F:eNIKO METI:OBIO nOA YTEXNEIO TMHMA nOAITIKQN MHXANIKQN TOMEA1: YL\ATIKQN nOPQN, YLlPAYAIKQN KAI 9AAA1

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To aUJ1~OA.o '[0\) E~Ol<p'6llou-aU~t~OAO '[OU vepou 0"'t11V tEpoYAuq>udl ypa.q>i] nov Aryumiwv. E1ta.vaAa.J1~avE,[W 1tO~ <popte; ern KEi~tEVa'toue;. 0 1tOAmo"~l6e;nov Aryuxtkov £iXE we; ~aO"T]rou '[a. VEPIX'tOUNEi.A.ouEVW '[0 vepc WtO'tEA.oUO"E EK~lE'taAAeUO"t~LO Kal l..atpeutlK6 O"'tOlXeio.(Gardiner, A.. aAAa Egyptian Grammar, Being an introduction to the study of Hieroglyphs, eKb. Oxford University Press, London 1950)

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4
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o:tt' tTJV x.6pta'too

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1tO\JI 11'00 aKoA.ou9i)9r)Ke omv Epyaaia au'ti) i)'tav J.1ia avw..Uatt 't0lV atotxeirov 9a lP'l<nJ.107tOti)oO\)~ (VEp6, UOpauA.tKo &PYa. uopauA.tKa 7tUlXViOta, <pparJ.1a'ta), Kat aKoA.oU9co~ 11 aUV9Eatt 't0lV &VVOuOv autWV oro 1t&5io Eq>apJ.1O'f11;, to avappu9J.1tatlK6 q>pQyJ.1a t1l~ A~ Bap~ap~ 4.

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I:t1lV otaOlKacria au'ti) ti9&V'tal ta 7tapaKCtt(J} Epco'ti)J.1ata. atOlxEio Ka'tl')yopia otu UOpauA.1KCt &pya; t(J}V UOpauA.tKWV sPY(J}v 7tOU va al;t07tOtoUv 'to at01XEio

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3

Celan, P., Too KavEV~ to

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AOiJva 1995

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NtsJ.17t6p, r., naYT)')'UptK~ NttJ.17t6p, r., Exalta AOtlva 1988

JI.'tCP. ci:lGt~ OtKov6~lOU, 8KO. El&u98~ K Jl.tcp. nOv~

TU7to~ AOJiva 1995 TaaxE~. &KO. El&uO&~ TU7toc;.

xOvro GtT)V KOlvCilvia tOU O&6.Jlat~

A'OOtclp. Z.-4J).,H JL&'taJl.oVtepva KatoGtaO"T). Jitcp. Kci:lat~

nWtayui>PYTJ~ tKO. rvci:lGTI, AOiJva 1993

6
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7
npolCfuttouv O~;, 67U0C; avacp&p81. T) Muiixou Kat mlf38f3a1Ci>vetat cur6 'ta cl;etal;oJ.18Va napa&iYJ.UXta f.la;, 7UlptA.KOJ.18VOlS (U1tOKataatatOt) atQxOt ~ autoi tT)<; 'lfUXcrywyiac;, tT)<; avavuxile; allit Kat tT)e; tOUplatucTte; avCuttu91e; tT)e; nepwX'1e; yUpo> cur6 iva cppllrf.la. rta tT)v ~ 'tIDV 7UlptA.K6f.l£vCOV atQxcov tCOV-<ppaYf.latCOv Kat mv Katav611att tCOV tpycov em.mce<peitKaf.l8 nc; qru(J1J(~ A.if.lv~ ora; lcoawtva, npsmt£c;, BOA.Pll, Kat tOUe; 't£XVl'ltoUe; 'taf.ltetrtitp~ ata: AcreilJ.UXta, :EcpllKW. nOA.uqrutO, nA.acmipa, :Etpato Kpspnoru, noupvapt £veil aKOA.oU900c; 8mCJK8cpTllKaf.l8 to UOPOT)A.eKtptK6 epyo tOU Nsctou, EmcrK8<p9itKaf.l8 miatte; Wo cpop~ to avappu9f.ltattKO cppaYf.la tT)C; Ay. Bappap~ 7tOU opicr911K8 COC; eoio 8cpapf.l0'Y1ic;. Oi n em.mcS'l'&C; au't~ ittav a7UlpaitT)t~ '}'Ul tT)V Katav611att tCOV SPYOlV Kat yta tT) crUyKptatt tT)t; OtaCPOPettKOtT)'tat; tOU A.tf.lvaiou romou, avaf.lEOa att.<; tEXVTIt~ Kal tt.<; CPUOtKSt;A.if.lv~. H avaA.Uatt J3acriatT)KE CJtT)v cl;etaatt OUO spycov, to eva u1t6 KataOK£uit Kat to ue f.laKpO XJ>Ovo A.81.tOUpy1ac;. E;etaCJtT)Kav A.ouWV avaA.\)'ttKa 'ta UOPOT)A.eKtptKa Epya tOU Nsorou Kat tOU nA.acmipa. E1t1llxOrIKav ta ouo auta Epya yta va £;etOOOUf.l8 tOY OtaCPOpettKO 'tpCmo CJtT)V avtlf.lEtci>matt tT)t; tomKi)c; KOtvcoviac; COt; 1tpoC; to 1taA.tO spyo (ID.acmipac;) Kat to veo &pyo (Neatoc;). 7tOU cl;etaCJtT)KE avaA.UttKa oro Maimo tT)<; Epyaoiae; WyOl nov t.OtattEpoti)'tCOV tT);' (f.l£'YaA.T)OWPKEta ~coitc; tOU spyou, acpof.loicoCJT) tOU spyou cur6 tT)V 'tomKi) KOtVCOvia, to1tOattflO-f.lVT)f.l£io '}'Ul 'tOY f:f.l1tV£UOTll tOU spyou-nA.aOTllP~) <JUVtax911Kav EpootT)J.UXtOA.O'}'Ul7tOU f.lotpaCJtT)Kav OtOV tOmKO Mll9ucrf.lO. Ta EpcotT)f.latoA.6'}'Ul auta Poit9ttoav CJtT)v KataypacpT) tT)t; avtV.ll'l'lle; tT)e; tomKi)c; KOtVCOViac; avacpopu(a f.l8 to cppaYf.la Kal WtO'tSA.eoav OUOtaatlKi) 9sCJT) yta tT)v Ka'tav6T)att tOO spyou. E~E'taCJtT)KE matte; Kat 0 1teptJ3aA.A.cov xmPOtT)t; A.if.lVT)e; <JUvaptT)att f.lE 'tt.<;1!:eptJ3aA,A.oVttKEt;f.lu.EtEe; 1[0\) yivoVtat CJtT)v OE 1tepwX'1 '}'Ul tT)v avCuttu91 'tcov 1tapeA.K6f.l£vCOv cn6XOlV tOU EpyOU. :E't0 UOpollA.eKtptKO epyo rou Nsorou KataypacpllKE II apVT)nKi) avnJ.lEteilmatt J.lf:J.loVCOflivcov KatoiKOlV '}'Ul tT)V KataoK£UT) 'tOU cppaYJ1atOe; 01[(Ot; eniCJT)t; Kat II f:A.A.et'l'll £votacpepoVtot; tT)t; 'tomKi)e; KOtVcoviae; '}'Ul tT)V avCuttu~T) 1tapeA.KOJ1£VCOV OtOXcov tOU epyou. Kat ata 000 tpya tyLVE 1tpoCJ1ta9Eta va KataypacpoUv 'ta xapaKtT)plo'ttKa Kat T) attf.laoia 7tOU oivouv oi V'tOmot Ka'tOtKOl oru Epya auta. H Ef.l1tEtpia a1t6 tT)V Kataypacpit ittav 1tOA.UattJ1avttKi) '}'Ul tT)V Epyacria.

