You are on page 1of 92

F:eNIKO METI:OBIO nOA YTEXNEIO TMHMA nOAITIKQN MHXANIKQN TOMEA1: YL\ATIKQN nOPQN, YLlPAYAIKQN KAI 9AAA1

:LIQN EPrQN

TO AIL8HTIKO LTOIXEIO LTO NEPO, TA Y L\PA YAIKA EPr A KAI TA c'])PArMATA

E1tt~At1tovn:~Ka8TrYTl1;t~: L\l1JlittPll~KoutaoYHlVV11~ 8eJltat01dit~ Sav861toUAO~ E~(oteptKft e1tt~At1touaa: 8eavID <I>oniou
To aUJ1~OA.o '[0\) E~Ol<p'6llou-aU~t~OAO '[OU vepou 0"'t11V tEpoYAuq>udl ypa.q>i] nov Aryumiwv. E1ta.vaAa.J1~avE,[W 1tO~ <popte; ern KEi~tEVa'toue;. 0 1tOAmo"~l6e;nov Aryuxtkov £iXE we; ~aO"T]rou '[a. VEPIX'tOUNEi.A.ouEVW '[0 vepc WtO'tEA.oUO"E EK~lE'taAAeUO"t~LO Kal l..atpeutlK6 O"'tOlXeio.(Gardiner, A.. aAAa Egyptian Grammar, Being an introduction to the study of Hieroglyphs, eKb. Oxford University Press, London 1950)

A811va,Mupnoc 1998

L TIlV

rtuyul

~OU.

oru; MVTUJ£<;

2 nEPIEXOMENA

DpOA.oyoC; ElCJOyroyii .AvaAUcrTI :EcpIlPIl0yi] :MIlKe'tec;
N £po Ot ,.!lJSOt Kilt 'to vepo T 0 vepo ornv Aiyu1t't'O

3 5 5 7
8

9 9 9
10

vepo orqv EA.A6.OIl o AOYOC; vepou rou ApOpOl Ton vepof .•....•.....•..........................................................•.......•................. T 0 vepo om <!>i>crTI.................................................................................................. 'Til a.A.llupa vspu T Il YAUKa vepa........................................................................................................ To vspo Kat TJ1tOATJ TeAoC; rov 0pollrov TOUvepou cJ)pay (lT(l Tevncd Ot TOllec; rou IlvSpci)1tou crTTJCPUcrTI :E'totxeia speuvuq rcov 1tllpeA-KOllevrov crTOXroV€VOC;q>paYIlIlToC; H onuevnxomr« 't'TJC; KIl'tllcrKeUTtC;EVOC; ppa'YIlIlToC; c Tu vepc TOU cppaYIlIl'toC; IIept~aUrov xropoc; yupro a1to TO q>PclYIlIlKat TOVrcqneurnpn H Ka'tIlcr1CEUTt OU cppaYIlIl'toC; T AtcrSTJ't'tKec;e1tell~acretC; orov €~roT€PtKO q>A-OlO q>pll'YllaTo)v nov EU'YKpt't'tlCij1tapaSecrTj Otllq>OProv ro1trov q>pll'YllaTrov AVclAUcrTInov 1tapeAKollEVo)V crtOXrov TOU q>paYllllwc; IIAacrTTtPIl Kllt.TOU 'UOPOTJA.eK'tptKOU epyou rou Nserou ~K01t11l0't'TJTIl lleA.e't'TJC; tllpEAKollevO)v crTOXroV xpiv mv OAoKA-TtProcrTI OU 1 T epYou DEOio £<pappoyiic; Iotllt'tepo't'TJ'te<; rou epYou Flpcrnon e1tiAucrTlC; nov 1tIlPEAKOIl€vrov crTOXroV TOU IlVIlppu81l1crTlKOU cppaYIlIl'toc; 't'TJ~AyillC; Bllp~apll~
To

12

17
17 17 19 26 36
38

38
40 45 48 49 51 55 56 59 61
69

70 70 73 82
83

Eniwyoc;

BlpAloypa<pia

3

np61oyoc;
" ... axtafJl;'to Kat A..a1ovUOwp,,1 :E'tOVO'toiXo tOU tdeutaiou XPllOJ.LOU tOU Mavreiou tOW ~u.<pO>v oKoVta\jla 0t11V &JOtOVT)<J11 'tT)«;; om:A.ro~atllCi)t; f:pyaoiat;. fta 'tT)V aKp$f:W 0t11v avtlO'tpoqni tOU ~tat; Kat Of: OA.llrnv OWpKf:W t11t; Epyaaiat; oi..a 'ta VEpcl, s~ot.al;;av va ~Wivf:. :E'tT) OWpK&lQ 'tT)e; epyaoiat; avaJXOtl1911Ka tt <J11~aaia 9a ~1tOpouoe va tIet yta ~tva autO 'to 0't01X£1.o 'to 'tOOO YOll'tet>'tlKO. aIJit Kat 'to rooo aXPllO'to ornv ~tXPl 'ton: oll~LOupyia uou. L'tT)V nopcia avaKaA.U\jIa 'tOV ').iyyo 'tOU vspou navro uou. Tov ').iyyo 1tOU sXSl e7tt'1psaoet t11v OllCi) uou etKaanKi) O'ta<J11. AVaKaA.U\jIa i..omOv on it~ouv tvae; 9taorot11e; tOU vepou. A't~a Ka't' ~aKOA.oU9t'I<J11 ta vEp<1 Ott J.LOP<Pit at va eixav. nUKa vspc aA.~upa vspu, oi..a ta vf:pa f:tXav K Kat 8XOUVyw ~a ....a aKpat11 YOlltsia. To vspo ittav 'to ototxsio S~7tVet><J11t; i ittav II aPlll uou, Ilro~ o~e; 9a ~poUoa va ecpap .... oco auti! rnv apm os ~ia omA.ro~anKTt epyaoia. KataA.U'tlKO o pOw Of: au'to tnatl;av oi emJ3A.SnoVtEc; Ka911'Yllt£e; 1l0U K.K. Kourooytevvrp; Kat Sav907Wui..oe; 'tou~ O1tOioue; Kat et>xaptO'tro gep~a yw rnv Ka90oit'YllaTt roue, O<peiAro va avayvropioro Ott Vtpi-:no~at yta 'tOY napoc;uo~ nou dXav rc aPllKa ~OU xeiuevc Kat tropa 1tOUOA.OIU"llP<i>9t'lKe II EPY(lala npay~attKa 'toue; 9au~~ro yw 'tT)v U1tO~ovit tOUe;. KataA.U'tlKO poi..o enl<J11e;Otllv poit Kat·'tll OO....it 'tT)e;epyaoiat; auri)e; enatl;e II Ka911rit'tPW t11e;Apll'teK'tOVtKi)e; K. <I>rotiou rnv O1tOia et>XaplO'tO> tOtaitEpa. H E7tUCotvrovia ~a~i t11t; ~OU avotl;e vSoue; op~oVtee; yvro<J11e;.Katt 1tOU 'to OEIDP<i>oA.U <J11~avttKO emv f1£lloVttKTt ~OU nopeia. n Au'to 1tOU av~ll'toUoa J1E mv Epyaoia auri) ittav va aVaKaA.U\jIro tt npoacpepe 'to vepo ce ,...tva aIJit Kat OtOV noA.lttO~. Ilpoona911oa va Oro n Ol1~aivEl va atev~ro to vepo. "To pU~~a 1tOU a'tev~Et sivat .... Kpw wt6 'tllv tctopia Kat KOVta 0t11v atrovWt11ta"2 A.£Et II Lov'tayK xropit; o~e; a va OteuKplV~et 'to OtOlxeio nou a'tev~tt. AKoi..ol)eroV'taC;; o~roc;; eurov 'tOY OptO~O lleOa cmv EPY(lOia uou ewa Ott to anOA.UtO O'tOtXeio noll OlEKOtKei ~t tlt; OlOaXf:e; tou va to urevtoouve Eival'to vepo, Ka'taA.apa eni<J11e;Ott to vep6 stvm anOA.UtO usee crnv noUanA.it tOU CPU<J11, svcosivm noM Kat OJ.LOP<Po, ivat eni<J11t; noA.U OUOlCOi..ova to XEtptOtOUIlE 0t11v pa<J11 t11t; at0911ttKi]t;. 9ecOPlloa E o~e; Ott aTtJ1Epa oav tu.eWcpOltOe; IloA.tttKot; Ml1xaVtKOc;;txro mv anapaitlltll tEl"O)'Vrooia yta va nai2;ro ~~i 'tOU. fta tllV OA.olCA.itJXOOl1 Epyaoiat; xm tllt; KatavOl1Ol1e; rcov f:PYrov 9a it9u.a va et>XaptatTtoro tlle; 'tT)V ~EH yta 'tT)VnoA.Utl~ll au~PoA.it tllC;;OE OtOlXEia Kat unooo~it zou uou napelXE. IowltEpa 'tT)v K. Al1CatEpiVT) :Euivou Kal tOY K. 9wA.6'Yt'l IlapanOv'tll zou au~paUavE OUOtaO'tlKcl, Otllv Ka'tav6t'l0l1 an6 ,...spoue; ~ou, 'tOU f:pyou "avapu9~lOtlKO cppaYlla Ayiae; Bappapae;" aIJit Kat 'tOO auvoi..ou rcov tpyrov 1tOU ~ttaoa. Acpo61l Om:A.ro a'tllCi) Epyaaia Eivat to ti:A.oC;; aeE CPOltlltlKTtt;noPEiat; 9a it9Ei..a va et>xaplO'ri)aro .... K 'tT) ytIl'yl.Cl uou, 7tOU xropit; auri) oev aa PptOKOllollva omv et>XaPlOtll 9s<J11tOU CPOttllri), aIJit Kat yta 'tT)V ouatacrtlKi) tll«;; au .... oA.it Kal emppoit 1tOU aOKlllJe navro ~OU oi..a 'ta xpOvw 7tOU P nepaaaJ1E .... i. EniOlle; 9a it9da va E\)XaptatTt0ro rnv 1l1lttpa IlOU Kat mv a8£A.<pit IlOU yta'tllV ~ a~lO'tfl au~paO'taaTt 'touC;;. A Va<pOptKa .... mv CPOl'tT)'tlKTt E 11m) nopeia 9a it9da enlOl1e; va Kavro ..oWitEPll .... VEia omv K. AyyeA.tKTt Mnaxn nou f:KaVe Ott uxopouos yta va ~e ~aget va aKtcp'to~at ecv ~l1xavtK6c;. Em<J11e; 9a it9da MaJUl<J11. LtUlO
I

va et>XaptatTtoro tOUt; K.K.: Avrdrvn Xpto'tocpiol1, ftci:lpyo Auepo, NiKO KoA.WpaKll, Kereplva Ileveon, Mapia Ltyai..ou, fepaat~o :Ena9it, AVtroVT)
tOU

ttO(I~

an6 tOY n:4utaio lPlla~6

Mcvrsiou trov AtMpoov.

2toV'tciy1c, t., H ataOflnK1\ tllt; mromit;. Iltcp. Nava Hcotc, £1(0. NecpEA.ll.A01iva 1983

4
BEl;UPOYAou, ArUl1iTpt'I KUpUllCoU, Alllli}rpll Znppn, Ti;;M) KocrIlCt1C11, KiJ.lO)va XaTi;;l1J.Uripo, MaplCSAa (J)unlCCt1C11, 80CPcMt rlCOcpa, LrorTtPll nanaoo7tOuA.o, Xpi}OTO OtlCOv0f.lwlllCat Xpi}OTO 9 MalCpCmouAo 1tOU P<>i}lh1crQVyta Tl1V o~a'YCO'Yli Tl1~ 8P'Yacria~. IOUlitspa Oa it0el.a va £UXaPlcrti}crCl) Tl1V x. Avcomoic Pdluf.llIDrCt1C11, Tl1v lC. KaTspiva K6ri yta Tl1V cptAoi..oyuc:11 ~spyacria TO\) lCSlllEvO\) lCat tOV lC. rWVVll ApalC01tOUA.o 'YUl mv 7tOA.UnJ.Lll (JUJ.l1U1pclcrtacriJlCat mv 6tlCaOTllCT}rou (JU1lf30A.i}os OTCtOta Tl1~ sP'Yacr~. A9i}va 5 Maptiou 1998

rWP'YlOt;-<J)oij30t; l:aP'YMttt;

5

EurayCJYY1l
"MEaa v&pOu tnp81t£ va 7t£pOOCil, as Xeipappo ylucp6 ~avo tTJv lt91 va ~aqrrlaCil, KIl1 va 'tT)v cnipCillCl o:tt' tTJv till11 JlSptO va mv ~alCil 'YIa va 't1)v acOOCil"
o:tt' tTJV x.6pta'too

Paul Celan" H rEV1.1Cit ~90S0Aoyia
1tO\JI 11'00 aKoA.ou9i)9r)Ke omv Epyaaia au'ti) i)'tav J.1ia avw..Uatt 't0lV atotxeirov 9a lP'l<nJ.107tOti)oO\)~ (VEp6, UOpauA.tKo &PYa. uopauA.tKa 7tUlXViOta, <pparJ.1a'ta), Kat aKoA.oU9co~ 11 aUV9Eatt 't0lV &VVOuOv autWV oro 1t&5io Eq>apJ.1O'f11;, to avappu9J.1tatlK6 q>pQyJ.1a t1l~ A~ Bap~ap~ 4.

