame at their real worthlessness.

thou must be good. comfort together. Perhaps he has fallen short of his aim. this is not one tied and bound with chains which he strives to break. undaunted by pain. And it is a lofty and serene soul which is here disclosed before us. except in so far as he may be assumed to have practised his own preachings. a man must 'keep himself pure from all violent passion and evil affection. the Meditations reflect mood by mood the mind of him who wrote them. 'The best kind of revenge is. the Roman thought mainly of the duty to be done as well as might be. Augustine is not always clear of offence. but nothing sets down in malice. and John Bunyan himself exaggerates venial peccadilloes into heinous sins. as he says elsewhere. In their intimacy and frankness lies their great charm. These notes are not sermons.' There are so many hints of offence forgiven. they are not even confessions.' Unwavering courtesy and consideration are his aims. which passeth away suddenly as a shadow. The Imitation is addressed to others. 'Whatsoever any man either doth or saith. the world is a poor thing at best. We learn nothing from the Imitation of the author's own life. To serve the divine spirit which is implanted within him. 'No man is sufficient to himself. and from all manner of discontent. he is always sincere. he extenuates nothing. those who must needs be corrected. that we may believe the notes followed sharp on the facts.community. But Marcus Aurelius is neither vulgar nor unctuous.' 'doth any man offend? It is against himself that he doth offend: why should it trouble thee?' The offender needs pity. not wrath.' says the Christian. from all rashness and vanity. should be treated with tact and gentleness. and one must be always ready to learn better. not to become like unto them. 'unspotted by pleasure. 'we must bear together.' But while he sees a chief importance in zeal. St. either in regard of the gods or men': or. and avoidance of lukewarmness. The faults he detects in himself are often such as most men would have no eyes to see. few and evil are the days of man's life. He never poses before an audience. Vulgar vices seem to have no temptation for him. he may not be profound. help together. But there is one great difference between the two books we are considering. in such revelations there is always a danger of unctuousness or of vulgarity for the best of men. who would have usurped 10 . 'Verily it is a misery to live upon the earth. That these sayings are not mere talk is plain from the story of Avidius Cassius. and to strengthen himself for the future. There is always an air of self-consciousness in confessions. and thus seeks to call his principles to mind. the Meditations by the writer to himself. in exalted emotion that is.' says the Christian. and less of the feeling which should go with the doing of it. To the saint as to the emperor.

if he showed his pupil that his life needed amending. He could say. which thought no evil. If his was that honest and true heart which is the Christian ideal. His gods are better than the Stoic gods. For each fault in others. that he does not hope for any personal happiness beyond what a serene soul may win in this mortal life. reasonableness. and then all is well. the time I trust will be.' but this is said of the calm contentment with human lot which he hopes to attain.' The gods may perhaps have a particular care for him. than that body by which it is enclosed. he has not that cheerful confidence which led Socrates through a life no less noble. and nothing can be annihilated. 'We must needs grant that there is a nature that doth govern the universe. he learnt of his mother to be religious and bountiful and single-minded.' But his own part in the scheme of things is so small. 'all is vanity. Nature (says he) has given us a counteracting virtue. Thus the emperor faithfully carries out his own principle. In his First Book he sets down to account all the debts due to his kinsfolk and teachers. it is true. or if all things go by chance and fortune. To his grandfather he owed his own gentle spirit. every one he had dealings with seems to have given him something good.his imperial throne. simple. doubtless he expected his soul one day to be absorbed into the universal soul. not of a time when the trammels of the body shall be cast off. On this point he says little. Rusticus did not work in vain. to a death which was to bring 11 . and then art thou well. this is the more wonderful in that he lacked the faith which makes Christians strong.' One so gentle towards a foe was sure to be a good friend. 'either there is a God. a love of true liberty. 'as. for example. and indeed his pages are full of generous gratitude to those who had served him. but his personal hope is hardly stronger. gratitude. he does his duty as a good soldier. as an antidote. the world and its fame and wealth. waiting for the sound of the trumpet which shall sound the retreat. when thou shalt be good. untroubled and uncaring. against the unthankful. more open and visible. but their especial care is for the universe at large: thus much should suffice. though there are many allusions to death as the natural end. a sure proof of the goodness of his nature. 'O my soul. that evil must be overcome with good. So the list runs on. Apollonius taught him simplicity. since nothing comes out of nothing. For the rest. who sit aloof from all human things. it hath given goodness and meekness. His mood is one of strenuous weariness. to his father shamefastness and courage.' Or again. yet mayest thou use thine own providence in those things that concern thee properly.

' he says. Do the necessary rites. good actions. Paul. and you propitiate the gods. 'thou hast sailed.' By the irony of fate this man. Even when the gods stood on the side of righteousness. did he perhaps think of the change in a corn of wheat.' And every page of the book shows us that he knew thought was sure to issue in act. if to another life.' he says. and to lose consciousness of itself. 'Such as thy thoughts and ordinary cogitations are. and it is strange indeed that this most Christian of emperors has nothing good to say of the Christians. 'If happiness did consist in pleasure. He drills his soul.' There is more in this than the assumption of a rival theory for argument's sake. thou art come to land. as all who hold it must sometimes feel. 'such will thy mind be in time. He sees also the true essence of happiness. there also shalt thou find gods. But although Marcus Aurelius may have held intellectually that his soul was destined to be absorbed. To him they are only sectaries 'violently and passionately set upon opposition. it may be guided by them. they were concerned with the act more than with the intent. sometimes violated right feeling or even morality. the man will do. If worldly things 'be but as a dream. To wait until the emergency is to be too late.him into the company of gods he had worshipped and men whom he had revered. go out. how unsatisfying is such a creed. in so large a measure to have their part of pleasures?' He who had all the world's pleasures at command can write thus 'A happy lot and portion is. impure abominable livers. Many of his thoughts sound like far-off echoes of St. that when the time comes. which is not quickened except it die? Nature's marvellous power of recreating out of Corruption is surely not confined to bodily things. good inclinations of the soul. Ancient religions were for the most part concerned with outward things. When he speaks of death as a necessary change. parricides. and these rites were often trivial. how came notorious robbers. so gentle and good. Then he gropes blindly after something less empty and vain. 'Thou hast taken ship. as it were. in right principles. But Marcus Aurelius knows that what the heart is full of. good desires. was set at the head of the Roman Empire 12 . the thought is not far off that there may be an awakening to what is real. so desirous of quiet joys and a mind free from care. Profound as philosophy these Meditations certainly are not. and tyrants. and points out that nothing useful and profitable can be brought about without change. who are everywhere. but Marcus Aurelius was too sincere not to see the essence of such things as came within his experience. there were times when he felt.

1701. what to most men is an ambition or a dream. much more might have been accomplished. 1747. 1792. But death cut short his designs. (5) H. His wars were slow and tedious. 1844. H. which seems to have been in his mind. which is of service in the imaginative attempt to create again the period. 1634. Renan's "Marc-Aurèle"—in his "History of the Origins of Christianity. Rendall. 13 . 1898. And he did his work well. In camp before the Quadi he dates the first book of his Meditations. his life was one paradox. (6) George Long. bent to obscurity yet born to greatness. (4) R. McCormac. (2) Jeremy Collier. (7) G. and (8) J. but successful. and shows how he could retire within himself amid the coarse clangour of arms. 1906. a magnificent monarch whose ideal was quiet happiness in home life. to him was a round of weary tasks which nothing but the stern sense of duty could carry him through. and took measures to meet it. Truly a rare opportunity was given to Marcus Aurelius of showing what the mind can do in despite of circumstances. the loving father of children who died young or turned out hateful. For several years he himself commanded his armies in chief. The pomps and glories which he despised were all his. his settlement gave two centuries of respite to the Roman Empire. That nothing might lack. Jackson.when great dangers threatened from east and west. it was in camp before the face of the enemy that he passed away and went to his own place. With a statesman's wisdom he foresaw the danger to Rome of the barbarian hordes from the north." which appeared in 1882—is the most vital and original book to be had relating to the time of Marcus Aurelius. Graves. (3) James Thomson. As it was. Pater's "Marius the Epicurean" forms another outside commentary. Translations THE following is a list of the chief English translations of Marcus Aurelius: (1) By Meric Casaubon. had he fulfilled the plan of pushing the imperial frontiers to the Elbe. 1862. Most peaceful of warriors.

For nothing can so much rejoice thee. in another some other thing. Whensoever thou wilt rejoice thyself. ANTONINUS Book vi. they represent themselves unto thee. in another modesty. he had learned: Divided into Numbers or Sections. xlviii. Friends. 14 . or Masters. which thou hast observed in any of them that live with thee: as industry in one. as it were. Num. or good advice and counsel. What and of whom. eminent in the dispositions of them that live with thee. in another bountifulness. whether Parents. See therefore. by their good examples. as the resemblances and parallels of several virtues. especially when all at once.Wherein Antoninus recordeth. that thou have them always in a readiness. think and meditate upon those good parts and especial gifts.

Him also I must thank. to content myself with a spare diet. if upon such occasions. and the like. or prestidigitators. Of my grandfather Verus I have learned to be gentle and meek. both to frequent public schools and auditories. I were at excessive charges. to endure labour. or evil spirits. II. Moreover. III. as either the Parmularii. nor to need many things. to do it myself rather than by others. or fencers. and such other things. nor to be mad after such things. not to busy myself about vain things. and by sorcerers. and to fly all such excess as is incidental to great wealth. not only to do. and to forbear. when I have anything to do.THE FIRST BOOK I. not to be fondly addicted to either of the two great factions of the coursers in the circus. but to intend any evil. and that I ought not to think much. and bountiful. and impostors. and not easily to admit of any slander. by such as take upon them to work wonders. and to refrain from all anger and passion. or the Secutores. Of him that brought me up. which by the Grecian discipline are proper to those who profess philosophy. Of Diognetus. and their driving out of demons. and that I took liking to the philosophers' little couch and skins. and Veneti: nor in the amphitheatre partially to favour any of the gladiators. and that I did write dialogues in my youth. which are commonly spoken. and to get me good and able teachers at home. and to apply myself unto philosophy. Not to keep quails for the game. 15 . called Prasini. Of my great-grandfather. not to meddle with many businesses. Not to be offended with other men's liberty of speech. Of my mother I have learned to be religious. that ever I heard first Bacchius. concerning the power of charms. and not easily to believe those things. then Tandasis and Marcianus. From the fame and memory of him that begot me I have learned both shamefastness and manlike behaviour.

Of him also I learned how to receive favours and kindnesses (as commonly they are accounted:) from friends. such as that was. not to rest satisfied with a light and superficial knowledge. but right and reason: and always. or curiosity. That I did not use to walk about the house in my long robe. whether in the sharpest pains. and a true pattern of a man who of all his good gifts and faculties. than 16 . Moreover I learned of him to write letters without any affectation. or in long diseases.IV. nor to do any such things. or after the loss of a child. V. To Rusticus I am beholding. From Apollonius. so that I might not become obnoxious unto them. and well pleased again with them that had offended me. that his excellent skill and ability to teach and persuade others the common theorems and maxims of the Stoic philosophy. that I did not fall into the ambition of ordinary sophists. for them. though never so little. and of elegant neat language. or moral commentaries and common-factions: which also he gave me of his own. either to write tracts concerning the common theorems. To read with diligence. true liberty. which by him was written to my mother from Sinuessa: and to be easy and ready to be reconciled. for any kind of bodily exercises. and unvariable steadfastness. to be still the same man. as also that I never by way of ostentation did affect to show myself an active able man. that it was possible for the same man to be both vehement and remiss: a man not subject to be vexed. as soon as any of them would be content to seek unto me again. that I first entered into the conceit that my life wanted some redress and cure. nor more yielding upon occasion. nor quickly to assent to things commonly spoken of: whom also I must thank that ever I lighted upon Epictetus his Hypomnemata. And that I gave over the study of rhetoric and poetry. And then. who also was a present and visible example unto me. and offended with the incapacity of his scholars and auditors in his lectures and expositions. least esteemed in himself. and not to regard anything at all. or to exhort men unto virtue and the study of philosophy by public orations.

or testimony. mildness and the pattern of a family governed with paternal affection. but dextrously by way of answer. or by some other such close and indirect admonition. VI. or rumour: very learned. able at the same time most exactly to observe the Stoic Apathia. VIII. and yet almost without any noise. not to be offended with idiots. and a purpose to live according to nature: to be grave without affectation: to observe carefully the several dispositions of my friends. From Alexander the Grammarian. A man without ever the least appearance of anger. nor unseasonably to set upon those that are carried with the vulgar opinions. as an unsensible and unthankful man. or confirmation of the same matter (taking no notice of the word) to utter it as it should have been spoken. or any other passion. or a solecism. so that though his company were sweeter and more pleasing than any flatterer's cogging and fawning. yet was it at the same time most respected and reverenced: who also had a proper happiness and faculty.in right I ought. handsomely and civilly to tell him of it. and yet so that I should not pass them neither. Of Fronto. or any false pronunciation. with the theorems. Of Sextus. or unpassionateness. and set in order all necessary determinations and instructions for a man's life. and tenets of philosophers: his conversation being an example how a man might accommodate himself to all men and companies. and yet to be most tender-hearted: ever of good credit. VII. and not reproachfully to reprehend any man for a barbarism. to how much envy and fraud and hypocrisy the state of a 17 . to be un-reprovable myself. rationally and methodically to find out. and yet making little show.

and Brutus. or would not. and of a kingdom wherein should be regarded nothing more than the good and welfare of the subjects. but to strive to reduce him to his former disposition: freely and heartily to speak well of all my masters upon any occasion. by whom also I came to the knowledge of Thrasea and Helvidius. X. and Cato. From my brother Severus. as it is reported of Domitius. i. Of Catulus. so open and plain was he.]. and Dio. and that his friends might without all doubt or much observation know what he would. and how they who are commonly called [Eupatridas Gk. Of Alexander the Platonic. or void of natural affection. In whom I moreover observed open dealing towards those whom he reproved at any time.e. with any other cares and distractions. always to hope the best. administered by justice and equality. to be kind and loving to all them of my house and family. not often nor without great necessity to say. nor in this manner still to put off those duties. to observe a constant tenor. Of him also. and to be confident that my friends love me. IX. 'I am not at leisure'. and Athenodotus: and to love my children with true affection. XI. which we owe to our friends and acquaintances (to every one in his kind) under pretence of urgent affairs. though unjust. nobly born.) in the study and esteem of philosophy: to be bountiful and liberal in the largest measure. 18 . or to write to any man in a letter. are in some sort incapable. (not interrupted. not to contemn any friend's expostulation. He it was also that did put me in the first conceit and desire of an equal commonwealth.tyrannous king is subject unto.

XIII. whatsoever it be. as in sicknesses: to love mildness. he had determined. and patient hearing of others. or that could find in his heart. his skill and knowledge. or at any time unseemly. and in nothing to be carried about. He would also be very pleasant and gracious. to be cheerful and courageous in all sudden chances and accidents. and gravity: and to do my business. and to speak truth. and all this. in all things to endeavour to have power of myself. his readiness to hear any man. that they should wait upon him at his ordinary meals. or suspicious.XII. but ever ready to do good. so he thought. neither absolutely requiring of his friends. the same man that he was before. never to wonder at anything. his constancy without wavering in those things. he was ever found when he went about it again. to think himself a better man than he. and that whensoever any business upon some necessary occasions was to be put off and omitted before it could be ended. as one that seemed rather of himself to have been straight and right. How free from all vanity he carried himself in matter of honour and dignity. never to be in haste. when rigour or extremity. In my father. I observed his meekness. His manner was. (as they are esteemed:) his laboriousness and assiduity. He would not 19 . and yet never slow: nor to be perplexed. and to forgive. and moderation. or dejected. his moderate condescending to other men's occasions as an ordinary man. that he did it with a good intent. Whatsoever he said. and whatsoever he did. thoroughly. all men believed him that as he spake. or when remissness or moderation was in season. nor that they should of necessity accompany him in his journeys. neither was there any man that ever thought himself undervalued by him. than ever to have been rectified or redressed. His accurate examination of things in consultations. and without querulousness. or excessively to laugh: nor to be angry. how he did abstain from all unchaste love of youths. From Claudius Maximus. which after a due examination and deliberation. that had aught to say tending to any common good: how generally and impartially he would give every man his due.

as one easy to be satisfied with sudden notions and apprehensions. nor often. how much he did honour all true philosophers. that secrets he neither had many. no affecter of novelties: in those things which conduced to his ease and convenience.hastily give over the search of the matter. that he was never commended by any man. or a fine orator. he found no want of them. and elegancy. nor an ambitious pleaser of men. or outward applications: but especially how ingeniously he would yield to any that had obtained any peculiar faculty. Again. his cheerful countenance. or the knowledge of the laws. yet even of this was he not desirous that men should take notice. Moreover how all acclamations and flattery were repressed by him: how carefully he observed all things necessary to the government. and such only as concerned public matters: 20 . his sociableness. or an obsequious officious man. that he did imitate ancient customs. without any noise or clamour. His care to preserve his friends. without upbraiding those that were not so. he seldom needed any inward physic. one that could not endure to be flattered.) without pride and bragging. and to take order for the least. so when absent. How he was neither a superstitious worshipper of the gods. and grow weary of them. in his best care and endeavour that every one of them might in his kind. but as a ripe mature man. and how patiently he did abide that he was reprehended by some for this his strict and rigid kind of dealing. and how after his great fits of headache he would return fresh and vigorous to his wonted affairs. as either a learned acute man. Again. for that wherein he excelled. and everywhere observant of that which was fitting. but loved to be constant. Moreover. and kept an account of the common expenses. His contented mind in all things. but sober in all things. able to govern both himself and others. his care to foresee things afar off. but never unto satiety. his care of his body within bounds and measure. be regarded and esteemed: and although he did all things carefully after the ancient customs of his forefathers. a perfect sound man. yet with all freedom and liberty: so that as he did freely enjoy them without any anxiety or affectation when they were present. (plenty whereof his fortune did afford him. Moreover. nor yet at any time be madly fond of them. or studious of popular applause. how neither at any time he would carry himself towards them with disdainful neglect. his gracious and delightful conversation. or of ancient customs. and how he concurred with them. not as one that desired to live long. or over-studious of neatness. both in the same places and businesses. or the like. as either eloquence. how he was not easily moved and tossed up and down. and yet not as one that did not regard it: so that through his own care and providence.

and in the fruition. but rather put it off longer than I needed. either about his meat. and the like. and to enjoy those things. that a man could say of him. loving kinsmen. without trouble. that he did sweat about it: but contrariwise. who hath a perfect and invincible soul. soundly. which is recorded of Socrates. all things distinctly. in exhibiting of the public sights and shows for the pleasure and pastime of the people: in public buildings. congiaries. good domestics. in the want whereof. A man might have applied that to him. most men show themselves weak. and other like particulars of state and magnificence. extraordinary apparel. far from all inhumanity. all greediness and impetuosity. to prevent such a concurring of matters and occasions. a good sister.his discretion and moderation. all boldness. In all his conversation. or about the workmanship. and agreeably. such and such torches and statues. but that a man may reduce and contract himself almost to the 21 . Never wont to use the baths at unseasonable hours. having a respect unto men only as men. as might make me to incur this blame. XIV. notwithstanding that my disposition was such. That I took not upon me to be a man before my time. but that It was the mercy of the gods. intemperate: but to hold out firm and constant. is proper to a man. as that such a thing (if occasion had been) might very well have been committed by me. That I lived under the government of my lord and father. and not unto the glory that might follow. never doing anything with such earnestness. good masters. never curious. almost all that I have. and that I never through haste and rashness transgressed against any of them. and reduce me to that conceit and opinion that it was not impossible for a prince to live in the court without a troop of guards and followers. such as he showed himself in the sickness of Maximus. or colour of his clothes. and to keep within the compass of true moderation and sobriety in either estate. no builder. or about anything that belonged to external beauty. In all these things. That I was not long brought up by the concubine of my father. that he knew how to want. From the gods I received that I had good grandfathers. and parents. orderly. or solicitous. who would take away from me all pride and vainglory. as at leisure. and to the equity of the things themselves. that I preserved the flower of my youth. and intention. and incivility.

helps and inspirations. That I have had occasion often and effectually to consider and meditate with myself.) was the only cause of it.state of a private man. and suggestions. That it being so that my mother was to die young. nor in practising myself in 22 . yea and afterwards when I fell into some fits of love. that I did not fall into the hands of some sophists. yet she lived with me all her latter years. to such places and dignities. and of other faculties. That I was no great proficient in the study of rhetoric and poetry. That by dreams I have received help. hath been able to hold out so long. nothing did hinder. and cure my dizziness. that (since that they were yet but young) I would do the same hereafter. as unto Chryses when he prayed by the seashore. and by his respect and love. I was soon cured. and that they were not born distorted. That as often as I had a purpose to help and succour any that either were poor. And when I did first apply myself to philosophy. concerning that life which is according to nature. I never did him anything for which afterwards I had occasion to repent. That my body in such a life. so obedient. by whom I was brought up. nor with any other natural deformity. or fallen into some present necessity. but that I might have begun long before to live according to nature. That I never had to do with Benedicta and Theodotus. who by his own example might stir me up to think of myself. so ingenuous. I never was answered by my officers that there was not ready money enough to do it. to whom I might commit the bringing up of my children. so in particular. how I might stay my casting of blood. That I had choice of fit and able men. That having been often displeased with Rusticus. That I have got ingenuous children. delight and please me. and that I myself never had occasion to require the like succour from any other. which they seemed unto me most to desire. That I have had such a brother. so loving. what the nature and manner of it is: so that as for the gods and such suggestions. and yet for all that not to become the more base and remiss in those public matters and affairs. if I had found myself to go on in them with success. That I have such a wife. That I ever knew Apollonius and Rusticus. and Maximus. as for other things. yea and almost plain and apparent instructions and admonitions of the gods. or spent my time either in reading the manifold volumes of ordinary philosophers. as might be expected from them. and that I did not put them off with hope and expectation. wherein power and authority is requisite. which perchance I might have dwelt upon. That I did by times prefer those. that I myself (in that I did not observe those inward motions. as that also that happened to thee in Cajeta. or that even now that I was not yet partaker and in present possession of that life.

for it will not be. The third. or life. think little of thy flesh: blood. a crafty. than so. All these ill qualities have happened unto them. and other natural curiosities. a pretty piece of knit and twisted work. these. Thou art an old man. suffer not thy mind any more to be distracted. suffer not that excellent part to be brought in subjection. suffer it not any 23 . is against nature. Whatsoever I am. as it were with wires and nerves. is my kinsman. consisting of nerves. is either flesh. and the eyelids. consider what it is.the solution of arguments and fallacies. and a skin. and of that which is bad. a wind. reason. since it is not in their power to make me incur anything that is truly reproachful? or angry. And as for thy life. the hands. nor dwelt upon the studies of the meteors. false. This day I shalt have to do with an idle curious man. and to be averse from. All these things without the assistance of the gods. but to be in opposition? XVI. not by the same blood and seed. but every moment of an hour let out. an unsociable uncharitable man. that it only is to be desired. or that which we commonly call the mistress and overruling part of man. as the feet. is thy ruling part. with an unthankful man. How can I either be hurt by any of those. and of the same divine particle. and ill affected towards him. as the rows of the upper and under teeth: for such therefore to be in opposition. that this transgressor. Betimes in the morning say to thyself. But I that understand the nature of that which is good. and fortune. but by participation of the same reason. XV. or an envious man. that it only is truly odious and shameful: who know moreover. through ignorance of that which is truly good and truly bad. veins and arteries. Away with thy books. not one constant wind neither. whosoever he be. who by nature is so near unto me? for we are all born to be fellow-workers. In the country of the Quadi at Granua. could not have been. and sucked in again. and to become slavish: suffer it not to be drawn up and down with unreasonable and unsociable lusts and motions. bones. and here consider. a railer. but as even now ready to die. and carried to and fro. think no more of it. and what is it to chafe at.

let them be always unto thee. or from that first and general connection. XVII. is both necessary. and conducing to the whole (part of which thou art). And as for the whole. must of necessity for every particular nature. either to repine at anything now present. Whatsoever proceeds from the gods immediately. be good and behoveful. and from thy heart thankful unto the gods. 24 . which the destiny hath appointed thee. As for those things that are commonly said to happen by fortune. and concatenation of all those things. Let these things suffice thee. away with it with all speed.more. as by the perpetual mutation and conversion of the simple elements one into another. that any man will grant totally depends from their divine providence. that thou die not murmuring and complaining. and whatsoever it is that is requisite and necessary for the preservation of the general. As for thy thirst after books. even those must be conceived to have dependence from nature. it is preserved. as thy general rules and precepts. or to fear and fly anything to come. and alteration of things mixed and compounded. so also by the mutation. which more apparently by the divine providence are administered and brought to pass. All things flow from thence: and whatsoever it is that is. but truly meek and well satisfied.

and of that Lord and Governor of the world. abuse and contemn thyself. It is high time for thee to understand the true nature both of the world. having been set unto thee by the gods. free from all vanity. II. it will pass away and thou with it. and imaginations.THE SECOND BOOK I. thou hast neglected it. III. and to live a divine life. Do. but behold thy life is almost at an end. which if thou shalt not make use of to calm and allay the many distempers of thy soul. that shall but keep and observe these things. and self-love. whereof thou art a part. whiles affording thyself no respect. yet a while and the time for thee to respect thyself. are not many. natural affection. Thou seest that those things. freedom and justice: and as for all other cares. for the gods will require no more of any man. Let it be thy earnest and incessant care as a Roman and a man to perform whatsoever it is that thou art about. and dislike of those things. do. thou dost make thy happiness to consist in the souls. from whom. thou thyself didst flow: and that there is but a certain limit of time appointed unto thee. and from all hypocrisy. how thou mayest ease thy mind of them. will be at an end. with true and unfeigned gravity. and never after return. Every man's happiness depends from himself. all passionate and wilful aberration from reason. and conceits of other men. soul. if thou shalt go about every action as thy last action. Which thou shalt do. and how often a certain day and hour as it were. which by the fates or appointment of God have happened unto thee. Remember how long thou hast already put off these things. 25 . are requisite and necessary. as a channel from the spring. which for a man to hold on in a prosperous course.

but he that sins through lust. doth in his very sin bewray a more impotent. where he compares sin with sin (as after a vulgar sense such things I grant may be compared:) says well and like a philosopher. who toil and labour in this life. that he of the two is the more to be condemned. but that thou mayest always both do and speak those things which are agreeable to that nature. These things thou must always have in mind: What is the nature of the universe. that sins with pleasure. for they are idle in their actions. For indeed this latter may seem first to have been wronged. and guide not by reason and discretion the motions of their own souls. so much distract thee? Give thyself leisure to learn some good thing. and have no certain scope to which to direct all their motions.IV. Thou must also take heed of another kind of wandering. and unmanlike disposition. to turn away from reason. that those sins are greater which are committed through lust. VII. For he that is angry seems with a kind of grief and close contraction of himself. 26 . Theophrastus. and so in some manner through grief thereof to have been forced to be angry. and desires. VI. than he that sins with grief. they must of necessity be unhappy. For not observing the state of another man's soul. whereof thou art a part. and what is mine—in particular: This unto that what relation it hath: what kind of part. V. of what kind of universe it is: And that there is nobody that can hinder thee. scarce was ever any man known to be unhappy. Why should any of these things that happen externally. than those which are committed through anger. being overcome by pleasure. Well then and like a philosopher doth he say. Tell whosoever they be that intend not. and cease roving and wandering to and fro.

so do. or if not as ignorant of them. and they take care for the world. honour and dishonour.whereas he who through lust doth commit anything. that a man might have avoided it. or for their irksomeness are dreadful. as one who. VIII. equally and promiscuously. Whatsoever thou dost affect. because of themselves. riches and poverty. and as for those things which be truly evil. Consider the nature of all worldly sensible things. and so project all. for aught thou knowest. neither shameful nor praiseworthy. which either ensnare by pleasure. if there be any gods. whatsoever thou dost project. But why should that be thought to hurt and prejudice a man's life in this world. IX. But if it be so that there be no gods. and of all divine providence? But gods there be certainly. which cannot any ways make man himself the better. yet as unable either to prevent. may at this very present depart out of this life. they would have had a care of that also. The gods will do thee no hurt. as vice and wickedness. And as for death. into the matter and substance of the world: and their memories into the general age and time of the world. and death. of those especially. labour and pleasure. that he might avoid them if he would: and had there been anything besides that had been truly bad and evil. but as things which of themselves are neither good nor bad. both good and bad. equally. It cannot be that she through want either of power or skill. so as to suffer all things both good and bad. or better to order and dispose them. all these things happen unto men indeed. should have committed such a thing. 27 . why should I desire to live in a world void of gods. it is no grievous thing to leave the society of men. did of himself merely resolve upon that action. Consider how quickly all things are dissolved and resolved: the bodies and substances themselves. thou mayest be sure. to happen unto all both good and bad. such things they have put in a man's own power. or the worse in his own person? Neither must we think that the nature of the universe did either through ignorance pass these things. As for life therefore. or that they take no care of the world.

honour and credit do proceed: as also what it is to die. with love. and from all manner of discontent. and whatsoever proceeds from men. that a man keep himself pure from all violent passion and evil affection. how destitute of all true life and being they are. and to confine all his thoughts and cares to the tendance of that spirit which is within him. 28 . always. searching (as he saith) even the very depths of the earth. from whose bare conceits and voices. than that by which we are not able to discern between white and black:) with a kind of pity and compassion also. how base and corruptible. XI.or for their outward lustre and show are in great esteem and request. There is nothing more wretched than that soul. is a very child. of that which is truly good and bad. from all rashness and vanity. how vile and contemptible. than as of a work of nature. deserves respect for their worth and excellency. is not sensible. as they are our kinsmen. (a blindness no less. he can conceive of it no otherwise. and by all signs and conjectures prying into the very thoughts of other men's souls. is joined unto God. sometimes. and how if a man shall consider this by itself alone. Now death. and truly and really to serve him. X. For indeed whatsoever proceeds from the gods. to die. and by what part of his. when it is said to be diffused. which in a kind of circuit compasseth all things. it is not only a work of nature. Consider with thyself how man. and separate from it in his mind all those things which with it usually represent themselves unto us. and how that part of man is affected. and yet of this. His service doth consist in this. but also conducing to nature. It is the part of a man endowed with a good understanding faculty. and he that fears any work of nature. should by us be entertained. as proceeding from their ignorance. either in regard of the gods or men. that it is sufficient for a man to apply himself wholly. to consider what they themselves are in very deed.

it doth manifestly appear. are of one kind and nature. First. be received as well as that which is sweet and pleasing. which either of them can lose. that all things in the world from all eternity. it can be no matter of great moment. if that which is true and serious in them. yet that time which is now present and in being. For how should a man part with that which he hath not? These two things therefore thou must remember. a man see those things which are still the same. for that which he hath not. yet remember this. by a perpetual revolution of the same times and things ever continued and renewed. That then which is longest of duration. a man cannot be said properly to part with it. is no other. or the shortest liver parts with. is that. for that only which is present. And secondly. and as plain and apparent is the use that may be made of those things. If thou shouldst live three thousand. XIII. for those things are plain and apparent. as being that only which they have. which he now lives: and that which he lives. save with that little part of life. and that which is shortest. Remember that all is but opinion and conceit. or as many as ten thousands of years. come both to one effect. is equal unto all men. which were spoken unto Monimus the Cynic. so that whether for a hundred or two hundred years only. no man can truly be said to lose. For as for that which is either past or to come. than that which at every instant he parts with. that we then part with. that it can be but a moment of time. And that being it which we part with whensoever we die. For although in regard of that which is already past there may be some inequality. is for length and duration the very same. or for an infinite space of time. that that life which any the longest liver. that man can part with no life properly. 29 .XII.

the substance of it ever flowing. Fifthly. or as a smoke. as coming from Him from whom he himself also came.XIV. and above all things. is direct apostacy from the nature of the universe. or led by contrary desires or affections. Fame after life is no better than oblivion. and the end of the reasonable creatures is. for to be grieved and displeased with anything that happens in the world. when as much as in itself lies it becomes an aposteme. of which every creature is composed. tending to his hurt and prejudice. and alteration. all particular natures of the world. fortune uncertain. who is the reason as it were. never to do anything either rashly. when she doth dissemble. Secondly. to be brief. are. with all meekness and a calm cheerfulness. as being nothing else but the resolution of those elements. or feignedly. Thirdly. For even the least things ought not to be done. such as are the souls of them that are angry. and covertly and falsely either doth or saith anything. And if the elements themselves suffer nothing by this their perpetual conversion of one into another. A man's soul doth wrong and disrespect itself first and especially. and a mere pilgrimage. XV. and fame doubtful. as a dream. when she doth either affect or endeavour anything to no certain end. for a man to preserve that spirit which is within him. Fourthly. that dissolution. His soul is restless. the sense obscure. so are all that belong unto the soul. and ancient commonwealth. and the whole composition of the body tending to corruption. to expect death. to follow and obey him. and as it were an excrescency of the world. part of which. which is so common unto all. or hypocritically: wholly to depend from himself and his own proper actions: all things that happen unto him to embrace contentedly. why should it be feared by any? 30 . Our life is a warfare. What is it then that will adhere and follow? Only one thing. and the law of this great city. from all manner of contumelies and injuries. philosophy. how consequent or inconsequent it is to the common end. and above all pains or pleasures. The time of a man's life is as a point. without relation unto the end. And philosophy doth consist in this. when she is overcome by any pleasure or pain. when she either is averse from any man. but rashly and without due ratiocination and consideration. as a stream so are all things belonging to the body.