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Kata mv 7tpOtaCJ11 'tTl<;~<; XPTtatJ.lo7tOtlt911Kavsvvote; alliJ. Kat aKi:\jIEt£; 7tOU OUltU7tcil9TtKav Kata rnv Ot6.pKEUl 'tTl<;avw..UCJ11<; KataaKeuaatTtKav 6 llaKEtec;. Kat

KlillUKU 1:2000
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10

Ot 7tPO},[Ot nveuurmxoi 7ta'tepE~ 't11~ EA.A.aoa~ oioaoKav on, 7tQtf;pe~ 'tll~ I'evvncnc eivm 0 nKeavO~ Kat 11 Tu9U~. 0 teporspo; Oe OpI(O~ rov 8ewv aV(lIpepotav O'tO vspo". 0 8aA.i}~ 0 MtA.i}oto~ tva~ Wt6 't0lle; sma OOCPO\I~ 't11e;apXato'tll'tae; cSioaoKs on 'to vepo &iVat 11 apm rcov 7taV'trov &7t&10i}, Ka't' OV'ttOt01x:ta us tOU~ A1yn1ttion~, f;A.eye on ru onep~ata 6A.rov troy e~\jIUXrov ovnov Katll "tpocpi}rrov ovrcov mrtdrv eivm 1.l'ypaI2.
1:'tllV EllllVtKi} ~ueoA.oyia 'to vepo 11taV 11apm 'tlj~ ~U>ll~ ornv uxpniu 'tll~ EKcppaOll (aeavaoia). To veK'tap 'to aeavato noto, 117tTJY1l roli~ nov flewv, aVa~A.l)~et ano tt~ 7tTJye~tOU nKeavou. 0 ~ Ax:tAA.&ae;'1a va OteKOtKi}OStrnv a8avaoia pacptise'tat om tepa vspn 'tlle; L'[\I",(1(;, &YW 0 ~lI90~ ) avacptpet on 0 A~avopoe; avai;11ta Kat f3piOKSt rnv 7tllYli rou afl<iva'toll vepou, LS 7tOMa 7tapa~Ue1a E1ti0llC;ouvuvnnn; 117tTJY1l 't01.)aflavato\) vspou. 01 ~u80t rou vspou avacpepoV'tav cs 61..11 tllV CPllOllrou. 'Eroi to vspo avacpepeta1i;rooyovo 000 Ka1 OOA.ocpovo.0 7tOta~0~ AXu.roo~ uercuopqxoverm oav q>ibt Kat 'tall poe; ornv ~aXl1 rou ue rov Hpadi} )'ta rnv OteKoiKTJOll'tljC; ~etavetpac; evro onoio; 8e6~ 7tatollOe rov OPKO tou om \)Oa'ta 'tlle; 1:'tU"f6~ 7te8atve )'ta tva xr6vo. EKt6e; a7t6 tllV ~LOPq>11on "ooA.oq>6vou" vspou ornv r apxatO'tlj"ta avacptpov'tat Kat cSp<iKOt-q>l)A.aKee; 7tTJYEe; Sev aq>i]vave 'to vepo va KUA.i]oet. one; 7t01>

o 7ta'ttpa~ 'tll~ Ia'tptKi}~ I7t7tOKpa'tlj~ "xrrrnmuoroq npcxnxoc tatp6~, 0 7tavtvoo~o~ 8erop11nKo~ OtcS<iOKaA.o~,0 avu7ttpPA.11'tO~ epeuVll'tl1e; Kat ol.lyypaq>e\l~ a7tapa~ttAA.oe;"13 7tapa'ti}P11oe 'tll

8Lurken, M., The Gods and symbols of ancient Egypt, eKo. Thames and Hudson, London 1974
9Chetwynd,

T., Dictionary of symbols, &KO. horsons, OB. 1982 T Jt0V'ta, J1'tq>. 9avamoe; K1Jptai;01t01JAoe;,eKo. Krncroc; AG11va 1995 A

10Hpamt"t~

11 " ••• D.Ksav6v 'tE yap Kat T'l9uv E1tOl1loav'tl1e;YEwEaEwc; 1tatepac;, Kat tOY OPKOV 'tWV9EWVUOwp, t1]V KaAoU~V 1J1t' Wl'tWVEroya ..."

APl()"'[O't£Ao1Jc;, ME't(lq>U<HKa83,6,30 9

lcxf3<Ov iawe; mv 1.l7tOA.'l'l'tV 'tOUt1]VeK 'tOU 1t<M:WV opev t1IV 'tpoq>lIVuypav oeoov.. Kat oui 1t<M:(J)v1:(1
CJ1ttPJ1Q'ta'tTlv q>i>mvuypav tXEl, 'to OSuowp apx.~ tlle; q>ua&WC; sivm." APl()"'[O'ttAouc; e't(lq>uO"tKa983, a, 20 M

12"...APXl1 rev ovnov ...0a1itc; uowp stvoi q>umv, (Ol ' 0 Kat rnv r1IV sc' uoa'tOt; a.1t&q>aivE'talstvm),

I~t np6i..oyo tou npmllVll tou Ilnvemcnuuou A011VWV <!)WtElVOU f. O"'tTJvKOOO"ll e 'tWVA7t<lvtwVrou I7t1toKpttrr]<mo 'tOY"nCaropo", 't6~l. 'A., A911va 1937