Avcli.;UCJll rSYlI~cl
To~ Yoa'ttlCWv Ilopcov yopauA.l1CWV Kat 9aA.acrCflCOV 'Epycov rou TJ.1i)J.1ato~ nOA.t'tlKWV M11Xavt1CWv EMn owacrK&l y&VtKa on: 0 UOpauA.lKO~ J.111xaVlKo~ acrX0A.ei'tal J.1& 'tTJV &1t&J.1Paatt 'to\) av9pci>mro oro VEp6 us Ka'tacrKEll~ J.1tKpi)~ i) J.1&'Yw..11~ A.iJ.1aK~. Ttn va &1ttmXel tOV crKonO K au'to 7tpOmta9&i ~l.01tOuOV't~ tOU~ V0J.10U~ PEllatOJ.1l1xavt1Ci)~, 'tl')~ crtatl1Ci)~ Kal y&VucOtepa 'tl')~ J.111Xavt1Ci)~ va WtOq>&pm 'to KaA.U'tEPO oUYato a7tO'ttA.&oJ.1a rla mv al;107tOi11att ttov uoa'tlKwv 7t6pcov.
I:t1lV otaOlKacria au'ti) ti9&V'tal ta 7tapaKCtt(J} Epco'ti)J.1ata. atOlxEio Ka'tl')yopia otu UOpauA.1KCt &pya; t(J}V UOpauA.tKWV sPY(J}v 7tOU va al;t07tOtoUv 'to at01XEio

o

1. AI;I.01tOl&i'tal 'to at0911'ttK6 2. Y1tClPXEt 7tUPCtOoatt omv au't6;

3. H U7tUP91

Kat 11 A.el'tO\)pyla rou vspou (J)~ tOU attJ.1av'ttKOtEPOU (j\)crta'ttKoU au'ti)~ 'tTJ~ mp&J.1Paatt~ ol1J.1toupyEi 'tou~ opou~, scrtCO usou anO J.1lJ (j\)V8tOlJtS~ OlaolKacr~ tCOV J.1llXavt1CWV, orov 'tp67to ue rov onoio E7ttA.U8tal to wlait8pO 7tpOpA.lJlla;

3

Celan, P., Too KavEV~ to

p6oo, J.1tcp.Aar.~ r. XpiJGto~

&KO.j\ypa,

AOiJva 1995

4 Ie 7tOiJ.lt GTlJlSia 'tOO 1C&tJ.1&voo Xapatt9t'llCav XCilpia. ApXtlCo OEV iJtav &mOuJ.111ttl cnrtiJ 11 ~Oo~ ypOOjliJ.1at~ AJCOl.ou0iJ9t'l1C& oJ.lCill;; 11 (JI)lloylGtt1CTJ rou Nt&Ji1top zou avacptp&t: "!lev tCJXUpfl;oJiIl1 6n JI.OtM.CilJlS KcmoWV cillo KIl1 mGteUCil &mGTIC;Ott 11 GTlJlSptviJ &1tOm &MxtGta Jlxop&i va <roy1CptOei JlS to mp&l06v. OJ.lCill;; xoiJ.lt xpOO"CJ)7tUtOO xap&lOoVto~ t&l&~ OtacpOP&TIlCOJL&'ta9l t~ xapaJ.ttvouv ap1C8tO OtK&ia. AvrutpOGc.oxeUouv. KovtOloyic;, Jita GttYI.ltaia &mKotv(J}viO"tJi11 EvvOta, as GXtGTI JlS av9~ (JI)JUt£pupoptc; KIl1 toO"&tc;" nOvCil lomav as auto to oUlloyo 7tpoaxa9iJO"aJlS va GUvOtaooJlS 'to KeiJISVO KIl1 ttc; 9sGEtc;. M& aut6 'to tpOno ~toloyOUJ1& apvTJTIKO mv JioVttpva WtO\IfTIQpvlJO"T)C; 'tT)C; lGtopi~ lmCilc; &mGTIC;~loyoUJlS apvTJTIlC{m:pa· mv JlSta~lOVttpva otGTI 'tT)C;tGtopia.c;. "H yvci:lGTI S7tp&7t£va Stap1C&l K01 va fio110aet ernv lCatavOTJO"T),touM;(lGtov EV ~P&t. 60w Oa GUvt~01vav EK vsoo: "1Ct1'JJl.a tc; ad" lUt 0 f>ouKtOi011C;. M' autov tOY i:p6n:o 11 totopin iJtav to Jli'tpo Jit~ 7tp1lYJl.atl1CTJC; K01votoJli~·.

NtsJ.17t6p, r., naYT)')'UptK~ NttJ.17t6p, r., Exalta AOtlva 1988

JI.'tCP. ci:lGt~ OtKov6~lOU, 8KO. El&u98~ K Jl.tcp. nOv~

TU7to~ AOJiva 1995 TaaxE~. &KO. El&uO&~ TU7toc;.

xOvro GtT)V KOlvCilvia tOU O&6.Jlat~

A'OOtclp. Z.-4J).,H JL&'taJl.oVtepva KatoGtaO"T). Jitcp. Kci:lat~

nWtayui>PYTJ~ tKO. rvci:lGTI, AOiJva 1993

6
4. Eivat rutapainrto
yta

to at.a6T]nKo motxeio om tpya tON J.l11XavucolV1Q)pim~ em ~ru..a va elVat q>tluca J.lEtOV Ctvep<01tO Kat to 1tEptf3all.ov;

tpya

Kat' apxfJv 5iOerat 9&'t1.1Ci} WtClvn)0l'J ma naprutcivro tjXl)'tiJJ.lata. E1tEt5i) to 1Q)piaJ)Xo auv9eruco atotxtio ce J.lta t&tOta npoaeyytOl'J Elvat to VEpO 11 £p-yaaia ~ooVllae J.lE J.lia npoamiOeta rw 1t&pattepro Katavo11011 Kat eJ.l~a9uvOl'J tOU uoattvOO motX£Wu at napaJ.1&tpouc; 1tOU OEYi)tav avttKeiJ.lEVO tllC; 0;(0A.i)c; nOA.tttKWV M11XavtKWV. nWC; £yypacperat to v&p6 oro au/J.oytKo aauvei011tO (uson a1t6 J.lU900C;Kat napaooaetc;) Kat n<i>c; evtaaaerat to veoo oro atoJ.luco aauvei011tO (auJ.lj30A.taJ.l0i-'!IUxavaJ..UttKi) npoaeyytOl'J).

H npoamigeta

tllC; Kataypacpi)c; tOO aUJ.lBoA.ou rou VEpoU, naA.&'I'e J.lErnv noll.anA.i) tOO cpUOll Kat yta rov J.iyyo autOV 11 Ka'taA.11~l1 OEV i)'tav J.lovoaT)J.lQVt11.'Etot tu aUJ.ll3oA.a 'tOO VEpoU, 11 yOV1.J.I.6t11ta, 1KaOapOl'J. ooo Kat 11auJ.lj30A.tKi) npOaByytOll 'tOO VEPOU, ocv opio 'too aauvEi011'tOO 1 Kat tllC; J.lvTJJ.l11C; &ivat 'ta EPraJ..eia 1tOU Oa XPllatJ.lonoti)aooJ.lE ornv &niA.uOll 'trov npo~A.11J.la'trov J.lac;. .

Fur va KaA.Uq>OoUV yvroatlKa atOtXEia nou OEY stvm auVllOtaJ.leva crnv 'tEXVOMytKi) npoaByytOl'J tOO vepoo, E:yt.v£npoana9£ta va Kataypacpouv ouvomucd opiousve; Ka'tOOK£UamtKEc; opaattc; 1tOU ~t07tOtoUV 'to ata011tUCo atotxeio attc; uoPauA.tKEc; Ka'taaK£UeC;. LtllV npoamiOeta tllC; J.lOpq>roOl'JC; 'too KEt~OO aKOA.ouOi)aaJ.lE rou; opOJ.lOOC;tOO VEPOU ornv q>UOll, J.lE paOl'J tOY ' UOpoMytKO KUdo, (Oru..aaaec;, notUJ.lta, A.iJ.lVEC;) at e~erUCJaJ.lEtllV avanru~l1. mv opycivroOll K Kat tllV opaOll 'trov KOtVroVtKWV auVOA.<OV yUp<O rut' 'to uoanvo at01XEio. EKEi J.ldeti)0l1Kav Kat or avttOpaaEtc; 'tOO avOp<i>1tOU nCtvro oro a'tOlxeio, rn uopauA.uca Ep-ya. LtO OllJ.ltio au'to KataYPuCP11KE0 xapaKti)pac; rcov A.tJ.lavt<i>v,tcov no'taJ.lOlV, tcov A.tJ.lVWVKaOcilc; enicntc; Kat trov rumKwv uOpaUA.tKWV EPYroV omv KOtVroVtKi) EKcppaOl'J rou avOp<i>1tOU. E~eraO'tllKav £Xt0llC; Kal ta UOpaUA.tKU natxviota Kat 0 xapaKti)pae; rou vspou ata ncipKa at01Xeia 'ta onoia yta KaA.ata011'ttKOUC;aKonoUe; XP11atJ.lonotEi 0 civOpronoe; crnv n6A.11'tOO. L'tO Kecpru..ato au'to PAbtouJ.lE J.lE napaoEi'YJ.la'ta OllJ.laVttKte; ouva'totlltec; ata911ttKi)e;-notottKi)c; a~t07tOi11OllC;'trov uou'trov. ~uyatotll'tee; noll OJ.lroe; nuvta A.aJ.lpavouJ.le un' 0'1'11 aKOJ.la Kat 6tav a OEY wtOteA.oUV OtKOVOJ.ltKa aaUJ.lcpopee; A.uaetc; aA.A.a J.lnopouv va ano'teM;aoov otKUiOec; aaq>aJ..etac; (6nroC; to napOOEtYJ.la rcov notaJ.lcJlV J.leaa ornv n6l11 non 11 lUOll rcov ypaJ.lJ.ltKOlV nciPKroV &1CateproOEV 'tOO 7tO'taJ.lou n.x. Moaxa elaxtatonotEi 'tOY KivoUYo tllC; nA.11J.lJ.lUPac; oe Ka'tOt1C11J.levec; 1t&PtOXEc; .x. K11CPtaoc;) n f'I) paYl-'aTa To t&leutaio KOJ.lJ.lan tllC; epyaaiae; au'ti)c; &7ttK&Vtp<i>VE'tat ornv trov q>payJ.lutrov. napa'ti)p11Ol'J Kat tllV J.l&J..&trJ

