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DIRECT SHEAR TEST
SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA
Frictional – due to friction between individual particles. A normal load is applied to the specimen and the specimen is sheared across the pre-determined horizontal plane between the two halves of the shear box.DIRECT SHEAR TEST OBJEVTIVES To determine the shear strength parameters for a given soil using the direct shear test. sand sample can be placed in a dry state at a required density. Then specimen for the direct shear test could be obtained using the correct cutter provided. a soil sample may be compacted at optimum moisture content in a compaction mould. the shear strength parameters can be determined. It is made up of basically the components. Alternatively. Cohesive . Measurements of shear load. The test is repeated foe two or more identical specimens under different normal loads. 1. τf = c + σf tan ø Where τf = shearing resistance of soil at failure c = apparent cohesion of soil σf = total normal stress on failure plane ø = angle of shearing resistance of soil (angle of internal friction) This equation can also be written in terms of effective stresses. 2. To facilitate the remoulding purpose. From the results. shear displacement and normal displacement are recorded. THEORY The strength of a soil depends of its resistance to shearing stresses. . INTRODUCTION The test is carried out on either undisturbed samples or remoulded samples.due to adhesion between the soil particles The two components are combined in Colulomb’s shear strength equation. in the assembled shear box.
uf uf = pore water pressure on failure plane PROCEDURE 1. Carefully transfer the sample into shear box . Compact the soil sample in mould after bringing it to optimum moisture condition 3.τf = c’ + σ’f tan ø’ Where c’ = apparent cohesion of soil in terms of effective stresses σ'f = effective normal stress on failure plane ø’ = angle of shearing resistance of soil in terms of effective stresses σ'f = σf . Assemble the shear box 2.
two diagonally opposite screws. wait till the dial gauges indicate a constant reading and then reset the dial gauge to zero 8. Place the loading plate on top of the upper porous plate. Remove the alignment screws which hold two halves of the shear box together 6. If there is any vertical displacement. until there is a small gap between upper and lower boxes to reduce the frictional force 7. After recording the weight of the loading carrier place it is on the loading cap. Apply the desired normal load. Position all dial gauges and set the readings to zero. Check that screws have been removed and then start the motor to produce the desired constant rate of shearing .4. Tighten the remaining. 5.
a) Importance of the shear strength in soil b) The normal displacement behavior of the specimen during shearing c) Different types of shear tests d) The main advantages and disadvantages of shear box test e) Reliability of the results and the factors most likely to influence the reliability . Plot the graph of shear strength Vs normal stress for the three specimens and calculate the shear strength parameters for the soil. REPORT Your report should include a brief but accurate description of the test procedure and all the above mentioned graphs. Shear stress Vs shear displacement b. Take readings of. Void ratio Vs shear displacement 2.e. Also it should include a discussion of the followings. Remove the soil and repeat the procedure with different normal loads at least for another two samples COMPUTATION 1. Stop the test when the shear load starts to reduce or remains constant for at least three readings 11. For each specimen plot the following. a) Shear load from the proving ring b) Shear displacement (i. Normal displacement Vs shear displacement c. a. Horizontal displacement) c) Vertical displacement at every 10 division increment in horizontal dial gauge 10.9.
Department of Civil Engineering University of Moratuwa Direct Shear Test Results Load Deformation Readings Project : Sample No. Ring Dis. : Type of Test : Proving reading Constant = Vertical Dial Gauge Constant : Normal Load Applied = Horizontal Dial Gauge Constant : Moisture Content Mass of Wet sample + Can (g) = Determination Mass of Dry sample + Can (g) = Mass of Can (g) = Moisture Content (%) = Shear Disp. Void Ratio (kg) Stress reading (mm) (kN/m2) 0 10 20 30 40 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 . Proving Vertical Change in Void Ratio Shear force Shear div.
65 = = Specimen calculation for Vertical displacement/ Void ratio 01 div.0254mm = ∆H (1+ e0)/H = = = Specimen calculation for Shear displacement . V Weight of the soil sample. ∆e Corresponding Void ratio e = e0 – ∆e = 0.Hb2 H1 H2 = = = = = 60mm X 60 mm = = Calculations: Thickness of the soil sample. GS = 2.Hb1)/2.4mm = 0. e0 = = W1-W2 = W/V = = GSγw/ γd – 1.001x25. W Dry Density of Soil sample.Ht1)/2 = = Volume of the soil. H = H1-H2-( Hb2.Ht2+(Ht2.Ht2 Hb1.TEST :3 Normal Stress = 150 kN/m2 Observations : Weight of shear box without sand Weight of shear box with sand Top plate dimensions Bottom plate dimensions Shear box dimensions Internal height of the shear box (without sand) Internal height of the shear box (with sand) W1 W2 Ht1. γd Initial Void ratio. of vertical dial gauge reading Corresponding Void ratio change.
of Proving ring reading Area correction for shear displacement Eg.01 div. of horizontal dial gauge reading = 0. For shear displacement …… div = Corresponding proving ring reading is Shear stress = = = area = = = .01mm Specimen calculation for Shear Force/ Shear stress 01 div.