Is not this according to nature? But nothing that is according to nature can be evil. 31 . whilst I was at Carnuntzim.

his imaginative. whether his understanding shall continue so able and sufficient. and part asunder. Thou must hasten therefore. some parts of it cleave as it were. The hanging down of grapes—the brow of a lion. nutrition. how to redress and rectify all wrong. his respiration. but this also. how to observe exactly in all things that which is right and just. doth depend. So ripe olives. to stir the appetite. they become it well nevertheless. that if he live long. and have a certain peculiar property. though by themselves considered. whether he should live any longer or no. consider all 32 . they both are comely. wherein the best strength and vigour of the mind is most requisite. he cannot be certain. the froth of a foaming wild boar.THE THIRD BOOK I. that they are thus cleft and parted. hath somewhat in itself that is pleasing and delightful: as a great loaf when it is baked. A man must not only consider how daily his life wasteth and decreaseth. II. when they are next to putrefaction. but also because that intellective faculty in thee. and to order all thy actions by that knowledge. and other natural faculties. when they begin to shrink. for either discreet consideration. For if once he shall begin to dote. This also thou must observe. for all such things. But how to make that right use of himself that he should. so that if a man shall with a profound mind and apprehension. and yet those parts of it. they are far from any beauty. or sudden apprehensions and imaginations. may fail thee before thou die. and wither as it were. then are they in their proper beauty. and delightful. not only because thou art every day nearer unto death than other. his power and ability will be past and gone. So figs are accounted fairest and ripest then. to consider duly. whereon true knowledge of things both divine and human. and appetitive. which should have been and were first made all even and uniform. though in some sort it be against the art and intention of baking itself. and make the crust of it rugged and unequal. in matter of businesses. or for contemplation: it being the thing. may still continue the same: he shall find no want of them. and many other like things. doth daily waste and decay: or. yet because they happen naturally. whereby thou art enabled to know the true nature of things. that whatsoever it is that naturally doth happen to things natural. and even of this particular.

thou art come to land. whether in man or woman: and whatsoever else it is that is beautiful and alluring in whatsoever is. Heraclitus having written so many natural tracts concerning the last and general conflagration of the world. IV. Lice killed Democritus. yet they themselves at last were fain to part with their own lives. as those which by skilful painters and other artificers are imitated. wicked ungodly men. another sort of vermin. having destroyed so many towns. were afterwards themselves surprised by the fates. How then stands the case? Thou hast taken ship. Alexander and Pompeius. when it is not in relation to some common good. even among all those things which are but mere accessories and natural appendices as it were. III. but unto them only who are truly and familiarly acquainted. there will scarce appear anything unto him. and all natural things. and Socrates. both with nature itself. Spend not the remnant of thy days in thoughts and fancies concerning other men. and all bedaubed with dirt and dung without. so much the viler. So will he be able to perceive the proper ripeness and beauty of old age. by how much that which ministers unto it doth excel. who are everywhere. there also shalt thou find gods. So will he behold with as much pleasure the true rictus of wild beasts. with chaste and continent eyes he will soon find out and discern. wherein he will not find matter of pleasure and delight. if to another life. when by it thou art hindered from some other better work. The Chaldeans and Astrologians having foretold the deaths of divers. and Caius Caesar. Those and many other things will he discern. the other nothing but earth and blood. and a spirit. not credible unto every one. That is. thou hast sailed. and to serve and tend this vile cottage. If all life and sense shall cease. Hippocrates having cured many sicknesses. go out. then shalt thou cease also to be subject to either pains or pleasures. fell sick himself and died.things in the world. the one being a rational substance. and cut off in the field so many thousands both of horse and foot. spend not thy 33 . died afterwards all filled with water within.

nor without some great necessity tending to some public good. which make a man to rove and wander from the care and observation of that part of himself. or abroad. mindeth what any other. that he may not be cast down by any passion or affection of his own. undaunted by pain. and for the highest prize. and regards not pleasures. and what he thinks. is he surely that doth not put off to lay hold on that which is best indeed. what it is that thou art now thinking. or that are truly his own. is akin unto him. embracing and accepting with his whole heart whatsoever either happeneth or is allotted unto him. that so by thy thoughts it may presently appear that in all thee is sincere. and his thoughts are ever taken up with those things. and That. that thou be careful to prevent whatsoever is idle and impertinent: but especially. for that they be good: and as for those that happen unto him. as becometh one that is made for society. of which if a man upon a sudden should ask thee. and in his own power. and what he is about. freely and boldly. what such a man doth. and such other things or curiosities. free from any manner of wrong. and overruling. and suspicion. whatsoever is curious and malicious: and thou must use thyself to think only of such things. a very priest and minister of the gods. as in a temple and sacrary: to whom also he keeps and preserves himself unspotted by pleasure. by himself offered unto himself: not capable of any evil from others: a wrestler of the best sort. Those things that are his own. are the objects of his employments. what manner of men they be at home. nor gives way to any voluptuous imaginations at all: free from all contentiousness. so is it always profitable. He remembers besides that whatsoever partakes of reason. He that is such. and to what end: what he saith. As for them that do not. See therefore in the whole series and connection of thy thoughts. thou mayest answer This. how conditioned themselves with what 34 . he believes them to be so.time in thinking. and that to care for all men generally. For that lot and portion which is assigned to every one. envy. either speaks. and peaceable. One who not often. or contumely. which of the whole universe are by the fates or Providence destinated and appropriated unto himself. or doth. but from such only. who live according to nature. deeply dyed and drenched in righteousness. or purposeth: for those things only that are in his own power. that they ought not generally to be admitted and accepted of from all. day or night. well acquainted and in good correspondence with him especially that is seated and placed within himself. and from whatsoever else thou wouldest blush to confess thy thoughts were set upon. he himself takes order. is agreeing to the nature of a man: but as for honour and praise. as it is unavoidable and necessary. which is rational.

Be neither a great talker. VI. fortitude. he knoweth. who cannot like and approve themselves. and in those. Affect not to set out thy thoughts with curious neat language. find by thee. or with men of what conditions they moil and pass away the time together. VII. nor contrary to the community. enjoy freely. nor a great undertaker. if I say. To be cheerful. as it were. But if nothing thou shalt find worthy to be preferred to that spirit which is within thee. either of other men's help or attendance. one that hath ordered his life. an aged man. and not to give way to any fancies or imaginations before thou hast 35 . if nothing better than to subject unto thee thine own lusts and desires. a prince. apply thyself unto it with thy whole heart. a sociable man. Moreover. that he hath to do with a man. and to stand in no need. which without her will and knowledge happen unto thee by the providence. or hath ever been straight. as proceeding from them. thou canst find out anything better than this. V. he therefore regards not such praise and approbation. and that which is best wheresoever thou dost find it. nor any man to be a witness. or of that rest and tranquillity. than one that hath been rectified. nor without due examination. nor with reluctancy. Rather like one that is straight of himself. as one that expecteth. which thou must be beholding to others for. If thou shalt find anything in this mortal life better than righteousness. One who for his word or actions neither needs an oath. Do nothing against thy will. let thy God that is in thee to rule over thee. a Roman. than truth. and in general better than a mind contented both with those things which according to right and reason she doth. temperance. sounding a retreat to depart out of this life with all expedition. and remembers right well.manner of conditions. nothing but the sound of the trumpet.

36 . and the sacred mysteries of virtue which issueth from it. but if they mean profitable. and stick unto it. or turn a man from the right way. If they mean profitable to man as he is a rational man. or honour. as for any other action. he is altogether indifferent. which is most profitable. he shall never want either solitude or company: and which is chiefest of all. to hate any man.duly considered of them. which is thine own and thy proper good. Do thou therefore I say absolutely and freely make choice of that which is best. and submit thyself unto the gods. and of little moment. are but vile. he shall never lament and exclaim. they presently prevail. whether for a long or short time he shall enjoy his soul thus compassed about with a body. then give not way to any other thing. and from this thy tenet and conclusion keep off carefully all plausible shows and colours of external appearance. that his mind may always be occupied in such intentions and objects. that they say is best. to curse. never sigh. should be suffered to confront and contest as it were. For it is not lawful. to dissemble. if once though but for a while. as either popular applause. and operatively good. But he that preferreth before all things his rational part and spirit. or pleasures. stand thou to it. Now. it will no more be in thy power without all distraction as thou oughtest to prefer and to pursue after that good. that thou mayest be able to discern things rightly. as he is a creature. he shall live without either desire or fear. that requireth the secret of walls or veils. Never esteem of anything as profitable. be it what it will. and pervert a man's mind. with that which is rational. which shall ever constrain thee either to break thy faith. they begin to please. to lust after anything. and maintain it. that anything that is of another and inferior kind and nature. as are proper to a rational sociable creature. For if even now he were to depart. this is his only care. And as for life. to suspect. or riches. or to lose thy modesty. which may be performed with modesty and decency. he is as ready for it. VIII. which being once though but affected and inclined unto. and to have care of all men in general: if thou shalt find that all other things in comparison of this. For all these things. only reject it. For all his life long. nothing better than to withdraw thyself (to use Socrates his words) from all sensuality.

is by the succession of silly mortal men preserved. or the proper constitution of a rational creature. divided into its several parts and quarters: and 37 . The time therefore that any man doth live. Casting therefore all other things aside. or affected: no partial tie. nothing concealed. and even whiles they live know not what in very deed they themselves are: and much less can know one. and the place where he liveth. Whatsoever is besides either is already past. XI. or the play itself were at an end. Use thine opinative faculty with all honour and respect. is but a very little corner of the earth. and the greatest fame that can remain of a man after his death. wholly. bare and naked. or uncertain. let one more be added. and that too. and remember withal that no man properly can be said to live more than that which is now present. no malicious averseness. such as it is whilst it is. The end and object of a rational constitution is. that should die before he had ended. thou canst not find anything. either foul or impure. to be kindly affected towards men. who long before is dead and gone. even that is but little. is but a little. a man might speak. who likewise shall shortly die. or as it were festered: nothing that is either servile. In the mind that is once truly disciplined and purged. as of an actor. nothing obnoxious. X. which is but a moment of time. for in her indeed is all: that thy opinion do not beget in thy understanding anything contrary to either nature.IX. and severally. to do nothing rashly. ever to make a particular description and delineation as it were of every object that presents itself to thy mind. The life of such an one. death can never surprise as imperfect. keep thyself to these few. in its own proper nature. that thou mayest wholly and throughly contemplate it. To these ever-present helps and mementoes. and in all things willingly to submit unto the gods.

to call both it. meekly. this by that fatal connection. in all things that thou shalt either do or speak. and in which it shall be resolved. but shall study this only to preserve thy spirit unpolluted. and so to penetrate into their natures. and those things of which it doth consist. of which all other cities in the world are as it were but houses and families? XII. truth. fortitude. faith. and pure. 38 . This immediately comes from God. and shall cleave unto him without either hope or fear of anything. and shalt not intermix any other businesses. my kinsman. that is kindly. XIII. thou shalt live happily. and appellations. it proceeds from my neighbour. solidly. and concatenation of things. so I carry myself towards it. As for those things that of themselves are altogether indifferent. And as for this. following the rule of right and reason carefully. contenting thyself with heroical truth. to which it is useful? how much in regard of the universe may it be esteemed? how much in regard of man. this also may concur in our apprehensions: what is the true use of it? and what is the true nature of this universe. there is no man that can hinder thee.then by thyself in thy mind. as to be able truly and methodically to examine and consider all things that happen in this life. or any of the rest? Of everything therefore thou must use thyself to say. that now my fancy is set upon? of what things doth it consist? how long can it last? which of all the virtues is the proper virtue for this present use? as whether meekness. by their own proper true names. sincerity. a citizen of the supreme city. If thou shalt intend that which is present. and from this. What is this. because he knows not what is truly natural unto him: but I know it. as in my best judgment I conceive everything to deserve more or less. contentation. or (which almost comes to one) by some coincidental casualty. and therefore carry myself towards him according to the natural law of fellowship. my fellow: through his ignorance indeed. For there is nothing so effectual to beget true magnanimity. and justly. that at the same time.

so do the dogmata to the understanding. the understanding. The body. nor those excerpta from several books. nor the acts of the famous Romans and Grecians. to be at rest. for thou shalt never live to read thy moral commentaries. and how many ways to be understood. and things human. and giving over all vain hopes. As the senses naturally belong to the body. and connection that is between these two things divine. all which thou hadst provided and laid up for thyself against thine old age. but by another kind of sight:) what these words mean. both divine and human: and whatsoever thou dost. even in the smallest things that thou dost. thou shalt never speed in any worldly actions. For without relation unto God. and the desires and affections to the soul. help thyself in time if thou carest for thyself. so have thou always thy dogmata in a readiness for the knowledge of things. To steal. to buy. without some respect had to things human. to see what is to be done (which is not seen by the eyes. XV. nor on the other side in any divine. Be not deceived. to sow.XIV. as thou oughtest to do. XVII. they do not understand. thou must ever remember that mutual relation. To be capable of fancies and imaginations. Hasten therefore to an end. As physicians and chirurgeons have always their instruments ready at hand for all sudden cures. is common to man and 39 . XVI. the soul.

And such a one. who believe not that there be any gods. and who when once the doors be shut upon them. and for their advantage would make no conscience to betray their own country. but to keep him propitious and to obey him as a god.beast. dare do anything. never either speaking anything contrary to truth. nor diverted by it from the way that leadeth to the end of his life. and willing of himself without any compulsion to fit and accommodate himself to his proper lot and portion. If therefore all things else be common to these likewise. is the only true property of a good man. it follows. or cheerful and contentedly. with a multitude of vain fancies and imaginations. To be violently drawn and moved by the lusts and desires of the soul. that for a man to like and embrace all things that happen and are destinated unto him. though no man should believe that he liveth as he doth. yet is he neither with any man at all angry for it. through which a man must pass pure. is proper to wild beasts and monsters. 40 . ever ready to depart. either sincerely and conscionably. or doing anything contrary to justice. To follow reason for ordinary duties and actions is common to them also. such as Phalaris and Nero were. and not to trouble and molest that spirit which is seated in the temple of his own breast.

THE FOURTH BOOK I. II. and to be at rest. By tranquillity I understand a decent orderly disposition and carriage. They seek for themselves private retiring places. Afford then thyself this retiring continually. but whatsoever it is that it doth now intend and prosecute. Even as the fire when it prevails upon those things that are in his way. so that whatsoever it is that falls out contrary to its first intentions. and at random. Let these precepts be brief and fundamental. A man cannot any whither retire better than to his own soul. it doth prosecute it with exception and reservation. free from all confusion and tumultuousness. Let nothing be done rashly. and so consume whatsoever comes in his way: yea by those very things it is made greater and greater. and free from all businesses. the sea-shore. but all things according to the most exact and perfect rules of art. as country villages. and is within its own power to compass. may suffice thee to purge thy soul throughly. But all this thou must know proceeds from simplicity in the highest degree. and thereby refresh and renew thyself. when that cannot be which at first it intended. which as soon as thou dost call them to mind. it is in thy power to retire into thyself. may presently afford unto him perfect ease and tranquillity. At what time soever thou wilt. even that afterwards it makes its proper object. that it will easily turn and apply itself to that which may be. III. For it never doth absolutely addict and apply itself to any one object. he especially who is beforehand provided of such things within. mountains. That inward mistress part of man if it be in its own true natural temper. which whensoever he doth withdraw himself to look in. yea thou thyself art wont to long much after such places. but a great fire doth soon turn to its own nature. is towards all worldly chances and events ever so disposed and affected. by which things indeed a little fire would have been quenched. and to send thee away well pleased 41 .

which to consider. For what is it that thou art offended at? Can it be at the wickedness of men. which now again after this short withdrawing of thy soul into herself thou dost return unto. and what manner of men are they. is but a very little part. or whether harshly and rudely). as a man whose proper object is Virtue. how many in number. and be no more: and ever call to mind. that all these things. when once it hath recollected itself. hath in this life and breath (whether it run smoothly and gently. wherein it is limited and circumscribed? For the whole earth is but as one point. or Democritus his atoms. that all the tumult and all the trouble doth proceed. and above all things. Among other things.with those things whatsoever they be. let those two be among the most obvious and at hand. that will commend thee? What remains then. but stand without still and quiet. and that it is from the opinion only which is within. and with it. when thou dost call that our ordinary dilemma to mind. hated. what canst thou fear. are forgotten. as a mortal creature. no interest at all. that the things or objects themselves reach not unto the soul. who once likewise prosecuted their enmities. if thou dost look back. that all reasonable creatures are made one for another? and that it is part of justice to bear with them? and that it is against their wills that they offend? and how many already. when thou dost call to mind this conclusion. and reduced unto ashes? It is time for thee to make an end. whatsoever we brought to prove that the whole world is as it were one city? And as for thy body. and fiercely contended. to this little part of thyself. as a citizen. if thou dost consider that thy mind and understanding. how many changes and alterations in the 42 . and intend not anything vehemently. keep thyself from distraction. this inhabited part of it. and the inconstancy and variableness of human judgments and opinions. As for those things which among the common chances of the world happen unto thee as thy particular lot and portion. and of it. and consider both how quickly all things that are. but be free and consider all things. and the narrowness of the place. and what an immense chaos of eternity was before. and knows its own power. but that thou often put in practice this kind of retiring of thyself. suspected. as a man whose true nature is to be kind and sociable. but is altogether indifferent: and whatsoever else thou hast heard and assented unto concerning either pain or pleasure? But the care of thine honour and reputation will perchance distract thee? How can that be. are now long ago stretched out. canst thou be displeased with any of them. and will follow after all things: and the vanity of praise. and look into thou must use to withdraw thyself. The next. and of this part. shall within a very little while be changed. which now thou seest. either a providence. One.

that understanding. IV. a thing surely which no man ought to be ashamed of: in a series of other fatal events and consequences. common unto all. This world is mere change. As generation is. which prescribeth what is to be done and what not. must of necessity proceed. so also death. opinion. and that which is moist from some other element is imparted. If to understand and to be reasonable be common unto all men. V. VI. 43 . is as he that would have the fig-tree grow without any sap or moisture. If so. that all men can be said to be members of? From this common city it is. not improper or incongruous. then law. for which we are termed reasonable. and law is derived unto us. and that likewise which is dry and fiery in me: (for there is nothing which doth not proceed from something. If reason is general. a secret of nature's wisdom: a mixture of elements. which a rational creature is subject unto. resolved into the same elements again. nor contrary to the natural and proper constitution of man himself. then is that reason. as also there is nothing that can be reduced unto mere nothing:) so also is there some common beginning from whence my understanding hath proceeded. If law. then the world is as it were a city. In sum. from such and such causes. He that would not have such things to happen. as my breath and life hath its proper fountain. common unto all. Such and such things. then are we partners in some one commonweal. If so. reason. for from whence else? For as that which in me is earthly I have from some common earth. then are we fellow-citizens. then is that reason also. For which other commonweal is it.world thou thyself hast already been an eyewitness of in thy time. and this life. If that.

If no man shall think himself wronged. both thou and he shall both be dead. Whatsoever doth happen in the world. neither can it hurt him either inwardly or outwardly. and therefore necessary. That which makes not man himself the worse. Conceit no such things. and after a little while more. or would have thee to conceive. but according to justice and as it were by way of equal distribution. These two rules. thou must have always in a readiness. not so much as your names and memories shall be remaining. Let opinion be taken away. cannot make his life the worse. as he that wrongeth thee conceiveth. as thou hast begun. that it be a thing of that nature that a good man (as the word good is properly taken) may do it. and so if thou dost well take heed. and whatsoever thou dost. Continue then to take notice of it. and see what it is in very truth. doth happen justly. then is there no more any such thing as wrong. I say not only in right order by a series of inevitable consequences. VIII. VII. thou shalt find it. It was expedient in nature that it should be so. do it not without this proviso. do 44 . First. IX. but look into the matter itself. according to the true worth of everything. X. that within a very little while. This observe carefully in every action.remember this. and no man will think himself wronged.

Hast thou reason? I have. one drops first and is consumed. out of which all others have issued. And secondly. if so happen. or from some other such inducement. As a part hitherto thou hast had a particular subsistence: and now shalt thou vanish away into the common substance of Him. who first begot thee. thou shalt be esteemed a god of them. and of an ape. but what reason proceeding from that regal and supreme part. Not as though thou hadst thousands of years to live. XIII. shall for the good and benefit of men. will esteem of thee no better than of a mere brute. and are propagated. Within ten days. and it comes all to one. XIV. Death hangs 45 . not from any respect of any pleasure or credit thereon depending. that thou be always ready to change thy mind. suggest unto thee. XI. what more canst thou require? XII. but always from some probable apparent ground of justice. if any man that is present shall be able to rectify thee or to turn thee from some erroneous persuasion. another after. who now if thou shalt return to the dogmata and to the honouring of reason. Why then makest thou not use of it? For if thy reason do her part. or rather thou shalt be resumed again into that original rational substance. and this change to proceed. Many small pieces of frankincense are set upon the same altar.nothing at all. or of some public good thereby to be furthered.

without any loose and extravagant agitation. that it is fair and goodly. what might be objected from thence. or ivory. as those which are commended either for the matter itself. it is so of itself. and terminates in itself. and thy memory with them should be immortal.over thee: whilst yet thou livest. whilst thou mayest. is not thereby made either better or worse. Now much time and leisure doth he gain. but only what he doth himself. until at last all memory. or hath done. or more than either kindness and modesty? Which of all those. doth not consider. This I understand even of those things. or a tree? 46 . let that now that we are upon another consideration be omitted as unseasonable. that are commonly called fair and good. For as for that. be quite extinct. As for that which is truly good. that it is the gift of nature. what can it stand in need of more than either justice or truth. either becomes good or fair. not admitting praise as a part or member: that therefore which is praised. or purple? Is there anything that doth though never so common. or for curious workmanship. whatsoever it be. as a knife. shall soon after every one of them be dead. But suppose that both they that shall remember thee. which we call oikonomian or dispensation. and they likewise that succeed those. or hath attempted. XV. or more vile if it be not commended? Doth gold. what is that to thee? I will not say to thee after thou art dead. but to run on straight in the line. what is thy praise? But only for a secret and politic consideration. be good. that it may be just and holy? or to express it in Agathos' words. and in what respect soever it be. who is not curious to know what his neighbour hath said. because commended. XVI. That which is fair and goodly. Not to look about upon the evil conditions of others. but even to thee living. He who is greedy of credit and reputation after his death. that they themselves by whom he is remembered. or dispraised suffers any damage? Doth the emerald become worse in itself. which hitherto by the succession of men admiring and soon after dying hath had its course. a flower. whatsoever is commended in thee.

XVIII. partly into blood. Whatsoever is expedient unto thee. by reason of their conversion. so buried and contained by the earth). What in these things is the speculation of truth? to divide things into that which is passive and material. after they have conversed there a while.) makes place for other dead bodies: so the souls after death transferred into the air. or conflagration. O World. and that which is active and formal. XIX. nothing can either be 'unseasonable unto me. which unto thee is seasonable. may be answered. And here. who before coupled and associated unto bodies. (besides the number of bodies. and by other creatures. For notwithstanding that such a multitude of them is daily consumed. yet is the same place and body able to contain them. how is the air from all eternity able to contain them? How is the earth (say I) ever from that time able to Contain the bodies of them that are buried? For as here the change and resolution of dead bodies into another kind of subsistence (whatsoever it be. but upon every motion and desire. Not to wander out of the way. or out of date. that presents itself.XVII. is expedient unto me. If so be that the souls remain after death (say they that will not believe it). shall ever by me be 47 . partly into air and fire. Whatsoever thy seasons bear. upon a supposition that the souls after death do for a while subsist single. we may further consider the number of several beasts. This. now begin to subsist single. to perform that which is just: and ever to be careful to attain to the true natural apprehension of every fancy. received again into that original rational substance. or transfusion. from which all others do proceed: and so give way to those souls. and as it were buried in the bodies of the eaters. eaten by us men. are either by way of transmutation.

be of the number of unnecessary actions? Neither must he use himself to cut off actions only. was destinated and appointed unto 48 . and can live well contented and fully satisfied in the justice of his own proper present action. it must needs follow that he shall thereby gain much leisure.esteemed as happy fruit. Trouble not thyself any more henceforth. Try also how a good man's life. to such and so many only. are unnecessary. and to thee all tend. which we either speak or do. and shalt not thou say of the world. Thou hast had experience of that other kind of life: make now trial of this also. What? may not this that now I go about. will command and enjoin. which from the paucity of actions doth usually proceed. XXI. and increase. Doth any man offend? It is against himself that he doth offend: why should it trouble thee? Hath anything happened unto thee? It is well. (of one. that are unnecessary for so will unnecessary consequent actions the better be prevented and cut off. Certainly there is nothing better. reduce thyself unto perfect simplicity. Meddle not with many things. but thoughts and imaginations also. if thou wilt live cheerfully. O Nature! from thee are all things. than for a man to confine himself to necessary actions. which from the goodness. They will say commonly. Thou lovely city of Cecrops. and in the goodness of his disposition for the future:) will agree with thee. Thou lovely city of God? XX. in thee all things subsist. whatsoever it be. but that also. that most of those things. For since it is so. or shall happen. and save much trouble. it is that which of all the common chances of the world from the very beginning in the series of all other things that have. which among the common changes and chances of this world fall to his own lot and share. This will not only procure that cheerfulness. Could he say of Athens. as reason in a creature that knows itself born for society. if a man shall cut them off. who is well pleased with those things whatsoever. and therefore at every action a man must privately by way of admonition suggest unto himself.

and separate himself from common nature's rational administration. by which men are sociable. and by natural sympathy. He an aposteme of the world. one to another united. To comprehend all in a few words. who by irrational actions withdraws his own soul from that one and common soul of all rational creatures. that knows not the things that are in it. though confused. a scurril. XXII. a sheepish disposition. a wild inhuman disposition. A black or malign disposition. Either this world is a kosmoz or comely piece. a fraudulent. whatsoever it be. our life is short. as they are? XXIII. and hath not in himself all things needful for this life. For the same nature it is that brings this unto thee. and that in the whole world there should be nothing but disorder and confusion? and all things in it too. that flies from reason. a childish disposition. He raises sedition in the city. an effeminate disposition. that wonders at the things that are done in it? XXIV. and yet all through diffused. yet still it is a comely piece. an hard inexorable disposition. He poor. 49 .thee. doth as it were apostatise. a blockish. that first brought thee into the world. Use recreation with sobriety. by natural different properties one from another differenced and distinguished. a tyrannical: what then? If he be a stranger in the world. He is a true fugitive. who cannot see with the eyes of his understanding. He blind. why not be a stranger as well. that stands in need of another. For is it possible that in thee there should be any beauty at all. because all disposed and governed by certain order: or if it be a mixture. a false. we must endeavour to gain the present time with best discretion and justice. who by being discontented with those things that happen unto him in the world.

after they had with all their might and main intended and prosecuted some one worldly thing or other did soon after drop away. some fretting and murmuring at their present estate. and ended? Again. and in the 50 . and yet I depart not from reason. But especially thou must call to mind them. endeavour to affect it. whom thou thyself in thy lifetime hast known much distracted about vain things. and some after kingdoms. some fighting. consider now the times of Trajan. I am half naked. who without so much as a book. carry not thyself either tyrannically or servilely towards any. and comfort thyself in it. for example's sake. and instructions. some bringing up children. some wishing to die. some boasting. some merchandising. and that age also is now over and ended. XXVI. some flattering. some hoarding. saith one. And is not that their age quite over. I want the food of good teaching. some tilling. XXVII. some feasting. Consider in my mind. unto the gods: and as for men. and pass the remainder of thy life as one who from his whole heart commits himself and whatsoever belongs unto him. who without so much as a coat. some sick. There likewise thou seest the very self-same things. But I say. There is. and yet I depart not from reason. some seeking after magistracies. and there is. and were resolved into the elements. both of times and of whole nations. and see how many men. What art and profession soever thou hast learned.XXV. doth put philosophy in practice. neither have I bread to eat. the times of Vespasian: thou shalt see but the same things: some marrying. some undermining. some dying. some wooing. In the like manner consider other periods. some suspecting.

that the nature of the universe delights in nothing more. Scipio. that our actions be charitable. that 51 . and the minds and memories themselves. become fabulous. Use thyself therefore often to meditate upon this. that our inclination be always set to embrace whatsoever shall happen unto us. for as for the rest. Willingly therefore. as flowing from such a beginning. as usual. and from day to day hath its existence. Those words which once were common and ordinary. then Augustus. that our speech be never deceitful. XXVIII. to be disposed of at their pleasure. and closely and unseparably (as fully satisfied with it) to adhere unto it. have their being by change and alteration. What is it that we must bestow our care and diligence upon? even upon this only: that our minds and wills be just. as necessary. no sooner are they expired. then Adrianus. if thou shalt not dwell upon small matters longer than is fitting. Leonnatus. than in altering those things that are. and. which their own proper constitution did require. from which both thou thyself and all things are. are now become in a manner obscure and obsolete names. as things of another world as it were.meantime neglecting to do that. Volesius. and so the names of men once commonly known and famous. who once shined as the wonders of their ages. So that we may say. XXIX. for so shalt thou not easily be tired out and vexed. Whatsoever is now present. Camillus. are now become obscure and obsolete. and in making others like unto them. that thy carriage in every business must be according to the worth and due proportion of it. as ordinary. than with them all their fame and memory. Cato. yielding up thyself unto the fates. And this I say of them. and wholly surrender up thyself unto that fatal concatenation. all things that are. not long after. And what is it then that shall always be remembered? all is vanity. incessantly consider. then Antoninus Pius: all these in a short time will be out of date. or that our understanding be not subject to error. And here thou must remember. all objects of memories. and such a fountain. Cieso.

what is the state of their rational part. or so affected as one. yet let that part to which it belongs to judge of these. that whatsoever it is. thou art very simple. as thou shouldest. and then all is well. which is but as it were the coat or cottage of thy soul. Wherein then. Though thy body which is so near it should either be cut or burnt. see what things they fly and are afraid of. or suffer any corruption or putrefaction. wherein the conceit.whatsoever is. be still at rest. whose only study and only wisdom is. let her judge this. Behold and observe. neither good nor bad. For if thou think that that only is seed. nor against it. and to him that doth not. In another man's mind and understanding thy evil Cannot subsist. XXXII. and those that the world doth account wise. not yet free from all fear and suspicion of external accidents. 52 . that equally may happen to a wicked man. Thou art now ready to die. is neither good nor evil. and to a good man. is but as it were the seed of that which shall be. and by consequent. is neither according to nature. nor yet either so meekly disposed towards all men. and apprehension of any misery can subsist? Let not that part therefore admit any such conceit. which either the earth or the womb receiveth. XXXI. For that which happens equally to him that lives according to nature. and what things they hunt after. and yet hast thou not attained to that perfect simplicity: thou art yet subject to many troubles and perturbations. XXX. nor in any proper temper or distemper of the natural constitution of thy body. that is. but in that part of thee. to be just in all his actions.

and deliberation of that one soul. and are done by one general motion as it were. a wretched soul. What art thou. in the course of nature. consisting of the things that are brought to pass in the world. another succeeds. as no benefit it is.XXXIII. and is passed away. XXXIV. The age and time of the world is as it were a flood and swift current. That. appointed to carry a carcass up and down? XXXV. by change to attain to being. are terminated into one sensitive power. and how all things that are. not as a loose 53 . and having but one soul. Ever consider and think upon the world as being but one living substance. and lying in wait. slander. Whatsoever doth happen in the world. To suffer change can be no hurt. and fruit in summer. as usual and ordinary as a rose in the spring. Of the same nature is sickness and death. and how all things in the world. concur in the cause of one another's being. XXXVI. that comes after. whatsoever it is. but as Epictetus said well. that better and divine part excepted. follow upon that which was before. and by what manner of connection and concatenation all things happen. and as it were familiarly. doth always very naturally. For as soon as anything hath appeared. is. and that also will presently out of sight. and whatsoever else ordinarily doth unto fools use to be occasion either of joy or sorrow. For thou must consider the things of the world.