E1t&tOi) to q>pclyJ.lQ&iVat J.lta an6 'ttc; J.le'faA.u'tepec; &1tEJ.lpuaetc; 'tOO avOp<i>1tOUatll q>uOl'JaPXlKu f;ytve npoamiO£ta va el;eraatoUv Ot &1tEJ.lpaastc; au'tEe;. AU'to KPi911Ke avayKaio yta va Ka'tavoi)aOOJ.lE tllv tOtai'tep11 q>UOl'J-tllV J.lVllJ.letaKO'tfj'ta tllC; Ka'taaKEUi)e; EVOC; ppaYJ.la'toe;. c Mtac; Kat to CPPuYJ.la&ivat epyo J.lE')'aA.11C; KA.iJ.laKac; yta va Ka'tavo11gei 'to aUVOA.o tOO spyoo, ~eraaaJ.lE apx.tKa Y£VtKu optousvc xapaKtllptattKa "onusic" tOO tpyoo: ta vspc tOO q>paYJ.latoc;, ttc; E1t&J.lj3QaEtc;orov neptl3aA.A.oVta Xwpo rou cppaYJ.latoc;, tllv KataaKEUi) tOO CPPQyJ.latOC;KaOs au'ti). H Ota<poPE'ttKOtll'ta nov &7ttA.oywv 7tOU txet ocv KPltT)ptO yta va eq>apJ.loaEt 0 J.l11Xavt~ q>SPVEtaVtia'totxa Kat J.lia Ol'JJ.lavnKi) J.laKpOaKonlKi) 11 J.ltKpoaKomKi) aA.A.ayT) oro t01tio (oe aUyKPlOll naVta ue rqv KA.iJ.laKa tOO tpyou). Ot emA.oyEc; autEc; Kataypaq>l1Kav Kat ~toA.oyi)~Kav. AKOA.oUOroc; ~E'taaaJ.lE tllv A.&t'tOllP-YtKi) J.lOp<pi) rou cppaYJ.la'toe;. To cppaYJ.la &ivat tpyo noll.anA.i)c; aKomJ.l6t11tac;. AVttKEtJ.lEVtKOi rou a'tOxol &ivat: UOP£UOll, apo£UOll, napayCJYY1i

7
npolCfuttouv O~;, 67U0C; avacp&p81. T) Muiixou Kat mlf38f3a1Ci>vetat cur6 'ta cl;etal;oJ.18Va napa&iYJ.UXta f.la;, 7UlptA.KOJ.18VOlS (U1tOKataatatOt) atQxOt ~ autoi tT)<; 'lfUXcrywyiac;, tT)<; avavuxile; allit Kat tT)e; tOUplatucTte; avCuttu91e; tT)e; nepwX'1e; yUpo> cur6 iva cppllrf.la. rta tT)v ~ 'tIDV 7UlptA.K6f.l£vCOV atQxcov tCOV-<ppaYf.latCOv Kat mv Katav611att tCOV tpycov em.mce<peitKaf.l8 nc; qru(J1J(~ A.if.lv~ ora; lcoawtva, npsmt£c;, BOA.Pll, Kat tOUe; 't£XVl'ltoUe; 'taf.ltetrtitp~ ata: AcreilJ.UXta, :EcpllKW. nOA.uqrutO, nA.acmipa, :Etpato Kpspnoru, noupvapt £veil aKOA.oU900c; 8mCJK8cpTllKaf.l8 to UOPOT)A.eKtptK6 epyo tOU Nsctou, EmcrK8<p9itKaf.l8 miatte; Wo cpop~ to avappu9f.ltattKO cppaYf.la tT)C; Ay. Bappap~ 7tOU opicr911K8 COC; eoio 8cpapf.l0'Y1ic;. Oi n em.mcS'l'&C; au't~ ittav a7UlpaitT)t~ '}'Ul tT)V Katav611att tCOV SPYOlV Kat yta tT) crUyKptatt tT)t; OtaCPOPettKOtT)'tat; tOU A.tf.lvaiou romou, avaf.lEOa att.<; tEXVTIt~ Kal tt.<; CPUOtKSt;A.if.lv~. H avaA.Uatt J3acriatT)KE CJtT)v cl;etaatt OUO spycov, to eva u1t6 KataOK£uit Kat to ue f.laKpO XJ>Ovo A.81.tOUpy1ac;. E;etaCJtT)Kav A.ouWV avaA.\)'ttKa 'ta UOPOT)A.eKtptKa Epya tOU Nsorou Kat tOU nA.acmipa. E1t1llxOrIKav ta ouo auta Epya yta va £;etOOOUf.l8 tOY OtaCPOpettKO 'tpCmo CJtT)V avtlf.lEtci>matt tT)t; tomKi)c; KOtvcoviac; COt; 1tpoC; to 1taA.tO spyo (ID.acmipac;) Kat to veo &pyo (Neatoc;). 7tOU cl;etaCJtT)KE avaA.UttKa oro Maimo tT)<; Epyaoiae; WyOl nov t.OtattEpoti)'tCOV tT);' (f.l£'YaA.T)OWPKEta ~coitc; tOU spyou, acpof.loicoCJT) tOU spyou cur6 tT)V 'tomKi) KOtVCOvia, to1tOattflO-f.lVT)f.l£io '}'Ul 'tOY f:f.l1tV£UOTll tOU spyou-nA.aOTllP~) <JUVtax911Kav EpootT)J.UXtOA.O'}'Ul7tOU f.lotpaCJtT)Kav OtOV tOmKO Mll9ucrf.lO. Ta EpcotT)f.latoA.6'}'Ul auta Poit9ttoav CJtT)v KataypacpT) tT)t; avtV.ll'l'lle; tT)e; tomKi)c; KOtVCOViac; avacpopu(a f.l8 to cppaYf.la Kal WtO'tSA.eoav OUOtaatlKi) 9sCJT) yta tT)v Ka'tav6T)att tOO spyou. E~E'taCJtT)KE matte; Kat 0 1teptJ3aA.A.cov xmPOtT)t; A.if.lVT)e; <JUvaptT)att f.lE 'tt.<;1!:eptJ3aA,A.oVttKEt;f.lu.EtEe; 1[0\) yivoVtat CJtT)v OE 1tepwX'1 '}'Ul tT)v avCuttu91 'tcov 1tapeA.K6f.l£vCOv cn6XOlV tOU EpyOU. :E't0 UOpollA.eKtptKO epyo rou Nsorou KataypacpllKE II apVT)nKi) avnJ.lEteilmatt J.lf:J.loVCOflivcov KatoiKOlV '}'Ul tT)V KataoK£UT) 'tOU cppaYJ1atOe; 01[(Ot; eniCJT)t; Kat II f:A.A.et'l'll £votacpepoVtot; tT)t; 'tomKi)e; KOtVcoviae; '}'Ul tT)V avCuttu~T) 1tapeA.KOJ1£VCOV OtOXcov tOU epyou. Kat ata 000 tpya tyLVE 1tpoCJ1ta9Eta va KataypacpoUv 'ta xapaKtT)plo'ttKa Kat T) attf.laoia 7tOU oivouv oi V'tOmot Ka'tOtKOl oru Epya auta. H Ef.l1tEtpia a1t6 tT)V Kataypacpit ittav 1tOA.UattJ1avttKi) '}'Ul tT)V Epyacria.

£vtpy~.

au.o

Fur tT)v A.if.lVT)nA.acmipa

Ta <JUf.l1t&paof.lata ta O1tOia <JUvax911Kav a1t6 tT)V avaA.Uatt m Ecpapf.lOOaf.lE oro avappu9f.llattKO cppaYf.la tT)t; Ayiac; BapJ3ap~ to ozolo EntUX9T)KE COC; ne8io EcpapJ.lO'Ylic;. To avappu9f.llcnuOO cpp{.cyJ.UX Ay. BapJ3apac; J3piOKEtat u1t6 Ka'taoK£uit. H A.Uatt tT)V O1tOia tT)C; 1tpotEivouf.l8 tI81 at6xo tT)V ato911ttKi) ~w1tOillCJT) tCOV UoatOlV Kat f.leA.eta tT)V a7UlpaitT)tT) U1t000J.l.T)'}'Ul va EKf.l£ta1A.eu'toUf.l8 roue 1tapeA.K0J.l£VOUe;OtQxOUt; autou tOU epyoo.

n.a tT)V miA.Uatt

'tOU spyoo aKoA.ou9T)9T)KE 111tapaKatco

f.lE90SoA.oyia

1. EmcrKecpTllKaf.lE tT)v nepwX'1 '}'Ul va KatavoitooUf.l£ 'to epyo aA.A.a Kat tT)v 'tomKi) Kotvcovia 7tOU J3picrKetat oixA.a oro <ppaYf.la (OtKt0f.l0C; AyiaC; BapJ3cipac;). AciJ3aJ.lE U1t' O\jITI miCJT)C;Kat tT)V Ellplm:pT)nepwX'11tOU J3piOKEtat'tO epyo auto (08tK6C; ci~ovac; Bepotac;-Bepyivac;).

H MlpiKO\) ava.<ptpel 6n tv~ U7tolC<naCJt<n~ CJlCox6c;(aou yta Eva taJ.ll£'U'ti)pa xoUwt).it~ XPit(J~ JUWpel va eiVaI. 11i1op£UCJT), 1cipoeuCJT),11ava'lfUxft) cruxvci f.lxopEi va e~petei 1 1tEplCJCJOtepoam> tva yevtKO cncox6. I:tO WJlEVO XP11m~oLEital. 0 6~ 1tape).1C6JlEV~ (J't6X~ yta va cn>J.l1tEpWlf3etKaI. tOY
S

f.lVl)J.lEta1C6apaJCtitpa tou cppayJ.l<n~. x

8
2. napatTlf'1iaafl£ -ru; avnBpaaEt£; AaroJlciwv (tcSUlitEpa OE't1.K~). 'tTl<; tomKit<; KOlVroVia<; oto u7tapx.0v avappuOJllatUCO

3. Ilporetvaus 'tTl j,;UCJ11 Kptti)pta: JlE
• • • • tOY xapalCTlipa tOU oopsc (.6.EH)
7tOU

KataaKeQa~Et to i:pyo

'tTlv U1t000Jllt 'YUl mv EKJ.lEtcill.eu011 a7t6 mv tomKit xowcovtc, trov 7tapEAK0J.1EVrovatiYxflw tOU i:pyou 'tTlv ~to1tOi11aTl tOlV ata011ttKWV XapalC'tllptatu(wv 7tOU ava"fVrop~OUJlE oro i:fYYO(ypaJlJllKO :naPKO, xro~ 7tEptx6.tou-atEViaJlato<; Ili:aa oro VEpO) 'tT)v ~to1tOi11CJ11 tOU auJ.ll36lou 'tTl<;J.lvTtJ.l11<; J.learo 'tTl<;011J.llOUpyia<;EVO<;uouosiou Kat i:2;ro curh tOY xropo rou VEpoU J.li:aa allci

Kata mv 7tpOtaCJ11 'tTl<;~<; XPTtatJ.lo7tOtlt911Kavsvvote; alliJ. Kat aKi:\jIEt£; 7tOU OUltU7tcil9TtKav Kata rnv Ot6.pKEUl 'tTl<;avw..UCJ11<; KataaKeuaatTtKav 6 llaKEtec;. Kat

KlillUKU 1:2000
112000. To eoacpoc; 'tTl<; J.laKera<; KatauKeuaa'tTlKE a7t6 UiOEPO acpou ti:OT)KE 0 7tEPlOptattKO<; opo; va ll11v tpo7t07t01lT)9Ei T)YEOlIlEtpia tOU EoacpOUC;. Ftc rnv Katavo11CJ11tOU auVOMlU tOU spyou KataUKEUaU'tTlKE J.laKi:ta os dillaKa

KlillUKU 1:500
H dillaKa auti) a7tEtKOV~Et to aUvOA.o tOU 7tpavou<; 7tOU IlEvEt avi:7tacpo aE auvaP't11011 JlE 'tTl liJ.lVT). ncivro 'tTlC;cpaivEtat 11auvOettKit toea.