TEST :1 Normal Stress = 50 kN/mm2 Observations : Weight of shear box without sand Weight of shear box with sand Top plate dimensions Bottom plate dimensions Shear box dimensions Internal height of the shear box (without sand) Internal height of the shear box (with sand) W1 W2 Ht1.65 2.45x10-4 kg/ m3 GSγw/ γd – 1.44mm 1.Hb2 H1 H2 = = = = = = = 2.910-2.Ht2 Hb1.989x10-3 0.001x25.0. ∆e Specimen calculation for Shear displacement Corresponding Void ratio e = e0 – ∆e = = = = = = = 0.910 1.27mm 60x60x40.44+(3.26mm 60mm X 60 mm 43.989x10-3 0.Ht2+(Ht2.70)/2 40.27 mm3 1.70mm.568 . W Dry Density of Soil sample.665 kg W/V = 0. γd Initial Void ratio. GS = 2.45x10-4 m3 W1-W2 2. 3.568)/40.245 kg = 0.74mm.0254mm ∆H (1+ e0)/H 0. H = = = Volume of the soil.26-1.1 0.245 /1.44-1.665 2.Ht1)/2 43.60-(3.65x103/1689.567 .568 Specimen calculation for Vertical displacement/ Void ratio 01 div. of vertical dial gauge reading Corresponding Void ratio change.60 mm 0mm Calculations: Thickness of the soil sample.27 0.0254(1+0. e0 = = = = = = = = H1-H2-( Hb2. 3. V Weight of the soil sample.74)/2-3.Hb1)/2.4mm 0.66 .
632 kg 1.01 div.60 kN/ m2 0.632/3480 kg/mm2 4. of Proving ring reading = = = Area correction for shear displacement Eg.272 kg kg . For shear displacement 200 div = 2mm Corresponding proving ring reading is Shear stress = = = area = 60 x (60-2) = 3480 mm2 6 div = 6 x 0. of horizontal dial gauge reading = 0.272 kg = 1.206 0.01mm Specimen calculation for Shear Force/ Shear stress 01 div.6lbs 0.6/2.
57047 1.5 -2 -0.57146 1. reading Reading (mm) Ratio (kg) (kN/m2) 0 0 0 0 0.1397 -0.750838 300 6 -11.01mm Moisture Content Determination Mass of Wet sample + Can (g) = Mass of Dry sample + Can (g) = Mass of Can (g) = Moisture Content (%) = Shear Proving Vertical Vertical Change in Void Shear Shear Disp.00643 0.08794 3.5 -0.3048 -0.57344 1.63191 4.00198 0. Vertical Dial Gauge Constant = 0.57987 1.56849 0.56998 0.1651 -0.35993 3.5 -0.56800 0.689405 225 6 -8.01038 0.56899 0.457443 125 5 -4.00841 0.27199 0.5 -2 -0. Void Ratio force Stress div.5 -0.3048 -0.57987 1.34 kg (50 kN/m ) Horizontal Dial Gauge Constant = 0.1905 -0.5 -0.00445 0.5 -0.81596 2.Department of Civil Engineering University of Moratuwa Direct Shear Test Results Load Deformation Readings Project : Sample No.2159 -0.54397 1.060315 100 4.57987 1.5 -0.01187 0.5 -0. Ring Gauge Dis.0254 -0.3048 -0.63191 4.0508 -0.730183 275 6 -10.01137 0.49592 4.57740 1.2667 -0.63191 4.57542 1.00049 0.666524 75 4 -2.89828 40 3 -2 -0.856884 425 450 475 500 .281758 50 3.22393 3.813903 375 6 -12 -0.67996 1.00198 0.00000 0 10 1 -0.57641 1.0508 -0.63191 4.0889 -0.01187 0.756777 20 2 -1 -0.63191 4.2413 -0.516084 30 2.709706 250 6 -9.57443 1.95195 2.5 -0.56998 0.00940 0.0127 -0.0635 -0.56998 0.835298 400 6 -12 -0.0508 -0.261881 175 6 -6.01187 0.63191 4.63191 4. : Type of Test : Proving reading Constant = 0.5 -0.57245 1.63191 4.792696 350 6 -12 -0.3048 -0.5 -3.57987 1.00346 0.1143 -0.01187 0.2921 -0.771675 325 6 -12 -0.63191 4.00000 0.85795 150 5.00198 0.669279 200 6 -7.63191 4.00544 0.001” 2 Normal Load Applied = 18.00247 0.5 -0.57838 1.00742 0.57937 1.5 -0.6lbs/div.5 -5.00099 0.
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