(for alas. is water. after 54 . which ordinarily they are most in opposition with. or do anything as men in their sleep. than to-morrow. or next day. Let it be thy perpetual meditation.independent number. consisting merely of necessary events. XXXIX. There is then to be seen in the things of the world. but as a discreet connection of things orderly and harmoniously disposed. is fire. and how those things which daily happen among them. cease not daily to be strange unto them. Let that of Heraclitus never be out of thy mind. and so on the contrary. that the death of earth. not a bare succession. and so theatrically shrunk their brows upon their patients. and how that reason being the thing by which all things in the world are administered. what is the difference!) so. is air. for best reason alleging their bare successive tradition from our forefathers we have received it. are dead and gone themselves. take it for a great benefit. by opinion and bare imagination: for then we think we speak and do. than the very next day. Remember him also who was ignorant whither the way did lead. thou wouldst not. think it no great matter to die rather many years after. for the same reason. XXXVIII. and that we should not either speak. rather to die the next day after. and which men are continually and most inwardly conversant with: yet is the thing. who follow their father's example. Thou shalt certainly die to-morrow. except thou wert extremely base and pusillanimous. Even as if any of the gods should tell thee. but an admirable correspondence and affinity. How many astrologers. and the death of air. and that we must not be as children. and the death of water. how many physicians who once looked so grim. XXXVII.

as things for their continuance. most vile. happy I. and soon after was buried himself. how many brave captains and commanders. after they had with such horror and insolency abused their power upon men's lives. Why then should that rather be an unhappiness. What is man? That which but the other day when he was conceived was vile snivel. it might have happened unto any man. Herculaneum. one after another. Pompeii. how many philosophers after so many elaborate tracts and volumes concerning either mortality or immortality. XLI. wretched I. as for example.that in great ostentation they had foretold the death of some others. ever to look upon all worldly things. and contemptible. Oh. that are but for a day: and for their worth. Thus must thou according to truth and nature. how many. hast known in thy time to drop away. whole cities both men and towns: Helice. so another: and all things in a short time. and within few days shall be either an embalmed carcass. could not have continued without grief. For as for this. to whom this thing being happened. and so depart meek and contented: even as if a ripe olive falling should praise the ground that bare her. O man! term that unhappiness. Such and such a one took care of such and such a one's burial. and others innumerable are dead and gone. So one. that I may so speak. nor in fear of that which is to come. Thou must be like a promontory of the sea. to whom this mischance is happened! nay. Run them over also. and give thanks to the tree that begat her. neither wounded by that which is present. throughly consider how man's life is but for a very moment of time. I can continue without grief. XL. than this a happiness? But however. against which though the waves beat continually. yet it both itself stands. after the death and slaughter of so many. which is 55 . whom thou thyself. For herein lieth all indeed. but any man having such a thing befallen him. how many kings and tyrants. canst thou. as though themselves had been immortal. or mere ashes. and about it are those swelling waves stilled and quieted.

that whatsoever it is that hath happened unto thee. Let thy course ever be the most compendious way. It is but an ordinary coarse one. strife. or any other who in their lifetime having buried many. is that which is according to nature: that is. but that to bear it generously. as a misfortune. The whole space of any man's life. In that which is so infinite. what difference can there be between that which liveth but three days. which is not contrary to the end and will of his nature? What then hast thou learned is the will of man's nature? Doth that then which hath happened unto thee. The most compendious. yet it is a good effectual remedy against the fear of death. For such a resolution will free a man from all trouble. than they whose deaths have been untimely? Are not they themselves dead at the last? as Cadiciant's. with what manner of dispositions. (as then enjoying all that is proper unto her. Fabius. with what troubles. if thou shalt look forward. what an infinite chaos of time doth present itself unto thee.) is fully satisfied? Now to conclude. dissembling. is but little. in all both words and deeds. were at the last buried themselves. and as infinite a chaos. and that which liveth three ages? XLIII. For if thou shalt look backward. is certainly great happiness. for a man to consider in his mind the examples of such. and in the society of how wretched a body must it be passed! Let it be therefore unto thee altogether as a matter of indifferency. is in very deed no such thing of itself. hinder thee from being just? or magnanimous? or temperate? or wise? or circumspect? or true? or modest? or free? or from anything else of all those things in the present enjoying and possession whereof the nature of man. and as little as it is. 56 . What have they got more. and ostentation. behold. ever to follow that which is most sound and perfect. who greedily and covetously (as it were) did for a long time enjoy their lives. XLII. Julianus Lepidus.no mischance to the nature of man I Canst thou think that a mischance to the nature of man. upon all occasion of sorrow remember henceforth to make use of this dogma.

In the morning when thou findest thyself unwilling to rise. that thou mightest enjoy pleasure? Was it not in very truth for this. it is to go about a man's work that I am stirred up. But thou guest beyond thy stint.THE FIFTH BOOK I. to further that every one which he affects: and shall actions tending to the common good of human society. that thou mightest always be busy and in action? Seest thou not how all things in the world besides. there thou comest short of that which thou mayest. as well as of eating and drinking. or a good dancer his art? than a covetous man his silver. and that which thy nature doth propose unto herself as her end. allowed thee a certain stint. or worthy of less respect and intention? II. for which I myself was born and brought forth into this world? Or was I made for this. Nature hath of that also. consider with thyself presently. thou wouldst also love thy nature. as many as take pleasure in their trade and profession. seem more vile unto thee. and presently to be in perfect rest and tranquillity! 57 . which belongs unto a man to do? Wilt not thou run to do that. and doest thou less honour thy nature. How easy a thing is it for a man to put off from him all turbulent adventitious imaginations.' Yes. can be content to want their meat and sleep. thou must. spiders and bees: how all in their kind are intent as it were orderly to perform whatsoever (towards the preservation of this orderly universe) naturally doth become and belong unto thin? And wilt not thou do that.' And was it then for this that thou wert born. and in matter of action. and make much of myself in a warm bed? 'O but this is pleasing. can even pine themselves at their works. and vainglorious man applause? These to whatsoever they take an affection. to lay me down. Others. It must needs be therefore. than an ordinary mechanic his trade. how every tree md plant. for if thou didst. and beyond that which would suffice. which thy nature doth require? 'But thou must have some rest. Am I then yet unwilling to go about that. how sparrows and ants. that thou dost not love thyself. and neglect their bodies and their food for it.

and now to please. by which continually breathed in I did live. now to accuse. whither both thine own particular. sincerity. which beareth me that tread upon it. or report of some that may ensue upon it. and yet still thou doest voluntarily continue drooping downwards? Or wilt thou say that it is through defect of thy natural constitution. how many things there be. which depend wholly from thee. and pacify thy body: to be vainglorious. be free.III. all vain prattling. both of meat and drink. avoid all superfluity. or so freely make use of it. and falling upon that earth. Doest not thou perceive. and let not the reproach. such is thy natural disability that way. laboriousness. out of whose gifts and fruits my father gathered his seed. undervalue not thyself so much. be magnanimous. be Content with little. to be so giddy-headed. breathing out my last breath into that air. Be it so: yet there be many other good things. be not querulous. And lastly. until I fall and cease. out of which for so many years I have been provided. for the want of which thou canst not plead the want or natural ability. or to do anything that is according to nature. Let them be seen in thee. which notwithstanding any pretence of natural indisposition and unfitness. gravity. IV. If it be right and honest to be spoken or done. I continue my course by actions according to nature. my mother her blood. and the common nature do lead thee. thou mightest have performed and exhibited. but go on straight. and beareth with me that so many ways do abuse it. and their own proper inclination: which thou must not stand and look about to take notice of. to be base and wretched to flatter. as to be discouraged from it. ever deter thee. and unsettled in thy thoughts? nay (witnesses be the Gods) of all these 58 . contempt of pleasures. be kind. V. Think thyself fit and worthy to speak. and my nurse her milk. is but one. they have their own rational over-ruling part. and the way of both these. so many ways to so many ends.. that thou art constrained to murmur. As for them. No man can admire thee for thy sharp acute language.

yet they think with themselves nevertheless. 59 . thou dost not understand. should be sensible of it too. as one who neither doth much take to heart this his natural defect. nor yet pleaseth himself in it. and to desire. and to require retaliation. is contented and seeks for no further recompense.' For it is the property. Others again there be. Others there be. And therefore art thou one of those first. I answer. 'this very thing a rational man is bound unto. is ready for another time. do not so much as know what they have done. whom I mentioned. who when they have done any such thing. VI. who though they stand not upon retaliation. who when they have done a good turn to any. and are in a manner insensible of what they do. to require any. that he doth operate sociably: nay. say they. and they know as their word is what they have done. of one that is naturally sociable. But if thou dost desire to understand truly what it is that is said. and a bee when she hath made her honey. For they also are led by a probable appearance of reason. to understand what it is. That which thou sayest is true indeed. this thou must have been contented with. so neither doth that man that rightly doth understand his own nature when he hath done a good turn: but from one doth proceed to do another. Such there be. fear not that thou shalt therefore give over any sociable action. that the party him self that is sociably dealt with. but are like unto the vine. look not for applause and commendation. even as the vine after she hath once borne fruit in her own proper season. Thou therefore must be one of them. As a horse after a race. wherein thou must so exercise thyself. and when once she hath borne her own proper fruit. that he doeth. to have borne the blame of one that is somewhat slow and dull.' will some reply perchance. and a hunting dog when he hath hunted. 'Nay but. are ready to set them on the score for it.thou mightest have been rid long ago: only. which beareth her grapes. barely do it without any further thought. who what they do. but the true meaning of that which is said. to be sensible. that such a one is their debtor.

accept of them. as we do those that are prescribed unto us our physicians. the masons say. Let the fulfilling and accomplishment of those things which the common nature hath determined. our meaning is. of the same nature that particular bodies. as that unto this in particular is by the physician prescribed.VII. should not have been 60 . one perfect and complete body. and recovery.' Either we should not pray at all. is ordained unto him as a thing subordinate unto the fates. to the health and welfare of the universe. This therefore is by the fates properly and particularly brought upon this. that he hath appointed this for that. as tending to that end. What I now say. or damage or some such thing. fall together: so that in the general. so is the destiny of particular causes and events one general one. For this whatsoever it be. The nature of the universe hath prescribed unto this man sickness. be unto thee as thy health. that he hath prescribed anything. upon all the grounds and fields that belong to the Athenians. And as the whole world is made up of all the particular bodies of the world. as of square stones. of the same nature that particular causes are. yet the consent or harmony itself is but one. As we say commonly. This his destiny hath brought upon him. in hope of health. rain. though otherwise harsh and un-pleasing. and agree as it were in an harmony. VIII. that they do happen. when either in walls. but we nevertheless. Accept then. whatsoever doth happen unto any. or some loss. or fall together. that they do (sumbainein) as if thou shouldest say. even they that are mere idiots are not ignorant of: for they say commonly (touto eferen autw) that is. unto a third. or pyramids in a certain position they fit one another. good Jupiter. or blindness. though the things be divers that make it. and therefore do we say of such things. cold baths. or thus absolutely and freely. The form of the Athenians' prayer did run thus: 'O rain. when we say of a physician. as subordinate and conducing to health: so here. unto another. and be pleased with whatsoever doth happen. to go barefoot: so it is alike to say. The physician hath prescribed unto this man. and to Jove's happiness and prosperity. riding. These therefore let us accept of in like manner. For as there. For them also in themselves shall We find to contain many harsh things. and not every one for himself in particular alone.

it hath ever had a reference unto thee. Be not discontented. be not out of hope. love and affect that only which thou dust return unto: a philosopher's life. therefore entire and perfect) is maimed. because the good success and perfect welfare. but being once cast off. if often it succeed not so well with thee punctually and precisely to do all things according to the right dogmata. be not disheartened. and contiguity as of parts. that thou doest (as much as lieth in thee) cut off. And remember that philosophy requireth nothing of thee. and in some sort violently take somewhat away. is of itself more kind and pleasing? Is it not for that respect especially. or human infirmities. if thou shalt cut off anything at all. return not unto it as the manner of some is.produced. For neither doth any ordinary particular nature bring anything to pass. First. and mutilated. most prevalent. had it not conduced to the good of the universe. whereby the coherence. and indeed the very continuance of Him. that pleasure itself is to so many men's hurt and overthrow. as often as thou art displeased with anything that happeneth. but what thy nature requireth. be not thou discontented with them. to their schoolmasters and pedagogues. which as a man thou canst not but in some measure be subject unto. and that from the very beginning by the series and connection of the first causes. And secondly. that is not to whatsoever is within the sphere of its own proper administration and government agreeable and subordinate. but however. is maintained and preserved. that which is according to nature or against it. and natural? But consider well 61 . For these two considerations then thou must be well pleased with anything that doth happen unto thee. either of worldly distractions. and proper occupation after the most exact manner. that is the Administrator of the whole. because esteemed commonly most kind. because that for thee properly it was brought to pass. Of which certain it is. return unto them again: and as for those many and more frequent occurrences. doth in a manner depend on it. and unto thee it was prescribed. And when thou dust return to thy philosophy. after play and liberty as it were. IX. and wouldest thou thyself desire anything that is not according to nature? for which of these sayest thou. or as others to their fomentations: so shalt not thou make it a matter of ostentation at all to obey reason but of ease and comfort. but as they that have sore eyes to their sponge and egg: or as another to his cataplasm. so of causes. For the whole (because whole.

pass now unto their subjects and matter: how temporary. First. how hardly do we bear. and true liberty. in such obscurity. Secondly. but rest contented in those two things. for who is he that is infallible in his conclusions? From the nature of things. how hard it is for us to bear even with our own selves. Pass from thence to the dispositions of them that thou doest ordinarily converse with. which is not according to the nature of the universe. when thou shalt truly consider with thyself. both of the motions themselves. and in the meantime not grieve at the delay. yet scarce and not without much difficulty. comprehensible. and holiness. and studiously to seek after. and true simplicity. What is the use that now at this present I make of my soul? Thus 62 . their true nature is in a manner so involved with obscurity. whether these be not most kind and natural? And prudency itself. Thou must comfort thyself in the expectation of thy natural dissolution. or seriously. what it is through all the proper objects of thy rational intellectual faculty currently to go on without any fall or stumble? As for the things of the world. that nothing shall happen unto thee. to do nothing against thine own proper God. and respect especially.whether magnanimity rather. either to honour. and things moved. XI. what more kind and amiable than it. even with the most loving and amiable! that I may not say. how vile are they I such as may be in the power and possession of some abominable loose liver. that unto many philosophers. and the Stoics themselves. of some notorious oppressor and extortioner. what it is that we can fasten upon. and inward spirit. so that all assent of ours is fallible. they seemed altogether incomprehensible. and those no mean ones. that it is in thy power. and impurity of things: in such and so continual a flux both of the substances and time. and equanimity. though they judge them not altogether incomprehensible. For it is not in any man's power to constrain thee to transgress against him. X. of some common strumpet. I cannot so much as conceive For indeed they are things contrary.

and so did they that begot me. or some wild beast's soul? XII. and they before them. we entertain it only as merrily and pleasantly spoken? Proceed therefore. employed about? Whose soul do I now properly possess? a child's? or a youth's? a woman's? or a tyrant's? some brute. by which kind of mutation. But as for those which by the vulgar are esteemed good. for the word good is properly spoken of them. I say. justice. is but familiarly and popularly spoken. scoffed at with this jest. No corruption can reduce either of these unto nothing: for neither did I of nothing become a subsistent creature. pleasure.from time to time and upon all occasions thou must put this question to thyself. fortitude. All that I consist of. after so much heard and conceived. I also became what I am. (such was their affluence and plenty) so much as a place where to avoid their excrements. temperance. whether it may not be that those things also which being mentioned upon the stage were merrily. and with great applause of the multitude. Whether. what is now that part of mine which they call the rational mistress part. that they that possessed them had not in all the world of their own. that this offends not and needs not to be excused. or honour. when virtues are styled good: but that which is spoken in commendation of wealth. which by the greatest part are esteemed good. so that even the vulgar apprehend the difference. XIII. those ought not also in very deed to be much respected. and inquire further. and so in infinitum. and that in time into another part. and so 63 . which are really good indeed. he doth hearken for more. is either form or matter. and esteemed of. For why is it else. that what is spoken by the comedian. if he shall hear them mentioned as good. For if a man shall hear things mentioned as good. Every part of mine then will by mutation be disposed into a certain part of the whole world. he cannot endure to hear of any more. thou mayest gather even from this. such as are prudence. What those things are in themselves. as the only things that are truly good. He is well contented to hear.

As for example. to condemn them and to stand in opposition with them. cannot consist in the consummation of actions purposed and intended. the better he is accounted. But we see contrariwise. Reason. The end therefore of a man. Dye it therefore and thoroughly soak it with the assiduity of these cogitations. then would it not belong unto man. or any other like these. or the better he doth bear with the loss of these. are faculties which content themselves with themselves. XV. (if these were good indeed) who of his own accord doth deprive himself of any of them. Again. But their progress is right to the end and object. Nothing must be thought to belong to a man. be to some certain periods of time limited. as it were. though the age and government of the world. such will thy mind be in time. Wheresoever thou mayest live.upwards in infinitum. or no. whether it be that which at the first they proposed to themselves. concerning these outward worldly things. The nature of man doth not profess any such things. XIV. by which they are achieved. Such as thy thoughts and ordinary cogitations are. were it so that any of them did properly belong unto man. which is in their way. and confined. or the summum bonum whereby that end is fulfilled. there it is in thy power to live well and happy. that they take from themselves. For the soul doth as it were receive its tincture from the fancies. and rational power. the event of purposes. For which reason also such actions are termed katorqwseiz to intimate the directness of the way. But 64 . which doth not belong unto him as he is a man. or he good. and lieth just before them: that is. and imaginations. And as for their first inclination and motion. are not things required in a man. and their own proper operations. For so we may be allowed to speak. which is feasible and possible. Neither would he be praiseworthy that can live without them. The final ends and consummations of actions are nothing at all to a man's nature. These. that the more a man doth withdraw himself from these wherein external pomp and greatness doth consist.

Neither doth anything happen to any man. Again. man is nearest unto us. there then also mayest thou live well and happy. so are those things which. as accessories. therein is his end. therein also doth his good and benefit consist. For she herself alone can affect and move herself. But as he may oppose any of our true proper actions. is ordinarily subordinated to that which is better? and that those things that are best. and cannot but naturally incline unto it. those best that have rational souls? XVI. But it is a thing impossible. For that we are made for society. if either he that is ignorant that such a thing hath happened unto him. or some wild beast. To desire things impossible is the part of a mad man. should be more powerful and effectual than true prudence? As for the things themselves. which in the ordinary course of nature as natural unto him doth not happen.thou mayest live at the Court. it hath long since been demonstrated. and according as the dogmata and opinions are. Or can any man make any question of this. as we are bound to do them good. After one consideration. so man is unto me but as a thing indifferent: even as the sun. are better than those that have none? and of those that have. or a vain desire to please and to be commended. By some of these it may 65 . can be patient. That which anything doth naturally incline unto. are made one for another? And those things that have souls. he is also made unto that. that either ignorance. which she doth vouchsafe herself. or move it. that whatsoever is naturally worse and inferior. neither can they have any access unto it: neither can they of themselves any ways either affect it. that which everything is made for. Again. or he that is ambitious to be commended for his magnanimity. And truly. XVII. that wicked man should not commit some such things. they touch not the soul. or the wind. have any co-existence with her. the same things happen unto others also. Society therefore is the proper good of a rational creature. and is not grieved: is it not a grievous thing. and to bear with them. Wherein the end of everything doth consist.

This rule thou must remember to apply and make use of upon every conceit and apprehension of wrong. neither is there anything almost. wherein all things are to be resolved and annihilated. are in a continual flux. Again. who for these things. which in the prosecution of its inclinations. often meditate how swiftly all things that subsist. and all actions in a perpetual change. art either puffed up with pride. If the whole city be not hurt by this. Honour that which is chiefest and most powerful in the world. For it is the very same. XVIII. and most powerful. we see as a flood. may be hindered. and is of one kind and nature with that which we now spake of. is now the principal object of her working. or canst find in thy heart 66 . and governs all things. And if the whole be not. why should I make it my private grievance? consider rather what it is wherein he is overseen that is thought to have done the wrong. which being in thee. are carried away. Next unto this. and the immense vastness of that which is to come. is now her readiest way. So that what before was the impediment. of my mind and resolution itself. and by whom also thy life is governed. as occasion serves. or distracted with cares. however. So also in thyself. cannot hurt any citizen. subject to a thousand alterations. XIX. that some operation or other of mine. and that is it. turneth all other things to its own use. there can be no let or impediment. honour that which is chiefest. to be her aim and purpose. and which follows upon it. consider both the infiniteness of the time already past. from that which may not be. to that which may be. by reason of that ordinary constant both exception (or reservation wherewith it inclineth) and ready conversion of objects. which makes use of all things. and that which before was in her way. it doth observe. That which doth not hurt the city itself. and all things that are done in the world.be. that may ever be said to be now settled and constant. Art not thou then a very fool. neither am I certainly. and the causes themselves. For by these the mind doth turn and convert any impediment whatsoever. and as it were conveyed out of sight: for both the substance themselves.

and all the fates and destinies together. as the common nature would have me to possess: and that which mine own nature would have me do.to make such moans as for a thing that would trouble thee for a very long time? Consider the whole universe whereof thou art but a very little part. but let it both circumscribe itself. XX. XXI. But if at any time they do reflect and rebound upon the mind and understanding (as in an united and compacted body it must needs. is unto us nothing properly. which whether unto our flesh pleasant or painful.) then must thou not go about to resist sense and feeling. whom (being part of himself) Jove hath appointed to every man as his overseer and governor. and the whole age of the world together. To live with the Gods. add an opinion of either good or bad and all is well. who at all times affords unto them the spectacle of a soul. I for my part am in the meantime in possession of as much. Let him look to that. I do. whereof but a short and very momentary portion is allotted unto thee. XXII. He liveth with the Gods. He is master of his own disposition. and performing whatsoever is pleasing to that Spirit. neither with him whose 67 . or allotted unto her. Be not angry neither with him whose breath. neither suffer it to be mixed with these. Let not that chief commanding part of thy soul be ever subject to any variation through any corporal either pain or pleasure. of which how much is it that comes to thy part and share! Again: another doth trespass against me. both contented and well pleased with whatsoever is afforded. However let not thy understanding to this natural sense and feeling. and of his own operation. it being natural. and confine those affections to their own proper parts and members.

hath it united together.' Why so? As thou dost purpose to live. work upon his reasonable faculty. Only as one would say.' And thou also (God bless thee!) hast understanding. that he by standing near. Seest thou not how it hath sub-ordinated. XXIV. And if they will not suffer thee. 'Where there shall neither roarer be. 68 . That rational essence by which the universe is governed. then mayest thou leave thy life rather than thy calling. when thou hast retired thyself to some such place. Here is a smoke. XXIII. and such are his arm holes. and such a smell must of necessity proceed. If he hearken unto thee. cannot choose but offend. neither shall any man hinder me to do what I will. regulated and directed. thou hast cured him. I will continue free. for the best. into a mutual consent and agreement. are offensive. and there will be no more occasion of anger. Let thy reasonable faculty. but so as one that doth not think himself anyways wronged. What can he do? such is his breath naturally. and hath allied and knit together those which are best. And what a great matter is this! Now till some such thing force me out. I will out of it. admonish him. nor harlot. and therefore hath it both made the things that are worse. 'O. and co-ordinated? and how it hath distributed unto everything according to its worth? and those which have the pre-eminency and superiority above all. such an effect. where neither roarer nor harlot is: so mayest thou here. is for community and society. and my will shall ever be by the proper nature of a reasonable and sociable creature.arm holes. but the man (sayest thou) hath understanding in him. show him his fault. and might of himself know. and from such. as it were in an harmony.

and hath the true knowledge of that rational essence. and discreetly? XXVI. disposing and dispensing as it were this universe by certain periods of time. And what is that but an empty sound. now laughing and then crying. and truth. and retired themselves unto heaven. and how many thou hast been able to endure. How hast thou carried thyself hitherto towards the Gods? towards thy parents? towards thy brethren? towards thy wife? towards thy children? towards thy masters? thy foster-fathers? thy friends? thy domestics? thy servants? Is it so with thee. and prudent? And which is that that is so? she that understandeth the beginning and the end. have abandoned this spacious earth. be but vanity? What is it that thou dost stay for? an extinction. how many pains hast thou passed over with contempt? how many things eternally glorious hast thou despised? towards how many perverse unreasonable men hast thou carried thyself kindly. thou wilt be either ashes. Why should imprudent unlearned souls trouble that which is both learned. What is it then that doth keep thee here. so that now the legend of thy life is full. The most weighty and serious. As for faith. not so much as a name. XXVII. Again. how many truly good things have certainly by thee been discerned? how many pleasures. biting one another: or untoward children. and through all ages being ever the same. and perchance. and justice. Within a very little while. that passeth through all things subsisting. that hitherto thou hast neither by word or deed wronged any of them? Remember withal through how many things thou hast already passed. they are in themselves but vain. if rightly esteemed. and of most account. and so fallible? and our souls nothing but an exhalation of blood? and to be in credit among such. or a 69 . and a rebounding echo? Those things which in this life are dearest unto us. as one of the poets hath it. if things sensible be so mutable and unsettled? and the senses so obscure. and thy charge is accomplished. and a name perchance. contemptible. they long since. and modesty. putrid.XXV. but as puppies. or a sceletum.

But as that old foster-father in the comedy. For indeed what is all this pleading and public bawling for at the courts? O man. and that by it the public is not hurt. though they sustain damage. either of them with a propitious and contented mind. Wilt thou therefore be a fool too? Once I was. that their happiness doth consist in a disposition to. if thou wilt but make choice of the right way. XXVIII. nor an act anyways depending from any wickedness of mine. And for all external things belonging either to this thy wretched body. being now to take his leave doth with a great deal of ceremony. first that in their own proper work they cannot be hindered by anything: and secondly. what will content thee? what else. or life. To bear with them. but in these middle or worldly things. and to do good unto men. let that suffice.translation. and to forbear to do them any wrong. These two things be common to the souls. Thou mayest always speed. remembering nevertheless that it is but a rhombus. thou wilt observe a true method. and highly esteem of. and that in these their desire is terminated. or rattle-top. if in the course both of thine opinions and actions. so here also do thou likewise. to remember that they are neither thine. but to worship and praise the Gods. But still that time come. so of men. and as occasion shall require. but however do not thou conceive that they are truly hurt thereby: for that is not right. what doth it concern me? And wherein can the public be hurt? For thou must not altogether be carried by conceit and common opinion: as for help thou must afford that unto them after thy best ability. nor in thy power. require his foster-child's rhombus. as of God. If this neither be my wicked act. hast thou forgotten what those things are! yea but they are things that others much care for. XXIX. 70 . and in the practice of righteousness. and of every reasonable creature.

who in his lifetime dealeth unto himself a happy lot and portion. and where it will. good desires. For he is a happy man. A happy lot and portion is. 71 . good actions. I may be a happy man. Let death surprise rue when it will. nevertheless.XXX. good inclinations of the soul.

Look in. And all things are done and determined according to its will and prescript. is of itself very tractable and pliable. let not either the proper quality. whether only slumbering. neither can it do anything that is evil: neither can anything be hurt by it. or as others maintain. The best kind of revenge is. As for that Rational Essence by which all things are governed. before thou hast fully apprehended it. and what it doth. of which the universe doth consist. The matter itself. the reasons whereof we cannot comprehend. for that also 'to die. as it best understandeth itself. they shall be scattered and dispersed. no wonder. or after a full sleep. IV. All substances come soon to their change. whether discommended or commended thou do thy duty: or whether dying or doing somewhat else.THE SIXTH BOOK I. or the true worth of anything pass thee. 72 .' must among the rest be reckoned as one of the duties and actions of our lives. V. III. It hath no evil in itself. both its own disposition. and either they shall be resolved by way of exhalation (if so be that all things shall be reunited into one substance). Be it all one unto thee. whether half frozen or well warm. hath in itself no cause to do evil. II. That rational essence that doth govern it. and what matter it hath to do with and accordingly doth all things. not to become like unto them. if we wonder at many things. so we that do not.

which shall in time be scattered and dispersed again: or it is an union consisting of order. God being ever in thy mind. then am not I religious in vain. and thy only comfort. depending. VIII. or within. The rational commanding part. then will I be quiet and patient. Let this be thy only joy. or without. Either this universe is a mere confused mass. and put my trust in Him. either about compassing and containing. According to the nature of the universe all things particular are determined. who is the Governor of all. Whensoever by some present hard occurrences thou art constrained to be in some sort troubled and vexed.VI. not according to any other nature. but that as soon as may be I may be earth again? And why should I trouble myself any more whilst I seek to please the Gods? Whatsoever I do. so it maketh both itself to be. from one sociable kind action without intermission to pass unto another. and administered by Providence. VII. IX. to appear unto itself. return unto thyself as soon as may be. and be not out of tune longer than thou must needs. For so shalt thou be the better able to keep thy part another time. dispersion is my end. and to maintain the 73 . as it alone can stir up and turn itself. why should I desire to continue any longer in this fortuit confusion and commixtion? or why should I take care for anything else. and everything that happeneth. If the first. and will come upon me whether I will or no. and an intricate context of things. dispersed and contained. as it will itself. But if the latter be.

and the excretion of a little vile snivel. dyed with the blood of a shellfish. and this of a hog. and a natural mother living. How marvellous useful it is for a man to represent unto himself meats. under which they made so grave a show. So for coitus. thy art and care must be to uncover them. if thou dost use thyself to this continually. and all such things that are for the mouth. and to begin again. How excellent useful are these lively fancies and representations of things. and to behold their vileness. XI. once out. to make their true nature known and apparent! This must thou use all thy life long. and recourse be continually. thou wouldst honour and respect her also. nevertheless to thine own natural mother would thy refuge. This purple robe. and upon all occasions: and then especially. when matters are apprehended as of great worth and respect. 74 . presently to have recourse unto it. this of a bird. and to take away from them all those serious circumstances and expressions. with a certain kind of convulsion: according to Hippocrates his opinion. and thou also in those things not intolerable unto others.harmony. but sheep's hairs. by whom it is that those other things are made tolerable unto thee. X. is but the bare juice of an ordinary grape. And again more generally. For outward pomp and appearance is a great juggler. this excellent highly commended wine. So let the court and thy philosophy be unto thee. it is but the attrition of an ordinary base entrail. Have recourse unto it often. thus penetrating and passing through the objects. when (to a man's thinking) thou most seemest to be employed about matters of moment. and comfort thyself in her. and then especially art thou most in danger to be beguiled by it. If it were that thou hadst at one time both a stepmother. This phalernum. under a right apprehension and imagination! as for example: This is the carcass of a fish.

XII. See what Crates pronounceth concerning Xenocrates himself.

XIII. Those things which the common sort of people do admire, are most of them such things as are very general, and may be comprehended under things merely natural, or naturally affected and qualified: as stones, wood, figs, vines, olives. Those that be admired by them that are more moderate and restrained, are comprehended under things animated: as flocks and herds. Those that are yet more gentle and curious, their admiration is commonly confined to reasonable creatures only; not in general as they are reasonable, but as they are capable of art, or of some craft and subtile invention: or perchance barely to reasonable creatures; as they that delight in the possession of many slaves. But he that honours a reasonable soul in general, as it is reasonable and naturally sociable, doth little regard anything else: and above all things is careful to preserve his own, in the continual habit and exercise both of reason and sociableness: and thereby doth co-operate with him, of whose nature he doth also participate; God.

XIV. Some things hasten to be, and others to be no more. And even whatsoever now is, some part thereof hath already perished. Perpetual fluxes and alterations renew the world, as the perpetual course of time doth make the age of the world (of itself infinite) to appear always fresh and new. In such a flux and course of all things, what of these things that hasten so fast away should any man regard, since among all there is not any that a man may fasten and fix upon? as if a man would settle his affection upon some ordinary sparrow living by him, who is no sooner seen, than out of sight. For we must not think otherwise of our lives, than as a mere exhalation of blood, or of an ordinary respiration of air. For what in our common apprehension is, to breathe in the air and to breathe it out again, which we do daily: so much is it and no more, at once to breathe out all thy respirative faculty into that common air from whence but lately (as being but from yesterday, and to-day), thou didst first breathe it in, and with it, life.

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XV. Not vegetative spiration, it is not surely (which plants have) that in this life should be so dear unto us; nor sensitive respiration, the proper life of beasts, both tame and wild; nor this our imaginative faculty; nor that we are subject to be led and carried up and down by the strength of our sensual appetites; or that we can gather, and live together; or that we can feed: for that in effect is no better, than that we can void the excrements of our food. What is it then that should be dear unto us? to hear a clattering noise? if not that, then neither to be applauded by the tongues of men. For the praises of many tongues, is in effect no better than the clattering of so many tongues. If then neither applause, what is there remaining that should be dear unto thee? This I think: that in all thy motions and actions thou be moved, and restrained according to thine own true natural constitution and Construction only. And to this even ordinary arts and professions do lead us. For it is that which every art doth aim at, that whatsoever it is, that is by art effected and prepared, may be fit for that work that it is prepared for. This is the end that he that dresseth the vine, and he that takes upon him either to tame colts, or to train up dogs, doth aim at. What else doth the education of children, and all learned professions tend unto? Certainly then it is that, which should be dear unto us also. If in this particular it go well with thee, care not for the obtaining of other things. But is it so, that thou canst not but respect other things also? Then canst not thou truly be free? then canst thou not have self-content: then wilt thou ever be subject to passions. For it is not possible, but that thou must be envious, and jealous, and suspicious of them whom thou knowest can bereave thee of such things; and again, a secret underminer of them, whom thou seest in present possession of that which is dear unto thee. To be short, he must of necessity be full of confusion within himself, and often accuse the Gods, whosoever stands in need of these things. But if thou shalt honour and respect thy mind only, that will make thee acceptable towards thyself, towards thy friends very tractable; and conformable and concordant with the Gods; that is, accepting with praises whatsoever they shall think good to appoint and allot unto thee.

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XVI. Under, above, and about, are the motions of the elements; but the motion of virtue, is none of those motions, but is somewhat more excellent and divine. Whose way (to speed and prosper in it) must be through a way, that is not easily comprehended.

XVII. Who can choose but wonder at them? They will not speak well of them that are at the same time with them, and live with them; yet they themselves are very ambitious, that they that shall follow, whom they have never seen, nor shall ever see, should speak well of them. As if a man should grieve that he hath not been commended by them, that lived before him.

XVIII. Do not ever conceive anything impossible to man, which by thee cannot, or not without much difficulty be effected; but whatsoever in general thou canst Conceive possible and proper unto any man, think that very possible unto thee also.

XIX. Suppose that at the palestra somebody hath all to-torn thee with his nails, and hath broken thy head. Well, thou art wounded. Yet thou dost not exclaim; thou art not offended with him. Thou dost not suspect him for it afterwards, as one that watcheth to do thee a mischief. Yea even then, though thou dost thy best to save thyself from him, yet not from him as an enemy. It is not by way of any suspicious indignation, but by way of gentle and friendly declination. Keep the same mind and disposition in other parts of thy life also. For many things there be, which we must conceit and apprehend, as though we had had to do with

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an antagonist at the palestra. For as I said, it is very possible for us to avoid and decline, though we neither suspect, nor hate.