KlillUKU 1:200
• MaKera yi:cpupu<; 1. H yi:cpupa 1 7tOU nporsiverm Eivat yecpupa Ileycilou J.lTtKOUC; lE J E7tavaAaJ.lJ3avoJlEVa atOtXEia. Erot a7tOIlOvw9T)KE Eva Ilepoc; 'tTlC;yUl mv KatavOT)CJ11'tTl<; 7tpotE1VOJ.lEVT)<; JlOpcpi}<;tTl<;. ' MaKera yi:cpupu<; 2. H ytcpupa 2 7tpotEivEtal 'YUl va KaVEt E1KUuttKotEPT) E1tWKbttT) 7tPO<;o CPPQyJ.la at eivat J.ltKp6U:PT)'tTlC;1. t K MaKera 7tEpimEPOU. MaKera 6x9rIc;. MaKtta 7tlroti)<; KataaKEUTt<;·

• • • •

mv

OUlOPOJ.li}tOU

Mi:aa ata 7tlaiaUl 'tTl<;omA.roJ.lattKit<; T) avcilu011 'tTlt;;J.lilin)<; f:'{tve J3a9J.uaia Kat i:cptaae J.Li:XPt to Katrocp11'tTl<; diJ.laKU<; 11200, Xropi<; va avalu9Ei 7tEptuu6tEPO 11EcpapJ.loyTJ 'tTl<;. H 7tpOtaCJ11 auti) Oa J.l7tOpi:aEtva EcpapJ.lOatEi J.lEta a7t6 7tEptaa6tepo avaluttKit J.lEli:'tTl.

9

01 ,..:6901

Kat 'to
fa

VEPO
Kpepo.p8va vepa. . noo atto ro/}(; O(!KOUC;

° mb

" ... {J6.(W TIlt;;Ewyat;;
Tpavor;

ue;

O''WVC;

r:PI<lSVrvxovC; fJBoi)(; ).0Y1STW.

1r¢VW"

O~U'lPOll IJ...l~ 0,37 _386 "MuOo<;", EtVUlll yAffioO"a TIDV npcDTUJ\i J-£S£IDV, TIDV apXET1l1tWV m)~l~6J...(J)v, zou 11 KCtOe 61(0;(11 1tpbtet vu 1;CIVClCIVIl.K(l).U1tT€l TOV €Cll.lT6 tl1S, sivm TO Il.vopOO%OYlK6, 11 6.~teO"llOtCl 1:01) K6(J~LOU,TO npwtOyovo ylil. Clva~4)!~la Tilt; "npWTIV; 0"'n"rW1S" ,eivll.l oA.a.Kepo<;a K6011a<;1(01)ylvetru ct8tal(.lE1:11 etxovo"

.

Herman Brach
~rlIOos, 11 t1«(J pnon 1:OU ou)~),OYlKOl} acn.lv£loll·WU KULa TOV lung, srmvunpooolopit;El 'tllY apxTl rou ·0e~D"lou 1:0U nOA.ltto!10U, mlt6 rcou aVTlACl!1~avetat' 0 · ¢,vOpO)7tOt; Wt; 0't)vEtOl1nl Kill amwEi.ollt1l· npa:ntauK0t11tu. Asit;£l Aom6v va OtaKPi.VOUJ-I.E. T11V Cl~ia tou ~ll)Hou. Ft' aut6 '0£ ouro TO KEqJrl.A.UtO ell. KaVO'\.I~t£ ~ta OtUOP0J-l.1l cvnusou 0'1:"0 Yep6 Kat 0' (l1Yr6 nou Oewp110'a)!e e~leit; · ~n')00'\.lC; KUt ~V11W:C; rcov

o

ronrov. Ano mv apXm.0'tll'tCt
to

veoo

eiXE nrl.pEt lOl(Ii:t:epll BEOll 0111 SW11 Kat WI.)S ~lUeO'\.lC; rou (lvflpo)nou. Fr' auto 01 AUOt TO 9€On01.110UV Kat,;O A.rl.tpeuav O'U" 0e6 us OtaqJopa ovouorc. 0 nOCl£lOffiYac; 'tWV EnliYwv, 0 Hapi fWV Atyum1.wv, 0 Bcpouvn trov Ivowv, 0 Neptumus rcov Pcouniorv tl7t1ip~av Oeat 10'\.1 vspou.

E~ riA,)..o'\.ll1f:leml ton vspou ano't6AeoE 't11" lJ1taPSl1 tOl.lav9pO:m:O'l.). "XpeuiO'TllKav

CmmeAEl KEY'tPlKO cnusio ava<pop6.c; 0''t11V ~ffi1l, no)..?c6. eKatO~ql\IPta. XPOVlU 'Yta vo, £SEA.tx0c:iC; a1to ~EoouClllnou 1l00l)V 06 n)"rl.(JJ.l1l. 't11<;~llPaC;. Zsu; 01"11" Tffipl\!ll oou dKLvllCli.a uovo U;ll XLAUl.OEC; xpovta. "[(ora. Me 0a :wetaotQuv €Kan) 'i n€V't:aKoClLll XlALaOec; XPovlanpo'toll va li1tcipEd'8tC; va a.vaKaA.U'l'€lC; rnv qJilClll ~EO'a oou, kpO"WlI vn flTIOpeClclC; vc Brets T11 ~LeOm)ClU ~leou 001) ~avrl.. ,,7

ana Kal

To vEp6

()'t'T)V

Aiy'U1t"TO

H 1tOkul:tO''ttldj ava.'1t'tl.}S11 tllS AtytmtQ\l oq>£D,,£Wl ere vepc '(01) Neison Kat 'tllV a~tOnoi.llClll TOut; ~eow 'tCuvu8paultKwv EpyU)v. Oi apXai.Ol Al'Yl)7ttlot Oeoxoluccv to NeiAo Kat ron np60'qJcpav
6~n\:p. K~d;.Vtt;a.Kll~ KaKptol'l
:""', ",.:Ji.··'· '.

7part. B"f\.KOl) civGpwnCt'w, ~mj>. Mnpia I:'leoq>WtlcrTOl,)~Z11KCl, GKo.fh')jc11, AOllva 1972

10 avepcimtVet; euo~ rux'ti i}'tav Kat eivm 0 ~oVaOtKO~ ~(ooOO'tlj~ Kaee ~roi}~ 0' 01..11 mv KoWlOa. o 9ro~ rou NeiA.ou, 0 Hapi, epxo'tav Ka8e xrovo omv AiYU7ttO ~a~i ~e rov epxo~ nov vepOOv rou NeiA.ou. Kat oit~epa O't~ 6 Auvouerou 0 Atyu1tttaKO~ A.aO~7taVllyupi~et 'tlj Yom el motkta (Oll~aOtaKi} J.llpa), 7tOUKa'te~aivouv ru vspc rou Nsisou ornv Aiyt)1tto8. Ta apxf:yova vspc orov AtyumtaKo ~\)80 7tepti:xouv rov O7tOpO xtAtacSoov ovrcov. Me opou; \jIUm~ 'to e11A.UKO aouvew11'to u)'paiVEt 'to OKA.11PO OUVet011'toron cpoevucou E)'w. To VEPO ornv Aiyumo &ivat OU~~A.1KO O'tOtXeio 'tlj~ poi}~ 'tlj~ ~roi}~ Kat 'tlj~ ~a9Un;P11~ ouoinc 'tll~. OA.et; 01 ~opcp~ ~roi}~ ~piOKOV'tat os 00)'[0 Kat OtaKpivov'tOt a7tO auto. 9

To vsp6

O'Tl1V

EJ..Moa

"Oi "",xe~ mav 7t&9aivouv, yivoV'tat vspo, Kat 'to VEp6 mav 7t&9aiVEt iVE'tat )'TI, y !Cat 07t6 'ttl )'TI )'evvtE'tat 'to vep6 Kat ax' 'to vepo 11'IfUXl1" Hpamttoc;

10

Ot 7tPO},[Ot nveuurmxoi 7ta'tepE~ 't11~ EA.A.aoa~ oioaoKav on, 7tQtf;pe~ 'tll~ I'evvncnc eivm 0 nKeavO~ Kat 11 Tu9U~. 0 teporspo; Oe OpI(O~ rov 8ewv aV(lIpepotav O'tO vspo". 0 8aA.i}~ 0 MtA.i}oto~ tva~ Wt6 't0lle; sma OOCPO\I~ 't11e;apXato'tll'tae; cSioaoKs on 'to vepo &iVat 11 apm rcov 7taV'trov &7t&10i}, Ka't' OV'ttOt01x:ta us tOU~ A1yn1ttion~, f;A.eye on ru onep~ata 6A.rov troy e~\jIUXrov ovnov Katll "tpocpi}rrov ovrcov mrtdrv eivm 1.l'ypaI2.
1:'tllV EllllVtKi} ~ueoA.oyia 'to vepo 11taV 11apm 'tlj~ ~U>ll~ ornv uxpniu 'tll~ EKcppaOll (aeavaoia). To veK'tap 'to aeavato noto, 117tTJY1l roli~ nov flewv, aVa~A.l)~et ano tt~ 7tTJye~tOU nKeavou. 0 ~ Ax:tAA.&ae;'1a va OteKOtKi}OStrnv a8avaoia pacptise'tat om tepa vspn 'tlle; L'[\I",(1(;, &YW 0 ~lI90~ ) avacptpet on 0 A~avopoe; avai;11ta Kat f3piOKSt rnv 7tllYli rou afl<iva'toll vepou, LS 7tOMa 7tapa~Ue1a E1ti0llC;ouvuvnnn; 117tTJY1l 't01.)aflavato\) vspou. 01 ~u80t rou vspou avacpepoV'tav cs 61..11 tllV CPllOllrou. 'Eroi to vspo avacpepeta1i;rooyovo 000 Ka1 OOA.ocpovo.0 7tOta~0~ AXu.roo~ uercuopqxoverm oav q>ibt Kat 'tall poe; ornv ~aXl1 rou ue rov Hpadi} )'ta rnv OteKoiKTJOll'tljC; ~etavetpac; evro onoio; 8e6~ 7tatollOe rov OPKO tou om \)Oa'ta 'tlle; 1:'tU"f6~ 7te8atve )'ta tva xr6vo. EKt6e; a7t6 tllV ~LOPq>11on "ooA.oq>6vou" vspou ornv r apxatO'tlj"ta avacptpov'tat Kat cSp<iKOt-q>l)A.aKee; 7tTJYEe; Sev aq>i]vave 'to vepo va KUA.i]oet. one; 7t01>

o 7ta'ttpa~ 'tll~ Ia'tptKi}~ I7t7tOKpa'tlj~ "xrrrnmuoroq npcxnxoc tatp6~, 0 7tavtvoo~o~ 8erop11nKo~ OtcS<iOKaA.o~,0 avu7ttpPA.11'tO~ epeuVll'tl1e; Kat ol.lyypaq>e\l~ a7tapa~ttAA.oe;"13 7tapa'ti}P11oe 'tll

8Lurken, M., The Gods and symbols of ancient Egypt, eKo. Thames and Hudson, London 1974
9Chetwynd,

T., Dictionary of symbols, &KO. horsons, OB. 1982 T J\7t0V'ta, J1'tq>. 9avamoe; K1Jptai;01t01JAoe;,eKo. Krncroc; AG11va 1995 A

10Hpamt"t~

11 " ••• D.Ksav6v 'tE yap Kat T'l9uv E1tOl1loav'tl1e;YEwEaEwc; 1tatepac;, Kat tOY OPKOV 'tWV9EWVUOwp, t1]V KaAoU~V 1J1t' Wl'tWVEroya ..."

