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# Class test 4: 12 May Sem.

Tests 1-2 review: 16 May Semester Test 3: 19 May Tutorial homework 6: Due 19 May

Fluids
A fluid is a collection of molecules that are randomly arranged and held together by weak cohesive forces and by forces exerted by the walls of a container Both liquids and gases are fluids

## Statics and Dynamics with Fluids

Fluid Statics
Describes fluids at rest

Fluid Dynamics
Describes fluids in motion

The same physical principles that have applied to statics and dynamics up to this point will also apply to fluids

Forces in Fluids
Fluids do not sustain shearing stresses or tensile stresses The only stress that can be exerted on an object submerged in a static fluid is one that tends to compress the object from all sides The force exerted by a static fluid on an object is always perpendicular to the surfaces of the object

Forces in Fluids
The force exerted by a static fluid on an object is always perpendicular to the surfaces of the object

Measuring Pressure
The spring is calibrated by a known force; Submerge the apparatus in a fluid: The force due to the fluid presses on the top of the piston and compresses the spring; The force the fluid exerts on the piston is then measured

Pressure
The pressure P of the fluid at the level to which the device has been submerged is the ratio of the force to the area

F P A

Pressure
Pressure is a scalar quantity If the pressure varies over an area, evaluate the force dF on a surface of area dA as: dF = P dA The unit of pressure is pascal (Pa)
1Pa = 1 N/m2

## Pressure vs. Force

Pressure is a scalar ; force is a vector The direction of the force producing a pressure is perpendicular to the area of interest

Quick quiz:
Would you rather have a 120-kg sportsman step on your toes with his boots, or a 50-kg model step on your toes with her heels?

Density
The density of a substance is defined as the mass per unit volume of the substance

m = V
The values of density for a substance vary slightly with temperature since volume is temperature-dependent

Density Table

## Variation of Pressure with Depth

The pressure in a fluid varies with depth (if the fluid is in a gravitational field) If a fluid is at rest in a container, all portions of the fluid must be in static equilibrium All points at the same depth must be at the same pressure
(Otherwise, the fluid would not be in equilibrium)

## The variation of pressure with depth

Examine the darker region, a sample of liquid within a cylinder: It has a crosssectional area A It extends from depth d to d + h below the surface

## The variation of pressure with depth

Examine the darker region, a sample of liquid within a cylinder: Three external forces act on the region:

## The variation of pressure with depth

Since the net force must be zero:

r F = PAj Po Aj Mgj = 0
(If we choose upward as positive)

## The variation of pressure with depth

Since the net force must be zero:

r F = PAj Po Aj Mgj = 0
Solving for the pressure .

## The variation of pressure with depth

Since the net force must be zero:

r F = PAj Po Aj Mgj = 0

gives: P = P0 + gh

Atmospheric Pressure
If a liquid is open to the atmosphere, and P0 is the pressure at the surface of the liquid, then P0 is the atmospheric pressure At sea level, the average P0 = 1.00 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa

## Example 14.3: The force on a divers eardrum

How much force acts on the eardrum of a scuba diver 12 m below the ocean surface?

Pascals Law
The pressure in a fluid depends on depth and on the value of P0 So: an increase in pressure at the surface must be transmitted to every other point in the fluid This is the basis of Pascals law:

Pascals Law
(Named for French scientist Blaise Pascal) A change in the pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted undiminished to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container

## Application of Pascals Law:

Assume an incompressible fluid: The change in volume on the left is then matched by the same change on the right:

## Application of Pascals Law:

Since the volumes are equal,

A1x1 = A2 x2

F1 F2 = A1 A2

we find:

F1x1 = F2 x2

## Example 14.2: A hydraulic car lift

How much pressure must Be applied to the small piston In order to lift a car with a mass of 1200 kg?