XX. If anybody shall reprove me, and shall make it apparent unto me, that in any either opinion or action of mine I do err, I will most gladly retract. For it is the truth that I seek after, by which I am sure that never any man was hurt; and as sure, that he is hurt that continueth in any error, or ignorance whatsoever.

XXI. I for my part will do what belongs unto me; as for other things, whether things unsensible or things irrational; or if rational, yet deceived and ignorant of the true way, they shall not trouble or distract me. For as for those creatures which are not endued with reason and all other things and-matters of the world whatsoever I freely, and generously, as one endued with reason, of things that have none, make use of them. And as for men, towards them as naturally partakers of the same reason, my care is to carry myself sociably. But whatsoever it is that thou art about, remember to call upon the Gods. And as for the time how long thou shalt live to do these things, let it be altogether indifferent unto thee, for even three such hours are sufficient.

XXII. Alexander of Macedon, and he that dressed his mules, when once dead both came to one. For either they were both resumed into those original rational essences from whence all things in the world are propagated; or both after one fashion were scattered into atoms.

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XXIII Consider how many different things, whether they concern our bodies, or our souls, in a moment of time come to pass in every one of us, and so thou wilt not wonder if many more things or rather all things that are done, can at one time subsist, and coexist in that both one and general, which we call the world.

XXIV. if any should put this question unto thee, how this word Antoninus is written, wouldst thou not presently fix thine intention upon it, and utter out in order every letter of it? And if any shall begin to gainsay thee, and quarrel with thee about it; wilt thou quarrel with him again, or rather go on meekly as thou hast begun, until thou hast numbered out every letter? Here then likewise remember, that every duty that belongs unto a man doth consist of some certain letters or numbers as it were, to which without any noise or tumult keeping thyself thou must orderly proceed to thy proposed end, forbearing to quarrel with him that would quarrel and fall out with thee.

XXV. Is it not a cruel thing to forbid men to affect those things, which they conceive to agree best with their own natures, and to tend most to their own proper good and behoof? But thou after a sort deniest them this liberty, as often as thou art angry with them for their sins. For surely they are led unto those sins whatsoever they be, as to their proper good and commodity. But it is not so (thou wilt object perchance). Thou therefore teach them better, and make it appear unto them: but be not thou angry with them.

XXVI. Death is a cessation from the impression of the senses, the

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tyranny of the passions, the errors of the mind, and the servitude of the body.

XXVII. If in this kind of life thy body be able to hold out, it is a shame that thy soul should faint first, and give over, take heed, lest of a philosopher thou become a mere Caesar in time, and receive a new tincture from the court. For it may happen if thou dost not take heed. Keep thyself therefore, truly simple, good, sincere, grave, free from all ostentation, a lover of that which is just, religious, kind, tender-hearted, strong and vigorous to undergo anything that becomes thee. Endeavour to continue such, as philosophy (hadst thou wholly and constantly applied thyself unto it) would have made, and secured thee. Worship the Gods, procure the welfare of men, this life is short. Charitable actions, and a holy disposition, is the only fruit of this earthly life.

XXVIII. Do all things as becometh the disciple of Antoninus Pius. Remember his resolute constancy in things that were done by him according to reason, his equability in all things, his sanctity; the cheerfulness of his countenance, his sweetness, and how free he was from all vainglory; how careful to come to the true and exact knowledge of matters in hand, and how he would by no means give over till he did fully, and plainly understand the whole state of the business; and how patiently, and without any contestation he would bear with them, that did unjustly condemn him: how he would never be over-hasty in anything, nor give ear to slanders and false accusations, but examine and observe with best diligence the several actions and dispositions of men. Again, how he was no backbiter, nor easily frightened, nor suspicious, and in his language free from all affectation and curiosity: and how easily he would content himself with few things, as lodging, bedding, clothing, and ordinary nourishment, and attendance. How able to endure labour, how patient; able through his spare diet to continue from morning to evening without any necessity of withdrawing before his accustomed hours to the necessities of nature: his uniformity and constancy in matter of friendship. How he would bear with them that with all boldness and

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and canst perceive that they were but dreams that troubled thee. that thou sawest in thy sleep. and for her own operations. those altogether depend of her. So a man as long as he doth that which is proper unto a man. Unto my body all things are indifferent. for as for future and past operations. how religious he was without superstition. and recall thy wits again from thy natural dreams. it may find thee. and tyrants. All these things of him remember. parricides. their labour. and the hand that which belongs unto it. but those that are present. those also are now at this present indifferent unto her. are indifferent unto her. and even rejoice if any man could better advise him: and lastly. in so large a measure to have their part of pleasures? 81 . ready for it in the possession of a good conscience. for of itself it cannot affect one thing more than another with apprehension of any difference. As long as the foot doth that which belongeth unto it to do. But if it were so that happiness did consist in pleasure: how came notorious robbers. that whensoever thy last hour shall come upon thee. whatsoever it be. all things which are not within the verge of her own operation. is not unnatural. as it did him. XXIX. and when thou art perfectly awoken. I consist of body and soul. and if it be not against nature. as for my mind. impure abominable livers. and visions. neither does she busy herself about any. XXXI. XXX. Stir up thy mind. as one newly awakened out of another kind of sleep look upon these worldly things with the same mind as thou didst upon those. his labour cannot be against nature. then neither is it hurtful unto him.liberty opposed his opinions.

or. For all things are after a sort folded and involved one within another. as things contrary to those which thou dost much honour. Europe. neither can they find in their heart to decline from it: and is it not a grievous thing that an architect. though in some respect they be no better than mere idiots. and all like one unto another. and by these means all agree well together. hath Seen all that either was ever. and by substantial union. but as corners of the whole world. XXXIV He that seeth the things that are now. which is common to him and to the Gods? XXXIII. reason. or ever shall be. and the great Mount Athos.XXXII. Think not of these therefore. more than a man the proper course and condition of his own nature. All. are but (as the thorn and the mire) the necessary consequences of goodly fair things. by the general ruler and governor of all. Asia. 82 . what are they. For one thing is consequent unto another. or all by necessary consequence. or a physician shall respect the course and mysteries of their profession. as all present time is but as one point of eternity. petty things. And all things come from one beginning. by natural conspiration and agreement. by local motion. and respect. Dost thou not see. and upon the mutual relation that they have one unto another. yet they stick close to the course of their trade. how even those that profess mechanic arts. is but as one drop. but as a clod. and all poison. for all things are of one kind. Meditate often upon the connection of all things in the world. soon perished. So that the dreadful hiatus of a gaping lion. and all hurtful things. of which the whole sea. but consider in thy mind the true fountain of all. reduction of all substances into one. either all severally and particularly deliberated and resolved upon. all things that are soon altered.

or falling into the other. that he that is all in all doth enjoy his happiness. some willingly. and love those men whom thy fate it is to live with. if thou shalt propose unto thyself any of those things as either good. and in this respect it is.XXXV. But if we mind and fancy those things only. if it be fit for the purpose it was made for. which wholly depend of our own wills. whatsoever it be. After this manner also. with an opinion of any difference. What things soever are not within the proper power and jurisdiction of thine own will either to compass or avoid. it is as it should be though he perchance that made and fitted it. But in things natural. as good and bad. and to hate those men. and with a rational 83 . is and abideth within them still: for which reason she ought also the more to be respected. that power which hath framed and fitted them. it must needs be that according as thou shalt either fall into that which thou dost think evil. XXXVII. An instrument. XXXVI. which by the destinies have been annexed unto thee. if we incline to any of these things. be out of sight and gone. or miss of that which thou dost think good. who either shall be so indeed. a tool. We all work to one effect. there is no more occasion why we should either murmur against the Gods. Fit and accommodate thyself to that estate and to those occurrences. and we are the more obliged (if we may live and pass our time according to her purpose and intention) to think that all is well with us. or evil. And indeed we must needs commit many evils. more or less. an utensil. and according to our own minds. or shall by thee be suspected as the cause either of thy missing of the one. so wilt thou be ready both to complain of the Gods. or be at enmity with any man. but love them truly.

and make thee (as a part and member of the whole) so to co-operate with him. but even he that doth murmur. do they not all nevertheless concur and co. and have their several charges and functions by themselves.apprehension of what we do: others without any such knowledge. I am bound to embrace and accept of. As I think Heraclitus in a place speaketh of them that sleep. as discrete and wise. as that vile and ridiculous verse (which Chrysippus in a place doth mention) is a part of the comedy.operate to one end? XXXIX. I must stand to their deliberation. and to his power doth resist and hinder. he will make good use of thee whether thou wilt or no. that even they do work in their kind. For that a God should be an imprudent God. nor 84 . shall turn to the furtherance of his own counsels. Now do thou consider among which of these thou wilt rank thyself. Doth either the sun take upon him to do that which belongs to the rain? or his son Aesculapius that. and those things which in consequence and coherence of this general deliberation happen unto me in particular. certainly they have of the whole in general. For as for him who is the Administrator of all. is a thing hard even to conceive: and why should they resolve to do me hurt? for what profit either unto them or the universe (which they specially take care for) could arise from it? But if so be that they have not deliberated of me in particular. which unto the earth doth properly belong? How is it with every one of the stars in particular? Though they all differ one from another. and do confer to the general operations of the world. XXXVIII. even he as much as any doth co-operate. But be not thou for shame such a part of the whole. that whatsoever thou doest. For of such also did the world stand in need. But if so be that they have not deliberated at all (which indeed is very irreligious for any man to believe: for then let us neither sacrifice. and resolutions. and another after another sort. One man therefore doth co-operate after one sort. If so be that the Gods have deliberated in particular of those things that should happen unto me.

neither let us any more use any of those things. towards my fellow members ever to be sociably and kindly disposed and affected. so must all the things that we see all our life long affect us. My city and country as I am Antoninus. the whole world. when thou art presented with them. and all my deliberation is but concerning that which may be to me most profitable. as the same things still seen. When then will there be an end? 85 . it is lawful for me to deliberate myself. are still the same. above and below. and the like. that of those things that concern myself. as health. and in the same fashion. affect thee. But yet this also shalt thou generally perceive. nor respect our oaths. if thou dost diligently take heed. yet God be thanked. or particular deliberated of any of those things. make the sight ingrateful and tedious. or things indifferent. to be rational in all my actions and as a good. And thus much to content us might suffice. For all things. daily use and practise:) but. I say. is Rome. Those things therefore that are expedient and profitable to those cities. that it is expedient for the whole in general. as a man. XL. And now I am content that the word expedient. if so be that they have not indeed either in general. is expedient to the whole. which we persuaded of the presence and secret conversation of the Gods among us. Whatsoever in any kind doth happen to any one. should more generally be understood of those things which we otherwise call middle things.pray. and natural member of a city and commonwealth. that happen unto us in this world. As the ordinary shows of the theatre and of other such places. that whatsoever doth happen to any one man or men… . which is according to his own constitution and nature. and from the same causes. And my nature is. Now that unto every one is most profitable. XLI. are the only things that are good and expedient for me. wealth.

as many as there have been such as he. and others. where so many brave orators are. Archimedes. Thither shall we after many changes. and ought by us much to be esteemed. XLIV. Phoebus. and of all sort of nations. After all these. For as for bulk and 86 . as the resemblances and parallels of several virtues. industrious. generous. XLIII. Heraclitus. all at once.… so that thou mayst even come down to Philistio. Pass now to other generations. according to truth and righteousness. they represent themselves unto thee. and gone. even they. of another some other thing. Dost thou grieve that thou dost weigh but so many pounds. peremptory dispositions. Where so many heroes of the old times. where so many grave philosophers. that they long since are all dead. Pythagoras. subtile. When thou wilt comfort and cheer thyself. and that only. Socrates. as Menippus. and not longer. the industry of the one. the liberality of a third. And therefore thou must have them always in a readiness. and Origanion. where so many other sharp. and among others. meekly and lovingly to converse with false. and so many kings. especially when. Of all these consider. as near as may be. and of all sorts of professions. and then so many brave captains of the latter times. and not three hundred rather? Just as much reason hast thou to grieve that thou must live but so many years. whom thou dost daily converse with.XLII. be a perpetual object of thy thoughts. as for example. visible and eminent in the dispositions of those who live with thee. And what do they suffer by it! Nay they that have not so much as a name remaining. Hipparchus. Let the several deaths of men of all sorts. and that is. and unrighteous men. For nothing can so much rejoice thee. the modesty of another. which is worth our while in this world. that have been the greatest scoffers and deriders of the frailty and brevity of this our human life. call to mind the several gifts and virtues of them. what are they the worse for it? One thing there is. where Eudoxus.

87 . but however. thou mayst make use of it for the exercise of another virtue: and remember that it was with due exception. And what do I care for more. And this thou hast. his own action. they of themselves have no such power. from justice to contented equanimity. as concerning this matter. and cheerful patience: so that what in the one is thy hindrance. Upon what then? that all thy desires might ever be moderated with this due kind of reservation. to exclude all grief and sorrow from thy soul. For thou didst not set thy mind upon things impossible. and hinder thee in it. do it. The ambitious supposeth another man's act. XLVII. if that for which I was born and brought forth into the world (to rule all my desires with reason and discretion) may be? XLVI. But if any shall by force withstand thee. It is in thy power absolutely to exclude all manner of conceit and opinion. that thou didst at first incline and desire. but he that is wise. and reservation. if reason and justice lead thee to it. XLV. whether the thing desired be in thy power or no. though they be never so much against it. the voluptuous his own sense and feeling.substance thou dost content thyself with that proportion of it that is allotted unto thee. to be his own happiness. and mayst always obtain. convert thy virtuous inclination from one object unto another. praise and applause. Let us do our best endeavours to persuade them. For as for the things and objects themselves. and by the same means. whereby to beget and force upon us any opinion at all. so shouldst thou for time.

To them that are sick of the jaundice. that their shipmaster may bring them safe to land. and to them that are bitten by a mad dog. being immoderate and excessive. whosoever he be that speaks unto thee. Will either passengers. How many of them who came into the world at the same time when I did. L. or poison. That which is not good for the bee-hive. find fault and complain.XLVIII. and the other. that so thou mayst (as far as is possible) seem fixed and fastened to his very soul. either the one if they be well carried. cannot be good for the bee. a little ball seems a fine thing. or patients. to cause the jaundice. And why then should I be angry? or do I think that error and false opinion is less powerful to make men transgress. and to children. that their physician may effect their recovery? LI. the water terrible. or the others if well cured? Do they take care for any more than this. Use thyself when any man speaks unto thee. are already gone out of it? LII. honey seems bitter. to cause rage? 88 . XLIX. so to hearken unto him. as that in the interim thou give not way to any other thoughts. than either choler. the one.

LIII. and how many it hath already buried! 89 . No man can hinder thee to live as thy nature doth require. LIV. and what to get. Nothing can happen unto thee. but what the common good of nature doth require. and by what actions: how soon time will cover and bury all things. What manner of men they be whom they seek to please.

if the Gods would grant it unto them after their deaths. or philosophical resolutions and conclusions. Be always in this mind. middle age stories. and houses full. are both usual and of little continuance. and thou wilt be right. and would prefer before all things. II. For what is it else to live again? Public shows and solemnities with much pomp and vanity. There is nothing that is new. which doth properly concern me. conflicts and contentions: a bone thrown to a company of hungry curs. Generally. should become dead in thee. And so oft as anything doth happen that might otherwise trouble thee. What fear is there that thy dogmata. If it be. to conceit that which is right and true.THE SEVENTH BOOK I. above and below. as long as those proper and correlative fancies. to live again. and lose their proper power and efficacy to make thee live happy.) are still kept fresh and alive? It is in my power concerning this thing that is happened. flocks and herds. as thou hast already seen them. what soever it be. III. that it is that which thou hast already often Seen and known. a bait for greedy fishes. why then am I troubled? Those things that are without my understanding. The very same things whereof ancient stories. thou shalt find but the same things. the painfulness. and representations of things on which they mutually depend (which continually to stir up and revive is in thy power. All things that are. stage plays. What is wickedness? It is that which many time and often thou hast already seen and known in the world. let this memento presently come to thy mind. and continual burden-bearing of wretched ants. See the things of the world again. are nothing to it at all: and that is it only. and fresh stories are full whereof towns are full. the running to and fro of terrified mice: little puppets drawn up and down with wires and nerves: these be the objects of the world among all 90 . That which most men would think themselves most happy for. thou mayst whilst thou livest grant unto thyself.

whensoever thou must use the help of others. or no? If it be sufficient. I will either give it over. that will now be seasonable and useful for the common good. meekly affected. which by nature I am provided of. we must presently see what is the proper use and relation of every one. with this right ratiocination and apprehension. every one by itself likewise. and leave it to some other that can better effect it: or I will endeavour it. how even they themselves are long since dead and gone. as the scaling of walls is unto a soldier. and so the things that are done.these thou must stand steadfast. And as in matter of purposes and actions. the only thing that I must intend. or public ostentation as of an instrument. and free from all manner of indignation. For whatsoever I do either by myself. however it be taken in common use. or with some other. that it be good and expedient for the public. wilt thou therefore give it over. but with the help of some other. thou must propose it unto thyself. so of words must we be as ready. which by nature I am provided of. are now already quite forgotten. every one by itself. purpose after purpose. V. to consider of every one what is the true meaning. without any private applause. if it be not. consider how many who once were much commended. so is in very deed every man's worth more or less. and understanding sufficient for this. is able to bring somewhat to pass. For whatsoever it be that lieth upon thee to effect. that as the worth is of those things which a man doth affect. as of an instrument. yea they that commended them. IV. or go about it with less courage and alacrity. who with the joint help of my reason. because thou canst not effect it all alone? 91 . and that otherwise it belong not unto me particularly as a private duty. And what if thou through either lameness or some other impediment art not able to reach unto the top of the battlements alone. I will make use of it for the work in hand. and signification of it according to truth and nature. which with the help of another thou mayst. must the things that are spoken be conceived and understood. Word after word. is. Is my reason. Be not therefore ashamed. For as for praise.

that is not kind and natural in regard of any other thing. and one common truth. thou shalt (whensoever that is) be provided for them with the same reason. and whatsoever is formal. they all concur together to the making of one and the same ["Kosmos" ed] or world: as if you said. Whatsoever is material. doth soon vanish away into the common substance of the whole. and partakers of the same reason. Let not things future trouble thee. one and the same God. neither is there anything in the world. or. VII. or. for neither is there save one perfection of all creatures that are of the same kind. there is but one and the same order. There is one common reason. is made both tolerable and acceptable unto thee. the same action is both according to nature. For if necessity so require that they come to pass. that hath not some kind of reference and natural correspondence with whatsoever is in the world besides. is soon resumed into the common reason of the whole. All things are linked and knitted together. by which whatsoever is now present. For all things are ranked together. the same substance and the same law. that belongs unto all reasonable creatures.VI. or an orderly composition. and through all things. To a reasonable creature. is soon swallowed up by the general age and duration of the whole. and according to reason. and by that decency of its due place and order that each particular doth observe. VIII. and the fame and memory of anything. For all things throughout. whatsoever doth animate that which is material. a comely piece. and the knot is sacred. 92 .

IX. Straight of itself, not made straight.

X. As several members in one body united, so are reasonable creatures in a body divided and dispersed, all made and prepared for one common operation. And this thou shalt apprehend the better, if thou shalt use thyself often to say to thyself, I am meloz, or a member of the mass and body of reasonable substances. But if thou shalt say I am meroz, or a part, thou dost not yet love men from thy heart. The joy that thou takest in the exercise of bounty, is not yet grounded upon a due ratiocination and right apprehension of the nature of things. Thou dost exercise it as yet upon this ground barely, as a thing convenient and fitting; not, as doing good to thyself, when thou dost good unto others.

XI. Of things that are external, happen what will to that which can suffer by external accidents. Those things that suffer let them complain themselves, if they will; as for me, as long as I conceive no such thing, that that which is happened is evil, I have no hurt; and it is in my power not to conceive any such thing.

XII. Whatsoever any man either doth or saith, thou must be good; not for any man's sake, but for thine own nature's sake; as if either gold, or the emerald, or purple, should ever be saying to themselves, Whatsoever any man either doth or saith, I must still be an emerald, and I must keep my colour.

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XIII. This may ever be my comfort and security: my understanding, that ruleth over all, will not of itself bring trouble and vexation upon itself. This I say; it will not put itself in any fear, it will not lead itself into any concupiscence. If it be in the power of any other to compel it to fear, or to grieve, it is free for him to use his power. But sure if itself do not of itself, through some false opinion or supposition incline itself to any such disposition; there is no fear. For as for the body, why should I make the grief of my body, to be the grief of my mind? If that itself can either fear or complain, let it. But as for the soul, which indeed, can only be truly sensible of either fear or grief; to which only it belongs according to its different imaginations and opinions, to admit of either of these, or of their contraries; thou mayst look to that thyself, that it suffer nothing. Induce her not to any such opinion or persuasion. The understanding is of itself sufficient unto itself, and needs not (if itself doth not bring itself to need) any other thing besides itself, and by consequent as it needs nothing, so neither can it be troubled or hindered by anything, if itself doth not trouble and hinder itself.

XIV. What is rv&nfLovia, or happiness: but a7~o~ &d~wv, or, a good da~rnon, or spirit? What then dost thou do here, O opinion? By the Gods I adjure thee, that thou get thee gone, as thou earnest: for I need thee not. Thou earnest indeed unto me according to thy ancient wonted manner. It is that, that all men have ever been subject unto. That thou camest therefore I am not angry with thee, only begone, now that I have found thee what thou art.

XV. Is any man so foolish as to fear change, to which all things that once were not owe their being? And what is it, that is more pleasing and more familiar to the nature of the universe? How couldst thou thyself use thy ordinary hot baths, should not the wood that heateth them

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first be changed? How couldst thou receive any nourishment from those things that thou hast eaten, if they should not be changed? Can anything else almost (that is useful and profitable) be brought to pass without change? How then dost not thou perceive, that for thee also, by death, to come to change, is a thing of the very same nature, and as necessary for the nature of the universe?

XVI. Through the substance of the universe, as through a torrent pass all particular bodies, being all of the same nature, and all joint workers with the universe itself as in one of our bodies so many members among themselves. How many such as Chrysippus, how many such as Socrates, how many such as Epictetus, hath the age of the world long since swallowed up and devoured? Let this, be it either men or businesses, that thou hast occasion to think of, to the end that thy thoughts be not distracted and thy mind too earnestly set upon anything, upon every such occasion presently come to thy mind. Of all my thoughts and cares, one only thing shall be the object, that I myself do nothing which to the proper constitution of man, (either in regard of the thing itself, or in regard of the manner, or of the time of doing,) is contrary. The time when thou shalt have forgotten all things, is at hand. And that time also is at hand, when thou thyself shalt be forgotten by all. Whilst thou art, apply thyself to that especially which unto man as he is a mart, is most proper and agreeable, and that is, for a man even to love them that transgress against him. This shall be, if at the same time that any such thing doth happen, thou call to mind, that they are thy kinsmen; that it is through ignorance and against their wills that they sin; and that within a very short while after, both thou and he shall be no more. But above all things, that he hath not done thee any hurt; for that by him thy mind and understanding is not made worse or more vile than it was before.

XVII. The nature of the universe, of the common substance of all things

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For either thou thyself dust yet live in that error and ignorance. if that also shall be gone from thee. For if thou shalt not be sensible of thine innocence. destroying that figure. But were it so. hath new tempered and fashioned the matter of it into the form and substance of a tree: then that again into the form and substance of a man: and then that again into some other. and so thou art bound to pardon him if he have done that which thou in the like case wouldst have done thyself. why should it be more grievous to be put asunder? XVIII. to be good. by which all things in the world are administered. presently consider with thyself what it was that he did suppose to be good. if it be no grievous thing to the chest or trunk. and then of their substances make other things like unto them: and then soon after others again of the matter and substance of these: that so by these means. That nature. that all anger and passion is against reason. As for dissolution. that it were altogether impossible to kindle it any more. the world may still appear fresh and new. the comfort of a good conscience. Whensoever any man doth trespass against other. An angry countenance is much against nature. XIX. or some other like worldly thing. that all anger and passion were so thoroughly quenched in thee. Or 96 . or to be angry. are but for a moment. when he did trespass. will soon bring change and alteration upon them. that thou doest all things according to reason: what shouldest thou live any longer for? All things that now thou seest.as it were of so much wax hath now perchance formed a horse. what to be evil. Now every one of these doth subsist but for a very little while. thou wilt pity him thou wilt have no occasion either to wonder. and it is oftentimes the proper countenance of them that are at the point of death. but further endeavour by good consequence of true ratiocination. perfectly to conceive and understand. yet herein must not thou rest satisfied. and then. as that thou dust suppose either that very thing that he doth. For this when thou knowest. to be joined together.

Finally. there let it rest. lest that whilst thou dust settle thy contentment in things present. But take heed withal. how canst thou but be gentle unto him that is in an error? XX. take some aside. and into the causes. as that if it exercise justice. and consider of them particularly. that thou takest most benefit of. thou grow in time so to overprize them. either in that which is formal or material think of the last hour. Rejoice thyself with true simplicity. XXI. and modesty. XXII.if so be that thou dost not any more suppose the same things to be good or evil. either to thyself or to another: divide all present objects. as that the want of them (whensoever it shall so fall out) should be a trouble and a vexation unto thee. Let thy mind penetrate both into the effects. That which thy neighbour hath committed. it doth rest fully satisfied with itself without any other thing. All things (saith he) are by certain order and appointment. Wind up thyself into thyself. Such is the nature of thy reasonable commanding part. 97 . if they were not present. love mankind. and have by that means tranquillity within itself. how wonderfully thou wouldst want them. and that all middle things between virtue and vice are indifferent unto thee. Wipe off all opinion stay the force and violence of unreasonable lusts and affections: circumscribe the present time examine whatsoever it be that is happened. Fancy not to thyself things future. obey God. where the guilt of it lieth. as though they were present but of those that are present. Examine in order whatsoever is spoken. that he doth. And what if the elements only.

soon hid and covered.' XXV. who hath accustomed himself to the contemplation both of all times. or interception. if they can. declare their grief themselves.It will suffice to remember. and to be dressed by it as it will. 98 . 'It will but little avail thee. to be put into what shape it will. as to fashion herself. can this mortal life (thinkest thou) seem any great matter unto him? It is not possible. or extinction. what kind of things they fly. and of all things in general. And as concerning death. 'It is a princely thing to do well. by stopping all manner of commerce and sympathy with the body. and that the mind in the meantime (which is all in all) may by way of interclusion. Out of Antisthenes.' XXIV. that either dispersion. 'He then whose mind is endowed with true magnanimity. XXIII. and to be ill-spoken of. and that which holds long must needs be tolerable. whatsoever was before to be seen. Out of Plato. As for those parts that suffer. so in this life. And as concerning pain. and to dress herself as best becometh her. view their mind and understanding. As for praise and commendation. that that which is intolerable is soon ended by death. that all things in general are by certain order and appointment: or if it be but few. and that the mind should not bestow so much care upon herself. and what things they seek after: and that as in the seaside. still retain its own tranquillity. answered he. or the atoms. what estate they are in. or translation will ensue. is by the continual succession of new heaps of sand cast up one upon another. let them. all former things by those which immediately succeed. or annihilation. It is a shameful thing that the face should be subject unto the mind. Thy understanding is not made worse by it. Then neither will such a one account death a grievous thing? By no means. Out of several poets and comics.

or is by lawful authority put and settled in. as one who feareth neither death. To look about. &c. as a matter of great hazard and danger. 'My answer. Thou shalt but make thyself a laughing-stock. &c. help much to purge away the dross and filth of this our earthly life. and believing that which every woman can tell him. so much as he feareth to commit anything that is vicious and shameful. But.' XXVI. whether true generosity and true happiness. husbandmen's labours. both unto the Gods and men. full of justice and equity. therein do I think (all appearance of danger notwithstanding) that he should continue. armies. judging it best for himself. divorces. But if so be that I and my children be neglected by the gods. should apprehend either life or death. For such fancies and imaginations. the only thing that he takes thought and care for is this. not to tremble. &c. to desire to live long or to make much of his life whilst he liveth: but rather (he that is such) will in these things wholly refer himself unto the Gods. generations. Not to lament with them. &c. than in the preservation either of our. or other men's lives. O ye men of Athens. as it were. there is some reason even for that. As long as right and equity is of my side. that what time he liveth. What place or station soever a man either hath chosen to himself. &c. For thus in very truth stands the case. consider I pray. and should not make this rather his only care. and to mind perpetually the several changes of the elements one into another. or of a wicked man. &c. &c.to turn thine anger and indignation upon the things themselves that have fallen across unto thee. should be this: Thy speech is not right. do not consist in somewhat else rather. as flocks. the several nations of barbarians. desert places. &c. Our life is reaped like a ripe ear of corn. &c. For as for them. Out of Plato. nor anything else. For it is not the part of a man that is a man indeed. That also is a fine passage of Plato's. to examine his own actions. upon the things of this world. O man! if thou supposest that he that is of any worth at all. he may live as well and as virtuously as he can possibly. and with the eyes to follow the course of the stars and planets as though thou wouldst run with them.' &c. one is yet standing and another is down. marriages. they are not sensible of it. 99 . deaths: the tumults of courts and places of judicatures. where he speaketh of worldly things in these words: 'Thou must also as from some higher place look down. that no man can escape death. whether just or unjust: whether actions of a good. O noble sir.

by these things that are now done and brought to pass in the world. for they shall all be of the same kind. or some such dispersion of the simple and incorruptible elements… 'With meats and drinks and divers charms. Where the matter may be effected agreeably to that reason.' Whether it be a mere dissolution and unbinding of the manifold intricacies and entanglements of the confused atoms. they shall return unto the earth again. that they might not die.' How all things upon earth are pell-mell. It comes all to one therefore. which 100 . mournings. markets. as upon the manifold changes and conversions of several monarchies and commonwealths. and those that came from heaven. as it were. XXVII. What then? Is he more bountiful? is he more modest? Doth he bear all adverse chances with more equanimity: or with his neighbour's offences with more meekness and gentleness than I? XXIX. He hath a stronger body. We may also foresee things future. and is a better wrestler than I. or break the concert that is now begun. whether a man be a spectator of the things of this life but forty years. and how miraculously things contrary one to another. Yet must we needs endure that blast of wind that cometh from above. concur to the beauty and perfection of this universe.public festivals. neither is it possible that they should leave the tune.' XXVIII. fairs. To look back upon things of former ages. they also shall return unto those heavenly places. they seek to divert the channel. though we toil and labour never so much. or whether he see them ten thousand years together: for what shall he see more? 'And as for those parts that came from the earth.

it is against reason that any damage should there be suspected. In all places. and she hath her end. nor the appetitive faculties. and justly to converse with those men. XXX. For by nature she was ordained to command all in the body. they are ordained for the use of reasonable creatures: as in all things we see that that which is worse and inferior.both unto the Gods and men is common. without any distraction about other things. is. and thine in particular. to avoid all rashness and precipitancy. or is sure and certain. may not anyways prevail upon her. in those things that are done by thee: doth lead. For it is the part and privilege of the reasonable and intellective faculty. and direct thee. if in her right temper. Reasonable creatures. that he yield not to any lusts and motions of the flesh. as that neither the sensitive. in those things that happen unto thee. That therefore which is chief in every man's constitution. and accurately to examine every fancy that presents itself. Look not about upon other men's minds and understandings. and by consequent her happiness. 101 . before thou hast rightly apprehended the true nature of it. that she can so bound herself. and not to be subject to error. As for all other things. And this indeed most justly. And therefore over both she challengeth mastery. they are ordained one for another. whom thou hast to do with. The third thing proper to man by his constitution. The second is. to be subject unto either. Now every one is bound to do that. and at all times. it is in thy power religiously to embrace whatsoever by God's appointment is happened unto thee. is. that nothing may slip and steal in. both that of the universe. which is consequent and agreeable to that end which by his true natural constitution he was ordained unto. For both these are brutish. let the mind apply herself and go straight on. To these things then. but look right on forwards whither nature. there can be no just cause of grief or sorrow. is made for that which is better. that he intend the common good. For where the fruit and benefit of an action well begun and prosecuted according to the proper constitution of man may be reaped and obtained. and cannot anyways endure.