APl()"'[O't£Ao1Jc;, ME't(lq>U<HKa83,6,30 9

lcxf3<Ov iawe; mv 1.l7tOA.'l'l'tV 'tOUt1]VeK 'tOU 1t<M:WV opev t1IV 'tpoq>lIVuypav oeoov.. Kat oui 1t<M:(J)v1:(1
CJ1ttPJ1Q'ta'tTlv q>i>mvuypav tXEl, 'to OSuowp apx.~ tlle; q>ua&WC; sivm." APl()"'[O'ttAouc; e't(lq>uO"tKa983, a, 20 M

12"...APXl1 rev ovnov ...0a1itc; uowp stvoi q>umv, (Ol ' 0 Kat rnv r1IV sc' uoa'tOt; a.1t&q>aivE'talstvm),

I~t np6i..oyo tou npmllVll tou Ilnvemcnuuou A011VWV <!)WtElVOU f. O"'tTJvKOOO"ll e 'tWVA7t<lvtwVrou I7t1toKpttrr]<mo 'tOY"nCaropo", 't6~l. 'A., A911va 1937

11 JJi;rlO'tTl emopa011 ron VEpoU ern ~(Oti xm rnv l),YEia tOU av9p0>1tOll (Jt0 ~t~A.iO tou Flspi aeprov, UOO.trov Kat romov. Oi 9taE~ tOU bctOKPCtTll titav E1t1.aTllfloA.oyucCt W(Jte~. Oflro~ TJrtotorrrtn tOU VEpoU ~aptt6tav a KatCt tOY bt'1tOKPCtTll,oX'- uovo cm6 Tll aUata011 tOU eoa<pouc;, 07tOU ~piaKEtat TJ1t11"fli,allCt Kat cm6 tOY npoaavatoA.ta,.w TllC;.To KaA.UtEPOA.omOv vepc to OiV01>VE 1t11ye~ 7tOU PA.f:7tOUV oi npoc; Tllv AvatoA...;.14 H 1t11"fliemv AvatoA.ti u7tOoexetat to <proc;,tOY tiA.tO. Oi ouo paatK€C; 1t11y€c; rotic;, ~ to <proc;Kat 'to vepo, ta\)'t~oVtat evvOtOA.oytKCtKat 0 bt7tOKPCtTllC; exetat Tll flia ouvcpmcei TllC; o allTJC;. EuwXcOC; ornv aUYXp0VTJxowroviu 0 npoPA.TJflanaflOc; yta rnv UYLElvt; tau vepou €xEl uemromorei an6 tOY npoaavatOA.tafl6 TllC; EKCtatOtE 1t11"flic;l)OPE\)OTjls. OflroC; TJ geOTj tOU IUoutapxou "to u&op stvrn rou; av9p<i:l7tO~ tp6<ptflOV Kat 6Xllfla tPO<Ptic;. AVEU OE autOU OUK ev<iA.ov ouot XEpaaiov, ou&' atgeptov scOov.,,16napafltvEt EniKatpTJ. ncOC; 9a f.l.1tOpoUaaflE vc OoUflE mv evvOtOA.oytKti geOTj tOU VEPOU at;flEpa; Mun; Kat TJ MOLEC; TllC; aUv9sOTjC; tOU O11fleptVoU xocuou KpatOUV an6 tOY HpCtKA.ettO a~~et vc ooUfle nchC; KatavOTJas Kat aUvgeae a HpCtKA.ettOC;tOY Koa~LO flae;. 0 HpaKA.eltOC; A.otnOV 9echpTJae Ott 0 l7 Koafloc; auvti9etat fl€aa an6 tTj <pro'tla to vepo Tll YTJKat 'tOY aepa . 'Etot to vspo tA.ape flla geaTJ avCtfleaa ore rsooepc a'tOtxeia nou cyuv8holJV 'tOV KOOflO Kat eXaoe mv anOA.utTj evvOtOA.oytKti ouva.flTJ 7tOUtOU oivave fleXPt tote. Ouo»; ore yoVtfla vspe, rn noruutn, ot vUfl<pec;, eeee; tOU yCtflOUKat TllC;YOVlfl6tTjtUi;, sOuv mcoun Kat onuepn cmv IhlflTJaTJtOU roaou flac;. 'Erot ae 7tOA.A.a roptCt TJvU<pTJ ptv to yaflo Kate~aivet oro nOta~lt Yla vn A.ouatEi ti A.oU~etat oro onin x n tTje; us noraukno vspo "sni Sroonot.Wv to llbWp Kat vovuiov?". I:ta Zayopoxwpta av TJ Zeyopinccc KtJpa yevvi)aet vexpo natoi naet oro nOtaflt Kat oepvet us to 9)A.o to vspo yta vc to 'ttf1(()plJa&l fltaC; Kat au'tO 7tOUea 'Sive ~wti rnv 1tllpe niaw19• E~ aA.A.ou 'to vepo atotxeio TllC;aVaVEroOTjC;TjC;sro~e; xpllat~LOnOleitat Kat onuepc a't~ paatK€e; t fluTJ'ttKec; teA.etec;, TllC; Yf:vvTJ011C;OU yaflou Kat 't11e; ta<plle;. To A.oUOtflO, to pCtnttafla, 'to t pavnoun E1tavaKa90p~ouv Tll poti tTjC;~rollC;Kat Tlle; Ba81ltep11e; O1lVexetac; tTje;.20 To vspo (JtOtXeio ~rotic; aA.A.aKat Kataatpo<ptic; anoteA.ollOE 'tote Kat 'twpa rnv apXTl ooo Kat 'to ttA.oe; tOU 6A.ou. Etvm yvroatae; 0 npOBA.lwattaflOe; tTJe;mlYXPOVTJe; xowcovin; nou (J1lvetoTJtonotEi al'YCt-atyCt mv a~ia ttov vepov trov .QKEaVWV onv 't0U<; anOA.-ut01JC;"Bspuocrrrre; Tlle; YTJe;" a~tOA.oywVtae; 'toue; cov ano rn nepicoorspo xp11atfla ana Kat el.Jaia911ta atotxeia tTje; <pU011e; at;flepa.

14"...rn uoata npoc; tat; ron TJ).iOllavm:oAac; tan, Troha l..a~l1tp!lre sivm avayai'l, Kat ellwoea., Kat !1aJ..aKO:, epat£tva eyytyvea9at sv rmrm tllnOAet 0 yap li1..10e; Kat KWI..1>et aviaxwv Kat Ka'talaJ.l1tWv..." 11t1t01CpatTjC;. i\navta., £KO.nanupoc;, A9ilva 1937 15rta tIlv avaKw.ulJITI 'tWV 1t'lywv omv apxatOTI]tO. "Ccit~ave KptOUpl"Co. VOl'HLOVo." .oyo. it tu tpayta " w Etcn mate vn OUlluaouv Kat vu XT1l1tUveo noot roix; (HO cnusio nou llnUpxet vspo. t nOAll!1Epoll A.• fllf}'er;. vopaywyeia ouaauol, BiOI lrapO»..IIAOI atnv latopla Kat OTIC; Ilapaooaetc, Nepo 1t'lYlt ~CJ)itc;KiVTJCJ'lC; Ka9ap!1ou. Emomuovno] CJUVUvtl1crJ])nO rnv atyioa rou Yzoupvetou Kat \ nOAtncr~U. ~KEfl~PtOC; 1997 1~1ltUpxOU. IU!1x6cnov VI,

r, 2

17 A~eA6c;. K.. 0 Hpumttoc;
1951

Kat 11<pt).,oao<pia., ~lt<P.~lHl1i'tplle; ~lHl1]tPtao11C;.£KO.E~Uv"Ca.c;. 9itva 1974 A

18 AeKU"CaCtc;, n.,H Kataywyi] tWV gecr~lWVKo.ttCJ)Voo~o.crtWV,£KO. Bt~Aio NSO£UIIVtKOU/..6yOll, A9itva 19Mavtac; I .• JJv8pWlror; xat Nepo, Feobpia tau mr:cl'1XOl uu; ItaKPOXfJOVIIr; lUlJ..IIC;···, Nepo 1t'lYlt ~witc; u 1ClVTJCJ'lC; Ka9ap!1ou, Yxo TIIVatyioa rou Yxoupyeiou Ilosmouou, ~EKE~L~ptOe; Kat 1997 20A£KataCtc;, Il.H Kataywyi] tWV gecr~Lwvxm 'tCJ)V OO~a(JlWV,eK8. Bl~Aio NeOeU1IVlKOU/..6you, A9i]va 1951

12

o 161o~'ton VEP0'6
To w:p6 T11~ Ka6(lPaTI~
"H acrovileto'tT) JlOptaKi) OOJlTJTOU vspou TO KaEltOTa Eva e~atpe'tlKa anOTeA.eOJla'tlKO OtaA.UtTJ. EA.aXtCTta sivm 'ta UA.tKa1IOU Ssv otaA.UOVTat ozo TO vspo cs Ka1IOtO paElfl6 svco KavEva uypa Ssv Jl1IOpei va OtaA.UoBt T60ll JlBya.A.1l1IOtKtA.ia ououov. ,,21 To vepo rcov mtywv, rcov 1IOTaJlWV Kat tTJe;;Ela.A.aooae;;, TO xEl6vto vspo, ~enA.Evet Kaee ppffiJla TOU KOPfltOU Kat Kaee JliaoJla. A7t6 'tT)V aA.A.ll 01t{J)e;;pyaivet a7t6 rn paElT) 't11e;;YT)e; etvm YSJl6:to JlS yovtJltKiJ ouvaflll· Ta vepc tTJe;;KaElapOlle;; rc ~rooyova Kat avaYEVVllJlEva vsp« ru [3A.e7IouJle os 1tOJJ..oUe;;Kat OtaCPOp&'ttKOOe;;61tOue;; Kat 7tapaoooetc;. t I:'ta EA.euoivta Jlum:iJpta 0 tBpocpaV'tT)e;;, [3aq)'ti/;;eTat ornv Ela.A.aOoa Kat fla~i Jle rnv naA.tcl TOU /;;roTJ acpTJvst 'to 7taA.tO TOU ovoua. 0 Xpicnoviouo; XPT)OtJl01IOiT)oe Kat auToe;; 'to vspo ornv pa1t'ttall 1IOU croJlf30A.i/;;st mv avaYEvvTJ0"11 Jleoro TT)e;;KaElapO"lK EKT6e;; a7to rnv pa1t'ttall 0't0 XP10TtavtOJlO TO vspo 7tapOl)ota/;;sTat Kat orov aytaOflO. 0 aytaOflOe;; Jle TO vspo Sivei OTO vspo evepystaKi) OUVaJlll. 0 aytaoJlOe;; eivm 0 E~ayvtOJlOe;; 'tT)e;;/;;rol;e;;22. To pclvLtoJla us TO vepo Sev stvm 7tproTOn)7t11 eKcppaoT) tTJe;; Xpurncvuop; ElpT)oKeiae;;. I:tTJV AtvulOa 0 Kpnvaicc cpepst rpsu; cpopte;; y\)pro a7t' rou; cuvrpoooi»; TOl) Eva KAupi eA.uie;; Ota1tO'ttoJlevo an6 ayv6 vspo Kat rou; pav'ttl;;st JlS avaA.acpPl1 opoouI, T01)e; s~ayvi/;;Et.23

o Bachelard

avacpepst Ott Ot Knqipot xovouv noA.A.ee;;nA.\lO"ete;;fle vspo yta va e~ayvtoTOuV a7t6 Jlia KlJosia otTJV O1IOia napappeEll1Kav. ilA.EvOV'tat Yla va e~ayv10T01)V Yla uro pll1IaVOll tTJe;; \jIUlOie; evco omv KaElllJleptvij TOUe;;/;;rol1 Sev nA.EvOVTat nore. 24

Xcpcxmpionxo BmOlle; napaOS1Yfla eivm 0 OUflf30A.lOfl6e;; 'tOU raYY11 yta roue Ivoot)e;. 0 Ivooi 7tA.EvoV'tat em f3pWJltKa vspc TOl) raYY11 yta va KaElapioouv rnv ~f\)Xl; TOUe;;evw 07tOLOe;; ttBt an6 7 'to vepo TOU ram nptv 7tSeaVEt Ela 7taEt KaT' wEldav aTOY napaoe100 xropie;; va U7tOOTEi tTJ ooKtJlaoia 'tlle; JlS'tBJl\jIUXroOlle;;· H acp6oSl.)oll OTOV ram 11'tClV tyKA.T)~ta KaElooMoeroe;; Ka1 TtJlIDpoUV'tav JlE Sava'to.