11 JJi;rlO'tTl emopa011 ron VEpoU ern ~(Oti xm rnv l),YEia tOU av9p0>1tOll (Jt0 ~t~A.iO tou Flspi aeprov, UOO.trov Kat romov. Oi 9taE~ tOU bctOKPCtTll titav E1t1.aTllfloA.oyucCt W(Jte~. Oflro~ TJrtotorrrtn tOU VEpoU ~aptt6tav a KatCt tOY bt'1tOKPCtTll,oX'- uovo cm6 Tll aUata011 tOU eoa<pouc;, 07tOU ~piaKEtat TJ1t11"fli,allCt Kat cm6 tOY npoaavatoA.ta,.w TllC;.To KaA.UtEPOA.omOv vepc to OiV01>VE 1t11ye~ 7tOU PA.f:7tOUV oi npoc; Tllv AvatoA...;.14 H 1t11"fliemv AvatoA.ti u7tOoexetat to <proc;,tOY tiA.tO. Oi ouo paatK€C; 1t11y€c; rotic;, ~ to <proc;Kat 'to vepo, ta\)'t~oVtat evvOtOA.oytKCtKat 0 bt7tOKPCtTllC; exetat Tll flia ouvcpmcei TllC; o allTJC;. EuwXcOC; ornv aUYXp0VTJxowroviu 0 npoPA.TJflanaflOc; yta rnv UYLElvt; tau vepou €xEl uemromorei an6 tOY npoaavatOA.tafl6 TllC; EKCtatOtE 1t11"flic;l)OPE\)OTjls. OflroC; TJ geOTj tOU IUoutapxou "to u&op stvrn rou; av9p<i:l7tO~ tp6<ptflOV Kat 6Xllfla tPO<Ptic;. AVEU OE autOU OUK ev<iA.ov ouot XEpaaiov, ou&' atgeptov scOov.,,16napafltvEt EniKatpTJ. ncOC; 9a f.l.1tOpoUaaflE vc OoUflE mv evvOtOA.oytKti geOTj tOU VEPOU at;flEpa; Mun; Kat TJ MOLEC; TllC; aUv9sOTjC; tOU O11fleptVoU xocuou KpatOUV an6 tOY HpCtKA.ettO a~~et vc ooUfle nchC; KatavOTJas Kat aUvgeae a HpCtKA.ettOC;tOY Koa~LO flae;. 0 HpaKA.eltOC; A.otnOV 9echpTJae Ott 0 l7 Koafloc; auvti9etat fl€aa an6 tTj <pro'tla to vepo Tll YTJKat 'tOY aepa . 'Etot to vspo tA.ape flla geaTJ avCtfleaa ore rsooepc a'tOtxeia nou cyuv8holJV 'tOV KOOflO Kat eXaoe mv anOA.utTj evvOtOA.oytKti ouva.flTJ 7tOUtOU oivave fleXPt tote. Ouo»; ore yoVtfla vspe, rn noruutn, ot vUfl<pec;, eeee; tOU yCtflOUKat TllC;YOVlfl6tTjtUi;, sOuv mcoun Kat onuepn cmv IhlflTJaTJtOU roaou flac;. 'Erot ae 7tOA.A.a roptCt TJvU<pTJ ptv to yaflo Kate~aivet oro nOta~lt Yla vn A.ouatEi ti A.oU~etat oro onin x n tTje; us noraukno vspo "sni Sroonot.Wv to llbWp Kat vovuiov?". I:ta Zayopoxwpta av TJ Zeyopinccc KtJpa yevvi)aet vexpo natoi naet oro nOtaflt Kat oepvet us to 9)A.o to vspo yta vc to 'ttf1(()plJa&l fltaC; Kat au'tO 7tOUea 'Sive ~wti rnv 1tllpe niaw19• E~ aA.A.ou 'to vepo atotxeio TllC;aVaVEroOTjC;TjC;sro~e; xpllat~LOnOleitat Kat onuepc a't~ paatK€e; t fluTJ'ttKec; teA.etec;, TllC; Yf:vvTJ011C;OU yaflou Kat 't11e; ta<plle;. To A.oUOtflO, to pCtnttafla, 'to t pavnoun E1tavaKa90p~ouv Tll poti tTjC;~rollC;Kat Tlle; Ba81ltep11e; O1lVexetac; tTje;.20 To vspo (JtOtXeio ~rotic; aA.A.aKat Kataatpo<ptic; anoteA.ollOE 'tote Kat 'twpa rnv apXTl ooo Kat 'to ttA.oe; tOU 6A.ou. Etvm yvroatae; 0 npOBA.lwattaflOe; tTJe;mlYXPOVTJe; xowcovin; nou (J1lvetoTJtonotEi al'YCt-atyCt mv a~ia ttov vepov trov .QKEaVWV onv 't0U<; anOA.-ut01JC;"Bspuocrrrre; Tlle; YTJe;" a~tOA.oywVtae; 'toue; cov ano rn nepicoorspo xp11atfla ana Kat el.Jaia911ta atotxeia tTje; <pU011e; at;flepa.

14"...rn uoata npoc; tat; ron TJ).iOllavm:oAac; tan, Troha l..a~l1tp!lre sivm avayai'l, Kat ellwoea., Kat !1aJ..aKO:, epat£tva eyytyvea9at sv rmrm tllnOAet 0 yap li1..10e; Kat KWI..1>et aviaxwv Kat Ka'talaJ.l1tWv..." 11t1t01CpatTjC;. i\navta., £KO.nanupoc;, A9ilva 1937 15rta tIlv avaKw.ulJITI 'tWV 1t'lywv omv apxatOTI]tO. "Ccit~ave KptOUpl"Co. VOl'HLOVo." .oyo. it tu tpayta " w Etcn mate vn OUlluaouv Kat vu XT1l1tUveo noot roix; (HO cnusio nou llnUpxet vspo. t nOAll!1Epoll A.• fllf}'er;. vopaywyeia ouaauol, BiOI lrapO»..IIAOI atnv latopla Kat OTIC; Ilapaooaetc, Nepo 1t'lYlt ~CJ)itc;KiVTJCJ'lC; Ka9ap!1ou. Emomuovno] CJUVUvtl1crJ])nO rnv atyioa rou Yzoupvetou Kat \ nOAtncr~U. ~KEfl~PtOC; 1997 1~1ltUpxOU. IU!1x6cnov VI,

r, 2

17 A~eA6c;. K.. 0 Hpumttoc;
1951

Kat 11<pt).,oao<pia., ~lt<P.~lHl1i'tplle; ~lHl1]tPtao11C;.£KO.E~Uv"Ca.c;. 9itva 1974 A