The art of true living in this world is more like a wrestler's. bestow that wholly as a gracious overplus upon a virtuous life. so let it challenge the same power over the whole body also. XXXIII. For what can be more reasonable? And as anything doth happen unto thee by way of cross. the examples of some other men. And as upon thy face and looks. and them that they converse with. they complained. as that it be without any manner of affectation. they wondered. XXXII. And where are they now? All dead and gone. that whatsoever thou doest. 102 . if it shall be both thy care and thy desire. or calamity. so thou dig still deeper and deeper. As one who had lived. whatsoever it be that happeneth. thou thyself mayst like and approve thyself for it. ever changing and soon changed themselves) let it be thine only care and study. and were now to die by right. For there is good use to be made of them. and they will prove fit matter for thee to work upon. thy mind hath easily power over them to keep them to that which is grave and decent. Wilt thou also be like one of them? Or rather leaving to men of the world (whose life both in regard of themselves. And both these. see. Such a fountain. according as the diversity of the matter of the action that thou art about shall require. Look within. free from all loose fluctuant either motion. Well. as fickle bodies. But so observe all things in this kind. what did they? They grieved. or posture. call to mind presently and set before thine eyes. where springing waters can never fail. and is by the fates appointed unto thee. Thou must use thyself also to keep thy body fixed and steady. within is the fountain of all good.XXXI. to whom the self-same thing did once happen likewise. Love and affect that only. how to make a right use of all such accidents. is nothing but mere mutability. whatsoever is yet remaining. that thou remember well. or men of as fickle minds.

and mildness. This also thou must consider. which in very deed are of the same nature as pain. nor in regard of the end of it (which is. or find any want of their applause.' so thou keep thyself to the true bounds and limits of reason and give not way to opinion. and for their minds and understandings what is their present estate. XXXV. that hath the government of all. to teach a man whatsoever falls upon him. whose good word and testimony thou dost desire. What pain soever thou art in. For then neither wilt thou see cause to complain of them that offend against their wills. 'No soul (saith he) is willingly bereft of the truth. neither is it a thing whereby thy understanding. Thou must continually ponder and consider with thyself. that he may be ready for it. what manner of men they be. or kindness. check thyself with these words: Now hath pain given thee the foil. if once thou dost but penetrate into the true force and ground both of their opinions. It is most needful that thou shouldst always remember this. because they go not ordinarily under the name of pains. nor eternal. For neither in regard of the substance of it. thy courage hath failed thee. as not armed against them with patience. can be made worse. to want appetite: when therefore any of these things make thee discontented. that it is not a thing whereof thou needest to be ashamed. and that nothing may cast him down. to intend the common good) can it alter and corrupt it. that many things there be. For in this they both agree. and of their desires. This also of Epicurus mayst thou in most pains find some help of. let this presently come to thy mind. For so shalt thou be far more gentle and moderate towards all men.' and by consequent. to suffer heat. which oftentimes unsensibly trouble and vex thee. neither of justice. nor of anything that is of the same kind. or temperance. that it is 'neither intolerable. as to slumber unquietly. XXXIV. 103 .than a dancer's practice.

and affections of the body. through either fear. and of so extraordinary a disposition? For that he died more gloriously. as ordinary men are commonly one towards another. Take heed lest at any time thou stand so affected. was barely this. whether commendable. as was objected unto him by his adversaries: which nevertheless a man may well doubt of. or evil intentions. and sought after in this world. 104 . that he watched in the frost more assiduously. if so be that it were true. nor yet ever condescending to any man's evil fact. or thought it intolerable in the trial of it. that he might ever carry himself justly towards men. XXXVII. or engagement of friendship. he neither did wonder at any when it did happen.XXXVI. all this will not serve. and holily towards the Gods. a man would well consider of. or discommendable. is this. whether it were so or no. Nor that he walked in the streets. The thing therefore that we must inquire into. Whether of those things that happened unto him by God's appointment. Neither vexing himself to no purpose at the wickedness of others. which above all the rest. he refused to do it more generously. How know we whether Socrates were so eminent indeed. and by herself to intend her own ends and occasions. that he disputed with the Sophists more subtilty. as that all that he stood upon. whether he never did suffer his mind to sympathise with the senses. with much gravity and majesty. as that she hath not power to circumscribe herself. though towards unnatural evil men. And lastly. or. that being commanded to fetch innocent Salaminius. For we must not think that Nature hath so mixed and tempered it with the body. what manner of soul Socrates had: whether his disposition was such.

XL. For whatsoever it be. and the wild beasts should pull in sunder the poor members of thy pampered mass of flesh. This thou must ever be mindful of. and yet be altogether unknown. and free from all manner of dissimulation. And that which is principal in this matter. that is now present. or reluctant and intractable. which I sought for. as of this also. that thou shalt ever be a good either logician. thou art that. when he so spends every day. 105 . that in regard of nature is either new. though men should exclaim against thee never so much. shall ever be embraced by me as a fit and seasonable object. or to the good of men. and according to thy true nature: notwithstanding that in the judgment of opinion thou dust appear otherwise: and her discretion to the present object.XXXVIII. as if it were his last day: never hot and vehement in his affections. whatsoever it is that doth happen in the world hath in the ordinary course of nature its proper reference. Then hath a man attained to the estate of perfection in his life and conversation. or obedient unto God. or charitable. or naturalist. but all things both usual and easy. For what in either of these or the like cases should hinder the mind to retain her own rest and tranquillity. consisting both in the right judgment of those things that happen unto her. or modest. and for my sociable. or charitable inclination to work upon. For it is a thing very possible. that a man's true happiness doth consist in very few things. and in the ready use of all present matters and occasions? So that her judgment may say. XXXIX. to that which is befallen her by way of cross: this thou art in very deed. both for my reasonable faculty. yet thou art never the further off by it from being either liberal. And that although thou dost despair. nor yet so cold and stupid as one that had no sense. Free from all compulsion in all cheerfulness and alacrity thou mayst run out thy time. For either unto God or man. that a man should be a very divine man. neither is there anything. is that it may be referred either unto the praise of God.

thou that art but for a moment of time? yea thou that art one of those sinners thyself? A very ridiculous thing it is. Can the Gods. which is altogether impossible. or that thou mayest in time. which is in his power to restrain. XLIII. our reasonable and sociable faculty doth meet with. as that it may appear unto others also that thou hast done well. that affords nothing either for the satisfaction of reason. Be not weary then of doing that which is beneficial unto thee. yea not only so. What object soever. But every action according to nature. but also take such care for them. and should go about to suppress it in others. must thou like a very fool look for a third thing besides. and dust thou so grievously take on. receive one good turn for another? No man useth to be weary of that which is beneficial unto him. XLIV. that any man should dispense with vice and wickedness in himself. When thou hast done well. as one that could bear with them no longer. or for the practice of charity. and another is benefited by thy action. who are immortal. as have ever been. she worthily doth think unworthy of herself. The nature of the universe did once certainly before it was 106 . whilst it is so unto others. that they want nothing. XLII.XLI. for the continuance of so many ages bear without indignation with such and so many sinners. is beneficial.

107 . Now since that time. whatsoever it is. This often thought upon. will much conduce to thy tranquillity. deliberate and so resolve upon the creation of the world. takes any thought and care of things particular. they are surely his reasonable and principal creatures. that is and happens in the world.created. that are the proper object of his particular care and providence. is either but a consequent of that one and first deliberation: or if so be that this ruling rational part of the world. whatsoever it hath done since.

Take pains therefore to know what it is that thy nature requireth. who all his life long. doth require.THE EIGHTH BOOK I. take no thought or care for that: let it suffice thee if all the rest of thy life. not in honour and reputation. II. but that which makes him just. and logical subtilties. as he is a man. Wherein then is it to be found? In the practice of those things. be right and true. What then do I care for more than this. what it is that is of moment indeed. thou shalt live as thy nature requireth. How then shall he do those things? if his dogmata. may be the proper action of one that is 108 . be it more or less. not in wealth. and all things are at end. Upon every action that thou art about. and that there is nothing truly evil and hurtful unto man. hath lived a philosopher's life. may serve to keep thee from vainglory. Thou hast already had sufficient experience. as for thy fame and credit. Which be those dogmata? Those that concern that which is good or evil. it is well known. among other things. And to it also is thy calling and profession repugnant. If therefore thou dost truly understand. as that there is nothing truly good and beneficial unto man. or according to the true and natural end of thy making. and let nothing else distract thee. that thou art now altogether incapable of the commendation of one. and to thyself especially. liberal. and henceforth it will be hard for thee to recover the title and credit of a philosopher. This also. that my present action whatsoever it be. not in pleasure. or from his youth at least. put this question to thyself. if thou shalt consider. that of those many things that hitherto thou hast erred and wandered about. thou couldst not find happiness in any of them. Not in syllogisms. In none of all these. Thou hast therefore been confounded in thy course. or moral tenets and opinions (from which all motions and actions do proceed). temperate. For both unto others. How will this when it is done agree with me? Shall I have no occasion to repent of it? Yet a very little while and I am dead and gone. that thou hast done many things contrary to that perfection of life. which the nature of man. courageous. but that which causeth the contrary effects.

reasonable; whose end is, the common good; who in all things is ruled and governed by the same law of right and reason, by which God Himself is.

III. Alexander, Caius, Pompeius; what are these to Diogenes, Heraclitus, and Socrates? These penetrated into the true nature of things; into all causes, and all subjects: and upon these did they exercise their power and authority. But as for those, as the extent of their error was, so far did their slavery extend.

IV. What they have done, they will still do, although thou shouldst hang thyself. First; let it not trouble thee. For all things both good and evil: come to pass according to the nature and general condition of the universe, and within a very little while, all things will be at an end; no man will be remembered: as now of Africanus (for example) and Augustus it is already come to pass. Then secondly; fix thy mind upon the thing itself; look into it, and remembering thyself, that thou art bound nevertheless to be a good man, and what it is that thy nature requireth of thee as thou art a man, be not diverted from what thou art about, and speak that which seemeth unto thee most just: only speak it kindly, modestly, and without hypocrisy.

V. That which the nature of the universe doth busy herself about, is; that which is here, to transfer it thither, to change it, and thence again to take it away, and to carry it to another place. So that thou needest not fear any new thing. For all things are usual and ordinary; and all things are disposed by equality.

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VI. Every particular nature hath content, when in its own proper course it speeds. A reasonable nature doth then speed, when first in matter of fancies and imaginations, it gives no consent to that which is either false uncertain. Secondly, when in all its motions and resolutions it takes its level at the common good only, and that it desireth nothing, and flieth from nothing, bet what is in its own power to compass or avoid. And lastly, when it willingly and gladly embraceth, whatsoever is dealt and appointed unto it by the common nature. For it is part of it; even as the nature of any one leaf, is part of the common nature of all plants and trees. But that the nature of a leaf, is part of a nature both unreasonable and unsensible, and which in its proper end may be hindered; or, which is servile and slavish: whereas the nature of man is part of a common nature which cannot be hindered, and which is both reasonable and just. From whence also it is, that accord ing to the worth of everything, she doth make such equal distribution of all things, as of duration, substance form, operation, and of events and accidents. But herein consider not whether thou shalt find this equality in everything absolutely and by itself; but whether in all the particulars of some one thing taken together, and compared with all the particulars of some other thing, and them together likewise.

VII. Thou hast no time nor opportunity to read. What then? Hast thou not time and opportunity to exercise thyself, not to wrong thyself; to strive against all carnal pleasures and pains, and to aet the upper hand of them; to contemn honour and vainglory; and not only, not to be angry with them, whom towards thee thou doest find unsensible and unthankful; but also to have a care of them still, and of their welfare?

VIII. Forbear henceforth to complain of the trouble of a courtly life, either in public before others, or in private by thyself.

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IX. Repentance is an inward and self-reprehension for the neglect or omission of somewhat that was profitable. Now whatsoever is good, is also profitable, and it is the part of an honest virtuous man to set by it, and to make reckoning of it accordingly. But never did any honest virtuous man repent of the neglect or omission of any carnal pleasure: no carnal pleasure then is either good or profitable.

X. This, what is it in itself, and by itself, according to its proper constitution? What is the substance of it? What is the matter, or proper use? What is the form or efficient cause? What is it for in this world, and how long will it abide? Thus must thou examine all things, that present themselves unto thee.

XI. When thou art hard to be stirred up and awaked out of thy sleep, admonish thyself and call to mind, that, to perform actions tending to the common good is that which thine own proper constitution, and that which the nature of man do require. But to sleep, is common to unreasonable creatures also. And what more proper and natural, yea what more kind and pleasing, than that which is according to nature?

XII. As every fancy and imagination presents itself unto thee, consider (if it be possible) the true nature, and the proper qualities of it, and reason with thyself about it.

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whatsoever it is which in the ordinary course of nature it may bear. and the causes of both. concerning honour. If it were thine act and in thine own power. concerning life and death? thus and thus. Remember. however and wheresoever it die 112 . is beyond the extent of thine own deliberation and jun. that to change thy mind upon occasion. ti. what is right and just. as to find out at the first. merit. what are his opinions concerning that which is good or evil? as concerning pain. how can it be a wonder that he should do such and such things? I will remember then. At thy first encounter with any one. and to follow him that is able to rectify thee.XIII. and of thine own understanding. and dishonour. Remember. or the Gods? For to do either. that the winds should prove Contrary. the part of a mad man. Now if it be no wonder that a man should have such and such opinions. XIV. is equally ingenuous. wouldest thou do it? If it were not. holding those opinions that he doth. if it be not. so also to wonder that the world should bear anything. that such and such a one should have an ague. For of thee nothing is required. whom dost tin accuse? the atoms. Thou must therefore blame nobody. without help. To a physician also and to a pilot it is a shame either for the one to wonder. to what end is it to complain? For nothing should be done but to some certain end. say presently to thyself: This man. that he cannot but do as he doth. XV. Whatsoever dieth and falleth. redress what is amiss. XVI. but if it be in thy power. that as it is a shame for any man to wonder that a fig tree should bear figs. or for the other. pleasure.

and the elements of which thou dost consist. a vine. or if it chance to fall upon the ground? So for the bubble. I was made for something. XIX. as in its more ordinary pleasant shape. and fornication? And as for fame. Both he that praiseth. what is it the worse And so is it of a candle too. And so must thou reason with thyself. Nature hath its end as well in the end and final consummation of anything that is. it cannot fall out of the world. 113 . For as for the body itself. or the worse if it be downwards. what it the better? and if it dissolve. if it continue. both in matter of fame.and fall. and he that is praised. and he that is remembered. he that remembers. As one that tosseth up a ball. and in matter of death. as in the begin-nine and continuation of it. Besides. This life is short. no nor scarce of any one constantly. here it have its abode and change. when it is old and withered? when sick and pained? when in the act of lust. thou hast not the joint praises of all men. Whatsoever is. Why wonderest thou? The sun itself will say of itself. And they when they are changed. (the subject of death) wouldest thou know the vileness of it? Turn it about that thou mayest behold it the worst sides upwards as well. they murmur not. and so hath every god its proper function. And what is a ball the better. was made for something: as a horse. and yet in this corner. it is but in one corner of this part of the world that thou art praised. here also shall it have its dissolution into its proper elements. how doth it look. The same are the world's elements. if the motion of it be upwards. why shouldest thou? XVII. XVIII. will soon be dust and ashes. What then were then made for? to disport and delight thyself? See how even common sense and reason cannot brook it.

Doth anything by way of cross or adversity happen unto me? I accept it. with reference unto the Gods. is either the matter itself. than to be so to-day. 114 . sweat. Shall I do it? I will. or the sordes of the body: an excrementitious viscosity. the excrements of oil and other ointments used about the body. Most justly have these things happened unto thee: why dost not thou amend? O but thou hadst rather become good to-morrow. the fountain of all things. and every worldly object.And yet the whole earth itself. and their providence. That which must be the subject of thy consideration. or the true sense and signification. XXII. from which whatsoever comes to pass. XXI. what is it? Oil. And such almost is every part of our life. or the operation. By one action judge of the rest: this bathing which usually takes up so much of our time. so the end of my action be to do good unto men. and mixed with the sordes of the body: all base and loathsome. XXIII. doth hang and depend. in regard of the whole world? XX. or the dogma. filth. what is it but as one point.

shall either be no more or shall ranslated (sp. or thy soul. to discern rightly all plausible fancies and imaginations. those that were so proud and stately. First Celer. Others soon turned into fables. and Eudaemon. and Demetrius the Platonic.XXIV. In which kind of contemplation three several relations are to be observed The first. So Secunda Maximus. God. That which is most proper unto a man. that whatsoever thou art compounded of. and things that are done in it. then Epitynchanus himself. The Second to the first original cause. This is the course of the world. to contemplate the nature of the universe. So Epitynchanus. such as were Charax. even that which was fabulous. is. They were all but for one day. The third and last. The true joy of a man. either it is in regard of the body. then Adrianus himself. to their use and benefit. shall soon be dispersed. XXV. then was Lucilla herself buried by others. is to do that which properly belongs unto a man. to them that we live and converse with: what use may be made of it. is now long since forgotten.). Some of them no sooner dead. to be kindly affected towards them that are of the same kind and nature as he is himself to contemn all sensual motions and appetites. then Antoninus himself. and others like unto those. to the apparent secondary cause. And those austere ones. first. and appointed to some certain place and station. then Secunda herself. and that thy life and breath. than forgotten. (and that 115 . those that foretold other men's deaths. Adrianus. If pain be an evil. Faustina his wife. Of others. both it. all dead and gone long since. where are they now? Those austere ones I mean. XXVI. This thereafter thou must remember. So Antoninus Pius. from whom originally proceeds whatsoever doth happen in the world. Diotimus. Lucilla buried Verus.

XXVII. concerning that which is truly good and truly civil. Proceed now on to the rest that have been since that of Augustus. all prosecution. his friends.cannot be. and of worldly men: which otherwise truth and reason doth prescribe. whither the sense of evil (except it be let in by opinion) cannot penetrate. than it doth use to deal with any one particular man? Consider now the death of a whole kindred and family. his wife. But thou must not openly and vulgarly observe that sound and exact form of speaking. Now if I will. the vanity of the world. all trouble and confusion. XXIX. But on the contrary to behold and consider all things according to their true nature. as that also that useth to be written upon some monuments. his sons-in-law his sister. all lust. and concupiscences. XXVIII. it is in my power to keep out of this my soul all wickedness. HE WAS THE LAST OF HIS OWN 116 . Whether thou speak in the Senate or whether thou speak to any particular. Remember then this thy power that nature hath given thee. to preserve her own peace and tranquillity. and to carry myself towards everything according to its true worth. and say unto thyself incessantly. Wipe off all idle fancies. as of that of the Pompeys. Areus. or aversation is from within. Maecenas. Hath death dwelt with them otherwise. his slayers of beasts for sacrifice and divination: there thou hast the death of a whole court together. Augustus his court. his daughter. his domestics. let thy speech In always grave and modest. because the body of itself is altogether insensible:) or in regard of the soul But it is in the power of the soul. though so many and so stately whilst they lived. and not to suppose that pain is evil. Agrippa. his nephews. For all judgment and deliberation. his kinsmen.

but that thou mayest perform what is fitting? But there may be some outward let and impediment. temperately. that they might leave a successor. and so by this gentle and equanimious conversion of thy mind unto that which may be. that can hinder thee. or a foot. which agrees as well with this contraction of thy life. whereby some operation or other of thine may be hindered. instead of that which at first thou didst intend. or a head lying by itself. as cut off from the rest of the body. when they are sent and thou shalt be able to part with them with all readiness and facility when they are taken from thee again. Not any. XXX. he that. And if in every particular action thou dost perform what is fitting to the utmost of thy power. but there may be somewhat. If ever thou sawest either a hand. that either is offended with anything that is happened. such must thou conceive him to make himself. (whatsoever it be) and as it were divides himself from it: or that commits anything against the natural law of mutual correspondence. with that very thing that doth hinder. and with the praise of God. thou mayest he well pleased. And then. let it suffice thee. O what care did his predecessors take.KINDRED. Receive temporal blessings without ostentation. Yea. XXXII. but that whatsoever thou dost. Whosoever thou art. thou art 117 . yet behold at last one or other must of necessity be THE LAST. that we now speak of. and society among men: or. as much as in him lieth. Contract thy whole life to the measure and proportion of one single action. thou may do it. commits any act of uncharitableness. in the room of that former action there succeedeth another. Here again therefore consider the death of a whole kindred. And who can hinder thee. in some place or other. justly. XXXI.

as he was before. As at first he was so made. Let not the general representation unto thyself of the wretchedness of this our mortal life. it might be reunited. God hath not granted it unto any other part. bring it about to herself. that GOODNESS how great and immense it is! which hath so much esteemed MAN. IT hath so provided and ordered it. behold. which is according to nature. but that only which is present.such. that as whatsoever doth oppose itself unto her. so this in particular we have received from her. that thou mayst be united again. that once separated and cut off. seems unto thee so intolerable? For thou wilt be ashamed to confess it. XXXIII. Thou went born indeed a part. she doth. except he would himself. but now thou hast cut thyself off. So may every reasonable creature. herein is matter of joy and exultation. and be admitted into its former rank and place of a part. and say: What is it that in this present matter. that neither that which is future. nor that which is past can hurt thee. so once divided and cut off. though against its will and intention. what crosses and impediments soever it meets with in the course of this mortal life. Then upon this presently call to mind. (And that also is much 118 . put this question unto thyself. XXXIV. As almost all her other faculties and properties the nature of the universe hath imparted unto every reasonable creature. trouble thee. and so by this though not intended co-operation of it with herself makes it part of herself whether it will or no. that if he would himself. Let not thy mind wander up and down. and heap together in her thoughts the many troubles and grievous calamities which thou art as subject unto as any other. and come together again. have divided himself from the whole. to the furtherance of whatsoever it intended and absolutely proposed unto itself as its natural end and happiness. But as everything in particular doth happen. and doth withstand her in her purposes and intentions. and grow together again. to serve herself of it in the execution of her own destinated ends. it may use them as fit and proper objects. But. he might return. However. thou art cast forth I know not whither out of the general unity. that he needed not.

Thou thyself? and who is that? Thy reason. XXXVIII. were these immortal? Was not it appointed unto them also (both men and women. as safe may be. However. (a mere instant). and best discretion. but I am not reason. But one whereby pleasure and voluptuousness may be resisted and opposed. and then to die? And these once dead. let not thy reason or understanding 119 . XXXV. if thou dost lightly circumscribe it:) and then check thy mind if for so little a while. What? are either Panthea or Pergamus abiding to this day by their masters' tombs? or either Chabrias or Diotimus by that of Adrianus? O foolery! For what if they did. would their masters be sensible of It? or if sensible. thou thyself art as safe.lessened.' Well. whereby it may be resisted and opposed. what would become of these former? And when all is done. XXXVII. but for a mere bag of blood and corruption? XXXVI. be so in matter of judgment.) to become old in time. I see: continence. I see not any virtue contrary to justice. be it so. 'Yea. saith he. In the whole constitution of man. what is all this for. If thou beest quick-sighted. it cannot hold out with patience. would they be glad of it? or if glad. If thou canst but withdraw conceit and opinion concerning that which may seem hurtful and offensive.

Now apply all those things unto thyself. is an evil to the sensitive nature. whatsoever is a hindrance unto it. nor the power of a tyrant nor the power of a slandering tongue.) conceive its own grief. is also in that respect an evil unto the same. (whatsoever it be. It is not fire. so of the vegetative constitution. As of the sensitive. Do either pain or pleasure seize on thee? Let the senses look to that. accept all things and carry myself towards everything according to to true worth of the thing itself. thou art not thereby either hurt. there is no fear that ever it will change. if my understanding be right and sound. nor anything else that can penetrate into her. she cannot be hindered by any man. let that. If once round and solid. As for me. That which is a hindrance of the senses. is an evil to the sensitive nature. And so likewise. nor properly hindered. who never did willingly grieve any other! One thing rejoices one and another thing another. Why should I grieve myself. must needs be the proper evil of the reasonable nature. nor iron.admit of grief. if I can look upon all things in the world meekly and kindly. nor refusing any of those things which as a man I am subject unto. XXXIX. as neither averse from any man. XLI. whatsoever is a hindrance unto the mind and understanding. That which is a hindrance of the appetitive and prosecutive faculty. and if there be anything in thee that is grieved. 120 . this is my joy. if it can. Hast thou met with Some obstacle or other in thy purpose and intention? If thou didst propose without due reservation and exception now hath thy reasonable part received a blow indeed But if in general thou didst propose unto thyself what soever might be. For in those things that properly belong unto the mind. XL.

Nothing can happen unto thee. As nothing can happen either to an ox. which is not incidental unto thee. or shall have such and such an opinion concerning thee. They that rather hunt for fame after death. or terrified? What can there be. if so many with so many voices. why art thou displeased? Sure the common nature of all 121 . and become worse than it was? as either basely dejected. what is it to thee? XLIII. or confounded within itself. as these whom now they can so hardly bear with. a vine. If therefore nothing can happen unto anything. But to consider the thing in itself. as thou art a man. Take me and throw me where thou wilt: I am indifferent. This time that is now present. or disordinately affected. XLIV. that is well pleased and fully contented both in that constant disposition. Is this then a thing of that worth. will be even such. And besides they also will be mortal men.XLII. bestow thou upon thyself. For there also I shall have that spirit which is within me propitious. that those men that shall be hereafter. that thou shouldest so much esteem? XLV. which is not both usual and natural. shall make such and such a sound. that for it my soul should suffer. and with those particular actions. do not consider. which to its own proper constitution are suitable and agreeable. which is not incidental unto them. or to a stone. unto every one in his own kind.

but thine own conceit and opinion concerning the thing: which thou mayest rid thyself of. But if it grieve thee. 'Yea but it is a thing of that nature. a mind free from passions. except it may be performed. XLVII. Remember that thy mind is of that nature as that it becometh altogether unconquerable. when once recollected in herself. know. Well. as much as at any time. that he speaketh ill of thee. that are an obstacle unto thy performance. and betaketh not himself to this place of refuge. A stronger place. that thou doest not perform that which seemeth unto thee right and just. (whereunto to make his refuge. How much less when by the help of reason she is able to judge of things with discretion? And therefore let thy chief fort and place of defence be. XLVI. that she cannot be forced: yea though it so fall out.would not bring anything upon any. thou mayest be gone.' If it be so. He that seeth it. when thou doest die in charity with those. why doest not thou choose rather to perform it than to grieve? But somewhat that is stronger than thyself doth hinder thee. that it is not that properly that doth cause it. If therefore it be a thing external that causes thy grief. as that thy life is not worth the while. Let it not grieve thee then. that were intolerable. art thou in a very good estate of performance. and so to become impregnable) and better fortified than this. as they present themselves unto thee. that such a one speaketh ill of thee. which thou must exclude. that doth grieve thee. mayest thou not rectify thy moral tenets and opinions. He that seeth not this is unlearned. that it be even against reason itself. But if it be somewhat that is amiss in thine own disposition. upon condition that thou be kindly and lovingly disposed towards all men. I see 122 . But that thou art hurt thereby. when thou wilt. hath no man. For even then. It is reported unto thee. is not reported: that is the addition of opinion. she seeks no other content than this. so much is reported. and add not unto them. is unhappy. Keep thyself to the first bare and naked apprehensions of things. that it cloth bandy. if it be not thy fault that the thing is not performed.

and troublesome in thy conversation. nor boisterously to sally out with it. XLIX. as they present themselves outwardly. but herein doth consist the wonder of her art and skill. if meeting in either of their shops with some shavings. That he is sick. that she having once circumscribed herself within some certain bounds and limits. one that is acquainted with the mysteries of nature. XLVIII. it is not for want of a place where to throw them that they keep them in their shops for a while: but the nature of the universe hath no such out-place. but that he is in danger of his life also. or loose.that my child is sick. thou shouldest blame them for it. Not to be slack and negligent. I see. Add not presently speaking unto thyself. I see it not. so that she needeth not to seek elsewhere out of herself either for a new supply of matter and substance. Is the cucumber bitter? set it away. and wanton in thy actions. or small remnants of their work. or for a place where to throw out whatsoever is irrecoverably putrid and corrupt. nor to rove and wander in thy fancies and imaginations. this. is herself sufficient unto herself. Thus she. and of these very things can make new things. whatsoever is within her that seems either corrupted. Thus thou must use to keep thyself to the first motions and apprehensions of things. as a carpenter would or a shoemaker. And yet those men. 123 . Not basely to contract thy soul. Brambles are in the way? avoid them. will laugh at thee for it. Let this suffice. Or rather add unto them: hut as one that understandeth the true nature of all things that happen in the world. or furiously to launch out as it were. as for place. What serve these things for in the world? For. or unprofitable. nor contentious. and add not unto them from within thyself through mere conceit and opinion. so for matter and art. or old. she can change it into herself. nor ever to want employment.

and not a well? Beget thyself by continual pains and endeavours to true liberty with charity. for what he himself was made is ignorant also. who thrice in one hour perchance. that also is of itself. 'They kill me.' What then? May not thy mind for all this continue pure. than dispersed.L. prudent. yet is it no sooner thrown. doth himself curse himself? Dost thou desire to please him. What then must I do. and true simplicity and modesty. no less than the air doth. He that knoweth not what the world is. and what they are themselves. if a man can but suck it in. who both where they are. are altogether ignorant? Dost thou desire to be commended of that man. who doth use to repent himself almost of everything that he doth? LII. the noise and applause of men. Not only now henceforth to have a common breath. and of its own nature (if a man can but draw it in as he should) everywhere diffused. yet do her springs nevertheless still run as sweet and clear as before. but to have a common mind. Now he that in either of these is to seek. though she be cursed by some stander by. cannot possibly know either what are the qualities. they cut my flesh. What then dost thou think of that man. with that air. and she cleared. which compasseth all things. or what is the nature of the world. For. that compasseth us about. 124 . they persecute my person with curses. as a matter of great moment. who pleaseth not himself? or dost thou think that he pleaseth himself. and passeth through all things. She cannot be dyed or infected by it. or to hold correspondency of breath. that I may have within myself an overflowing fountain. just? As a fountain of sweet and clear water. And he that knoweth not what the world was made for. or to hold correspondency of mind also with that rational substance. who proposeth unto himself. knoweth not where he himself is. LI. yea though either dirt or dung be thrown in. temperate.

or his bode). whosoever he be that offends. (as his life. is altogether indifferent. but she must stand. yet have our minds and understandings each of them their own proper and limited jurisdiction. For though we are all made one for another. For that diffusion of it is a [-r~Jo-tc] or an extension. and yet neither slides off. He that feareth death. What obstacles and impediments soever she meeteth within her way. neither must she fall down. she must not violently. And indeed it is diffused but not effused. not an effusion. that whensoever he himself shall but first desire it. it is its own fault and loss. he may be presently delivered of it. it is divided and abrupted. if it bereave itself of her light. either feareth that he shall have no sense at 125 . The sun seemeth to be shed abroad. LIV. unto whom in great favour and mercy it is granted. LV. and give light unto that which doth admit of it. but stayeth there nevertheless: such must the diffusion in the mind be.] to be stretched out and extended. And as by any solid body. Wickedness in general doth not hurt the world. and by way of an impetuous onset light upon them. thou mayest know if thou observe the light of the sun. Unto my free-will my neighbour's free-will. that it meets with in the way that is not penetrable by air. or falls down. whoever he be. Now what a sunbeam is.. when through some narrow hole it pierceth into some room that is dark. For else another man's wickedness might be my evil which God would not have. but an extension. For therefore are the beams of it called [~i-~m'~] from the word [~KTEIVEOOa. For it is always in a direct line.LIII. Particular wickedness doth not hurt any other: only unto him it is hurtful. For as for that which doth not. that it might not be in another man's power to make me unhappy: which nothing now can do but mine own wickedness.

then another life. or that his senses will not be the same. or if any sense. Whereas. LVI. may then as well be said to go straight on to the object. that either no sense at all. and by way of diligent circumspection turneth herself many ways. LVIII. All men are made one for another: either then teach them better. and penetrable to any other. The motion of the mind is not as the motion of a dart. and so no sense of evil. For the mind when it is wary and cautelous. he should rather comfort himself. 126 . To pierce and penetrate into the estate of every one's understanding that thou hast to do with: as also to make the estate of thine own open. or bear with them. LVII.all. and so no death properly. as when it useth no such circumspection.

is also impious. which he having hitherto neglected. as that which is truly evil: is impious. is guilty of impiety towards the most ancient and venerable of all the deities. is not now able to discern that which is false from that which is true. to the end that they should do one another good. and in that striving with the nature of the world he doth in his particular. to compass his desires. both pain and pleasure. And that we have already showed to be impious. And he that pursueth after pleasures. For the nature of the universe. For nature had before furnished him with instincts and opportunities sufficient for the attainment of it. who contrary to his own nature applieth himself to that which is contrary to truth. feareth some of those things which some time or other must needs happen in the world. honour and dishonour. if both had not been unto her equally indifferent): they that will live according to nature. For the nature of the universe. it is apparent that he is impious. my 127 . (which things nature in the administration of the world. must in those things (as being of the same mind and disposition that she is) be as equally indifferent. to whatsoever first was. and the occasions of pains. death and life. Now those things which unto nature are equally indifferent (for she had not created both.THE NINTH BOOK I. more or less according to the several persons and occasions but in nowise hurt one another: it is manifest that he that doth transgress against this her will. and gave it its being. is the nature the common parent of all. is impious in that he doth receive. hath relation of blood and kindred. When I say that common nature doth indifferently make use of them. having made all reasonable creatures one for another. and that which now is. He that is unjust. not according to the deserts of either: as unto the bad oftentimes pleasures. he that feareth pains and crosses in this world. as that which is truly good and flies from pains. and the causes of pleasures. For he doth no better than strive and war against it. indifferently doth make use of). and so commit injustice: but he that against his will. and therefore piously to be observed of all things that are. He also that pursues after pleasures. Again. and that is manifestly impious. She is also called truth and is the first cause of all truths. violate the general order of the world. pains. Whosoever therefore in either matter of pleasure and pain. For such a one must of necessity oftentimes accuse that common nature. He therefore that willingly and wittingly doth lie. and unto the good. to do that which is unjust. so unto the good. in that he disagreeth from the nature of the universe. as distributing many things both unto the evil. will not spare. is not as indifferent.

but that of men as they are men or reasonable. This is a plague of creatures. successions. having lived all his life long clear from all falsehood. changes. to get teeth. come to pass in the world. which by a necessary consequence. to wax old. or a beard. as they are living creatures. such a thing is it also to be dissolved. For what thou dost conceive of these. or to be delivered. for a man to depart out of this world. But if this cannot be. to grow. and to continue long in those wicked courses. that is natural unto man according to the several seasons of his life. Hath not yet experience taught thee to fly from the plague? For a far greater plague is the corruption of the mind. not in any wise to carry himself either violently. or what other action soever it be. as being one of those things that nature hath appointed. did resolve upon the creation of such a world. It is therefore the part of a wise man. voluptuousness.meaning is. that they happen indifferently in the ordinary course of things. and pride. to ripen. III. yet it is some comfort for a man joyfully to depart as weary. of a boy to become a young man. Thou must not in matter of death carry thyself scornfully. as one of nature's operations: that with the same mind as now thou dost expect when that which yet is but an embryo in thy wife's belly shall come forth. and out of love with those. or proudly but patiently to wait for it. or grey hairs to beget. But thou desirest a more 128 . whether as principal or accessory. according to that first and ancient deliberation of Providence. conceiving then in her womb as it were some certain rational generative seeds and faculties of things future. II. in matter of death. by which she from some certain beginning. It were indeed more happy and comfortable. rather than to desire to live. both such and such. whether subjects. but as one that is well pleased with it. dissimulation. to bear. thou mayst expect also when thy soul shall fall off from that outward coat or skin: wherein as a child in the belly it lieth involved and shut up. and just so many. than any certain change and distemper of the common air can be.