To vepo A.otnOv Sev sivat JlOVO KaSapo otTJ crovsiOllO"l; ~tae;; aA.M em[3aA.A.sTat anO TOUe; JluEloue;; va 'to oEf36JlaCTte oov rsroto, 0 Hcioooq oi&aoKe: "unv oupeirs nOTe 0'tl1V eK[30A.11 rorv 1IOTaflWV ours ornv mtY1l ronc, M7tOpoUJle f3tf3ata va a~toA.oyl;OOl)fle Op00A.oy1Ka Ta napanavro A.6yta Kat va eauJlaOOUJlE mv 7tp6A.ll'lf11 rou Hoiooou Yla T11VUY1E1V1; on XWpou. Avr' nurou croveXi~ovTae;; r rnv avayvroall ea ota[3aooUfls: "unv oupeire opElWt YUplOflEv01npOe;; TOVTJA.10". H ouorcon au-riJ tou Hoiodou oev ex.et KaJlia roCPEA.tfllOtUa; onuuoia. H npa~11nou anuyopet)E1 Ssv KtVouveUet va aJlaupwost mv KaElapOtTJ'ta rou cprot6e;;. H OlOUOKUA.iu TOU Hotooou OJlroe;; rrvuqiepetm ornv emf30A.TJ tTJe; KaElapOtTJ'tae;; Kat tou os[3aaJlOt) ore O't01x.eia nou oivouv /;;001;, 'to vspo Kat 'to cproe;;. H Kaeap6tlJta roue avaYS'tat roe;;\)\1'10't0 ayaBo 6Xt uovo OT11v 7tpa~ll aA.A.a Kat OtTJv croveiOllaTJ Jlac;;. TIme;; Jl1IOpOOJlS 'teA.tKa va eKJlatsl)OOuJle rnv llSlKl; TOl) vspou; 0 Bachelard avacpepet: "H Ka8aptOtTJ'ta Kat 11 opoOla evrovovrm yta va &woouv uin lOlai;;OllO"a an6A.U1)0ll 1IOU uovo oi EpaCTtee; 'tOU VEPOl) yvroptl;;ouv. H svcoon TOU U1oElll'tOtl Kat 'tOU atoEl11otaKOt) unootTJpii;;ouv uic

21 ll. KoU'tCSOYU1VV11<; e. Eexv90nouJ..oc;, Tf:XV1Kll YOpoA.oylu. &KO. E9v1KO M&"[(JO~lO TIOJ..U'tEXVeio, Kat A9r,vu 1997

22A&1CCl'tCS~, I.,H KUtayO>y1) TOW 9&CS~l(i>Vat T K
1951
23

troy

oo~ucnci>v, <:KO.B1r~J..ioNeOeUTJV1KOD J..6you, A9iJvu

AtV\~ VI, crt. 228·231
G., To VeP01Cat rc ovsipc, ~l't(p.'EJ..CST) TOODtl1, &KO.XU't~TJVTJKOJ..iJ, A9iJva 1985

24Bachelard,

13 119uCl) (l~ia.. ME noA.Aoil<; '[p6rcou<; 0 aJOxcra~l6<; Kat 11 qmElpi.a ron vspou ~.l(l<;001110-OV 0' tva tOuvtK6. /'::..evnpETC8l vu l)nOtt~U;l~lS n<; OtoaXES tOW rcPOJt0Y8VWV 1.l/oWV. 'Exouv ml~la8E\V8t 1:11 V€01:11ta,'tilS aKE\llll<; ~taC;, ton nVEi)~a.!O<; ~la.<;, ElVUl a.Va.YKo..<HLKUEVa. a.rc60C:~tu vtOnK Tu; ~ava.BpiciKOU~L8 ctu; TCpOatDTCtK€S ~lae; Q.\ia.~lvila81C;, Kt .orcv ovetpsuouncrs otcv Xa.V6~lCI.crt8 rcpaYl!a1:~Ka ~€aa ere 6V8lPa. ~a.s, rote uzomooouucrs anl qnmKl1 KCl.t avaycvv111:lK11 I,:co11 KCtnOtou a1:01;(8iou."

To vsp6

Kat

oi I..1VllJ1SC;
01:0

"To V8PO Cl.VtlnpOO'('J)nEuEl 1:11V KClpOlll, TljV \jJux1i xou dvat ql\)A.aKla~lEvll ~l£oa q>('J).6<;nou elvru syKA.ewn] ~t£(Ja (JtO OKO.UOt." ,

ccouc, Tnv

arxi]

LOU

"H 006" T11SMVllJll1S" IIPEO'1tll (q>(t)''t. rtiH'\'TIS &')lUdm(lllln~)

To VEPO crc ovstpc E~cpa.VtSetaL KIl.U 1:0\1 lung EK8i 6n01) ot eVVOtE<;.COv opizov n01) eXEl eeael 1:0 Eyro (01.)VEt01l't6 urc6BCi.0po) a.PXtS0UV vc Ota.A1)OV'tat Kat a.pxtSEt 11 £laB0/e11 LOU a.cruvEiOl)1:Ol) ~€aa ae a.u..cO. AvCt'J..oya O£ ~et11V ~lopqlll WI,) VEP0';) unopouus vc OtCl.KPi.VOUW~ 11 ELOPOAli cv A' 26 UU1:l) ytve't(ll fAaLa l11Tltta.
, r r

To vf:p61om6v sivm to opto rta va. Cl.VCl.Ka.A'il\I'OU~.l£ KOO~lO "11<; ~EXaa~LeVl1e; ~a.<; ~vli)llK Tt' tov (1)1:6 'to vspo ex,€t XPll0l~LOlt0111E)El (1)<; p.aVHKO otOlX€Lo 1i oxouu KUl ocv Oqla.'tO<pl)A.a.Ka<; 't11e; ~V"~11<;· L1:l1V EA.A.llvlKll ~UeOAOYla OL ~LV11~lE<; ava.cpepov"CCl.l os auvupnl011 ue tu vspn. 0 1IDta.~OC; Ax,€poV1:w; ~E1tA8VE 1:Ou<;vsxpouq Cl.no r«; ~Vll)lE<; 1:0\)C;Kat KUt£).111E on1 Al~lVl1 MV1WOmlVl11tOU a.TtO'CEA..oUO£ O1.l1AeK1:11pa 1:11C; 'tOV ~V{UL11C;. TCOtlFI',C;ym vo anw(-)\lvOei 01:0 K01V6 rou enpEnc: vc 0

25It~tVYK.,
i6Jung,

~mp. Richard Vilchem, Avtp£ru; TOaKaAllt;,

€Kb,

Ill)JHvoC;K60'~LO~,A011va 1982
8K[),

Psychology and Alchemy volume 12, The collected works.

Roullege and Kegan P. London

1954

14

Wt6 'to MiAov 'ucSrop 'tTJ~ Mvnuoouvnc nou ea rou tblve 'tTJ eDllTJcrTJnov npoyovcov 'tOU. 0 llu90~ A.ea E1ticrTJ~ TJTIu9ia nplV aveBei orov 'tpino15a ucoouce CPllMa McpVTJ~Kat Em.ve Wt6 on 'tTJv llavtl1CT] 1tI1Y'iKaO'taA.ia. Ta vepc Mmov IlnJ.J:Kave Ile '[1(; Ilvtllle~ rou napeAeoV'to~ 000 Kat jle t~ Ilvtljle~ tOU Ilw..oV'tO~.
met

I:'tTJV crUYXPOvtl EUcl15a jlePlKt~ 1lTJyt~ aUel Kat nO'telllla exo'llV 'to ovoun I1ap9evlO~ ~ TIap9evia. Eivm 11WIl11OT]tCOVMU'tPWV non SKave ~ KOPTJ0't11V nprotTJ tTJ~ eJlIl11VO pUOT]. I:e autel Ot K~ tta~av 'tTJeDJl11OT] ou; 0't0 vepa?7 r

o ~civUJ~ avacpepet Ott 1l0A.~ mlye crov napel15etoo TJMatiAvta 'tOY ~lI9u;,Et nprota erov 1tOtal16 'tTJ~A~911~ yta va ;SXeloet ta napa1t'twJlatel tOU Kat uorspn orov 1tOtallO 'tTJ~KaA.~~ IlVTJllocrUVTJ~ va tUA.t;et 'tTJ eDJlTJOT]tOU jle KaAi:~ avaJlvtloe~. Eroi nevtaKel9apo~ Kat e~ayvtoJlevo~ apxi1;,et to aveBacrJlel tOO atOU~ oupavou~28. EKto~ ana tOY ~elV'tTJ Kat 0 I:ai;;1tI1P XP110tl101tOtei 'tTJ IlVTJlletaKO'tTJ'ta rou vspou "1tViyov'ta~" mv OcpTJA.iaIleoa 0'tO 1tO'telll!. Fivetm MutOV atl'tOC; 0 1tO'taJ.!.6c;11 a1tOIlelKPUVcrTJ on 'teAetOUP)'tKOll zpooroaou. Etot TJ OcpTJA.iaxcive'tat ore vspu rou r aauvetO~'tou. 0 AaeptTJC; 9pTJvei A.Eyovtac;: "~ev 9a KA.el\j1CO. Ollte Kata eva MKPU Sev 9a au~11gei OM aut6 'to vepo non oe mlpe OcpTJA.ia"
01 JlvltlleC; tOO vepou Kat 11Ka9apta rou ouoic cvccepovrci ce 01..11'tOU~ tTJ 1501111 tOV TOA.Ktv. O 1tOU 0 TOA.Ktv 9Uet va ota~aoet oro napalll)et tOU to lleA.MV, to ota~aset Ileoa ano tOY Ka9peCP'tTJ'tTJC;aA.civ'tpte1, Ilia acrTJllevta A.eKaVTJ A.anel Kat P11Xll yelleltTJ vspo. Orcv Koi'ta~s 0 r n I:aJl Jleoa O''tOVKa9pecp'tTJ " ... t' corsptc SopTJoav. As~ Kt sixs tpap11xtei eva OKOllPOnapa~elv, 0 Ka9pecp'tTJC; Eytve 'YKPu;,O~Kat llOtSpa Ka9elptoe ... 0 KaepS<ptl1~ osixvet npelYJlata nou t']tav, npaYJlata 1tOU eivct Kat npclYJlata nou iO'co~yiVOllV,,29
EKe!

AU'll'j stvct Kat 11 at0811n1CT] 11 ata8aVtlK6tTJ'ta tou vspou. Evce; KaepSCPtTJ~ 1tOU m8av6v va ;eyeA.ciet Kat nou 11~aeDtepTJ ouoin ron avacptpe'tat cov OPLOnvcueou crov OtKOJla~ K6oJlO Kat 0" evav KOO'JlOclyvcoo'tO Kat OlC01tllA.O. I:'ta vepn 't111; .TJOIlOOtJVlK A To vspo MutOV ytv£'tal 'to <piAtpO yta vn ~l7touJle ceto 'tOY yvwo't6 Jla~ KOOJlO O'E svcv ciA.A.o clYVCOatO.To cpiAtpO onro exel 'tTJV t15tO'tTJ'tava nnipvst OtacpopeC; 1l0pcptC;. TTJ 1l0PCP'iJ'tOU Ka9peCP'tTJ,tTJVOtclcpaVTJ 1l0pCp~ xrn m 1l0PCPt'] on enmsoou. 'Etot ro OPLOron vepou nsptepoupsi r 'to neptexoJlevo rou. TeA.lKcl orov crUYXPOvoKOO'JlOJlac; TJ a15'llvaJlla a~lOA.6yTJOTJC; O'totXeiwv 'tTJC; Pl)crTJC; roiv < oOTJyei O''tTJvA.t']S11oue, Fum 0 crUyxpOVOC; r avSpo:moC; non avasll'tcl rnv ,[U~11os KUee tou KiVTJcrTJ ayvoei 'teA.tKU on 11 cpucrTJSev eivci 'taK'tl1CT].Ileptepovei m)VetolFu 'to ~ltyeOoc; Kat 'tTJVKA.tllaKa reov O''tOtXeiwv 'tTJC; Selvet va ;eXV<lEl 'tTJVOl)Va~lt']rouq, 'Etct oi eKcppaOetc; tOU vspou onv ayopaiou Kat npoL6V'to~ (ro vepo 0"tTJ ~pUcrTJ, O'tO IlnOUKaA.l, ot11V nA.as) 'to 9s'toUY co~ IllKp6 Kat aouvallo. 'OIlCO~11q>uOT]too vspou oev sivat au~. To optn ron VEPOl) oev JlnOpOUvE va nepLOpt<J'toUVE es eva Jl1tOUKaJ..1 Sa 8uJl11S0UJlE mv anEpav'tocrUvTJ tou; 'tIl" £7tO~levl1nA.1lJlJlupa. A~u;,Et MutOV Kat soro va 1500Jls 'ta apta 'tOU vepou.