18 AeKU"CaCtc;, n.,H Kataywyi] tWV gecr~lWVKo.ttCJ)Voo~o.crtWV,£KO. Bt~Aio NSO£UIIVtKOU/..6yOll, A9itva 19Mavtac; I .• JJv8pWlror; xat Nepo, Feobpia tau mr:cl'1XOl uu; ItaKPOXfJOVIIr; lUlJ..IIC;···, Nepo 1t'lYlt ~witc; u 1ClVTJCJ'lC; Ka9ap!1ou, Yxo TIIVatyioa rou Yxoupyeiou Ilosmouou, ~EKE~L~ptOe; Kat 1997 20A£KataCtc;, Il.H Kataywyi] tWV gecr~Lwvxm 'tCJ)V OO~a(JlWV,eK8. Bl~Aio NeOeU1IVlKOU/..6you, A9i]va 1951

12

o 161o~'ton VEP0'6
To w:p6 T11~ Ka6(lPaTI~
"H acrovileto'tT) JlOptaKi) OOJlTJTOU vspou TO KaEltOTa Eva e~atpe'tlKa anOTeA.eOJla'tlKO OtaA.UtTJ. EA.aXtCTta sivm 'ta UA.tKa1IOU Ssv otaA.UOVTat ozo TO vspo cs Ka1IOtO paElfl6 svco KavEva uypa Ssv Jl1IOpei va OtaA.UoBt T60ll JlBya.A.1l1IOtKtA.ia ououov. ,,21 To vepo rcov mtywv, rcov 1IOTaJlWV Kat tTJe;;Ela.A.aooae;;, TO xEl6vto vspo, ~enA.Evet Kaee ppffiJla TOU KOPfltOU Kat Kaee JliaoJla. A7t6 'tT)V aA.A.ll 01t{J)e;;pyaivet a7t6 rn paElT) 't11e;;YT)e; etvm YSJl6:to JlS yovtJltKiJ ouvaflll· Ta vepc tTJe;;KaElapOlle;; rc ~rooyova Kat avaYEVVllJlEva vsp« ru [3A.e7IouJle os 1tOJJ..oUe;;Kat OtaCPOp&'ttKOOe;;61tOue;; Kat 7tapaoooetc;. t I:'ta EA.euoivta Jlum:iJpta 0 tBpocpaV'tT)e;;, [3aq)'ti/;;eTat ornv Ela.A.aOoa Kat fla~i Jle rnv naA.tcl TOU /;;roTJ acpTJvst 'to 7taA.tO TOU ovoua. 0 Xpicnoviouo; XPT)OtJl01IOiT)oe Kat auToe;; 'to vspo ornv pa1t'ttall 1IOU croJlf30A.i/;;st mv avaYEvvTJ0"11 Jleoro TT)e;;KaElapO"lK EKT6e;; a7to rnv pa1t'ttall 0't0 XP10TtavtOJlO TO vspo 7tapOl)ota/;;sTat Kat orov aytaOflO. 0 aytaOflOe;; Jle TO vspo Sivei OTO vspo evepystaKi) OUVaJlll. 0 aytaoJlOe;; eivm 0 E~ayvtOJlOe;; 'tT)e;;/;;rol;e;;22. To pclvLtoJla us TO vepo Sev stvm 7tproTOn)7t11 eKcppaoT) tTJe;; Xpurncvuop; ElpT)oKeiae;;. I:tTJV AtvulOa 0 Kpnvaicc cpepst rpsu; cpopte;; y\)pro a7t' rou; cuvrpoooi»; TOl) Eva KAupi eA.uie;; Ota1tO'ttoJlevo an6 ayv6 vspo Kat rou; pav'ttl;;st JlS avaA.acpPl1 opoouI, T01)e; s~ayvi/;;Et.23

o Bachelard

avacpepst Ott Ot Knqipot xovouv noA.A.ee;;nA.\lO"ete;;fle vspo yta va e~ayvtoTOuV a7t6 Jlia KlJosia otTJV O1IOia napappeEll1Kav. ilA.EvOV'tat Yla va e~ayv10T01)V Yla uro pll1IaVOll tTJe;; \jIUlOie; evco omv KaElllJleptvij TOUe;;/;;rol1 Sev nA.EvOVTat nore. 24

Xcpcxmpionxo BmOlle; napaOS1Yfla eivm 0 OUflf30A.lOfl6e;; 'tOU raYY11 yta roue Ivoot)e;. 0 Ivooi 7tA.EvoV'tat em f3pWJltKa vspc TOl) raYY11 yta va KaElapioouv rnv ~f\)Xl; TOUe;;evw 07tOLOe;; ttBt an6 7 'to vepo TOU ram nptv 7tSeaVEt Ela 7taEt KaT' wEldav aTOY napaoe100 xropie;; va U7tOOTEi tTJ ooKtJlaoia 'tlle; JlS'tBJl\jIUXroOlle;;· H acp6oSl.)oll OTOV ram 11'tClV tyKA.T)~ta KaElooMoeroe;; Ka1 TtJlIDpoUV'tav JlE Sava'to.

To vepo A.otnOv Sev sivat JlOVO KaSapo otTJ crovsiOllO"l; ~tae;; aA.M em[3aA.A.sTat anO TOUe; JluEloue;; va 'to oEf36JlaCTte oov rsroto, 0 Hcioooq oi&aoKe: "unv oupeirs nOTe 0'tl1V eK[30A.11 rorv 1IOTaflWV ours ornv mtY1l ronc, M7tOpoUJle f3tf3ata va a~toA.oyl;OOl)fle Op00A.oy1Ka Ta napanavro A.6yta Kat va eauJlaOOUJlE mv 7tp6A.ll'lf11 rou Hoiooou Yla T11VUY1E1V1; on XWpou. Avr' nurou croveXi~ovTae;; r rnv avayvroall ea ota[3aooUfls: "unv oupeire opElWt YUplOflEv01npOe;; TOVTJA.10". H ouorcon au-riJ tou Hoiodou oev ex.et KaJlia roCPEA.tfllOtUa; onuuoia. H npa~11nou anuyopet)E1 Ssv KtVouveUet va aJlaupwost mv KaElapOtTJ'ta rou cprot6e;;. H OlOUOKUA.iu TOU Hotooou OJlroe;; rrvuqiepetm ornv emf30A.TJ tTJe; KaElapOtTJ'tae;; Kat tou os[3aaJlOt) ore O't01x.eia nou oivouv /;;001;, 'to vspo Kat 'to cproe;;. H Kaeap6tlJta roue avaYS'tat roe;;\)'10't0 ayaBo 6Xt uovo OT11v 7tpa~ll aA.A.a Kat OtTJv croveiOllaTJ Jlac;;. TIme;; Jl1IOpOOJlS 'teA.tKa va eKJlatsl)OOuJle rnv llSlKl; TOl) vspou; 0 Bachelard avacpepet: "H Ka8aptOtTJ'ta Kat 11 opoOla evrovovrm yta va &woouv uin lOlai;;OllO"a an6A.U1)0ll 1IOU uovo oi EpaCTtee; 'tOU VEPOl) yvroptl;;ouv. H svcoon TOU U1oElll'tOtl Kat 'tOU atoEl11otaKOt) unootTJpii;;ouv uic