He that sinneth. what a toil it is for thee to live with men of different opinions. if it were thy hap to live with men that had obtained the same belief that thou hast. be my present disposition. He that is unjust. to keep the mind free to herself. But now. but take care of them. and meekly bear with them However. to use deliberation. and though not so direct and philosophical. in that he makes himself worse than he was before. thou seest: so that thou hast rather occasion to say. towards whatsoever doth proceed from God.popular. For that indeed. it sufficeth. V. than if thou shalt consider. that whensoever it happens that thou depart. and what manner of disposition thou shalt no more have to do with. I thee pray. and my present action charitable. that. yet a very powerful and penetrative recipe against the fear of death. to quench concupiscence. offended with them thou must not be by no means. VI. hurts himself. is oftentimes unjust. it shall not be from men that held the same opinions that thou dost. sinneth unto himself. If my present apprehension of the object be right. To wipe away fancy. to be well pleased with it. IV. both what the subjects themselves are that thou shalt part with. nothing can make they more willing to part with thy life. Hasten. this thou mayst remember. lest I also in time forget myself. True it is. O Death. Not he only that committeth. (if it were so) is the only thing that might make thee averse from death. but he also that omitteth something. and willing to continue here. 129 . and this.

naturally affects and inclines unto that whereof it is part. if thou dost observe it. divided betwixt them all. where no earthly thing is.VII. nature doth prevail. presseth downwards to the common earth. So proper is it to excellency in a high degree to affect unity. naturally doth as much and more long after his own kind. but presently begun among them swarms. friendships. Whatsoever is earthly. yet a kind of soul these had. than find a man that naturally can live by himself alone. Whatsoever is fiery. But now behold. begun commonwealths. or stones. 130 . public meetings. And so shalt thou confess. and some kind of violence. by so much more is it desirous to be joined and united unto that. but one reasonable soul. it could operate unto a mutual sympathy. which is of its own nature. and truces. though by their nature far distant one from another. Now whatsoever partakes of some common thing. Of all unreasonable creatures. would be together likewise. and therefore was that natural desire of union more strong and intense in them. that whatsoever doth want sufficient moisture to make resistance. Now among them that were yet of a more excellent nature. and a kind of mutual love and affection. are now the only creatures that have forgotten their natural affection and inclination of one towards another. as in creatures of a more excellent nature. as that even in things so far distant. Do they what they can. and but one air that we breathe in. what is now come to pass. For though but unreasonable. would flow together. But among reasonable creatures. or trees. there is but one unreasonable soul. conventions. than either in plants. and but one light that we see by. as many as either breathe or see. they had not long been. and even in their wars. is easily set on fire. they cannot well be kept asunder. As for unreasonable creatures then. yet even among them began some mutual correspondency and unity. For sooner mayst thou find a thing earthly. Whatsoever therefore is partaker of that reasonable common nature. Whatsoever is liquid. there is not to be found a general disposition to flow together. Those creatures that are reasonable. and of all that are reasonable. But though they fly from nature. and to burn together. and apprehended. As of all earthly things there is but one earth. as the stars and planets. For by how much in its own nature it excels all other things. So that without some obstacle. doth not only by reason of the elementary fire tend upwards. And whatsoever is airy. and broods of young ones. and flocks. yet are they stopt in their course. Among them alone of all other things that are of one kind. families. but here also is so ready to join. being of one kind and nature with it.

or if it be not. whatsoever it was. as the law of charity. yet is it so nevertheless. it begets in others. was mildness and goodness granted unto thee. before thou canst truly and constantly be at ease. XI. Man. or mutual society doth require. and peculiar. As for reason. Nay I have cast out all my trouble.) are content often to further their endeavours: so good and gracious are they.VIII. so always and in all things to prosecute or to forbear. from whence it must be cast out. God. which itself doth enjoy. it should rather be for that which troubled thee. was not without anywhere that thou shouldest come out of it. Reason is of a diffusive nature. bear some fruits. but let this be thine only care and desire. 131 . of wealth. tell me. that beareth both common fruit for the use of others. remember that for this use. and so doth multiply. Either teach them better if it be in thy power. to bear with them patiently. every one in their kind. (as in matter of health. what doth hinder thee? X. Though by custom. the word itself is in a manner become proper unto the vine. what itself is in itself. And mightest thou not be so too? or. of honour. and the like. Labour not as one to whom it is appointed to be wretched. IX. but within in thine own opinions. All things have their proper time to bear. This day I did come out of all my trouble. The Gods themselves are good unto such. yea and in some things. or admired. the world. nor as one that either would be pitied. as we have said.

What then is it. To the stone that is cast up. when it comes down it is no hurt unto it. for matter of experience are usual and ordinary. XV. Sift their minds and understandings. whom thou dost stand in fear of what they shall judge of thee. but in operation and action. As virtue and wickedness consist not in passion. as neither benefit.XII. and behold what men they be. All those things. what they themselves judge of themselves. XIII. that passeth verdict on them? The understanding. neither knowing anything themselves nor able to utter anything unto others concerning themselves. 132 . so are they now also. so neither doth the true good or evil of a reasonable charitable man consist in passion. XVI. XIV. when it doth ascend. and no otherwise. most base and filthy. As they were in the days of those whom we have buried. and for their matter. but in action. The things themselves that affect us. for their continuance but for a day. they stand without doors.

All things that are in the world. And thus when through the whole course of thy life hitherto thou hast found and observed many alterations. XVIII. then under thy father. then a young man. Of an operation and of a purpose there is an ending. then an old man. many changes. in some part: and so is the whole world. XX. then a youth. or to that of the universe. put this question to thyself What matter of grief or sorrow dost thou find in any of these? Or what doest thou suffer through any of these? If in none of these. are always in the estate of alteration.XVII. either to thine own understanding. every change from one age to another is a kind of death And all this while here no matter of grief yet. that it is at an end: from opinion also there is an absolute cessation. Thou also art in a perpetual change. yea and under corruption too. let thy refuge be with all speed. as first. it is not thine. whom thou hast now to do with. Why should it trouble thee? Let him look to it. then neither in the ending and consummation of thy whole life. that it resolve upon nothing 133 . XIX. To thine own. As occasion shall require. or of an action and of a purpose we say commonly. Apply this now to a man's age. that which thou livedst under thy grandfather. a child. many kinds of endings and cessations. In all this there is no hurt. which is as it were the death of it. whose sin it is. Pass now unto that life first. which is also but a cessation and change. then under thy mother. or to his. but another man's sin.

Infinite are the troubles and miseries. What action soever of thine therefore that either immediately or afar off. that he is thy kinsman. because that for all happiness it did not suffice thee. that thou didst not account it sufficient happiness. Go to the quality of the cause from which the effect doth proceed. Children's anger. that they may not have their fall so soon: even as it is in that common dirge song. of a common society. Of his. or. as one among the people who from such and such a consent and unity. can subsist and abide. hath not reference to the common good. XXIV. And then also must thou call to mind. Then consider the utmost bounds of time that that cause.against justice. 134 . that thou mayest consider whether in the estate of ignorance. separated from all that is material. being a member of it. should factiously divide and separate himself. that thou mayest remember. XXIII. Behold it by itself bare and naked. so must every action of thine tend to the perfection and consummation of a life that is truly sociable. part of whom thou art. or of knowledge. mere babels. wretched souls bearing up dead bodies. XXII. that thou hast already been put to. that thy understanding did operate according to its natural constitution. As thou thyself. whoever thou art. yea it is seditious. To that of the universe. that is an exorbitant and disorderly action. by reason of this only. thus and thus qualified. were made for the perfection and consummation. XXI.

from one age to another. and so a perpetual eternity. being still the same. And the Gods themselves. happens by a necessary consequence. either there is a God. get thee presently to their minds and understandings. and behold what manner of men they be. And either of everything in particular before it come to pass. Thou shalt see. In sum. or if all things go by chance and fortune. as by dreams and oracles. all manner of ways. yet mayest thou use thine own providence in those things that concern thee properly. can he otherwise but contemn in his heart and despise all worldly 135 . from one period of eternity unto another. are well content. XXVII. in those things that they seek from them as matters of great moment. or hatefully reproach thee. go the ordinary things of the world. to help them as well as others. for by nature they are thy friends. and then all is well. and then art thou well. Yet must thou love them still. XXVI. or shall use any such carriage towards thee.XXV. that there is no such occasion why it should trouble thee. and since that whatsoever happens. the mind of the universe doth consider with itself and deliberate: and if so. Now can any man that shall consider with himself in his mind the several rollings or successions of so many changes and alterations. and then she herself shall have her change. When any shall either impeach thee with false accusations. Within a while the earth shall cover us all. and look in them. what such as they are think of thee. And then the course will be. then submit for shame unto the determination of such an excellent understanding: or once for all it did resolve upon all things in general. and the swiftness of all these rulings. Up and down. and all things indivisibly in a manner and inseparably hold one of another.

If they profit though never so little. what wretches be they in very deed. and theirs who shall be hereafter. And these your professed politicians. they know best themselves. unaffected simplicity and modesty. XXIX. I must not expect a Plato's commonwealth. or such professed lovers of virtue and honesty. who never so much as heard of thy name. and some in a calm: the general differences. and Demetrius Phalereus. how many who but even now did commend thee. I must be content. or different estates of things. Whether they understood what the common nature requireth. how vile and contemptible in themselves? O man! what ado doest thou keep? Do what thy nature doth now require. The effect of true philosophy is. From some high place as it were to look down. if thou mayest: and take no thought. And how many there be. and the present estate and life of those many nations of barbarians that are now in the world. XXVIII. and yet would make a show of obedience to reason.things? The cause of the universe is as it were a strong torrent. how many that will soon forget it. some in a rough and stormy sea. thou must likewise consider in thy mind. the several and mutual relations of those things that are together. and to behold here flocks. alas! what is all that ostentation. I (God be thanked) am not bound to imitate them. it carrieth all away. and all kind of navigation. but sayest thou. and think much even of that little progress. Their lives also. and swaggered. Persuade me not to ostentation and vainglory. within a very little while 136 . that groan privately. (as they think of themselves) so full of affected gravity. and could rule themselves or no. Resolve upon it. who were long ago. Yea. the only true practical philosophers of the world. and truth? Go too now and tell me of Alexander and Philippus. that are now first upon being. and some other things that are at their last. But if they kept a life. and there sacrifices. whether anybody shall know it or no. some. without number. Doth then any of them forsake their former false opinions that I should think they profit? For without a change of opinions. but mere wretchedness of slavish minds.

To comprehend the whole world together in thy mind. to accept it contentedly: whatsoever thou doest. will soon vanish away themselves. whereof God is the cause. and opinion! 137 . and when they think they do them a very good turn. to do it justly: which will be. and they that see their corruptions. All things that thou seest. it is in thy power to cut off. shall come all to one. nor anything else that this world doth afford. So that neither fame. and that which after the generation of it shall be. How short the time is from the generation of anything. XXX. is worth the while. as a man. but how immense and infinite both that which was before the generation. Many of those things that trouble and straiten thee. than to do good unto others. whom they speak ill of. whom they commend and extol: O how full are they then of conceit. if both in thy resolution and in thy action thou have no further end. as being that. and what the things that they apply themselves unto: what do they love. XXXI. as wholly depending from mere conceit and opinion. unto the dissolution of the same. When they think they hurt them shrewdly. and to fix thy thoughts upon the sudden change of every particular object. whatsoever doth happen unto thee.perchance will speak ill of thee. thou art bound unto. which by thy natural constitution. and he that dieth young. The sum then of all. and what do they hate for? Fancy to thyself the estate of their souls openly to be seen. and then thou shalt have room enough. He that dieth a hundred years old. XXXII. What are their minds and understandings. whereof thou thyself art the cause. will soon be perished. nor honour. and the whole course of this present age to represent it unto thyself.

Will this querulousness. the very blood of a shell-fish. there is not anything. And again those other things that are so much prized and admired. and according to which. and all that loathsome stuff that our bodies do consist of: so subject to be infected. 138 .XXXIII. and for colour. for ever condemned? XXXIV. what are they. and corrupted. and from the mixture of these bones. which the nature of the universe doth most delight in. could no divine power be found all this while. every common matter is! Water. and shall ever go ill? And then among so many deities. XXXV. what are they. or the matter? Behold either by itself. but as it were the kernels of the earth? gold and silver. this murmuring. For that was the estate of worldly things from the beginning. Thy life itself. is either of that weight and moment indeed? And besides these. is in very deed nothing else but change and alteration. that troubleth thee? Doth any new thing happen unto thee? What doest thou so wonder at? At the cause. dust. How base and putrid. and so shall it ever be. by which. of this nature are all other things. for matter. whatsoever is done. Or wouldest thou rather say. and that is it. a mere exhalation of blood: and it also. Loss and corruption. it is but as it were the hair of a silly sheep. that could rectify the things of the world? Or is the world. is well done. to incessant woes and miseries. that all things in the world have gone ill from the beginning for so many ages. but as the more gross faeces of the earth? Thy most royal apparel. apt to be changed into some other common thing. as marble stones. this complaining and dissembling never be at an end? What then is it. is some such thing too.

XXXVIII. Either all things by the providence of reason happen unto every particular. it is time thou shouldst acquit thyself of it with more goodness and simplicity. atoms be the cause of all things and that life be nothing else but an accidentary confusion of things. But perchance he hath not. Sayest thou unto that rational part.But thy duty towards the Gods also. graze or feed. XXXVI. and death nothing else. that it also should be mortal. or sheep. It is all one to see these things for a hundred of years together or but for three years. not mine. according to Epicurus. or if. as a part of one general body. but a mere dispersion and so of all other things: what doest thou trouble thyself for? XXXIX. XXXVII. and then it is against reason that a part should complain of anything that happens for the good of the whole. corruption hath taken hold on thee? Doth it then also void excrements? Doth it like either oxen. as well as the body? 139 . Thou art dead. his is the harm. If he have sinned.

by a natural and unavoidable sympathy partaking in some sort with the present indisposition of my body. But thou wilt say perchance. to lie with such or such a one. wert not thou better? And as for the Gods. as though I expected any great matter from them. or they can still and allay all the distractions and distempers of thy mind. XLI. One prayeth that he may compass his desire. by their means to recover my health: for my present estate. and see what will be the event. Either the Gods can do nothing for us at all. and in present possession of her own proper happiness. that they will grant unto thee. 140 . that thou mayst not at either their absence or presence. the subject of my talk. or as though I thought it a matter of such great consequence. that if the Gods can help us in anything. nor lust after any of those worldly things which cause these distractions and distempers of it? Why not rather. or that thou mayst avoid them? For certainly it must needs be. Another.XL. might nevertheless keep herself free from trouble. If they can do nothing. 'In my sickness' (saith Epicurus of himself:) 'my discourses were not concerning the nature of my disease. but in the consideration and contemplation of that. rather to set thy mind at true liberty. pray thou that thou mayst not lust to lie with her. Pray thou that thou mayst not fear to lose him. why doest thou pray? If they can. how my mind. if thou wilt but try thyself and pray. they may in this kind also. who hath told thee. that thou mayst neither fear. 'In those things the Gods have given me my liberty: and it is in mine own power to do what I will. thou shalt soon perceive. why wouldst not thou rather pray. pray thou that thou mayst so patiently bear with him. was all my time bestowed and spent.' But if thou mayst use this liberty. to them that came to visit me. To this end and purpose. which either to compass or to avoid is not in thy power. that they may not help us up even in those things that they have put in our own power? whether it be so or no. and among others in this very thing. as that thou have no such need to be rid of him. Another how he may be rid of such a one. than wilfully with baseness and servility of mind to affect those things. be grieved and discontented: than either that thou mayst obtain them. Neither did I leave the ordering of my body to the physicians altogether to do with me what they would. neither was that. that he may not lose his child. which was of especial weight and moment. let all thy prayer be.

and gave me good content. as an antidote. presently to consider with thyself. against the unthankful. against whom thou art incensed. and mere naturalists. that there should not be any impudent men in the world! Certainly it is not possible.' Desire not then that which is impossible. it hath given goodness and meekness. so of the perfidious. (thou must think) whosoever he be. put presently this question to thyself: 'What? Is it then possible. is one of those impudent ones. what proper virtue nature hath furnished man with. So of the subtile and crafty. It is common to all trades and professions to mind and intend that only. that the kind of them must needs be in the world. and is certainly deceived. that is in an error? For whosoever sinneth. that the world cannot be without. endeavour thou also to be in thy mind so affected. And again. thou wilt be the better able to use meekness towards every particular. against such a vice. As for example. must thou ever be ready to reason with thyself. as he doth report of himself: not to depart from thy philosophy for anything that can befall thee. doth in that decline from his purposed end. For whilst in general thou dost thus reason with thyself.' Whether therefore in sickness (if thou chance to sicken) or in what other kind of extremity soever. XLII. When at any time thou art offended with any one's impudency. For this one. This also thou shalt find of very good use. liked me very well. which now they are about. and the instrument whereby they work. And generally. is it not in thy power to instruct him better. or to encounter with a disposition vicious in this kind. XLIII.methought. and so against another vicious in another kind some other peculiar faculty. what art thou the worse for his sin? For thou shalt not find that any one of these. hath in very deed done anything whereby thy mind (the only true subject of thy hurt and evil) can be made worse than it 141 . nor to give ear to the discourses of silly people. upon every such occasion. so of every one that offendeth.

when thou dost find fault with either an unthankful. 142 . life. and therefore can require no more. that such a thing would by such a one be committed. nor didst not think that from the action itself thou hadst received a full reward of the good that thou hadst done. that such a thing should be. For without all question. or a false man. and the like. Must thou be rewarded for it? As if either the eye for that it seeth. thou didst not there bound thy thoughts. thou thyself art much in fault. as one that had obtained his end. who. thou didst expect that he should be true unto thee: or when unto any thou didst a good turn. For what wouldst thou have more? Unto him that is a man. didst not only not foresee it. But then especially. thou hast done a good turn: doth not that suffice thee? What thy nature required. must thou reflect upon thyself. preferment. And what a matter of either grief or wonder is this. or though but in middle things. thou mightst have thought it very probable. as in matter of wealth. can challenge no more. that hast thou done. but moreover dost wonder at it. doth help to further their desires he doth that for which he was made. should require satisfaction. or the feet that they go. do the deeds of one that is unlearned? Should not thou rather blame thyself. than that they may work according to their natural constitution: so man being born to do good unto others whensoever he doth a real good unto any by helping them out of error. For as these being by nature appointed for such an use. if he that is unlearned. if either of one that were of such a disposition. when upon very good grounds of reason.was.

as tending to the maintenance and preservation in some sort. is also sociable. that this world can afford. will be the worse for it. nor to do anything thyself. and containeth all things in himself. Such one day shall be thy disposition. who begets all things. and in regard of men. whatsoever it be. as neither to complain of them at any time. and all things present shall add to thy content: when thou shalt persuade thyself. nor the favour either of the weather or of men. simple. whose end is love.THE TENTH BOOK I. neither wanting time for the continuation of thy pleasure. Keep thyself to these rules. all for thy good. O my soul. and all by the providence of the Gods: and of things future also shalt be as confident. single. both in regard of the Gods. when thou shalt be good. what thy nature as thou art a living sensible creature. Now whatsoever is reasonable. and beauty. of his perfect welfare and happiness. When thou shalt have content in thy present estate. and in want of no external thing: not seeking pleasure from anything. thou mayest admit of and do it. Next then thou must examine. more open and visible. the time I trust will be. so to fit and order thy conversation. if thy nature as thou art a reasonable living creature. if thou find not that thy nature. and their affections dead to all worldly things. for anything that they do. that of them he may beget others again like unto them. as thou art a living sensible creature. and in himself doth recollect all things from all places that are dissolved. and trouble not thyself about idle things. II. let it be thy care to observe what it is that thy nature in general doth require. will not be the worse for it. either living or insensible. that all will do well. thou mayest proceed. than that body by which it is enclosed. doth require. who is perfection of life. That done. nor place and opportunity. for which thou mayest justly be condemned. that thou shalt be able. Thou shalt one day be full. that thou hast all things. Thou wilt one day be sensible of their happiness. And that. As one who is altogether governed by nature. of goodness. 143 .

Either with Epicurus. by which thy substance from all eternity was appointed to be. that thou art able to bear that by thy natural constitution. thou art naturally by thy natural constitution either able. if thy will and endeavours have not been wanting. we must fondly imagine the atoms to be the cause of all things. it is that which from all time was appointed unto thee. which is governed by nature. be not offended. then to blame thyself. (whatsoever it be) at the same time end with thee. that to those parts that are of the same kind and nature as thou art. But remember. destinated and appointed. that whatsoever by the strength of opinion. For by the same coherence of causes. but bear it according to thy natural constitution. or rather not thyself neither. V. IV. and itself. I shall never be displeased with anything. Him that offends. Whatsoever doth happen unto thee. For nothing that is behoveful unto the whole. Whatsoever it be that happens unto thee. grounded upon a certain apprehension of both true profit and duty. be not offended. or not able to bear. that falls to my particular share of the common chances of the world. that thou art part of that universe. can be truly hurtful to that which is part of it.III. if I shall always be mindful. thou canst conceive tolerable. Then secondly. If thou beest able. For this being the common privilege of all 144 . If thou beest not able. and to show him his error. VI. But if thou canst not. or as nature hath enabled thee. For it will soon make an end of thee. thou hast relation of kindred. first as I am a part. Let this then be thy first ground. to teach with love and meek ness. For of these. or we must needs grant a nature. was also whatsoever should happen unto it.

All parts of the world. These things once so fixed and concluded. that he were well pleased with it. Alteration I should say. VII. first to say that all parts of the whole are. is equally absurd. to speak truly and properly. so I shall be careful to do nothing that is prejudicial to the community. and to reason of things particular according to their own particular natures. And as I have relation of kindred to those parts that are of the same kind and nature that I am. and then when any such thing doth happen. or did not she know what she did. as that which is contrary unto it. yea and by their making itself fitted for corruption. that she cannot against her will by any higher external cause be constrained.natures. as when one doth fall sick and dieth. subject to alteration. which all my intentions and resolutions shall drive unto. the whole itself be in a sweet case. I shall not be displeased with anything that happens. if so be that this be both hurtful unto them. how absurd and ridiculous is it. when she made them? For either of these two to say. I shall by all means endeavour to prevent and avoid. As then I bear in mind that I am a part of such an universe. as consisting of things different and contrary? And did nature then either of herself thus project and purpose the affliction and misery of her parts. not only that haply they might. but in all my deliberations shall they that are of my kind ever be. as thou wouldst think him a happy citizen. would not. and the common good. is. it cannot be that the nature of the universe (whose privilege beyond other particular natures. whose constant study and practice were for the good and benefit of his fellow citizens. Now say I. But to let pass nature in general. I am content at this time to use that more common word. but that I may be the better understood. all the parts of it being subject to alteration. but of necessity that they should fall into evil. must of necessity at some time or other come to corruption. thinkest thou. by their proper natural constitution. and therefore of purpose so made them. that they contain nothing in themselves that is hurtful unto them. and yet unavoidable. that thou shalt live a happy life. that. to take on and wonder as though some strange thing had happened? Though this besides might move not so grievously to 145 .) should beget anything and cherish it in her bosom that should tend to her own hurt and prejudice. so must it needs be with thee. (all things I mean that are contained within the whole world). and the carriage of the city such towards him.

So that by this means nothing is lost. than a running river. but all resumed again into those rational generative seeds of the universe. of that which is more solid into earth. should still cleave unto thee never so close. and outreaching disposition of thy mind. and more solid part of it. that the word emfrwn notes unto thee an intent and intelligent consideration of every object that presents itself unto thee. yet what is that to the proper qualities and affections of it. maintained by the perpetual influx and new supply of waters. of the elements into those elements again whereof everything did consist. or by continual changes to be renewed. Now that solid and spiritual that we speak of. and of that which is pure and subtile or spiritual. either after a certain period of time to lie consumed by fire. Or if thou do. thou must not conceive it to be that very same. These then if inviolably thou shalt observe. hath but two or three days ago partly from meats eaten. whereby it passeth by all bodily pains and pleasures. or a transcendent. and this universe. modest. and so for ever to endure. But suppose that that for the general substance. and partly from air breathed in. which certainly are quite different? VIII. take heed lest at any times by doing anything that is contrary. Now that thou hast taken these names upon thee of good. For every dissolution is either a mere dispersion. without distraction. and in no wise to be stood upon by a wise man. of emfrwn. honour and credit.take on when any such thing doth happen. either for matter of substance. And the word sumfrwn. by which persons are distinguished. return unto them again with all possible speed. is the same. which at first was. uperfrwn. And the word emfrwn a ready and contented acceptation of whatsoever by the appointment of the common nature. or a change. death and whatsoever is of the same nature. as matters of absolute indifferency. when thou wert born. whereof it was compounded. into air. or of life. being the same then in no other respect. received all its influx. that whatsoever is dissolved. That therefore which thou hast since received. For alas! all this that now thou art in either kind. and shalt not be ambitious to be so 146 . And remember. a super-extension. not that which came from thy mother. happens unto thee. true. thou be but improperly so called. sumfrwn. and lose thy right to these appellations. is that which comes to change and corruption. it is dissolved into those things.

Or if that will not serve forsake even thy life rather. Away therefore. all of them. who as full as they are all the body over with wounds and blood. And whensoever thou findest thyself. so man likewise should do that. matched in the amphitheatre with wild beasts. and that thou art not able to master and overcome those difficulties and temptations that present themselves in thy present station: get thee into any private corner. then also. and if thou canst abide in them. the thing which they require at our hands of as many of us. the dog the bee: both do. to remember the Gods as often as may be: and that. but that we should become like unto them: and that as all other natural creatures. Toys and fooleries at home. to undergo those distractions and distempers as thou must needs for such a life as hitherto thou hast lived. that thou art in danger of a relapse. by others called the Elysian Fields. the fig tree for example. ship thyself. Whom a man might compare to one of those halfeaten wretches.called by others. and thou shalt begin a new life. where thou mayst be better able. But so that it be not in passion but in a plain voluntary modest way: this being the only commendable action of thy whole life that thus thou art departed. Now for the better remembrance of those names that we have spoken of. that thou mightest thus depart. and apply themselves unto that which by their natural constitution. wars abroad: sometimes terror. is proper unto them. belongs unto him. desire for a great favour. thou shalt find it a very good help. and in the same estate to be exposed to the same nails and teeth as before. which by his nature. as are by nature reasonable creation is not that with fair words. and from the troubles and distractions of thy former life convey thyself as it were unto these few names. is the part of one that is very foolish. as he is a man. or this having been the main work and business of thy whole life. or be constant in the practice and possession of them. IX. both thou thyself shalt become a new man. sometimes 147 . For to continue such as hitherto thou hast been. and is overfond of his life. continue there as glad and joyful as one that were translated unto some such place of bliss and happiness as that which by Hesiod and Plato is called the Islands of the Blessed. that they may be reserved till the next day. and outward show of piety and devotion we should flatter them.

those sacred dogmata will be blotted out of thy mind. Bear it in thy mind evermore. Not apparent indeed. or hath taken a fish with his net: as another for the taking of a boar. that the true and contemnplative knowledge of everything according to its own nature. what do they for the most part but hunt after prey? XI. and unaffected gravity? When shalt thou rejoice in the certain knowledge of every particular object according to its true nature: as what the matter and substance of it is. that no part of that delight and pleasure. nor meanly conceited of herself: as he likewise that hath caught an hare. For these also. that thou mightest both at the same time attend all present occasions. the mutual change of all things. when it hath caught the fly that it hunted after. thou doest let pass without any further use? Whereas thou shouldst in all things so join action and contemplation. if thou doest not better look to it. thou hast barely considered of according to their nature. or northern nations lately defeated. And when shalt thou attain to the happiness of true simplicity. what use it is for in the world: how long it can subsist: what things it doth consist of: who they be that are capable of it. To find out. and another of a bear: so may they be proud. Or. but not concealed. to perform everything duly and carefully and yet so intend the contemplative part too. which when as a mere naturalist. (action being subject to many lets and impediments) afford unto thee sufficient pleasure and happiness. these famous soldiers and warlike men. How many things be there. which the contemplative knowledge of everything according to its true nature doth of itself afford. and set to thyself some certain way and method of contemplation. As the spider. is not little proud. and take it away? X.torpor. if thou dost look into their minds and opinions. and see that thou be throughly well exercised in 148 . By little and little. might of itself. the one into the other. might be lost. or stupid sloth: this is thy daily slavery. and applaud themselves for their valiant acts against the Sarmatai. and who they that can give it. whereby thou mayest clearly discern and represent unto thyself.

whither right and reason directed him. must needs be happiness. still proposing that unto thyself. XIV. For there is not anything more effectual to beget true magnanimity. since it is that only which we can truly and properly be said to miss of. he wholly applied himself. What use is there of suspicion at all? or. and yet grave? He 149 . He hath got loose from the bonds of his body. And if there be anything else that doth hinder thee. and to speed in the prosecution of it. which thou doest conceive most right and just. that. For to hit that aright. or miscarry in. according to the present occasion and opportunity. and whatsoever God doth send to like well of it: what others shall either say or think of him. and take advice from the best. his only business and occupation. he doth not so much as trouble his thoughts with it. XII. and leave all these things behind him. and suspicion concerning that which is future. go on with prudence and discretion. XIII. or shall do against him. if thou mayest search and inquiry into that. as to righteousness in all his actions. And contenting himself with these two things. and perceiving that within a very little while he must of necessity bid the world farewell. But if alone thou doest not so well perceive it. was the only thing that he did mind. suspend thine action. what needs thou care for more? And if thou art well able to perceive it alone. why should thoughts of mistrust. What is that that is slow. trouble thy mind at all? What now is to be done. so to the common nature in all things that should happen unto him. and yet quick? merry. To go on straight. let no man divert thee from it.this particular. and by so doing to follow God. to do all things justly.

hast thou forgotten what manner of men they be? that such and such upon their beds. or external objects have wrought upon it. than so to live as they would have thee. living according to the true nature of man. it matters not much for the place. And as for these that keep such a life. Give what thou wilt. XV. if not with their hands and feet. a good spirit. to Him that gives. or dispraises of other men. that he saith it. justice. as one who liveth by himself alone upon some desert hill. and humble submission. If they cannot bear with me. yet with that more precious part of theirs. In the morning as soon as thou art awaked. but in mere love. or there. their minds: which (would it but admit of them) might enjoy faith. the doing of it by thyself. and take away what thou wilt. is yet most free and impartial: put this question to thyself. For whether here. that is a man indeed. And it is not out of a stout and peremptory resolution. before either thy affections. 150 . and such at their board: what their ordinary actions are: what they pursue after. and takes away. XVI. whether if that which is right and just be done. truth. For better were it to die. So live as indifferent to the world and all worldly objects. For sure it is not. when thy judgment. and stand so much upon the praises. and what they fly from: what thefts and rapines they commit. be a thing material or no. XVII. let them kill me. if the whole world be but as one town. modesty. or by others when thou art not able thyself.that in all things doth follow reason for his guide. saith he that is well taught and truly modest. Let them behold and see a man.

but really and actually to be such. of their lives: as when they eat. when they either are in their greatest exultation.XVIII. when death hath once seized upon them. Again. 151 . that they might come to this. in great state and majesty. and when they sleep: when they are in the act of necessary exoneration. or being angry and displeased. Ever to represent unto thyself.) as already being in the state of dissolution. both the general age and time of the world. Make it not any longer a matter of dispute or discourse. XIX. and when in the act of lust. that is the death as it were of everything in his own kind. and the whole substance of it. tending to some kind of either putrefaction or dispersion. and in the middle of all their pomp and glory. they chide and rebuke. but a little while ago. as from an higher place. How base and slavish. as the turning of the pestle in the mortar once about. And how all things particular in respect of these are for their substance. Then to fix thy mind upon every particular object of the world. what are the signs and proprieties of a good man. XX. and to conceive it. or whatsoever else it is. and to set before thee. Consider them through all actions and occupations. and of change. and within a very little while what will be their estate. (as it is indeed. as one of the least seeds that is: and for their duration. they were fain to be.