27

AelCCl'tOllc;, n.,H lCa'[o:yCJ:J'}'iJmv 9E<JllcOV Kat ttov oo~aCHcOv, £KO. BtBA.io NeOeA.A.llVlKoU A.6yO\l, A9tiva r AA.1ylMpt.NtcXvte, H geta KOl~OlOta, ~LtCP, ftWPY11<; K6tO'lPac;, eKo, I, Za)(apo1touA.o<;,A9~va 1986

1951
28

2~olkien. R. R. J., The Lord of Rings, £KO. George Allen and Unwin, London 1983

15

Ta Opla

TOll VEPOU

Ftn va olOcracpl'JvicrouJ.1e TTJv Evvota rou opiou J.11tOPol)lle va 1tOl)J.1e on sivci l'J ouV.eK'ttKli 1tO\) 67u0<; A.Eet 0 Bachelard "TTJV KavOUIlE apiacrta O"TTJpaO"l'J nov EU(OVOOVzon otbtOuv O~ tlf,; crKe'VEIf,;e&'ttKoU Kat apVl'J'ttKoU,,30. XapaKTTJPtcrTtKa apta tmv emq>aVEtaKWV uoatOOV sivm l'J 6XOl'J ron; KaOWt; Kat l'J iota 11 emq>avEw 'tOUt;. H 6XOl'J O"l'JJ.1a'toOotEi TTJv OeO"l'Jn1t; crtaO"l'Jt; tOU av9p<i>1tOu em Y11 O"TTJvaV'ti9ECJ1') tOU KaA£O"J.1atOt; TTJ<; cpurilc;, otrrv avaq>EpOllacrtE O"TTJ9aA.a00"a31. E7riCJ1')C;O"l'JllatOOotel to 1ti:paoJ.1a an:6 TTJ geCJ1') tOU av9p<i>1toU oTTJ ')'11, ornv aVti9ECJ1') tOU pu9ioJ.1atot; tOU 0& au'to. Ot avtt6eoelf,; auttc; eivat l'J 1tpOKA.11O"l'Jou VEPOl) 'Yta tOY aVepOO1to. H ovcuovn tOU ayvooo'too t KOOlloo Ka'too anO TTJv emq>aveta rou Kat to pu9tOlla O"E aUnl avaKaA.ei allopq>Et; J.1VllJ.1Et;. MviJIlEC; EJ.1PpliOU 1tO\) eivoi l'J OtKalooCJ1') rou O"tOlXEiou O"'tO Q"l)VEt0110taKO u7t6Pa9po 'tOO av6p<i>1tO\)32. H emcpavElO, amaO"'tl'J, a1tpoO"1teA.aot11 0111ltOllPYel "Opt~ovtla OOKO" 01tOOC; A.eyE 0 E Le Corbuzier", H emq>aveta tou VEPOU Ilat; KaA.Et va rnv crsvioouue. ~taKpivoUJ.1E rnv ata~ia E1tavoo 'tl'JC;000 J.1tKpi] Kt av sivm 11 onoin O~l().)C; aOllVan:i va ~E<P\)'YEtcoro rnv tOXUpOtepl'J 1l0p<pi]t; 'ta~l'J TTJt;op~oV'tloC; OOKOU, Oxt a1tapait1')ta rou opi{,;ovta. AV'ti9ECJ1') 1tO\) J.11tOpoUIlE va otaKpivOl)IlE E1ti0"11C; ivm Kat 11 ou'LKli <P\)0"l'JtOU vspou. To VEpO e sivm i]peJ.10 Kat ~000)'6vo oco KataOtpoq>tKO Kat OOA.o<pOVtKO.0 'lA.ttt; ava<pepEt "EE 1tOA.A.Et; acpptKavtKEC; OtaA.EK'tOUC;l'J A.E~l'J'Yta rc "apx,eyova vepn" sivui Kat 11 A.E~l'J 'Yta to. oioulla. To OVEtptKO VEPO elvat om:pOOOO1to. H 1tA.11J.1lll)pa, to uiun, 11 PPOX,ll, to 'YaA.a, to onspuo, l'J Spoota, to KaeE "VEpO" eXEt to ouoio OiOllllO rou, ~t<pU11 to. vepn ~E1t110aVE a7t6 to XaOC;, Kat 1l1tOpEi 1tapa va sivnt etm",34.

oev

300 Bachelar avacpEPel:"O xoopoe; OEV€ivat tbtots MA.O ano Eva "tpO~IEPO ueco E~W". Kat 0 €q>lMtTle; etvoi wtl..6e; )'tan eiveu ptl;tK6t;. ea vonnxoxotouccue al>t11 rnv £lL1t€tpia ov MyallE on E<ptMtTle; sivm q>nttnt£VOC; an6 Jua allq>l~oA.ia n01> txpictnrm II ~E~ato"t11"ta 1:01> XooP01>cero ueon Kalil oacp1)vEla "t01>an' ~ro."

°

Bachelar, G., H 1tOlllnKl't "t01>XooP01>,Il"t<p. EMvI1 BEA"tcr01>IWUvva Xa"t~lIVtKoA1), EKO. Xa"t~llVlKOA.~, A9~va 1982

31 "ovsipeuorcv On "t~lOeUEl 11' Eva "t€-cOIO Molo KaOtoJIEVOe;'I'll AU oro JIEOlavO Ka"tUpn, O"""CTJ piyA.a. 'On 1t£"tm:t JJtaa GtTJv ttre1£irotTI J.LUPWOUITlC; OMa.craru;, n01> OEV stvoi JLUpwoul a.A.A.aavaaa., 1tV0~. To t TEA.oc; Kage Iluproo~ dvat II 9w..aoaa., 1£e; Kat KUOE MAll ~I\lPWOUl Sla.A.U£"tat ano E1>XapiotTIcrlJ J.1€oa. tTlc;.". ZtaKivt Il., To UpWJ1a., J1"tcp Ma.pia. AYYEAioo1>,EKO.'l'1>XOYIOC;AOllva 1986 , 32 0 <I>p6lvt MEt on 0 oull[30AlOJloC; "t01>VEPOl) ava<pepE"tat onl Jul1:Pa. Kat "to aJltaKO 1>YPO. <I>POtvt, I., H epunvelc ttov oveipmv, Jt"tq>A£q>"tEP11C; AvayvooO""Co1>, Enbcoupoc, AOllva. 1993 EKO. 33Le Corbusier, 3"'1),,\t<;, I., H'O A9~va 1992 KeiJlEVa.)'ta. mv Ellaoa.,
!Cal 'ta

JI1:<p. ilSa TIa.A.avnvou, €KO. Aypa. 1987 A

vepa 't1l<; A.l1cr~O<n>V11~,It'tq>. Kdictu Xat~11V11KOI.11, EKO. Xa't~11V11KOI.~,

16
Tt cpux Aom6v Ha unopouccve vn neplKAZlOllve mn6 Lb O'toLX8io. To Ol:OlXEiO tOOO K(ltaotpo(jm<6 600 Kat to s())oy6vo. T1l\' )10 P qnl tlJJV opkov rou

VEP01)

Oa

~LqC;

.11 oWdet

0

Avrpsi

TapK6tpoKt

m)yxpov())t;

C1111.WtV8L Kat Kan to 1tePtOpt(J~levo,

" ... w av8peomvo

eYK/c(J.)BLogsvo ~Le.(Ja oa av8pamtva opio; To ve O1)V0881<; TO uv8pwnlvo ~ to m:)~l1tav ei.vul Kan to aOwvoll'tO. To

i()LOm}~ll3aivsl

Kat

us .11" aA.118eta. To

vc npoo1ta0Eic; vc KaWKl:l)OElt; KanoLO

~leyaA.Ei.o uscu (lnQ rn oeSO~lEv(l oou (a;\)1;6. rn El)KA.Ei.ocm K(ll qn;wx6. 08 cn)YKPt0l1 ue to unEtpo 6pLo.) m1~aivEl vc anooeil;cu; nw<; elC1at evw; 6.V6proTCOC; Kat tinors 6.A../cO,,3S
6pla

T a 61na va tn

'IOU

to U1tElrO.

vepou E~nepLsxouV Au't6, EiV(u ~aA.A..ov 6.W1tO 1tapaYKwvi.sou~u~ us t'lV

I'i cure

Kafhw{pLV11

~Lac; npaK'tuai,

EVW

oxomuo ElVOL 0 !=i"XEOla.O~t6c; ~Lac; vu eivat Te.OLOC;xou va uncpouue vc .a ntsvioouue. Dtuv lourDV
avn~lEToo1tisou~e
'to

Vep6

oov

oUl<paV11 Ka8upla rLOptp11 'IOU ~ir.opEi va ol£UKolt')veL 1:11v.oX,.eolacrtUCll ~ac; npow011

Ka8ap8ouI-Le. TIpe1tet Of1oo<; vc unoponue f1nopO'\)~e va umipxou~~ etc vspc r11<;A..llO~LOa(lVll<;.

mlnsao 11 aKo~La Kat ~Le t11 apG6. TO vapKlOCHO"f,!O ~ac;,36 vn KO;l va EK<PPO;OEl T11" aUVelOllTli o.v6.,,/Kll ~ac; vc va e )tlOfla0TE Tll" BaHlm:p1l ouciu WU Kat vu
KaHpetpTll Kat day

~Lac; EK([lpO;Cel

3~ 36

l'apKOq)(1Kt, 'K, MIxpTUPOACrylO,

~lTCp.

AU~avopos

[crOr11S, E1(O. NEqJ€A.11, AOllVa. 1990

0 MlXeA.1011S avrup€pe~ Yla tov aVTl1(UTOJI:'q)LO'p6 " ... 6.v Kat 0 opl(6vnoc; Ct~ovCU; O'\)!l~tEtpiru; Ei.Vdl 0 on 6i;,ova.c;tOU 0uva.tOU Kill ton l;hXa.(j~LOt). 11 IlVTlKaton:pI0'!I€V1l n:PoO"O\If11 !tCU; BeAye!.. TIp(I)TOV SlOtt TIlV ~A£JI:OU!te cov eiOciJl0 (j){lVTaO'TLKO, ow Eu~6va (1)0 Ota.atQ,crEWV, evro 11 npawau1Cl1 npocro\V1l eiVUL oro xropo KUt txel tpEh; olCtO"tUaEU;. AeUtEpOV OlOtl 'W eiow"o !lCU;E7l:rrptnEl va Ctfpa.tPOU~l£ Tl1 ~top<piI Tile; 1tpantutlKf1C; 7[p6o'O\jlll~ Kat va Til 0EWpOU~t'£ l<aO' EUllTli. 6.axtTC'1. (17[0 K6OE' crtUtLKO ai0'01HLa 11 avTiA11\j1ll 10'oppon:iCU;. " Ml'X.eAtls,
1990

IlA., Ato'91\tlKn 0t{))Pl1!lQt(1, T6~lO~ :1. cl<b. 'Iopupa na.vuyt6)t1l

KUl

'E<pll<;

MlXSA.ll,

A(h'lvu

17

Ap6J.10l

'Tot>

VEP0'6

To vsp6 oT11cJ)uoll
"H ~ovaOucfl aat; 9&6tll'ta at; stvm '1 <l>'6GTJ· 'EX&"tErutOAUtll1tiCJtll a' autt'lV. Na '(J"tEaiyouPOt 1t~ 1tO"t£~ OEY Eivat uaK1W'1Kat1t&PlOpit;&t& mv <ptwoo~ia aat; (J"t0va tll~ (J"t£KEa"temorot. " Auyou(J"to~ POV"t£V37 MUle; KUl ef:Mroj.1.e va ~etucrooj.1.e to vspo, tva a1to tn ~acrtKa crtOtxeia t11e;;cpUOTJe;;, Kata tOV Hparl.ett038, crKOmj.1.0ea ittavE va OOUj.1.E apxee;; t11e;;Aettoopyiae;; ron atOtxeiOll crt11 cpUOTJ39. tte;; Enn to vspo: • ~atj.1.~etat an6 t11 ew..aaaa Kat t11 ~11pa ave~aivovtae;; KataKopucpa 1)1[0 ,.wpcpit uopatj.1.00v • O1lJ.1.7tU1CVOOVetat atj.1.0acpatpa crVlj.1.ati~OVtae;; ouvveec ornv • KataKp11j.1.V~etat M6 t11v atj.1.ocrcpatpa ornv ~11pa Kat "t11 8aAaacra ce otacpopee;; j.1.0pcpec;; (~pom, xWvt, XaAa~t) • U1tOppeEt emcpaveUlKa crXl1j.1.ati~ovtac;; pellata Kat 1totajlta Kat KataAi]ye1 teAtKa cs tallteUtTJPec;; it <Jt11 ew..acrcra • U1tOppeet U7tOyEUl Ilecrro "troY nopcov Kat «ov ProrllOOV trov yeroAoytKOOV crVlllancrlloov Kat eKcpopti~etat E1ttcpavEtaKa j.1.ecrro troy 1tlJyoov Ta vepn ta 01tOia a~~et ~e~airoe;; va E~Etacroulle 1tffie;; StlOupyollve orov av6poomvo 1tOAtttcrll0 A Kat 011 oro 1tep$w..Aov j.1.iaC;;7tOA11e;;eivm rc e1ttcpavElaKa vepa, LK01ttIlO eivm va ta otaxropicrooj.1.e aE aAj.1.Upa vspd (flaAacraEC;;) Kat as yAllKa vepn (Ai~tv€C;;-1to"tallta), yta va e~E"tacroUj.1.Ert OTJIlaivE1 KaO' tva a1to tmrc; SeK1Va~1€ cno t11 flaAacrcra Iltae;; Ka1 aun; a1to"tEAei t11v apm Kat "to "teAoC;;,"to ~acrtKo KOPIlO rou llopoAOYtKOll KllKA.cm