21 ll. KoU'tCSOYU1VV11<; e. Eexv90nouJ..oc;, Tf:XV1Kll YOpoA.oylu. &KO. E9v1KO M&"[(JO~lO TIOJ..U'tEXVeio, Kat A9r,vu 1997

22A&1CCl'tCS~, I.,H KUtayO>y1) TOW 9&CS~l(i>Vat T K
1951
23

troy

oo~ucnci>v, <:KO.B1r~J..ioNeOeUTJV1KOD J..6you, A9iJvu

AtV\~ VI, crt. 228·231
G., To VeP01Cat rc ovsipc, ~l't(p.'EJ..CST) TOODtl1, &KO.XU't~TJVTJKOJ..iJ, A9iJva 1985

24Bachelard,

13 119uCl) (l~ia.. ME noA.Aoil<; '[p6rcou<; 0 aJOxcra~l6<; Kat 11 qmElpi.a ron vspou ~.l(l<;001110-OV 0' tva tOuvtK6. /'::..evnpETC8l vu l)nOtt~U;l~lS n<; OtoaXES tOW rcPOJt0Y8VWV 1.l/oWV. 'Exouv ml~la8E\V8t 1:11 V€01:11ta,'tilS aKE\llll<; ~taC;, ton nVEi)~a.!O<; ~la.<;, ElVUl a.Va.YKo..<HLKUEVa. a.rc60C:~tu vtOnK Tu; ~ava.BpiciKOU~L8 ctu; TCpOatDTCtK€S ~lae; Q.\ia.~lvila81C;, Kt .orcv ovetpsuouncrs otcv Xa.V6~lCI.crt8 rcpaYl!a1:~Ka ~€aa ere 6V8lPa. ~a.s, rote uzomooouucrs anl qnmKl1 KCl.t avaycvv111:lK11 I,:co11 KCtnOtou a1:01;(8iou."

To vsp6

Kat

oi I..1VllJ1SC;
01:0

"To V8PO Cl.VtlnpOO'('J)nEuEl 1:11V KClpOlll, TljV \jJux1i xou dvat ql\)A.aKla~lEvll ~l£oa q>('J).6<;nou elvru syKA.ewn] ~t£(Ja (JtO OKO.UOt." ,

ccouc, Tnv

arxi]

LOU

"H 006" T11SMVllJll1S" IIPEO'1tll (q>(t)''t. rtiH'

Related Interests

    TIS &')lUdm(lllln~)

    To VEPO crc ovstpc E~cpa.VtSetaL KIl.U 1:0 lung EK8i 6n01) ot eVVOtE<;.COv opizov n01) eXEl eeael 1:0 Eyro (01.)VEt01l't6 urc6BCi.0po) a.PXtS0UV vc Ota.A1)OV'tat Kat a.pxtSEt 11 £laB0/e11 LOU a.cruvEiOl)1:Ol) ~€aa ae a.u..cO. AvCt'J..oya O£ ~et11V ~lopqlll WI,) VEP0';) unopouus vc OtCl.KPi.VOUW~ 11 ELOPOAli cv A' 26 UU1:l) ytve't(ll fAaLa l11Tltta.
    , r r

    To vf:p61om6v sivm to opto rta va. Cl.VCl.Ka.A'il\I'OU~.l£ KOO~lO "11<; ~EXaa~LeVl1e; ~a.<; ~vli)llK Tt' tov (1)1:6 'to vspo ex,€t XPll0l~LOlt0111E)El (1)<; p.aVHKO otOlX€Lo 1i oxouu KUl ocv Oqla.'tO<pl)A.a.Ka<; 't11e; ~V"~11<;· L1:l1V EA.A.llvlKll ~UeOAOYla OL ~LV11~lE<; ava.cpepov"CCl.l os auvupnl011 ue tu vspn. 0 1IDta.~OC; Ax,€poV1:w; ~E1tA8VE 1:Ou<;vsxpouq Cl.no r«; ~Vll)lE<; 1:0\)C;Kat KUt£).111E on1 Al~lVl1 MV1WOmlVl11tOU a.TtO'CEA..oUO£ O1.l1AeK1:11pa 1:11C; 'tOV ~V{UL11C;. TCOtlFI',C;ym vo anw(-)\lvOei 01:0 K01V6 rou enpEnc: vc 0

    25It~tVYK.,
    i6Jung,

    ~mp. Richard Vilchem, Avtp£ru; TOaKaAllt;,

    €Kb,

    Ill)JHvoC;K60'~LO~,A011va 1982
    8K[),

    Psychology and Alchemy volume 12, The collected works.

    Roullege and Kegan P. London

    1954

    14

    Wt6 'to MiAov 'ucSrop 'tTJ~ Mvnuoouvnc nou ea rou tblve 'tTJ eDllTJcrTJnov npoyovcov 'tOU. 0 llu90~ A.ea E1ticrTJ~ TJTIu9ia nplV aveBei orov 'tpino15a ucoouce CPllMa McpVTJ~Kat Em.ve Wt6 on 'tTJv llavtl1CT] 1tI1Y'iKaO'taA.ia. Ta vepc Mmov IlnJ.J:Kave Ile '[1(; Ilvtllle~ rou napeAeoV'to~ 000 Kat jle t~ Ilvtljle~ tOU Ilw..oV'tO~.
    met