## large piston small piston

Buoyant Force
The buoyant force is the upward force exerted by a fluid on any immersed object There must be an upward force to balance the downward gravitational force

Archimedes Principle
The magnitude of the buoyant force always equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

## Applying Archimedes principle to calculate buoyant force:

The pressure at the top of the cube causes a downward force of Ptop A The pressure at the bottom of the cube causes an upward force of Pbot A B = (Pbot Ptop) A = fluid g V = Mfluid g
(in this volume)

## Archimedes' Principle applied to a totally submerged object

Consider an object that is totally submerged in a fluid of density fluid The upward buoyant force on the object is B = fluid g Vsub = fluid g Vobject The downward gravitational force on the object is Fg = Mg = = obj g Vobj The net upward force is B - Fg = (fluid obj) g Vobj

## Archimedes' Principle applied to a totally submerged object

If the density of the object is less than the density of the fluid, the unsupported object accelerates upward If the density of the object is more than the density of the fluid, the unsupported object sinks The direction of the motion of an object in a fluid is determined only by the densities of the fluid and the object

## Archimedes Principle applied to a floating object

Consider a floating object in static equilibrium The upward buoyant force is balanced by the downward force of gravity:

## fluid gV fluid = object gVobject

Now: the volume of fluid displaced corresponds to the volume of the object beneath the fluid level, so:

since

## Archimedes Principle applied to a floating object

The fraction of the volume of a floating object that is below the fluid surface is equal to the ratio of the density of the object to that of the fluid

## Archimedes own example

Archimedes was (supposedly) asked, Is this crown made of pure gold? Crowns weight in air = 7.84 N Weight in water (submerged) = 6.84 N Buoyant force will equal the apparent weight loss
Difference in scale readings will be the buoyant force

## Archimedes own example

F = B + T2 Fg = 0
B = Fg T2 (Weight in air) (weight in water) Archimedess principle, B = water gV ,
Allows us to calculate V

## Archimedes Principle: The Titanic example

What fraction of the iceberg is below water?

[The fraction of the volume of a floating object that is below the fluid surface is equal to the ratio of the density of the object to that of the fluid ]

## Laminar fluid flow

Features of laminar flow:
A steady flow Each particle of the fluid follows a smooth path The paths taken by distinct particles in the flow never cross each other Every given fluid particle arrives at any given point with the same velocity The path taken by the particles is called a streamline

## 2. Turbulent fluid flow:

An irregular flow characterized by small whirlpool-like regions Turbulent flow occurs when the particles go above some critical speed

Viscosity
Characterizes the degree of internal friction in the fluid This internal friction occurs through the viscous force, which is associated with the resistance that two adjacent layers of fluid have to moving relative to each other It causes part of the kinetic energy of a fluid to be converted to internal energy

## Ideal Fluid Flow

Four simplifying assumptions are often made to the complex flow of fluids to make the analysis easier. Here are the first two: (1) The fluid is nonviscous i.e. the internal friction is neglected (2) The flow is steady i.e. the velocity at each position in the fluid remains constant

## Ideal Fluid Flow

And, here are the other two simplifying assumptions: (3) The fluid is incompressible i.e. the density remains constant (4) The flow is irrotational the fluid has no angular momentum about any point

Streamlines
The path that a particle takes in steady flow is called a streamline The velocity of a particle is always tangent to its streamline A set of streamlines is called a tube of flow

## The equation of continuity

Consider a fluid moving through a pipe of nonuniform size (diameter): We assume that the particles move along their streamlines in a steady flow; The mass of fluid that crosses A1 in some time interval is the same as the mass that crosses A2 in that same time interval (why??)