One of these must needs be. and desert places. and to desert havens. XXII. or what other desert and inhabited places soever. that they love to be. when she doth send it. which so long thou hast been used unto and therefore tolerable: or thou doest retire. imitated by the Latins. And so (say I) doth the world bear a certain affection of love to whatsoever shall come to pass With thine affections shall mine concur. Now that the world doth love it is true indeed so is it as commonly said. and acknowledged ledged. or leave the world. and converse with others as they are the same nature everywhere to be seen and observed: to them that have retired themselves to the top of mountains. when. The earth. by many philosophers so much esteemed of and affected. of things that used to be. O world. and then is it best. which Plato saith of his philosopher. and then mayst thou rejoice that thou hast ended thy charge. as if he were shut 152 . That is best for every one. and that of thine own accord.XXI. saith the poet. doth often long after the rain. and then thou hast thy mind: or thy life is cut off. are of themselves but thus and thus. For anywhere it thou wilt mayest thou quickly find and apply that to thyself. that the common nature of all doth send unto every one. saith he. in a place: as private and retired. according to the Greek phrase. which argues a mutual kind of love between them. XXIII. we say commonly. Be therefore of good comfort. XXIV Let it always appear and be manifest unto thee that solitariness. The same (and no other) shall the object of my longing be which is of thine. Either thou dost Continue in this kind of life and that is it. So is the glorious sky often as desirous to fall upon the earth. and that all things are them to them that live in towns.

angry. He therefore that forsakes the law. or afraid. Another cause succeedeth. 153 . thou must use to behold and contemplate. as the only nemwn (sp. But the law is every man's master. as I use it. and that once down. yet as plainly and visibly as thou canst see and discern the outward efficient cause of the depression and elevation of anything. though not with the eyes of the body. He that runs away from his master is a fugitive. but the power also by which they are effected. is a fugitive. and into strength. is. or distributor and dispenser of all things that happen unto any one in his lifetime—Whatsoever then is either sorry. and what is it. For he truly and properly is Nomoz. Again. that it is swayed by the motions and inclinations of it? XXV. and undertakes the work. and separated. These things therefore that are so secretly and invisibly wrought and brought to pass.up and enclosed about in some shepherd's lodge. he hath no more to do with it. From man is the seed. that belong unto man. and not the things themselves only. and in time brings a child (that wonderful effect from such a beginning!) to perfection. or shall be by his appointment. that I employ it about? Is it now void of reason ir no? Is it free. that is either sorry. and the affections: into life. man lets food down through his throat. or so affixed. that thou mayst behold it.). XXVI. whosoever he be. angry. that once cast into the womb man hath no more to do with it. Another cause succeedeth and distributeth this food into the senses. who is the Lord and Governor of the universe. So is he. or for anything that either hath been. which hath power over the rest? What is now the present estate of it. is a fugitive. or the law. on the top of a hill. There by thyself to put these questions to thyself or to enter in these considerations: What is my chief and principal part. and doth with it those other many and marvellous things. or afraid. so congealed and grown together as it were with the flesh.

fancy to thyself every one to be. that grieves for any worldly thing and takes on. When thou art offended with any man's transgression. and after the same fashion that now they are: and so to think of those things which shall be hereafter also. What? because I shall do this no more when I am dead. the whole court of Antoninus Pius. whole dramata. consider of it by thyself. XXIX. is a necessity imposed upon all creatures equally. who upon his bed alone. that of Alexander. For thou shalt find that they are all but after one sort and fashion: only that the actors were others. that Unto reasonable creatures only it is granted that they may willingly and freely submit unto Providence: but absolutely to submit. or by reading of ancient histories. or scenes that comprehend the lives and actions of men of one calling and profession. have been heretofore much after the same sort. Such a one is he also. that of Croesus): to set them all before thine eyes. should therefore death seem grievous unto me? XXX. As a pig that cries and flings when his throat is cut. and ask thyself. the whole court of Philippus. doth bewail the miseries of this our mortal life. And remember this. how all things that now are. Moreover. Ever to mind and consider with thyself. presently 154 . Whatsoever it is that thou goest about. (as the whole court of Adrianus. as many as either in thine own experience thou hast known.XXVII. XXVIII. and uniform scenes.

that whatsoever is once changed. when Alciphron. XXXI. that beholdeth everything according to its true nature. but fit objects for an understanding. how long shalt thou endure? And why doth it not suffice thee. that is allotted unto thee? XXXII. For all these things. or Severus. Then let this come to thy mind at the same time. thou mayest pass that portion of time.reflect upon thyself. that he was constrained by his error and ignorance so to do: for how can he choose as long as he is of that opinion? Do thou therefore if thou canst. And thou then. of Tropaeophorus. What a subject. and what a course of life is it. that vanisheth away: or. to exercise itself upon? Be patient. shall never be again as long as the world endureth. that forceth him to do as he doth. and so for every one. As that thou also perchance dost think it a happiness either to be rich. take away that from him. mere nothing. and consider what thou thyself art guilty of in the same kind. think of Socraticus and Eutyches. and Sylvanus. whatsoever thou doest cast into it) thou have made these things also familiar. or to live in pleasure. For this if thou shalt call to mind. therefore. or Hymen. When thou seest Satyro. thou shalt soon forget thine anger. until that (as a strong stomach that turns all things into his own nature. or to be praised and commended. and as a great fire that turneth in flame and light. and where now are they all? Nowhere or anywhere? For so shalt thou at all time be able to perceive how all worldly things are but as the smoke. how little soever it be. and as becometh thee. Especially when thou shalt call to mind this also. of Crito. and when Euphrates. think of Eutychio. and as it were natural unto thee. especially when at the same time this also shall concur in thy thoughts. and so of the rest in particular. 155 . if virtuously. indeed. fancy unto thyself some one or other of the Caesars. that thou doest so much desire to be rid of. And when thou doest look upon thyself. some one or other that hath been for estate and profession answerable unto him. when Xenophon. what are they.

XXXIII. But here contrariwise. that thou mayest do according to thine own nature. For who is it that should hinder thee from being either truly simple or good? Do thou only resolve rather not to live. nor unto any other thing. nor unto the fire. For all this doth depend of thee. whereby they are made worse. For all other kind of hindrances that are not hindrances of thy mind either they are proper to the body. or. But of the mind and understanding this is the proper privilege. that according to its own nature. become worse than he was before. that thou art not truly simple. For indeed neither doth it stand with reason that he should live that is not such. whosoever he be that meets with any of them. whatsoever may be done conformably and agreeably to the proper constitution of man. be unto thee. as neither unto the water. to do in everything that presents itself. until such time as that. For so is it in all other subjects. to man as he is a man. and keep straight on forwards. or as the stone downwards. that either is merely natural. Else must he of necessity. whatsoever it be. than not to be such. and as it will itself. as though thou wert hindered. Unto the cylindrus. either be said or done? For whatsoever it be. nor do any hurt at all. or natural and sensitive. What then is it that may upon this present occasion according to best reason and discretion. and cowardly suffering itself to be foiled. Let it not be in any man's power. what pleasure is unto the voluptuous. it is in thy power either to do it. but not rational for many things there be that can hinder their operations. it is not granted to move everywhere according to its own proper motion. and seek not after any other thing. And to do this. to say truly of thee. Thou wilt never cease groaning and complaining. every place will fit thee. and therefore seek not any pretences. reason not making that resistance that it should. upwards. but basely. Setting therefore before thine eyes this happiness and felicity of thy mind. or roller. or to say it. or as the cylindrus through that which is sloping: content thyself with it. or not good. Let him be deceived whosoever he be that shall have any such opinion of thee. whether as the fire. or merely proceed from the opinion. man (if he make that good use of them that he should) is rather the better 156 . that that is thought hurtful unto them. it can pass through every obstacle that it finds. and of themselves can neither wound. or sincere and open. For thou must account that pleasure. and is capable of all motions. whereby it is able to pass through all things.

Then blows the wind. some come into the world. But generally remember that nothing can hurt a natural citizen. So is the generation of men. Then do the trees begin to bud again. in whose memories the names of men famous after death. And they also that shall follow. and others go out of it. And they also that applaud thee so gravely. O wisely spoken I and speak well of thee. to put him out of all grief and fear. they are but leaves neither. everything almost that he sees or reads be it never so short or ordinary. and they are put forth. As he that is bitten by a mad dog. and they go down. to endure but for a while. they also are but leaves. or. as that of the poet. or fly from them. with that their usual acclamation.' Of these leaves then thy children are. by which public societies are maintained: neither therefore do they hurt either city or citizen. nor anything hurt the city. For even so is it of all these worldly things. axiopistwz. But none of these casualties. XXXIV. or. as on the other side. they that stick not to curse thee. whom the dogmata have once bitten. Their spring comes. like unto them. and their leaves fall upon the ground. But. 'The winds blow upon the trees. that is not hurtful unto the city itself. are contrary to that course of justice and equity. and by the spring-time they put forth new branches. than otherwise. and for him that carries thee to thy grave shall another mourn within a while after.and the more praiseworthy for any of those kind of hindrances. as though they should endure for ever? Yet a little while. that applaud thy speeches. doth afford a good memento. 157 . that is not hurtful unto the law itself. Why then shouldest thou so earnestly either seek after these things. And then in lieu of them grow others out of the wood or common matter of all things. is common unto all. is afraid of everything almost that he seeth: so unto him. and thine eyes will be closed up. or external hindrances. they that privately and secretly dispraise and deride thee. do hurt the law itself. or in whom true knowledge hath made an impression. is preserved.

will be ready to rejoice at his supposed calamity. he did much condemn us. thou shalt die the more willingly. than they did before. so must thy separation from them be. for which there be many that glad would be to be rid of us. who thus will say to himself. whensoever thou diest. I am ready to depart. after that which is tender. but yet without either reluctancy or compulsion. and not green things only. as a millstone is. hoping that after my death they shall live happier. But he that saith. to whatsoever she was made for to grind. to wish them well. but that some of those that are by him when he dies. wherein those that have been my nearest friends and acquaintances. So must a good ear. as from friends and kinsmen. and gently to carry thyself towards them. or smelt: and a good stomach as indifferent to all kinds of food. and meekly. XXXVI. I am now to depart from that world. 'Well now at last shall I be at rest from this pedagogue. or as teeth. But as it fareth with them that die an easy quick death. thou must not be less kind and loving unto them for it. He did not indeed otherwise trouble us much: but I know well enough that in his heart. For that is proper to sore eyes. so often prayed for. A good eye must be good to see whatsoever is to be seen. What then should any man desire to continue here any longer? Nevertheless. Is it one that was virtuous and wise indeed? will there not some one or other be found.' Thus will they speak of the virtuous. There is not any man that is so happy in his death.XXXV. and for whom I have taken such care. This therefore if thou shalt think of whensoever thou diest. For this also is according to Nature. But as for us. see them. whose soul is soon separated from their bodies. To these had nature joined and annexed me: now she parts us. continue to be their friend. when thou shalt think with thyself. but yet so that on the other side. As ready therefore must a sound understanding be for whatsoever shall happen. O that my children might live! and. but as before. and a good smell be ready for whatsoever is either to be heard. they whom I have so much suffered for. O that all men might commend me for whatsoever I do! is an eye that seeks after green things. 158 . alas I how many things be there. it make thee not the more unwilling to die. even they would have me die.

or the pen to the writer. as often. What is this man's end in this his action? But begin this course with thyself first of all. or a case. but that which is hidden within every man's dogmata. and the many and curious instruments that it hath annexed unto it. and naturally sticking unto us. that is life. Use thyself. but that they are born with us. presently (if it be possible) to say unto thyself. 159 . those parts are of themselves of no more use unto us. let them not trouble thy thoughts. without the inward cause that hath power to move them. or the other way. is not any external thing properly. as thou seest any man do anything. and hath power over the affections to draw them either one way. that is rhetoric. that that which sets a man at work. compasseth thee about. which as a vessel. than the shuttle is of itself to the weaver. As for thy body. and opinions: That. For of themselves they are but as a carpenter's axe. XXXVIII. and diligently examine thyself concerning whatsoever thou doest. Remember. or the whip to the coachman. and to restrain them.XXXVII. that (to speak true) is man himself. But otherwise.

both past and future. and sees clearly this. and mere outside (wanting substance and solidity) of it. can make that which she hath in her hand whatsoever it be. that doth so conquer thee. complete and full. who if they be interrupted in any part of their action. and privileges of a reasonable soul are: That she seeth herself. And so for shame. trees. and considers withal. and penetrateth into the vanity. II. and not to themselves. and the revolution or restoration of all things after a certain period of time. Again. as with dancers and players. As proper is it. and natural to the soul of man to love her neighbour. The natural properties. and of every one in particular shall ask thyself. that we have not seen. and therefore that justice is the chief thing. and compose herself: that she makes herself as she will herself: that she reaps her own fruits whatsoever. her life doth end. or analogically only) they bear.' Again. and stretcheth herself unto the infiniteness of eternity. what fruit soever (be it either fruit properly. 'I have lived. anything more than we: but that he that is once come to forty (if he have any wit at all) can in a manner (for that they are all of one kind) see all things. shall see any new thing. to the same state and place as before. and to regard nothing so much as herself: which is also the property of the law: whereby by the way it appears. unreasonable creatures. if accordingly thou shalt consider it. A pleasant song or dance. that she can order.THE ELEVENTH BOOK I. that sound reason and justice comes all to one. sooner or later. she fetcheth about. the Pancratiast's exercise. so that she may depart with that comfort. 160 . nor they that went before. and wheresoever. thou shalt easily contemn. whether this or that sound is it. sports that thou art wont to be much taken with. For it is not with her. the whole action must needs be imperfect: but she in what part of time or action soever she be surprised. that neither they that shall follow us. whensoever. they bear them unto others. to be true and modest. For thou wilt be ashamed of it. if the harmonious voice thou shalt divide into so many particular sounds whereof it doth consist. she compasseth the whole world. and doth comprehend in herself. she hath her own end nevertheless. that reasonable creatures ought to propose unto themselves as their end. neither want I anything of that which properly did belong unto me. whereas plants.

and that even they that cry out so mournfully 161 . and some Concerning the proper and particular constitution of man? V. III. as Christians are wont. IV. some Concerning the nature of the universe. would not by the same things in a greater stage be grieved and afflicted: for here you see what is the end of all such things. remember presently thus to divide it. Generally then. and those things that proceed from virtue that thou art subject to be much affected with. not from an obstinate and peremptory resolution of the mind.every particular motion and posture by itself: and so for the wrestler's exercise too. with discretion and gravity. but without any noise and passionate exclamations. See that this upon all occasions may present itself unto thy mind. and never cease to think of it. and by this kind of division. it must proceed. This thou must transfer and apply to thy whole life also. whether by way of extinction. That soul which is ever ready. so that others may be persuaded also and drawn to the like example. whatsoever it be. violently and passionately set upon Opposition. how blessed and happy is it! But this readiness of it. but by certain theorems and doctrines. besides virtue. Have I done anything charitably? then am I benefited by it. in each particular to attain unto the contempt of the whole. or dispersion. And how should this be well brought to pass. or continuation in another place and estate to be separated. even now presently (if need be) from the body. Tragedies were at first brought in and instituted. to put men in mind of worldly chances and casualties: that these things in the ordinary course of nature did so happen: that men that were much pleased and delighted by such accidents upon this stage. but from a peculiar judgment. What is thy profession? to be good.

or New Comedy admitted for. which had the liberty to inveigh against personal vices. the Author of this society. And again. (Or for the most part at least) for the delight and pleasure of curious and excellent imitation? 'It will steal away. but he that hates and is averse. but as we have said? VI. but that these also have some good things whereof that may be one: but the whole drift and foundation of that kind of dramatical poetry. cuts himself off from his neighbour. A branch cut off from the continuity of that which was next unto it. To which end it was.' &c. what is it else. as well as others. what were either the Middle. being therefore through this her freedom and liberty of speech of very good use and effect. and knows not that at the same time he divides himself from the whole body. they have some reason even for that. once cut of 162 . 'To reap one's life.to Cithaeron. is divided from the whole society. And in very truth many good things are spoken by these poets. once cut off we may grow together and become part of the whole again. A branch is cut off by another. 'It will but little avail thee to storm and rage against the things themselves.' &c. or corporation. Why. look to it. How clearly doth it appear unto thee. that no other course of thy life could fit a true philosopher's practice better. in that. no man denies. that is of the same kind. But if this happen often the misery is that the further a man is run in this division. than this very course. Again.' and whatsoever else is to be found in them. as that (for example) is an excellent passage: 'But if so be that I and my two children be neglected by the Gods. but merely. But herein is the gift and mercy of God. After these.' &c. that Diogenes took also the same liberty. After the tragedy. to restrain men from pride and arrogancy. the harder he is to be reunited and restored again: and however the branch which. must needs be cut off from the whole tree: so a man that is divided from another man. the ancient comedy was brought in. that thou art now already in? VII. as a ripe ear of corn. must bear them for all their cries and exclamations.

They that shall oppose thee in thy right courses. It is not possible that any nature should be inferior unto art. But be it thy care to keep thyself constant in both. and inconstant. or be apt to be deceived. Now common is it to all arts. since that all arts imitate nature. From justice all other virtues have their existence. Much more then doth the common nature do the same. or rash. but not in matter of opinions. is most improbable. that the most perfect and general nature of all natures should in her operation come short of the skill of arts. Let then thine own judgment and opinion concerning those things be at rest. as it is not in their power to divert thee from thy good action. that either shall do their endeavour to hinder thee. If this be so. X. The things themselves (which either to get or to avoid thou art put to so much trouble) come not unto thee themselves.afterwards was graffed in. so neither let it be to divert thee from thy good affection towards them. and much savouring of the disposition of a cowardly fugitive soldier. For justice cannot be preserved. and as for the things themselves. VIII. Hence is the first ground of justice. To grow together like fellow branches in matter of good correspondence and affection. to make that which is worse for the better's sake. who by nature is both thy friend and thy kinsman) is equally base. IX. or in the other to forsake thy natural affection towards him. they stand 163 . or at least will be displeased with thee for what thou hast done. and in true meekness towards them. but thou in a manner goest unto them. both in a right judgment and action. and still continued in the unity of the body. if either we settle our minds and affections upon worldly things. gardeners can tell you is not like that which sprouted together at first. For to fail in either (either in the one to give over for fear.

but shineth all with light. I for my part will be kind and loving unto all. both that of the universe. and her own in particular. may behold a man truly free from all indignation and grief. like unto a sphere or globe. They contemn one another. whereby she does see and behold the true nature. or lies flat and dejected. nor basely contracts herself. XII. upon what grounds he does it: my care shall be that I may never be found either doing or speaking anything that doth truly deserve contempt. and so shall all pursuing and flying cease. Then is the soul as Empedocles doth liken it. Will any contemn me? let him look to that. and as the common good shall require) accept of that which is now seasonable to the nature of the universe? XIII. without any noise or stir at all. and even unto him that hates me. as long as thou mayest do that which is proper and suitable to thine own nature? Wilt not thou (a man wholly appointed to be both what. For it is inwardly that these things must be: that the Gods who look inwardly. but ingenuously and meekly: such as was that famous Phocion. if so be that he did not dissemble. For what hurt can it be unto thee whatsoever any man else doth. when she is all of one form and figure: when she neither greedily stretcheth out herself unto anything. XI.still and quiet. and not upon the outward appearance. Will any hate me? let him look to that. will I be ready to show his error. not by way of exprobation or ostentation of my patience. and yet they seek to please one another: 164 . whom-soever he be.

is to continue but for a while. when she is affected with indifferency. and kindness cannot so be hidden. Such must he be for all the world. Remembering moreover. but that as we have already said in the very eyes and countenance they will show themselves. towards those things that are by their nature indifferent. There is nothing more shameful than perfidious friendship. However true goodness. may as it were smell him whether he will or no. To live happily is an inward power of the soul. rejoice in them. that this care and circumspection of thine. seek thou that 165 . It ought to be written upon thy forehead. XV. neither can come to us. How rotten and insincere is he. and then thy life will be at an end.and whilest they seek to surpass one another in worldly pomp and greatness. and let them be pleasing and acceptable unto thee. that saith. And what should hinder. that whosoever stands by. O man. they most debase and prostitute themselves in their better part one to another. and as it were print in ourselves opinions concerning them. it is in our power to wipe them off. but stands without still and quiet. But if they be against nature. XIV. than thy countenance must be able to show what is in thy mind: even as he that is loved knows presently by the looks of his sweetheart what is in her mind. that is truly simple and good. as he whose arm-holes are offensive. but that we ourselves beget. as soon as ever he comes near him. and if they creep in and lurk in some corner. but that thou mayest do well with all these things? For if they be according to nature. To be thus affected she must consider all worldly objects both divided and whole: remembering withal that no object can of itself beget any opinion in us. what doest thou mean! what needs this profession of thine? the thing itself will show it. not to print them. simplicity. I am resolved to carry myself hereafter towards you with all ingenuity and simplicity. that must be avoided. But the affectation of simplicity is nowise laudable. No sooner thy voice is heard. Now it is in our power. Above all things.

no soul doth willingly err. so by consequent neither doth it anything otherwise than it ought. or covetousness. And though perchance thou doest forbear the very act of some sins. Thirdly. But if not rightly. or what it will be like unto when it is changed. and even those things that they do. thou art restrained. Of everything thou must consider from whence it came. before he be able truly and judiciously to judge 166 . For as. but that either through fear. and upon their beds. as a ram is first in a flock of sheep. that thou thyself doest transgress in many things. use all possible speed for the attainment of it: for no man ought to be blamed. or some such other ambitious foolish respect. or unconscionableness. according to Plato's opinion. XVI. how they are forced by their opinions that they hold. What reference have I unto these? and that we are all born for one another's good: then more particularly after another consideration. and a bull in a herd of cattle. For many things are done by way of discreet policy. And as for other men's either foolishness or wickedness. and all better for one another's sake.which is according to thine own nature. and so forth. thou hast no reason to be grieved. then must we needs grant that there is a nature. to do what they do. first generally thus. even from this: if atoms be not the beginning of all things. that doth govern the universe. But above all things. and generally a man must know many things first. and through mere ignorance. for seeking his own good and happiness. Therefore are they grieved. either of injustice. or in general. that if they do these things rightly. at board. that whether they have sinned or no. it must needs be that they do them against their wills. but against her will. what manner of men they be. and that it can suffer no hurt by this change. with what pride and self-conceit they do them. or vainglory. If such a nature. yet hast thou in thyself an habitual disposition to them. Secondly. and into what it will be changed: what will be the nature of it. that it may not trouble and grieve thee. than which to believe nothing can be more absurd. so am I born to rule over them. whensoever they hear themselves charged. of what things it doth consist. Fifthly. then are all worse things made for the better's sake. of any injurious kind of dealing towards their neighbours. and whether it be for thy credit or no. thou doest not understand perfectly. Fourthly. and art even such another as they are. Begin yet higher.

and be content to part with that conceit of thine. That in this. whilest thou art yet alive. or vigour and fortitude: whereof anger and indignation is altogether void. Seventhly. little doest thou remember then that a man's life is but for a moment of time. For the nearer everything is unto 167 . so of more manhood. how many things may and do oftentimes follow upon such fits of anger and grief. be not the only true evil that is. as it savours of more humanity. to commit many unjust things. we were not born for this. and equally hurtful. see that thou remember well: and begin one day. or ostentation. for they have their existence in their minds and understandings only. if thou shalt still continue meek and loving unto him. and to instruct him better? As for example. not scoffingly. though there be more present at the same time. and that within a while we shall all be in our graves. But on the other side thou must take heed. there is strength and nerves. Remove then. thou also wilt be driven whilest thou doest follow the common instinct of nature. These nine particular heads. and that even at that time. For how shall even the most fierce and malicious that thou shalt conceive. But how should I remove it? How? reasoning with thyself that it is not shameful. Ninthly. as much to flatter them. that commit them. Eighthly.of another man's action. and in good temper. may admire thee: but so always that nobody be privy to it. that will make to the attainment of thy intended worldly ends. Neither must thou do it by way of exercise. and to become a thief. than those very things which we are so grieved or angry for. be able to hold on against thee. and anything. my son: and so to show him forcibly and fully. nor any other creatures that are naturally sociable. that it is a grievous thing. but that to be meek and gentle. it will be thy hurt not mine. For if that which is shameful. when he is about to do thee wrong. far more grievous in themselves. to be a man indeed. that it is so in very deed: and that neither bees do it one to another. and not affected or hypocritical. But this thou must do. to avoid that which is evil. that whensoever thou doest take on grievously. thou shalt be well disposed. that they that are by and hear thee. but himself alone: yea. and thou hast removed thine anger. or makest great woe. but our own opinions concerning those sins. take it presently to thy consideration. Sixthly. as to be angry with them: for both are equally uncharitable. not by way of exprobation. that to be angry is not the part of a man. My son. if it be true and natural. to hurt and annoy one another. that it is not the sins and transgressions themselves that trouble us properly. And in thy passions. with all meekness to teach him. that meekness is a thing unconquerable. but tenderly without any harshness of words. as so many gifts from the Muses.

or consistent. XVIII. yet is it against its nature both raised upwards. So whatsoever is in thee. So obedient are even the elements themselves to the universe. and should not endure to keep its place: yea though it be nothing enjoined that is contrary unto it. that there should be wicked men in the world. Is it not a grievous thing then. And as grief doth proceed from weakness. both he that is angry and that grieveth. For both. but not to endure that any should transgress against himself. although by nature it tend upwards. so doth anger. Now for a man to brook well enough. submitting nevertheless to the ordinance of the universe.unpassionateness. until the sound as it were of their retreat. and standing. it abides here below in this mixed body. which to be aware of. abiding patiently wheresoever (though against their nature) they are placed. This imagination is not necessary. than which nothing can be more senseless and absurd: for the fourth. to become subject and obnoxious to that more ignoble part of thy body. and separation. What portion soever. either earthy. have received a wound. although by nature it tend downwards. to look that there should be no wicked men in the world. is against all equity. and cowardly have as it were yielded themselves unto their affections. thou must rectify them. for that thou doest suffer that more divine part in thee. that thy reasonable part only should be disobedient. the nearer it is unto power. thou shalt sharply check and upbraid thyself. Four several dispositions or inclinations there be of the mind and understanding. or humid. because it is impossible. but that only which is according 168 . XVII. receive this tenth gift from Hercules the guide and leader of the Muses: that is a mad man's part. either of air or fire there be in thee. and the gross lusts and concupiscences thereof. and indeed tyrannical. or instrument. saying to thyself concerning every one of them. If thou wilt have a tenth also. thou must carefully observe: and whensoever thou doest discover them. this is uncharitable: this thou shalt speak as another man's slave.

which is not commonly and publicly good: so must the end also that we propose unto ourselves. that it tends upwards towards its proper element. and without which we cannot happily converse one with another: yea and the very ground and fountain indeed of all just actions. XIX. For he that doth direct all his own private motions and purposes to that end. or air. XX.to its nature? For we cannot say of it when it is disobedient. all his actions will be agreeable and uniform. Remember the fable of the country mouse and the city mouse. or to fear. we are bound unto. or to sorrow. as well as unto justice: these also being part of those duties. be common and sociable. But this will not suffice except thou add also what ought to be this general end. 169 . or incontinency. and the great fright and terror that this was put into. and by that means will be still the same man. For as the general conceit and apprehension of all those things which upon no certain ground are by the greater part of men deemed good. is nothing else but a separation from nature. as of community: that nothing be conceived good. but that only which is limited and restrained by some certain proprieties and conditions. as we say of the fire. cannot possibly be one and the self-same man always. He that hath not one and the self-same general end always as long as he liveth. which as naturally sociable. then doth it likewise forsake its own place. For the motion of the mind to any injustice. cannot be uniform and agreeable. Also when the mind is grieved for anything that is happened by the divine providence. which specially consist in an humble submission to God and His providence in all things. For it was ordained unto holiness and godliness. for then goes it the quite contrary way.

In the ancient mystical letters of the Ephesians. the common bugbears of the world: the proper terror of silly children. What Socrates answered unto Perdiccas. XXII. The Lacedaemonians at their public spectacles were wont to appoint seats and forms for their strangers in the shadow. to put themselves in mind of them who constantly and invariably did perform their task: as also to put themselves in mind of orderliness. they themselves were content to sit anywhere. why he did not come unto him. and of naked simplicity. 170 .XXI. not able to requite the good that hath been done unto me. XXIV. and of purity. that a man should always have in his mind some one or other of the ancient worthies. XXV. XXIII. For no star or planet hath any cover before it. The Pythagoreans were wont betimes in the morning the first thing they did. Socrates was wont to call the common conceits and opinions of men. Lest of all deaths I should die the worst kind of death. to look up unto the heavens. there was an item. said he: that is. or good order.

he should say secretly with himself' (said Epictetus. or raisins: so many changes and mutations of one thing.) 'tomorrow perchance shall he die.' XXIX. with heinous and opprobrious words. before they be granted them. Xanthippe his wife having taken away his clothes. did retire themselves when they saw him thus decked. 171 . 'to cut down grapes when they are ripe. XXVII. XXX. so are they that long after children. and what he said to his fellows and friends. but rather so many several changes and mutations. not into that which was not absolutely. How Socrates looked.XXVI. when he was fain to gird himself with a skin. dried grapes. ripe grapes. 'As often as a father kisseth his child. but into that which is not yet in being. XXVIII. No words ominous (said he) that signify anything that is natural: in very truth and deed not more ominous than this. In matter of writing or reading thou must needs be taught before thou can do either: much more in matter of life. who were ashamed. to thy senses and brutish affections. As they that long after figs in winter when they cannot be had. and carried them abroad with her.' 'They will accuse even virtue herself.' But these words be ominous. not into that which hath no being at all.' destitute without teaching of all true knowledge and sound reason. and out of respect to him. 'For thou art born a mere slave. 'My heart smiled within me.' Green grapes.

that they may always be with their due restraint and reservation. Socrates said. or by the help of philosophy wise and sober. and according to the true worth of every present object. 'Of the free will there is no thief or robber:' out of Epictetus. but whether. It is not about ordinary petty matters. and that we should always observe with great care and heed the inclinations of our minds. that wholly depend of our own wills.XXXI. Whose is this also: that we should find a certain art and method of assenting. believe it. XXXII. But what? Of those whose reason is sound and perfect? or of those whose reason is vitiated and corrupted? Of those whose reason is sound and perfect. And as for earnest longing. that we should altogether avoid it: and to use averseness in those things only. Why then labour ye not for such? Because we have them already. always charitable. with the vulgar. or unreasonable creatures? Of reasonable. said he. that all our strife and contention is. What then do ye so strive and contend between you?' 172 . we should be mad. 'What will you have? the souls of reasonable.

and in doing all things justly and discreetly. let not other men's either wickedness. and without ambiguity. if thou doest not envy thyself thine own happiness. thou shalt readily leave all things. If then thou shalt separate from thyself. Now in this good course. But the third alone is that which is properly thine. that 173 . nor the sense of this thy pampered mass of flesh: for let that which suffers. and all earthly dross. not that some time or other thou shalt cease to live. To righteousness. from which thou hadst thy beginning. refer thyself wholly to the Divine Providence. God beholds our minds and understandings. thou mayest even now enjoy and possess. first flowed and issued. as that thou art bound to take care for them. worthy of that world. if thou shalt forget all that is past. or opinion. wherewith thou art round about encumbered. thy body. must needs gain unto himself great rest and ease. as being that which the nature of the universe hath appointed unto thee. thy life. thou shalt rid thyself of that manifold luggage.THE TWELFTH BOOK I. To holiness. look to itself. For with His simple and pure understanding. And that will be. nor any such external furniture. and shalt bend and apply all thy present thoughts and intentions to holiness and righteousness. bare and naked from these material vessels. which also hath appointed thee for that. and outsides. in speaking the truth freely. and to wonder at those things that happen daily. as things strange and unexpected. and shalt respect thy mind only. Of these the two former. and anxiously to depend of divers things that are not in thy power. which thou doest consist of. and this shall be thine only fear. If therefore whensoever the time of thy departing shall come. are so far forth thine. II. whatsoever it be. Whatsoever thou doest hereafter aspire unto. or voice hinder thee: no. For he that does regard neither his body. nor his dwelling. Three things there be in all. nor his clothing. and thy mind. and for the future. and that divine part of thine. which from His. but thou shalt never begin to live according to nature: then shalt thou be a man indeed. He pierceth into our inmost and purest parts. then shalt thou cease to be a stranger in thy country. This if thou also shalt use to do. as it were by a water pipe and channel. in accepting willingly whatsoever is sent by the Divine Providence.

and shalt think of no longer life than that which is now present: then shalt thou be truly able to pass the remainder of thy days without troubles and distractions. with that spirit which is within thee. should more regard other men's opinions concerning himself than his own. and all time both past and future. should be overseen in this one only thing. III. should never be restored to life. and shalt make thyself in all points and respects. 'all round and circular.' &c. thou shalt separate from thy mind. should command any of us to think nothing by himself but what he should presently speak out. IV. that every man loving himself best. Thus do we fear more what our neighbours will think of us. and in good favour and correspondency. (as either belonging to thy body or life:) is without the jurisdiction of thine own will. I have often wondered how it should come to pass. whatsoever other men either do or say. I say. and speaking the truth always. so that thy mind (keeping herself loose and free from all outward coincidental entanglements. than what we ourselves.is from thy mind. or whatsoever thou thyself hast heretofore either done or said. and to herself. For if any God or grave master standing by. if. whatsoever by sympathy might adhere unto it. but be extinct for 174 . no man were able to endure it. and all troublesome thoughts concerning the future. that whereas then hath been some very good men that have made many covenants as it were with God and by many holy actions and outward services contracted a kind of familiarity with Him. that these men when once they are dead. accepting whatsoever doth happen. though but for one day.. always in a readiness to depart:) shall live by herself. how come it to pass that the Gods having ordered all other things so well and so lovingly. and whatsoever. nobly and generously disposed. doing that which is just. and whatsoever in the ordinary course of human chances and accidents doth happen unto thee. like unto Empedocles his allegorical sphere.