    I:'tTJV crUYXPOvtl EUcl15a jlePlKt~ 1lTJyt~ aUel Kat nO'telllla exo'llV 'to ovoun I1ap9evlO~ ~ TIap9evia. Eivm 11WIl11OT]tCOVMU'tPWV non SKave ~ KOPTJ0't11V nprotTJ tTJ~ eJlIl11VO pUOT]. I:e autel Ot K~ tta~av 'tTJeDJl11OT] ou; 0't0 vepa?7 r

    o ~civUJ~ avacpepet Ott 1l0A.~ mlye crov napel15etoo TJMatiAvta 'tOY ~lI9u;,Et nprota erov 1tOtal16 'tTJ~A~911~ yta va ;SXeloet ta napa1t'twJlatel tOU Kat uorspn orov 1tOtallO 'tTJ~KaA.~~ IlVTJllocrUVTJ~ va tUA.t;et 'tTJ eDJlTJOT]tOU jle KaAi:~ avaJlvtloe~. Eroi nevtaKel9apo~ Kat e~ayvtoJlevo~ apxi1;,et to aveBacrJlel tOO atOU~ oupavou~28. EKto~ ana tOY ~elV'tTJ Kat 0 I:ai;;1tI1P XP110tl101tOtei 'tTJ IlVTJlletaKO'tTJ'ta rou vspou "1tViyov'ta~" mv OcpTJA.iaIleoa 0'tO 1tO'telll!. Fivetm MutOV atl'tOC; 0 1tO'taJ.!.6c;11 a1tOIlelKPUVcrTJ on 'teAetOUP)'tKOll zpooroaou. Etot TJ OcpTJA.iaxcive'tat ore vspu rou r aauvetO~'tou. 0 AaeptTJC; 9pTJvei A.Eyovtac;: "~ev 9a KA.el\j1CO. Ollte Kata eva MKPU Sev 9a au~11gei OM aut6 'to vepo non oe mlpe OcpTJA.ia"
    01 JlvltlleC; tOO vepou Kat 11Ka9apta rou ouoic cvccepovrci ce 01..11'tOU~ tTJ 1501111 tOV TOA.Ktv. O 1tOU 0 TOA.Ktv 9Uet va ota~aoet oro napalll)et tOU to lleA.MV, to ota~aset Ileoa ano tOY Ka9peCP'tTJ'tTJC;aA.civ'tpte1, Ilia acrTJllevta A.eKaVTJ A.anel Kat P11Xll yelleltTJ vspo. Orcv Koi'ta~s 0 r n I:aJl Jleoa O''tOVKa9pecp'tTJ " ... t' corsptc SopTJoav. As~ Kt sixs tpap11xtei eva OKOllPOnapa~elv, 0 Ka9pecp'tTJC; Eytve 'YKPu;,O~Kat llOtSpa Ka9elptoe ... 0 KaepS<ptl1~ osixvet npelYJlata nou t']tav, npaYJlata 1tOU eivct Kat npclYJlata nou iO'co~yiVOllV,,29
    EKe!

    AU'll'j stvct Kat 11 at0811n1CT] 11 ata8aVtlK6tTJ'ta tou vspou. Evce; KaepSCPtTJ~ 1tOU m8av6v va ;eyeA.ciet Kat nou 11~aeDtepTJ ouoin ron avacptpe'tat cov OPLOnvcueou crov OtKOJla~ K6oJlO Kat 0" evav KOO'JlOclyvcoo'tO Kat OlC01tllA.O. I:'ta vepn 't111; .TJOIlOOtJVlK A To vspo MutOV ytv£'tal 'to <piAtpO yta vn ~l7touJle ceto 'tOY yvwo't6 Jla~ KOOJlO O'E svcv ciA.A.o clYVCOatO.To cpiAtpO onro exel 'tTJV t15tO'tTJ'tava nnipvst OtacpopeC; 1l0pcptC;. TTJ 1l0PCP'iJ'tOU Ka9peCP'tTJ,tTJVOtclcpaVTJ 1l0pCp~ xrn m 1l0PCPt'] on enmsoou. 'Etot ro OPLOron vepou nsptepoupsi r 'to neptexoJlevo rou. TeA.lKcl orov crUYXPOvoKOO'JlOJlac; TJ a15'llvaJlla a~lOA.6yTJOTJC; O'totXeiwv 'tTJC; Pl)crTJC; roiv < oOTJyei O''tTJvA.t']S11oue, Fum 0 crUyxpOVOC; r avSpo:moC; non avasll'tcl rnv ,[U~11os KUee tou KiVTJcrTJ ayvoei 'teA.tKU on 11 cpucrTJSev eivci 'taK'tl1CT].Ileptepovei m)VetolFu 'to ~ltyeOoc; Kat 'tTJVKA.tllaKa reov O''tOtXeiwv 'tTJC; Selvet va ;eXV<lEl 'tTJVOl)Va~lt']rouq, 'Etct oi eKcppaOetc; tOU vspou onv ayopaiou Kat npoL6V'to~ (ro vepo 0"tTJ ~pUcrTJ, O'tO IlnOUKaA.l, ot11V nA.as) 'to 9s'toUY co~ IllKp6 Kat aouvallo. 'OIlCO~11q>uOT]too vspou oev sivat au~. To optn ron VEPOl) oev JlnOpOUvE va nepLOpt<J'toUVE es eva Jl1tOUKaJ..1 Sa 8uJl11S0UJlE mv anEpav'tocrUvTJ tou; 'tIl" £7tO~levl1nA.1lJlJlupa. A~u;,Et MutOV Kat soro va 1500Jls 'ta apta 'tOU vepou.

    27

    AelCCl'tOllc;, n.,H lCa'[o:yCJ:J'}'iJmv 9E<JllcOV Kat ttov oo~aCHcOv, £KO. BtBA.io NeOeA.A.llVlKoU A.6yO\l, A9tiva r AA.1ylMpt.NtcXvte, H geta KOl~OlOta, ~LtCP, ftWPY11<; K6tO'lPac;, eKo, I, Za)(apo1touA.o<;,A9~va 1986