## The equation of continuity

Mathematically: m1 = m2 . i.e. A1v1 = A2v2 Since the fluid is incompressible, is a constant Therefore: A1v1 = A2v2
This is called the equation of continuity for fluids: The product of the area and the fluid speed at all points along a pipe is constant, for an incompressible fluid

## Implications of the equation of continuity:

The speed is high where the tube is constricted (where it has small A) The speed is low where the tube is wide (where A is large)

A1v1 = A2 v2

## Implications of the equation of continuity:

The speed is high where the tube is constricted (where it has small A) The speed is low where the tube is wide (where A is large) The product, Av, is called the volume flux or the flow rate Stating that Av = constant is equivalent to saying that the volume that enters one end of the tube in a given time interval equals the volume leaving the other end in the same time

Daniel Bernoulli
1700 1782 Swiss physicist Published Hydrodynamica
Dealt with equilibrium, pressure and speeds in fluids Also made a pioneering study of gases with changing pressure and temperature

Bernoullis Equation
As a fluid moves through a region where its speed and/or its elevation above the Earths surface changes, the pressure in the fluid varies The relationship between fluid speed, pressure and elevation was first derived by Daniel Bernoulli

## Derivation of Bernoullis equation (for an ideal fluid):

Consider the two blueshaded segments in the figure. They show initial and later positions of a certain packet of fluid particles: The volume of fluid in each of the segments is equal (why?) The net work done on the segment of fluid moving from y1 to y2 is W =(P1 P2) V Part of the work goes into changing the kinetic energy and some into changing the gravitational potential energy

## Derivation of Bernoullis equation:

The change in kinetic energy is: K = mv22 - mv12 There is no change in the kinetic energy due to viscous forces (why?) The mass of fluid in each of the shaded portions is the same (why?)

## Derivation of Bernoullis equation:

The change in gravitational potential energy of the segment moving from y1 to y2 is:
U = mgy2 mgy1

The work done on the segment equals the change in kinetic and potential energy Combining all of this: (P1 P2)V = mv22 - mv12 + mgy2 mgy1

## Derivation of Bernoullis equation:

(P1 P2)V = mv22 - mv12 + mgy2 mgy1:
Rearranging, and expressing this in terms of density: P1 + v12 + gy1 = P2 + v22 + gy2 This is Bernoullis Equation; it is often expressed as P + v2 + gy = constant When the fluid is at rest, this becomes P1 P2 = gh , which is consistent with the pressure variation with depth that we found earlier

## Applications of Fluid Dynamics

P + 1 2 v 2 + gy = constant
so, faster speed means lower pressure for a moving fluid

For streamline flow around a moving airplane wing: Lift is the upward force on the wing from the air Drag is the resistance The lift depends on the speed of the airplane, the area of the wing, its curvature, and the angle between the wing and the horizontal

Lift General
In general, an object moving through a fluid experiences lift as a result of any effect that causes the fluid to change its direction as it flows past the object Some factors that influence lift are:
The shape of the object The objects orientation with respect to the fluid flow Any spinning of the object The texture of the objects surface

The golf ball is given a rapid backspin The dimples increase friction
This increases lift why?

## Unit 5.2 Temperature

Temperature
We associate the concept of temperature with how hot or cold an object feels Our senses provide us with a qualitative indication of temperature Our senses are unreliable for this purpose

Temperature
We associate the concept of temperature with how hot or cold an object feels Our senses provide us with a qualitative indication of temperature Our senses are unreliable for this purpose We need a reliable and reproducible method for measuring the relative hotness or coldness of objects

Thermal Contact
Two objects are in thermal contact with each other if energy can be exchanged between them
The energy is exchanged due to a temperature difference

Thermal Equilibrium
Thermal equilibrium is a situation in which two objects would not exchange energy by heat or electromagnetic radiation if they were placed in thermal contact
(Note: Thermal contact does not necessarily mean physical contact)

## The zeroth law of Thermodynamics:

If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other

## The zeroth law of Thermodynamics

If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other
Let object C be a thermometer Then A and B are in thermal equilibrium when they have the same temperature!