But this thou mayest be sure of. he is gone: whereas the other hath still his hand free. For the left hand we see. As for the use of thy dogmata. and behold clearly in themselves. that now seeking after this matter. But were not the Gods both just and good in the highest degree. thou durst not thus reason with them. 175 . if he lose his sword that he fights with. they should either unjustly or unreasonably oversee anything. how freely thou doest argue and contest with God. that this (if it be so indeed) would never have been so ordered by the Gods. Now if just and good. what manner of men both for soul and body we ought to be. VI. which he may easily turn and manage at his will. to consider the efficient causes of all things: the proper ends and references of all actions: what pain is in itself. because it hath been used unto it. (if so be that it be not so indeed) be therefore confident that it was not fit it should be so for thou seest thyself. all disguisement of external outside being removed and taken away. had it been more just so and had it been according to nature. whensoever death shall surprise us: the shortness of this our mortal life: the immense vastness of the time that hath been before. it could not be that in the creation of the world. which for the most part lieth idle because not used. what pleasure. than a gladiator. and will he after us: the frailty of every worldly material object: all these things to consider. thou must carry thyself in the practice of them. Let these be the objects of thy ordinary meditation: to consider. But now because it is not so. Use thyself even unto those things that thou doest at first despair of.ever. For this. what death: what fame or honour. rather like unto a pancratiastes. V. Again. had it been fit otherwise. yet doth it hold the bridle with more strength than the right. and that no man can truly be hindered by any other: that all is but conceit and opinion. how every man is the true and proper ground of his own rest and tranquillity. or one that at the same time both fights and wrestles with hands and feet. For certainly it was possible. the nature of the universe would easily have borne it.

All worldly things thou must behold and consider. (for it is through ignorance. How ridiculous and strange is he. Whatsoever doth happen in the ordinary course and consequence of natural events. If an absolute and unavoidable necessity. or a placable and flexible Providence) or all is a mere casual confusion. How happy is man in this his power that hath been granted unto him: that he needs not do anything but what God shall approve. whatsoever God doth send unto him? IX. (and that either an absolute necessity. form.VII. None then must be accused. that wonders at anything that happens in this life in the ordinary course of nature! XI. neither the Gods. dividing them into matter. and unavoidable decree. X. and reference. and that he may embrace contentedly. or their proper end. VIII. and therefore against their wills that they do anything amiss) must be accused. Either fate. why doest thou resist? If a placable and exorable 176 . void of all order and government. (for it is not possible. that they either wittingly or unwittingly should do anything amiss) nor men.

If all be a mere confusion without any moderator. Again. If it be not true. that he that would not have a vicious man to sin. to consider what the 177 . that in such a general flood of confusion thou thyself hast obtained a reasonable faculty.Providence. make thyself worthy of the divine help and assistance. is like unto him that would not have moisture in the fig. At the conceit and apprehension that such and such a one hath sinned. But if thou beest carried away with the flood. and righteousness. that the light of a candle indeed is still bright and lightsome until it be put out: and should truth. and temperance cease to shine in thee whilest thou thyself hast any being? XII. as it seems to be? But if it be. If it be not fitting. What do I know whether this be a sin indeed. speak it not. an object of compassion rather than of anger. Ever maintain thine own purpose and resolution free from all compulsion and necessity. or some other thing that belongs unto them that is carried away: thy mind and understanding cannot. it must be thy body perchance. thus reason with thyself. Of everything that presents itself unto thee. XIV. then hast thou reason to congratulate thyself. whereby thou mayest govern thine own life and actions. nor children to welp nor a horse to neigh. nor anything else that in the course of nature is necessary. remedy it if thou canst. do it not. Or should it be so. or thy life. what do I know but that he himself hath already condemned himself for it? And that is all one as if a man should scratch and tear his own face. XIII. For what shall he do that hath such an habit? If thou therefore beest powerful and eloquent. or governor.

by dividing it into that which is formal: that which is material: the true use or end of it. Neither can he that is the author of that operation. and all opinion depends of the mind. either of those things that now thou seest. to understand that there is somewhat in thee. and then as a ship that hath stricken in within the arms and mouth of the harbour. to have no other end than the common good. and the just time that it is appointed to last. and corrupted. can be truly said to suffer any evil. What is now the object of my mind. or of those men that now are living. The next. is it fear. Take thine opinion away. or lust. Remember that all is but opinion. all things safe and steady: a bay. that other things might succeed in their room. Likewise then. alas! yet a little while. Now this time or certain period.true nature of it is. better and more divine than either thy passions. XV. depends of the determination of 178 . because it is at an end. be said to suffer any evil for this very reason. No operation whatsoever it he. or suspicion. XVII. that did put a period to this series of actions. as it were. turned. be said to suffer any evil. because it is at an end. or thy sensual appetites and affections. XVI. for this very respect. ceasing for a while. not capable of any storms and tempests: as the poet hath it. neither can the whole body of all our actions (which is our life) if in time it cease. and thou art no more: no more will any. It is high time for thee. or any such thing? To do nothing rashly without some certain end. a present calm. be any more. For all things are by nature appointed soon to be changed. For. let that be thy first care. and to unfold it. because his operation is at an end. nor he truly be said to have been ill affected.

which is brought unto us by the order and appointment of the Divine Providence. however. Cast away from thee opinion.nature: sometimes of particular nature. until their expiration: of what things they are compounded. because it is not a shameful thing (for neither is it a thing that depends of our own will. or divinely led and inspired. as when a man dieth old. behold. and thou art safe. from on high as it were. that in that respect it must needs be good. and the wonderful mutability. XVIII. and by this concurrence of his will and mind with the Divine Providence. is led and driven along. Now that is ever best and most seasonable. as it is both expedient and seasonable to the whole. whether thou doest nothing either idly. These three things thou must have always in a readiness: first concerning thine own actions. And what is it that 179 . how vain all things will appear unto thee when. And. looking down thou shalt contemplate all things upon earth. but of nature in general. than justice and equity do require: and concerning those things that happen unto thee externally. the infinite both greatness and variety of things aerial and things celestial that are round about it. is equally against reason. or by providence. that they are subject unto: considering withal. or otherwise. may truly be termed and esteemed the *OEo~p7poc*. And that as often as thou shalt behold them. Secondly. of which two to accuse either. these be the things that we are so proud and puffed up for. nor of itself contrary to the common good) and generally. and into what things they shall be dissolved. what like unto our bodies are whilest yet rude and imperfect. until they be animated: and from their animation. the parts whereof thus changing one after another. It is that also. as it were by God Himself. that either they happen unto thee by chance. XIX. Thirdly. so that he whose will and mind in these things runs along with the Divine ordinance. the whole world still continues fresh and new. so the same shortness of continuance of all those things. Thus it appears that death of itself can neither be hurtful to any in particular. which is for the good of the whole. thou shalt still see the same: as the same things.

as one that followeth the Gods with all simplicity. is of all kind of pride and presumption. all to ashes. and Stertinius. XXI. Lucius Lupus. but of the same mind. the most intolerable. or of any other fortune or condition whatsoever. or mutual hatred and enmity. or how 180 . To them that ask thee. nor his life. who once for some one thing or other. for that they all proceed from that One who is the giver of all things: that all things are but opinion. XX. And therefore that no man whensoever he dieth can properly be said to lose any more. for a man to be proud and high conceited. is that which from ever hath been done in the world. Where hast thou seen the Gods. For. Thou hast also forgotten that every man's mind partakes of the Deity. than an instant of time. as Fabius Catulinus in the field. justly. and a mere fable. All is turned to smoke. who is in fault. were moved with extraordinary indignation. nor his body. As also whatsoever is of this nature. let these also run in thy mind at the same time. and how much more agreeable to true philosophy it is. and issueth from thence. and moreover. or calamity. that he is not proud and high conceited. Then consider what's now become of all those things. for a man to carry himself in every matter that offers itself. and moderately. and is now done everywhere: how nearly all men are allied one to another by a kindred not of blood. and how vile every object of such earnest and vehement prosecution is. no not his son. nor of seed. Let thy thoughts ever run upon them. that no man lives properly. at Baiae Tiberius at Caprem: and Velius Rufus. that what is now done. and all such examples of vehement prosecution in worldly matters. and perchance not so much as a fable. and that him only it concerns. and that no man can properly call anything his own. and will ever be done. hast thou forgotten that all things happen according to the nature of the universe.hinders thee from casting of it away? When thou art grieved at anything. who were once in the highest pitch of either honour. but that very instant of time which is now present.

XXII. this the particular nature.knowest thou certainly that there be Gods. Herein doth consist happiness of life. and to speak the truth. though it seem to be divided. and therefore worship them. and what is the form of it: with all his heart and soul. and desireth to be united: neither can this common affection. or reasonable faculty in them. 181 . So is there but one common intellectual soul. that even to the very eye. that it hath reference to whatsoever is of her own kind. or mutual unity and correspondency. one upon another immediately succeeding. though many of them contain a mind. though for never so little a while? XXIII. they are in some manner visible and apparent. ever to do that which is just. though divided into innumerable particular essences and natures. and never interrupted. for a man to know thoroughly the true nature of everything. What then remaineth but to enjoy thy life in a course and coherence of good actions. by the daily experience that I have of their power and providence towards myself and others. and yet I respect and honour it. There is but one light of the sun. But of every reasonable mind. that thou art so devout in their worship? I answer first of all. and other thousand objects. And as for all other parts of those generals which we have mentioned. Secondly. though it be intercepted by walls and mountains. There is but one common soul. neither have I ever seen mine own soul. I know certainly that they are. or confined to particulars as those other common things are. be here intercepted or divided. So then for the Gods. these of themselves (as naturally irrational) have no common mutual reference one unto another. as either sensitive souls or subjects. though it be concluded and restrained into several different bodies. whereby they are ruled and governed. There is but one common substance of the whole world. what is the matter. in number infinite.

XXVI. so 182 . What is the present estate of my understanding? For herein lieth all indeed. then are they as dead things unto me. did nevertheless many of them contemn death as much as any. To stir up a man to the contempt of death this among other things. and pain misery. they are without the compass of mine own will: and if without the compass of my will. and then decrease again? Wouldst thou long be able to talk. to whom. XXVII. What a small portion of vast and infinite eternity it is. that is allowed unto every one of us. proceed on unto the last. What? To enjoy the operations of a sensitive soul. in all things to follow God and reason. whether his actions be many or few. fancy not anything else in the world any more to be of any weight and moment but this. As for all other things.XXIV. and as it were mere smoke. is both against God and reason. and how soon it vanisheth into the general age of the world: of the common substance. After thou shalt rightly have considered these things with thyself. And can death be terrible to him. and of the common soul also what a small portion is allotted unto us: and in what a little clod of the whole earth (as it were) it is that thou doest crawl. which is. is of good power and efficacy. that even they who esteemed pleasure to be happiness. to think and reason with thyself? Which of all these seems unto thee a worthy object of thy desire? Now if of all these thou doest find that they be but little worth in themselves. But for a man to grieve that by death he shall be deprived of any of these things. to whom that only seems good. or of the appetitive faculty? or wouldst thou grow. and to conform thyself to that which the common nature doth afford. XXV. which in the ordinary course of nature is seasonable? to him. What doest thou desire? To live long. to do that only which thine own nature doth require.

belongs unto him only. doth now send thee out of the world? As if the praetor should fairly dismiss him from the stage. or for few years only. 183 . thou hast to do with neither.they be all good. three acts is the whole play. if (not a tyrant. whom he had taken in to act a while. Go thy ways then well pleased and contented: for so is He that dismisseth thee. As for thyself. what is it unto thee? Thou hast lived (thou mayest be sure) as long as the laws and orders of the city required. there are but three acts yet acted of it? Thou hast well said: for in matter of life. is all one. nor an unjust judge. so is now the cause of thy dissolution. who as first he was of thy composition. Oh. Whether just for so many years. and conversed in this great city the world. but) the same nature that brought thee in. Now to set a certain time to every man's acting. or no. and who whether he behold the things of the world being always the same either for many years. but the play is not yet at an end. is altogether indifferent? O man! as a citizen thou hast lived. Why then should it be grievous unto thee. which may be the common comfort of all.

as they interfere with the comfort of the reader. G. In a few cases. C. The text is probably right: "I did not frequent public lectures. Casaubon's own notes have been omitted. and so have some of the alternative renderings suggested by the translator. None of the emendations suggested is 184 ." VI Idiots… . Aurelius to have done the like. For some of the references identified I am indebted to Mr. certain emendations of his are mentioned. It should be borne in mind that Casaubon's is often rather a paraphrase than a close translation. tonvn is preferable. but the divisions of the text are left unaltered. XIII "Congiaries" (13). C. and it did not seem worth while to notice every variation or amplification of the original. Those which do not come under these two heads will explain themselves. supposes to conceal the letters kl as an abbreviation of Claudius. which he proposes in his notes.) as though from tonoz. dianomais. The text itself has been prepared by a comparison of the editions of 1634 and 1635. The reading of the Palatine MS. on proapsth Stich suggests a reading with much the same sense: … . but the meaning seems to be: "simple and unlearned men" XII "Claudius Maximus" (15). "doles.NOTES THIS being neither a critical edition of the text nor an emended edition of Casaubon's translation. which C. MS. Latin words in the text have been replaced by English." The reading of other MSS. C. in the sense of "strain. is enclosed in square brackets." XIV "Cajeta" (17). to mh. The reading is doubtful. In addition. one or two corrections are made where he has mistaken the Greek. and the translation might be misleading. because for the most part they are discursive. Gr. BOOK II "Both to frequent" (4). Numbers in brackets refer to the Teubner text of Stich. In those which here follow. philosophers (9). and supposes M. translates tonvn (Pal. Rendall's Marcus Aurelius." "rigour. XIII "Patient hearing… He would not" (16). In the original editions all that Casauhon conceives as understood.epimonon all antoi "Strict and rigid dealing" (16). H. and follows in the translation. and I was taught at home. The passage is certainly corrupt. but not expressed. C. (now lost) was paraklhsiz Maximon. These brackets are here omitted. translates his conjectural reading epimonon ollan. conjectures to me. spies a reference to Chryses praying by the sea-shore in the Illiad. it has not been thought necessary to add full notes. and not necessary to an understanding of what is written..

BOOK VII IX.). 197. The Greek means "straight. Op. "Do. (36). The sense required is: "Do not violence to thyself. There is no hiatus in the Greek. C. The Greek appears to contain quotations from sources not known. or rectified. iv. but C. The meaning may be "the good man ought" XVI." (~3). "Affected and qualified" (i4): exis. and this life for thee is all but done. etc." etc. "Thou hast… them" (33): A quotation from Homer. refers to a passage of Plutarch De Communibus Notitiis (c. "tragedian. it must be sarcastic. the power of cohesion shown in things inanimate. "For herein lieth all… . 1." with a play on the literal and metaphorical meaning of ortoz.e. Book II." XXIII. 2 corrects to "harlot. oikonomian (16) is a "practical benefit. but the text seems to be unsound. The verb has dropt out of the text. "Chrysippus" (42): C. C. "Wonder at them" (18): i. XXXVII.' ed." a secondary end. power of growth seen in plants and the like." BOOK IV XV." XLII. has supplied one of the required meaning. translates his conjecture olan for ola. yet have due place in a comedy as contributing to a certain effect. 1 has whoremonger. so long for each. "Roarer" (28): Gr.) BOOK VI XIII. but there are several variants which show how unsatisfactory it is. If the received reading be right. XXVII. where Chrysippus is represented as saying that a coarse phrase may be vile in itself. XXIX and XXX. 185 .satisfactory. which I do not understand. and the translation is a paraphrase. XL. XXXIX. soul" (6). translates "en gar o bioz ekasty so par eanty"." but omits to alter' the word at its second occurrence. "Man or men… " There is no hiatus in the Greek. Odyssey. 690. "One of the poets" (33): Hesiod. for thou hast not long to use self-respect. (One or two alterations are here made on the authority of the second edition. which means: "Whatever (is beneficial) for a man is so for other men also. fusiz. which means: "(And reason also shows) how man. translates his conjecture mh for h. C. BOOK V XIV." X. (52). XVII. "Consider. Life is not (v. is usually reckoned to begin. BOOK II III." Ed. This verb is not in the Greek. katorqwseiz (15): Acts of "rightness" or "straightness. mankind. xiv. "honour and credit do proceed" (12). et Dies. XXV. "Agathos" (18): This is probably not a proper name. At § XV. XI.

V. "Plato" Apology. Siymposium. BOOK X XXII." XXXVIII. "paltry breath bearing up corpses. 839 (Nauck). p. Belerophon. O noble sir. "Rhetoric" (38): Rather "the gift of speech". 147. compare Aeschylus. 512 D." i.' "The hardihood of Socrates was famous". life and wrestling. he was exposed on Cithaeron as an infant to die. 44. 66 i. XII. Euripides. frag. Danaides. Hypsipyle. XXXIV." etc. XXIV. "Plato" (23): Theaetetus. XXVII. "It will. XXV." etc." etc. "Frost" The word is written by Casaubon as a proper name. 2 and 22. frag. Aristophanes. Chryssipus. which by small degrees degenerated into a mere show of skill in mimicry.XIV. "Lives. contains the word daimwn in composition. Supplices. Gorgias. BOOK XI V. vi. "For thus" Apology. "matter. Oedipus Tyrannus. C. 220. Media. 486 A. Plato. vi. i. XXVII. p. but the words "or if it be but few" should be "that is little enough. quoted by Epictetus. XXXIV. 174 D. frag. The text is corrupt. 28 F. so that the tale of Dead Man's Land is clearer. frag. "Cithaeron" (6): Oedipus utters this cry after discovering that he has fulfilled his awful doom. or perhaps the "decree" of the reasoning faculty." C. XXXVII. "The poet" (21): Euripides." etc. Translate: "and understand to what end the New Comedy was adopted. XXXIII. "Pagus.e. frag. 28. p. see Plato. "New Comedy… ." etc. Euripides. 757 (Nauck). "As long." etc. XXII. "How know we. "The poet" (34): Homer. A quotation from Euripides. XXVI." etc. 898 (Nauck). Nova. Sophocles. p." XXII. "Wood": A translation of ulh. "Phocion" (13): 186 . endaimonia. "But. and the cry implies that he wishes he had died there. The Greek means. 1110. has here strayed from the Greek rather widely. writes Comedia Vetus. "They both. p. From Euripides. Acharne. The Greek means: "how know we whether Telauges were not nobler in character than Sophocles?" The allusion is unknown. Iliad." XXIII. "And as for those parts. Arr. 28 B. 287 (Nauck). 1391." etc. "Says he" (63): Plato. "Plato": Republic. "With meats.

3. Opera et Dies. "They will" From Hesiod. 413. 22. i. II." "Epictetus"(36): Arr. "Epictetus" Arr. Odyssey ix. 184. XXVIII. XXX. 37. "My heart. 105. (31): From Homer. "Cut down grapes" (35): Correct "ears of corn." etc.When about to be put to death he charged his son to bear no malice against the Athenians. 187 .

138-161 AD. Julius. Caius. called Dyscolus. Caesar. 356-323 B..C. cautious. Aposteme. a town on the Danube in Upper Pannonia. Caieta.C. Camillus.). surgeon. or Hadrian (76-138 A. Cecrops. Agrippa. Chirurgeon. of the Aegean Sea. a town in Latium. and an opponent of Plato. 46 B. excrescence. Charax.C. Carnuntum. Avoid.). Antisthenes of Athens. except that it must be later than Nero. Apollonius of Alexandria. Athos. first legendary King of Athens. first Roman Emperor (ruled 31 B. Apelles. and Conqueror of the East. Alexander the Great. a distinguished soldier under Augustus. Archimedes of Syracuse 287-212 B. Cato. whose date is unknown. Brutus (1) the liberator of the Roman people from their kings. King of Macedonia.GLOSSARY This Glossary includes all proper names (excepting a few which are insignificant or unknown) and all obsolete or obscure words. a mountain promontory at the N. one of the best princes that ever mounted a throne. Both names were household words. a Stoic who died by his own hand after the battle of Thapsus. BACCHIUS: there Were several persons of this name. Vipsanius (63-12 B. and absence of all exaltation at. and the one meant is perhaps the musician. 14th Roman Emperor. the most famous mathematician of antiquity. pleasure or good fortune.C Antoninus Pius.-14 AD. 5th century B. 188 . a famous painter of antiquity. called of Utica. M.). founder of the sect of Cynic philosophers. Cautelous.' a great grammarian.C. ADRIANUS. Augustus. His name was proverbial for virtue and courage. the Dictator and Conqueror.C. Apathia: the Stoic ideal was calmness in all circumstance an insensibility to pain. void. a famous dictator in the early days of the Roman Republic. and (2) the murderer of Caesar. D. perhaps the priestly historian of that name. or the 'ill-tempered. tumour. 15th Roman Emperor.

. 189 . and each had its distinguishing colour: russata (red). like a modern comic journal. and the indestructibility of matter. Nothing was good but virtue. The work called Encheiridion was compiled by a pupil from his discourses. a disciple of Plato. Circus. philosopher.. a painter. which criticised persons and politics." He believed in the transmigration of souls.C. Cynics. Born 345 B. he reigned 560-546 B. a famous Stoic philosopher.C. Dogmata. an Athenian orator. Many of them were very disgusting in their manners. prasina (green). or philosophical rules of life.' He invented the Atomic Theory.C. founded by Antisthenes. proverbial for wealth. drivers. lame. etc. a Cynic philosopher of the 4th century B.C. These were called Factiones. renowned for his rudeness and hardihood. such as Punck. veneta (blue).C. contentment. Conceit. Their texts were a kind of caricature of Socraticism. 280-207 B. Comedy. and contented. 5th century B. Murdered 353 B. who first laid down that there were "four elements. nothing bad but vice. opinion. a mountain range N. The Cynics repudiated all civil and social claims. Diognetus.C. a term applied to the Attic comedy of Aristophanes and his time. Croesus. Diogenes.. EMPEDOCLES of Agrigentum. and attempted to return to what they called a state of nature. then freedman. and poet. King of Lydia. Dispense with. Epictetus. pithy sayings. where games were held. Crates. There were four companies who contracted to provide horses. Cithaeron. Democritus of Abdera (460-361 B.' whose constant thought was 'What fools these mortals be.). He was of Phrygia. a school of philosophers. There was high rivalry between them. a philosopher. short. albata (white). Contentation. celebrated as the 'laughing philosopher. DEMETRIUS of Phalerum. put up with. and the founder of Stoicism as a systematic philosophy. statesman. of Attica.Chrysippus. the Cynic. poor. and riots and bloodshed not infrequently. at first a slave. See New Comedy.C. Compendious. fl.C. and afterwards tyrant of Syracuse. Dio of Syracuse. the Circus Maximus at Rome. ancient. born about 412 B. a Stoic philosopher.

son-in-law of Thrasea Paetus. Fronto. p. Eudoxus of Cnidus. He was banished by Nero." They proposed to live for happiness. and had none of the vice or indulgence which was afterwards associated with the name of Epicurean. and others are extant. Claudius. Herculaneum. Aurelius. He wrote on philosophy and natural science." i.C.Epicureans.C. ancient capital city of Achaia. the atomic theory.D. means merely the non-proficient in anything. MAECENAS. and wife of Verus. C. life." Hippocrates of Cos. a famous astronomer and physician of the 4th century B. GRANUA. and a munificent patron of wits and literary men. 342-270 B. Hercules. His character was simple and temperate. an astronomer of the 2nd century B. LEONNATUS. FATAL. a distinguished general under Alexander the Great. but the word did not bear that coarse and vulgar sense originally which it soon took. 167. and put to death by Vespasian." an urbane and kindly.C. Cornelius. the "layman. who "combined the physics of Democritus. 373 B." he who was not technically trained in any art.e. near Mount Vesuvius. Epicurus of Samos.. 190 . or calling. Lived at Athens in his "gardens. Hiatus. Helvidius Priscus. made consul in 143 A. about 460-357 B. One of the most famous physicians of antiquity. Maximus. Hipparchus of Bithynia. craft. a sect of philosophers founded by Epicurus. IDIOT. a rhetorician and pleader. daughter of M. should be Apollo.C. chance (adj. a trusted adviser of Augustus. a Cynic philosopher. Aur. M.C. swallowed up by an earthquake. Lucilla.). Menippus. See Muses. a Stoic philosopher. if somewhat useless. gap. who lived in the 6th century B. A number of his letters to M. Heraclitus of Ephesus. whom she survived. HELICE. a tributary of the Danube. "The true father of astronomy. fated. buried by the eruption of 79 AD. a noble man and a lover of liberty. "with the ethics of Aristippus. Fortuit.

New Comedy. 429-347 B. Prestidigitator. ta metewrologika. "the pruner of my periods. a noble and highminded man. wrestling school. near Mount Vesuvius. Middle Comedy. Middle things. as much poet as philosopher. but as "indifferent" they regarded most of those things which the world regards as good or bad. 4th century B. that things are what they are by participation with our eternal Idea. like a modern comic opera. torment. Pompeius. vice. Pompeii.). PALESTRA. Pheidias. See Comedy. NERVES. and father of Alexander the Great. Phocion. founder of the Macedonian supremacy. Their leader was Apollo. the nine deities who presided over various kinds of poesy." He was put to death by the State in 317. and left a message for his son "to bear no grudge against the Athenians. Ancient. buried in the eruption of 79 A. He was called by Demosthenes. He used the dialectic method invented by his master Socrates.C. such as wealth or poverty. "high philosophy." used specially of astronomy and natural philosophy. Ancient. some were "to be desired. music.C. gladiators armed with a small round shield (parma). The Stoics divided all things into virtue. strings." Muses. the Attic Comedy of Menander and his school. on a false suspicion." Pine. Pompeius Magnus.Meteores. Of these. followers of Plato. a very successful general at the end of the Roman Republic (106-48 B. the most famous sculptor of antiquity. Philippus. Pancratiast. He was. which criticised not persons but manners. and indifferent things. XXV. the Leader of the Muses. 191 . His "Commonwealth" was a kind of Utopia. something midway between the Old and New Comedy. See Comedy. Platonics.C. and New Comedy. a combined contest which comprised boxing and wrestling. Book 7. an Athenian general and statesman. D. which were bound up with other speculations. etc. Plato of Athens. Parmularii. one of whose titles is Musegetes. perhaps. competitor in the pancratium. juggler. C." some "to be rejected. He is generally identified with the Theory of Ideas.

an Athenian philosopher (469-399 B. a town in Latium. Salaminius. a Stoic philosopher. Socrates was ordered by the Thirty Tyrants to fetch him before them. skeleton. a philosopher.C. He wrote a large number of works on philosophy and natural history. limit (without implying niggardliness).C. QUADI. a philosophic system founded by Zeno (4th century B. refused. the Sececutores. a tribe dwelling in Poland. Their physical theory was a pantheistic materialism.).C. founder of the dialectic method. Aurelius. and moralist of the 6th century B.). XXXVII. Sextus of Chaeronea. Rusticus. a senator and Stoic philosopher. Sarmatae. simple. a school of philosophy founded by Pyrrho (4th contury B. Corn. Sceletum. and Socrates. The school is not unlike the Agnostic school. 192 ." and taught the relativity of knowledge and impossibility of proof. M. a tribe of S. RICTUS. Scipio Africanus. Corn. jaws. gape. light-armed gladiators. Silly. SACRARY. He advocated "suspension of judgment.C. Stint. Aurelius carried on war against them. P. nephew of Plutarch.). scientist.C. Scipio.Pythagoras of Samos. and P. and his successor as president of the Lyceum. Died 287 B. external things indifferent.). who destroyed Carthage. and systematised by Chrysippus (3rd century B. shrine. Socrates. Germany. Junius. Afr. their summum bonum "to live according to nature. common. or Stoic philosopher. He was condemned to death by Nero. a noble and courageous man. conqueror of Hannibal. Thrasea Pactus. Minor. pupil of Aristotle. twice made consul by M. and part of this book was written in the field. the name of two great soldiers. Put to death on a trumped-up charge by his countrymen. who were pitted against others with net and trident. Sceptics. Secutoriani (a word coined by C. P. Book 7.).C. he is sufficient to himself. Stoics." Their wise man needs nothing. Sc. THEOPHRASTUS. Thrasea. virtue is good. a philosopher. Sinuessa. vice bad. who came into the family by adoption. at his own peril. Leon of Sala-mis. Q.

2nd Roman Emperor (14-31 AD. 9th Roman Emperor XENOCRATES of Chalcedon.D. Lucius Aurelius. VERUS. off Naples. He married Lucilla. 13th Roman Emperor. and president of the Academy.D. 396-314 B. colleague of M. Aurelius in the Empire. He spent the latter part of his life at Capreae (Capri).C... To-torn. daughter of M. A.Tiberius.). torn to pieces. and died 169 A. 52-117 A. in luxury or debauchery. Vespasian. a philosopher. neglecting his imperial duties. 193 . Trajan.

Aristotle The Complete Aristotle Aristotle (384–322 BCE) was a Greek philosopher and student of Plato who stunningly changed the course of Western philosophy." This free collection of works in English has been adapted from the collection of The University of Adelaide Library at the University of Adelaide in South Australia under the freedoms specified by a 194 .Loved this book ? Similar users also downloaded Dante Alighieri The Divine Comedy Dante Alighieri's poetic masterpiece. up the arduous slopes of Purgatory.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2. The Divine Comedy. the source of the copies reproduced for this publication may be found at the online library of the University of Adelaide in South Australia. an unforgettable visionary journey through the infinite torment of Hell. Cicero. Noted as a student of Socrates. philosophical discourse. is a moving human drama.5/au/). this collection features only 25 authentic works from the reproduced source. Plato has distinguished himself as one of the founders of Western philosophy by recording the teachings of his master and his own philosophies in 35 dialogues and 13 letters (some are disputed as spurious). usable under the freedoms specified by a Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons." and his scope of thought and subsequent influence on the study of science. and theology has led many to dub him "The Philosopher. and on to the glorious realm of Paradise-the sphere of universal harmony and eternal salvation. However. He has gone down in history as one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Plato The Complete Plato Plato (428/427–348/347 BCE) was a Greek philosopher and mathematician of the Classic Age who founded the Academy of Athens. While there are many websites online where one may find digital copies of his translations. the Roman statesman and philosopher. once called his writing style "a river of gold. logic. Benjamin Jowett is credited for translating these works into English.

is an ancient Indian text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana. but approached from a more critical. polemical direction.Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons. much like Sun Tzu's The Art of War and Chanakya's Arthashastra. The work moves into the realm "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind the traditional morality which Nietzsche subjects to a destructive critique in favour of what he regards as an affirmative approach that fearlessly confronts the perspectival nature of knowledge and the perilous condition of the modern individual. The Kama Sutra is the oldest and most notable of a group of texts known generically as Kama Shastra). Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Kāma means sensual or sexual pleasure. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil Beyond Good and Evil (German: Jenseits von Gut und Böse). and sūtra are the guidlines of yoga. In Beyond Good and Evil. Musashi Miyamoto The Book of Five Rings Miyamoto Musashi's Go Rin no Sho or the book of five rings. the word itself means thread in Sanskrit. Traditionally. A portion of the work consists of practical advice on sex. subtitled "Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future" (Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft).5/au/).org/ licenses/by-nc-sa/2. Shiva's doorkeeper. is considered a classic treatise on military strategy. is a book by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. who was moved to sacred utterance by overhearing the lovemaking of the god and his wife Parvati and later recorded his utterances for the benefit of mankind. Nietzsche attacks past philosophers for their alleged lack of critical sense and their blind acceptance of Christian premises in their consideration of morality. Vatsyayana The Kama Sutra The Kama Sutra. It takes up and expands on the ideas of his previous work. the first transmission of Kama Shastra or "Discipline of Kama" is attributed to Nandi the sacred bull. first published in 1886. 195 .

which activity Freud famously described as "the royal road to the understanding of unconscious mental processes". but not published until 1532. it has long been praised as the definitive work on military strategies and tactics of its time. The first edition was first published in German in November 1899 as Die Traumdeutung (though post-dated as 1900 by the publisher). The Art of War is one of the oldest books on military strategy in the world. He taught that strategy was not planning in 196 . in fact.The five "books" refer to the idea that there are different elements of battle. five years after Machiavelli's death. each of which is devoted to one aspect of warfare. Originally called De Principatibus (About Principalities). Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. should need arise. a satire. The treatise is not representative of the work published during his lifetime. as described by Buddhism. and other Eastern religions. Sun Tzu The Art of War The Art of War is a Chinese military treatise that was written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. Composed of 13 chapters. The publication inaugurated the theory of Freudian dream analysis. Shinto. Sigmund Freud Dream Psychology The Interpretation of Dreams is a book by Sigmund Freud. and beyond. and the work responsible for bringing "Machiavellian" into wide usage as a pejorative term. just as there are different physical elements in life. Sun Tzu was the first to recognize the importance of positioning in strategy and that position is affected both by objective conditions in the physical environment and the subjective opinions of competitive actors in that environment. Through the book Musashi defends his thesis: a man who conquers himself is ready to take it on on the world. it was written in 1513. but it is the most remembered. It is the first and one of the most successful works on strategy and has had a huge influence on Eastern and Western military thinking. business tactics. It has also been suggested by some critics that the piece is.

Planning works in a controlled environment. not only for Taoism but Chinese Buddhism. Laozi Tao Te Ching The Tao Te Ching is fundamental to the Taoist school of Chinese philosophy and strongly influenced other schools. aided by hundreds of translations into Western languages. painters. and even gardeners have used the Tao Te Ching as a source of inspiration. but in a competitive environment. 197 . including poets. calligraphers. which when first introduced into China was largely interpreted through the use of Taoist words and concepts. Its influence has also spread widely outside East Asia.the sense of working through a to-do list. Many Chinese artists. such as Legalism and Neo-Confucianism. but rather that it requires quick and appropriate responses to changing conditions. This ancient book is also central in Chinese religion.

feedbooks.www.com Food for the mind 198 .

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