    1951
    28

    2~olkien. R. R. J., The Lord of Rings, £KO. George Allen and Unwin, London 1983

    15

    Ta Opla

    TOll VEPOU

    Ftn va olOcracpl'JvicrouJ.1e TTJv Evvota rou opiou J.11tOPol)lle va 1tOl)J.1e on sivci l'J ouV.eK'ttKli 1tO\) 67u0<; A.Eet 0 Bachelard "TTJV KavOUIlE apiacrta O"TTJpaO"l'J nov EU(OVOOVzon otbtOuv O~ tlf,; crKe'VEIf,;e&'ttKoU Kat apVl'J'ttKoU,,30. XapaKTTJPtcrTtKa apta tmv emq>aVEtaKWV uoatOOV sivm l'J 6XOl'J ron; KaOWt; Kat l'J iota 11 emq>avEw 'tOUt;. H 6XOl'J O"l'JJ.1a'toOotEi TTJv OeO"l'Jn1t; crtaO"l'Jt; tOU av9p<i>1tOu em Y11 O"TTJvaV'ti9ECJ1') tOU KaA£O"J.1atOt; TTJ<; cpurilc;, otrrv avaq>EpOllacrtE O"TTJ9aA.a00"a31. E7riCJ1')C;O"l'JllatOOotel to 1ti:paoJ.1a an:6 TTJ geCJ1') tOU av9p<i>1toU oTTJ ')'11, ornv aVti9ECJ1') tOU pu9ioJ.1atot; tOU 0& au'to. Ot avtt6eoelf,; auttc; eivat l'J 1tpOKA.11O"l'Jou VEPOl) 'Yta tOY aVepOO1to. H ovcuovn tOU ayvooo'too t KOOlloo Ka'too anO TTJv emq>aveta rou Kat to pu9tOlla O"E aUnl avaKaA.ei allopq>Et; J.1VllJ.1Et;. MviJIlEC; EJ.1PpliOU 1tO\) eivoi l'J OtKalooCJ1') rou O"tOlXEiou O"'tO Q"l)VEt0110taKO u7t6Pa9po 'tOO av6p<i>1tO\)32. H emcpavElO, amaO"'tl'J, a1tpoO"1teA.aot11 0111ltOllPYel "Opt~ovtla OOKO" 01tOOC; A.eyE 0 E Le Corbuzier", H emq>aveta tou VEPOU Ilat; KaA.Et va rnv crsvioouue. ~taKpivoUJ.1E rnv ata~ia E1tavoo 'tl'JC;000 J.1tKpi] Kt av sivm 11 onoin O~l().)C; aOllVan:i va ~E<P\)'YEtcoro rnv tOXUpOtepl'J 1l0p<pi]t; 'ta~l'J TTJt;op~oV'tloC; OOKOU, Oxt a1tapait1')ta rou opi{,;ovta. AV'ti9ECJ1') 1tO\) J.11tOpoUIlE va otaKpivOl)IlE E1ti0"11C; ivm Kat 11 ou'LKli <P\)0"l'JtOU vspou. To VEpO e sivm i]peJ.10 Kat ~000)'6vo oco KataOtpoq>tKO Kat OOA.o<pOVtKO.0 'lA.ttt; ava<pepEt "EE 1tOA.A.Et; acpptKavtKEC; OtaA.EK'tOUC;l'J A.E~l'J'Yta rc "apx,eyova vepn" sivui Kat 11 A.E~l'J 'Yta to. oioulla. To OVEtptKO VEPO elvat om:pOOOO1to. H 1tA.11J.1lll)pa, to uiun, 11 PPOX,ll, to 'YaA.a, to onspuo, l'J Spoota, to KaeE "VEpO" eXEt to ouoio OiOllllO rou, ~t<pU11 to. vepn ~E1t110aVE a7t6 to XaOC;, Kat 1l1tOpEi 1tapa va sivnt etm",34.

    oev

    300 Bachelar avacpEPel:"O xoopoe; OEV€ivat tbtots MA.O ano Eva "tpO~IEPO ueco E~W". Kat 0 €q>lMtTle; etvoi wtl..6e; )'tan eiveu ptl;tK6t;. ea vonnxoxotouccue al>t11 rnv £lL1t€tpia ov MyallE on E<ptMtTle; sivm q>nttnt£VOC; an6 Jua allq>l~oA.ia n01> txpictnrm II ~E~ato"t11"ta 1:01> XooP01>cero ueon Kalil oacp1)vEla "t01>an' ~ro."

    °

    Bachelar, G., H 1tOlllnKl't "t01>XooP01>,Il"t<p. EMvI1 BEA"tcr01>IWUvva Xa"t~lIVtKoA1), EKO. Xa"t~llVlKOA.~, A9~va 1982

    31 "ovsipeuorcv On "t~lOeUEl 11' Eva "t€-cOIO Molo KaOtoJIEVOe;'I'll AU oro JIEOlavO Ka"tUpn, O"""CTJ piyA.a. 'On 1t£"tm:t JJtaa GtTJv ttre1£irotTI J.LUPWOUITlC; OMa.craru;, n01> OEV stvoi JLUpwoul a.A.A.aavaaa., 1tV0~. To t TEA.oc; Kage Iluproo~ dvat II 9w..aoaa., 1£e; Kat KUOE MAll ~I\lPWOUl Sla.A.U£"tat ano E1>XapiotTIcrlJ J.1€oa. tTlc;.". ZtaKivt Il., To UpWJ1a., J1"tcp Ma.pia. AYYEAioo1>,EKO.'l'1>XOYIOC;AOllva 1986 , 32 0 <I>p6lvt MEt on 0 oull[30AlOJloC; "t01>VEPOl) ava<pepE"tat onl Jul1:Pa. Kat "to aJltaKO 1>YPO. <I>POtvt, I., H epunvelc ttov oveipmv, Jt"tq>A£q>"tEP11C; AvayvooO""Co1>, Enbcoupoc, AOllva. 1993 EKO. 33Le Corbusier, 3"'1),,\t<;, I., H'O A9~va 1992 KeiJlEVa.)'ta. mv Ellaoa.,
    !Cal 'ta

    JI1:<p. ilSa TIa.A.avnvou, €KO. Aypa. 1987 A

    vepa 't1l<; A.l1cr~O<n>V11~,It'tq>. Kdictu Xat~11V11KOI.11, EKO. Xa't~11V11KOI.~,

    16
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      KaHpetpTll Kat day

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      3~ 36

      l'apKOq)(1Kt, 'K, MIxpTUPOACrylO,

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      AU~avopos

      [crOr11S, E1(O. NEqJ€A.11, AOllVa. 1990

      0 MlXeA.1011S avrup€pe~ Yla tov aVTl1(UTOJI:'q)LO'p6 " ... 6.v Kat 0 opl(6vnoc; Ct~ovCU; O'\)!l~tEtpiru; Ei.Vdl 0 on 6i;,ova.c;tOU 0uva.tOU Kill ton l;hXa.(j~LOt). 11 IlVTlKaton:pI0'!I€V1l n:PoO"O\If11 !tCU; BeAye!.. TIp(I)TOV SlOtt TIlV ~A£JI:OU!te cov eiOciJl0 (j){lVTaO'TLKO, ow Eu~6va (1)0 Ota.atQ,crEWV, evro 11 npawau1Cl1 npocro\V1l eiVUL oro xropo KUt txel tpEh; olCtO"tUaEU;. AeUtEpOV OlOtl 'W eiow"o !lCU;E7l:rrptnEl va Ctfpa.tPOU~l£ Tl1 ~top<piI Tile; 1tpantutlKf1C; 7[p6o'O\jlll~ Kat va Til 0EWpOU~t'£ l<aO' EUllTli. 6.axtTC'1. (17[0 K6OE' crtUtLKO ai0'01HLa 11 avTiA11\j1ll 10'oppon:iCU;. " Ml'X.eAtls,
      1990