## The zeroth law of Thermodynamics

In other words: Temperature is a measurable property of physical bodies, such that: energy will flow from a body at higher temperature to one at lower temperature (provided the bodies are in thermal contact) until the bodies are at the same temperature

## The zeroth law of Thermodynamics

Object C (thermometer) is placed in contact with A until they achieve thermal equilibrium
The reading on C is recorded

Object C is then placed in contact with object B until they achieve thermal equilibrium
The reading on C is recorded again

If the two readings are the same, A and B are also in thermal equilibrium

Temperature Definition
So: Temperature can be thought of as the property that determines whether an object is in thermal equilibrium with other objects Two objects in thermal equilibrium with each other are at the same temperature
If two objects have different temperatures, they are not in thermal equilibrium with each other

Thermometers
A thermometer is a device that is used to measure the temperature of a system Thermometers are based on the principle that some physically measurable property of a system changes as the systems temperature changes

Thermometers
Such physically measurable properties include:
The volume of a liquid The dimensions of a solid The pressure of a gas at a constant volume The volume of a gas at a constant pressure The electric resistance of a conductor The color of an object

A temperature scale can be established on the basis of any of these physical properties

## Liquid in Glass Thermometer,

A common type of thermometer is the liquid-in-glass type The material in the capillary tube expands as it is heated The liquid is usually mercury or alcohol (why?)

Calibrating a Thermometer
A thermometer can be calibrated by placing it in contact with some natural systems that will always be at a specific temperature The properties of water form the basis of common calibrations A mixture of ice and water at atmospheric pressure is always at a certain temperature (this temperature is called the ice point of water) A mixture of water and steam in equilibrium is also always at a certain temperature (but a different one from the ice point; called the steam point of water)

The length between these points on a thermometer scale can be divided into a number of segments

Celsius Scale
The ice point of water is defined to be 0o C The steam point of water is defined to be 100o C The length of the column between these two points is divided into 100 increments, called degrees

## Problems with Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

An alcohol thermometer and a mercury thermometer may agree only at the calibration points The discrepancies between thermometers are especially large when the temperatures being measured are far from the calibration points The thermometers also have a limited range of values that can be measured
Mercury cannot be used under 39o C Alcohol cannot be used above 85o C Why would that be?

## Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer

The physical change exploited is the variation of pressure of a fixed volume of gas as its temperature changes The volume of the gas is kept constant by raising or lowering the reservoir B to keep the mercury level at A constant

Absolute Zero
The thermometer readings of various gas thermometers are virtually independent of the gas used If the lines for various gases are extended, the pressure always reaches zero when the temperature is extrapolated down to 273.15o C This temperature is called absolute zero

## Absolute Temperature Scale

Absolute zero is used as the basis of the absolute temperature scale The size of the degree on the absolute scale is the same as the size of the degree on the Celsius scale To convert:
TC = TABS 273.15

## Absolute Temperature Scale

The absolute temperature scale is actually now based on two different fixed points than the points used by the Celsius scale:
One fixed point is absolute zero The other point is the triple point of water
(This is the combination of temperature and pressure where ice, water, and steam can all coexist)

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## Absolute Temperature Scale

The triple point of water occurs at 0.01o C and 4.58 mm of mercury (whats this?)

## Absolute Temperature Scale

The triple point of water occurs at 0.01o C and 4.58 mm of mercury This temperature was set to be 273.16 on the absolute temperature scale
This made the old absolute scale agree closely with the new one The units of the absolute scale are kelvins

## Some Examples of Absolute Temperatures

The figure at right gives some absolute temperatures at which various physical processes occur The scale is logarithmic The temperature of absolute zero cannot be achieved
But experiments have come close
1010

1012 Temperature of quark-gluon plasma made in RHIC, Mar.2010 Universe one second after Big Bang

Thermal Expansion
Thermal expansion is the increase in the size of an object with an increase in its temperature What makes the size of the object change?

Thermal Expansion
Thermal expansion is the increase in the size of an object with an increase in its temperature Thermal expansion is a consequence of the change in the average separation between the atoms in an object Why does a change in temperature make this average separation change?

Thermal Expansion
Thermal expansion is the increase in the size of an object with an increase in its temperature Thermal expansion is a consequence of the change in the average separation between the atoms in an object If the expansion is small relative to the original dimensions of the object, the change in any dimension is, to a good approximation, proportional to the first power of the change in temperature

Linear Expansion
Assume that an object has an initial length L: That length increases by L as the temperature changes by T We define the coefficient of linear expansion as L / Li = T A convenient form of this is L = Li T

Linear Expansion
This equation can also be written in terms of the initial and final conditions of the object:
Lf Li = Li (Tf Ti)

## Some coefficients of linear expansion:

Volume Expansion
The change in volume of a body is proportional to the original volume and to the change in temperature: V = Vi T
is called the coefficient of volume expansion
For a solid, = 3 isotropic) (assuming that the material is

Area Expansion
The change in area is proportional to the original area and to the change in temperature: A = 2Ai T

Bimetallic Strip
Each substance has its own characteristic average coefficient of expansion This can be made use of in the device shown, called a bimetallic strip: A common application is in a thermostat:

## Waters Unusual Behavior

As the temperature increases from 0oC to 4oC, water contracts
Its density increases

## Above 4oC, water expands with increasing temperature

Its density decreases

## The maximum density of water (1.000 g/cm3) occurs at 4oC

Quick exercise: If the average temperature of all the ocean water rises from 4 to 8 by how much C C, does the average sea level rise? (The average depth of the ocean is 3.8 km)

## The Ideal Gas Model

1. For gases, the interatomic forces within the gas are very weak
We can imagine these forces to be nonexistent

## Note that there is no equilibrium separation for the atoms

Thus, no standard volume at a given temperature

## The Ideal Gas Model

So, for an ideal gas, the volume is entirely determined by the container holding the gas Equations involving gases will contain the volume, V, as a variable

## The Ideal Gas Model

1. There are no interatomic forces within the gas 2. The particles in the gas only interact when they collide with each other, and such collisions are perfectly elastic. 3. The particles themselves take up no volume at all

## Gas: Equation of State

It is useful to know how the volume, pressure and temperature of a gas of mass m (and with N particles) are related The equation that interrelates these quantities is called the equation of state

The Mole
The amount of gas in a given volume is conveniently expressed in terms of the number of moles One mole of any substance is that amount of the substance that contains Avogadros number of constituent particles
Avogadros number NA = 6.022 x 1023 The constituent particles can be atoms or molecules

## Just how much is this?

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Moles
The number of moles can be determined from the mass of the substance: n = m /M
M is the molar mass of the substance
Can be obtained from the periodic table Is the atomic mass expressed in grams/mole
Example: He has mass of 4.00 u so M = 4.00 g/mol

## Behaviour of Ideal Gases

When a gas is kept at a constant temperature, its pressure is inversely proportional to its volume (Boyles law) When a gas is kept at a constant pressure, its volume is directly proportional to its temperature (Charles and Gay-Lussacs law) When the volume of the gas is kept constant, the pressure is directly proportional to the temperature (Guy-Lussacs law)

## The Ideal Gas Law

The equation of state for an ideal gas combines and summarizes the other gas laws:

PV = nRT
This is known as the ideal gas law

## The Ideal Gas Law

The equation of state for an ideal gas combines and summarizes the other gas laws:

PV = nRT
This is known as the ideal gas law R is a constant, called the Universal Gas Constant
R = 8.314 J/mol K = 0.08214 L atm/mol K

From this, you can determine that 1 mole of any gas at atmospheric pressure and at 0o C is 22.4 L

## The Ideal Gas Law

The ideal gas law is often expressed in terms of the total number of molecules, N, present in the sample PV = nRT = (N/NA) RT = NkBT
kB is called Boltzmanns constant (kB = 1.38 x 10-23 J/K)

## The Ideal Gas Law

It is common to call P, V, and T the thermodynamic variables of an ideal gas If the equation of state is known, one of the variables can always be expressed as some function of the other two