      IlA., Ato'91\tlKn 0t{))Pl1!lQt(1, T6~lO~ :1. cl<b. 'Iopupa na.vuyt6)t1l

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      "H ~ovaOucfl aat; 9&6tll'ta at; stvm '1 <l>'6GTJ· 'EX&"tErutOAUtll1tiCJtll a' autt'lV. Na '(J"tEaiyouPOt 1t~ 1tO"t£~ OEY Eivat uaK1W'1Kat1t&PlOpit;&t& mv <ptwoo~ia aat; (J"t0va tll~ (J"t£KEa"temorot. " Auyou(J"to~ POV"t£V37 MUle; KUl ef:Mroj.1.e va ~etucrooj.1.e to vspo, tva a1to tn ~acrtKa crtOtxeia t11e;;cpUOTJe;;, Kata tOV Hparl.ett038, crKOmj.1.0ea ittavE va OOUj.1.E apxee;; t11e;;Aettoopyiae;; ron atOtxeiOll crt11 cpUOTJ39. tte;; Enn to vspo: • ~atj.1.~etat an6 t11 ew..aaaa Kat t11 ~11pa ave~aivovtae;; KataKopucpa 1)1[0 ,.wpcpit uopatj.1.00v • O1lJ.1.7tU1CVOOVetat atj.1.0acpatpa crVlj.1.ati~OVtae;; ouvveec ornv • KataKp11j.1.V~etat M6 t11v atj.1.ocrcpatpa ornv ~11pa Kat "t11 8aAaacra ce otacpopee;; j.1.0pcpec;; (~pom, xWvt, XaAa~t) • U1tOppeEt emcpaveUlKa crXl1j.1.ati~ovtac;; pellata Kat 1totajlta Kat KataAi]ye1 teAtKa cs tallteUtTJPec;; it <Jt11 ew..acrcra • U1tOppeet U7tOyEUl Ilecrro "troY nopcov Kat «ov ProrllOOV trov yeroAoytKOOV crVlllancrlloov Kat eKcpopti~etat E1ttcpavEtaKa j.1.ecrro troy 1tlJyoov Ta vepn ta 01tOia a~~et ~e~airoe;; va E~Etacroulle 1tffie;; StlOupyollve orov av6poomvo 1tOAtttcrll0 A Kat 011 oro 1tep$w..Aov j.1.iaC;;7tOA11e;;eivm rc e1ttcpavElaKa vepa, LK01ttIlO eivm va ta otaxropicrooj.1.e aE aAj.1.Upa vspd (flaAacraEC;;) Kat as yAllKa vepn (Ai~tv€C;;-1to"tallta), yta va e~E"tacroUj.1.Ert OTJIlaivE1 KaO' tva a1to tmrc; SeK1Va~1€ cno t11 flaAacrcra Iltae;; Ka1 aun; a1to"tEAei t11v apm Kat "to "teAoC;;,"to ~acrtKo KOPIlO rou llopoAOYtKOll KllKA.cm

      "To 1tu90~ rou av9pro1toU yta tTJ 9aAacrcra sivoi avtbto'teAie;. IlEV IL1topeie;va rnv KUJJ..L€pyiJcrete;,"to vepo tTJe;OEY 1tiV€tat ornv <Xy1CaAtU tTJe;1t&Oaiv&te;. "
      Blixen Karen

      "Cl>omte;avclf30uve emv UIlIlO 19(1yeveie; Kat ax6~ ~at; <p"tavetKa9ci>e; tait;ouv "ta 6pyava rou; 1 ,tTJe;9aAuaaat; KatavtKwvrat; tOUe;OavatOue; ... "
      Nixo; Kap~aOiat;

      Ta aAj.1.upa vspc t11e; Ow..acrcrae;; l;taVS ltavta utn ltPOKA11CJ11 tOV av8prolto. npOKA11OTJ Y1a to Y1a ayvrocrto, to ta~iot yta oAa allta nou OEY ~ep&l Kat fla 'fleAs va avaKaAll\jl&l. Eivrn ltpayj.1.a"ttKa ceo Kat cpav"tacr"ttKa "ta j.1.YTJj.1.etaKa ta~iota anl OaA.ucrcra 01tOOC;; aUta rou KoA6j.1.~ou, tOU noUAt~Ep, "tOO Iacrova40 Kat tou Oouccec". H 6aA.acrcra ittav KU1 sivnt 11 ovcuovn tOU ayvoocrtou 11 tpOllalCttKit a01lvexeta tl)e;; OXfl1K Meta altO autit crtallatact 11 yvrocrtit
      Povrsv, A., H TtXV'l, ~'t<p.A.I:uppoe;. Ecrtn tOU ~L~Hou, A011vu 1954

      37

      38BaatKO (J"tOtX&io a<pOl>Ka"ta tOY HpaKAet'to 11<p<U"ttaLa1;;i L& yl1 'tOY oepu KUt to vepo cruv9£'tOuv 'to I I 'ttl mJJ.11tav. A~e:A6e;,K., 0 HpaKAet'toe; Kat '1 <ptA.oao<pia,IL"c<p. 1l1HL11'tp11e; IltU111"tpuibl1c;, KO.E~av'tat;, A9itva 1974 E
      39

      11. KOU'taoytclvvT]e; Kat 0. Eav967touwe;, A9t)va 1996
      40
      41

      TEXVtKll YopoAoyia, &KO.EOVLKOME'taO~tO nOAU't&XV&io,

      Ktpvet, K.,H llu60Wyia 'tOW EM~VWV, weep. 61UL1rtp11l:'taOO1tOUAOU,EKO. Ea'tia ,Ae~va 1996
      Page, L.D., H OI1'1PtKtl ObucrcrEla, It't<jl.Kpirrovn OaV11yllp11,EKb. OrutUbtllta, AOilVU 1995

      18
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      43

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      K., Ma9Ti~la'ta AtjlEVlKWV epyoov, &K8.EOVtKOU M&ter6~lou nOA\)'t&XVEiou,AOijva 1992

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      19
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      48

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