"To 1tu90~ rou av9pro1toU yta tTJ 9aAacrcra sivoi avtbto'teAie;. IlEV IL1topeie;va rnv KUJJ..L€pyiJcrete;,"to vepo tTJe;OEY 1tiV€tat ornv <Xy1CaAtU tTJe;1t&Oaiv&te;. "
Blixen Karen

"Cl>omte;avclf30uve emv UIlIlO 19(1yeveie; Kat ax6~ ~at; <p"tavetKa9ci>e; tait;ouv "ta 6pyava rou; 1 ,tTJe;9aAuaaat; KatavtKwvrat; tOUe;OavatOue; ... "
Nixo; Kap~aOiat;

Ta aAj.1.upa vspc t11e; Ow..acrcrae;; l;taVS ltavta utn ltPOKA11CJ11 tOV av8prolto. npOKA11OTJ Y1a to Y1a ayvrocrto, to ta~iot yta oAa allta nou OEY ~ep&l Kat fla 'fleAs va avaKaAll\jl&l. Eivrn ltpayj.1.a"ttKa ceo Kat cpav"tacr"ttKa "ta j.1.YTJj.1.etaKa ta~iota anl OaA.ucrcra 01tOOC;; aUta rou KoA6j.1.~ou, tOU noUAt~Ep, "tOO Iacrova40 Kat tou Oouccec". H 6aA.acrcra ittav KU1 sivnt 11 ovcuovn tOU ayvoocrtou 11 tpOllalCttKit a01lvexeta tl)e;; OXfl1K Meta altO autit crtallatact 11 yvrocrtit
Povrsv, A., H TtXV'l, ~'t<p.A.I:uppoe;. Ecrtn tOU ~L~Hou, A011vu 1954

37

38BaatKO (J"tOtX&io a<pOl>Ka"ta tOY HpaKAet'to 11<p<U"ttaLa1;;i L& yl1 'tOY oepu KUt to vepo cruv9£'tOuv 'to I I 'ttl mJJ.11tav. A~e:A6e;,K., 0 HpaKAet'toe; Kat '1 <ptA.oao<pia,IL"c<p. 1l1HL11'tp11e; IltU111"tpuibl1c;, KO.E~av'tat;, A9itva 1974 E
39

11. KOU'taoytclvvT]e; Kat 0. Eav967touwe;, A9t)va 1996
40
41

TEXVtKll YopoAoyia, &KO.EOVLKOME'taO~tO nOAU't&XV&io,

Ktpvet, K.,H llu60Wyia 'tOW EM~VWV, weep. 61UL1rtp11l:'taOO1tOUAOU,EKO. Ea'tia ,Ae~va 1996
Page, L.D., H OI1'1PtKtl ObucrcrEla, It't<jl.Kpirrovn OaV11yllp11,EKb. OrutUbtllta, AOilVU 1995

18
npay~a'tlKOnrta Kat ~exUvoVtat 'ta am)9~eva Pa911 'tTJC; paVtaaiac;. Ilcvrc KMoU O'tTJv ew..aaaa c 1t£pt~Evo\}V 11 KipKTJ Kat at aetpTJvec;, sucove; 1100VtqC; Ka'taatpocptqc; ~e911C;. Ilepuieve, 11 A~ptJai, 'to xpuao~aU.o oep~ Ot A.t1t.1tOu'teto\, 11 Tpoin. Ilepursvouv a1tA.a QUa A.t~CMa onv 'tOY O'tOxo tllt;; aeva11t;; avai;tltllaTJt;; ~a<;. Toco orov 7tpa)'~attKO oco Kat otov cpaVtaanKO xoopo 11 9w..aaaa tl'tavE Kat Eival 11 ava~ovTJ tOU ta~totol), tTJ<;7ttO piatT}<; ava~TJtTJOT}<;OU 7tpoaromKou t ~u90\} rou Kaee avep<imou, eatro Kat av to tf:A.o<;'tOU ta~totOu TJtav 0 7tUeIlEvaC; tllC;. Nitoa avacprovei "E'tepm! Etepui! <l>taVEt mn, Kat ~E 'to 7tClpa7tavO}, (ll)tO to ta~iOt tllC; 7ta9ta0J.l.f:vT}<;avai;tltllOT}<; Kat tllt;; 7tEpt7tA.aVT}OT}<; OKOtEtVec; ~tvE<; 9aA.aOaE<;! Emtf:A.ou<;, orov os opil_;OVta cpaivEtat 'toopa ~ta aKt1'J: 07t<OC; t uv eivm, 7tPE7tEt va apa~ou~E 0' autl'Jv, Kat to K xetp6tepo ap~oj36A.t elvct npottJ.l.OtEPO aoo 'to vc ~avapXlao\}~E vc eaA.aaaOOePVOU~E O'tTJv avf:A.m011 a1t£paVtoaUVT} ron aKE7tttKtaIlOU. AC;na'tTJaOU~E np<.lna )'Epa atTJ ou:pta, apyou:pa ea PpoU~E ta KaA.Q A.t~avta Kat ea KavoullE mo el)KOA.o to apaYlla )'ta ocou; ep90uv uorsp' aoo llat;;.,,42 H oa~OT} A.otOOVtllt;; 00A.T}t;; at 'tTJt;;eaA.aaaaC; EKcppasEtat K\)piroc; Ileaa a7to to A.t~av\, ),tati K auto oivEt to OO~T}~EvO 1t£ptpaA.A.ov DinA.a em (-)aA.aaaa 7t01.1KaA.ei tOV avSpro1tO vo rnv 7tpoaeyyiaEt43. A6yro tllC; OOIlT}~f:vT}t;; Opa011t;; to A.t~tavt sivm a XroPOt;;rou EoacpoUt;; 1tOU ~Et rou mv Ow..aooa Kat ott autl'J ouvena)'Etat (auzopsuuctu ta~totffitEt;;) os OA.o 'tTJt;;to lleya4w. "O~t;; autl'J T} ~rovtavta sivu; rooo EKIlEtaUel)utIl11a7t0 EIl7tOPtKll oxomc, erot cocrs vn 011~toupyei Eva 1t£oio a7tayopeUtlKO )'ta tOV av(-)pro7tO ·/tOU StA.Et vn ~T]aEt, tatro Kat 1t£ptataataKa, ouv 01tOtOOtl1tOte aA.A.o OT}~lOatOxropo to A.t~UiVt44 Kern xcvovc pepairoc; tva A.t~evtKO epyo EiVat rooo aUV9EtO Kat noA.UOanavo n01) fla anotEA.ol)ae ouronin, av to OtEKOtKOuoa~E )'ta to OKOoo auto. LW rotc aA.A.ott;; tva A.tllaVt non OEY Sa ~OUOE tOY uvnxsuievuco tOU aKooo, to aK07tO yta rov onoio eivoi npooptousvo, rqv "napoXli ere aKacpT} tllr; potlC; 7tPOOW1tC.tW aya9wv",45 ea eXave &11 tOU 't11" ),01Tteia. Kat Tt autO 'to AiYyo OEYeivm aaK07tO va ava~11ta~lE OtOOO1)t;; emxmvcivinc ~lE t11 flaA.aaaa at onoia; vc Il11VtXOllV rov atEYO XroptKO nsptoptcuo tou A.t~tavtOu, tOtaitEpa ornv 117tOA.T}vann)OaEtat a os ~eyaA.T} EKtaOT} omA.a a'tTJ OaA.aaaa. EKcppaSOVtat;; t11 oxomuorqru autTJ tOtalU:po EYotacpepov exow at 7tp6acpatec; EpyaaiEC; teov <1>wtlKaK1146 )'ta tOY <l>aA.1lPtKO L\uta Kat Mropattll47 yta mv fiatpa tOU npO)'pallllatOt;; HpaKA.1ir; nou nopouotccrrpccv oro EOvtKO 10pu~a Epenvrov to NotllPPto tOU 1996. Etllv epyaaia rou K. <l>unKaKTJ PU7tOUIlE t11V oallro0l1 t11<;7tOA.11<; tT}C;flaA.aaaat;; usou aoo Kat tva eupi> 1t£OW, tOY <l>aA.11PtKO OPIlO, orov onoio to KO~lBtKOonueio eivm T}E~ciA.Et'l'11 tcov opkov (napaA.taJai A.erocpopOt;;)Kat 11 011lltoupyia ~iat;; 1ima<; SWv11t;;rou Emtpf:net tl1V OllaA.T]lletcipaOT} r rou av9pwnou atll 9aA.aaaa.

o

42 Nttcs, $., Ieroptc Kat ~rol'J,Iltcp. I:Kou't&p61touA.oe; .M.,eKli. Fvroon, A8ijva 1993 N Tu AtllEVlKutpya aK61la Kat av O&V txow t11Vu1tolio~U'lyta vn CPtA.o~EVOUV a.v9poo1t0nOAu auxvu 'tOY yiVOVtat StK'tec; ron. Ta e~roteplKa Atlt&VtKUepya yta 1tapUli&ly~l(lta &1ttaK&cp'toult& KemOlo ~paou 9a ooujlE 6n aacpuKnouv roto lC6all0 1tap' OA.o1tOUOEVstvoi KcrrU xovovn aXE8laerlltva yt onrc. H 9w.aerera stvoi to KaAeCJlla rutO~&l Aot1tOV &1lW; u rnv a~to7[OlilaOUll&Kat aXE8taerltKU. ere v
43

44 Aowallia npoaeyytOTJ<; es 1tO~Ue; xwpoue; rou A.tllavlOl) "J..6yw 1tapoueriac; ql1tOpeUIlUTOOV, OUCJKOA11 jlE'taKiVTJOTJ tn 1tOOlalOtal'tEpa CJE us WpEe;atXlllle; "J..6yooVtOVlle;Kivllcrlle;0X1HlU,OOV. e 45Mtll~
K., Ma9Ti~la'ta AtjlEVlKWV epyoov, &K8.EOVtKOU M&ter6~lou nOA\)'t&XVEiou,AOijva 1992

46 cI>tmlCUKTJ<;. A9ilva 11t1to8pOIlO<;-$aA1lPtKO<; N., 6pllOe;: npo<; svn &1tavaKaOoplCill6 tT}<;axeOTJC;1t6A11C; 9w.aaaa, np6ypalllla HpadTi<;. E9vtKO 'I8pulla Epeuvcov, A911va 1996 47 M{J)Pal't1l~ K., TIlitpa, 11 7tOA11 ~avwtAl1m~et EPEUVWv,A9Tiva 1996 tll OclA.acraa, np6ypa~l~la HpaKA.TJt;;, 9VtlCO'IopUlla E

19
).:t11V Epyaoiq. 1i01) K. Mwpaluj Kat nlr; apXltl:'KtOV1KI)r; opa.8ar; "f\p011e;" to neoLo sivet to A.L~l(iv~ TIle; Ilcrpce; Kat 0 x;&por; EXEl aa<flei~ rcspioptonoi«; To np6B),'wa eo& sivut 11 IclOltOupYla rou A.tftEva non on:wr; avaq>Epalle te).LKa. 611~ltOUpyel n;EplopIOHKOtlr; opouc 01:11V XP11011 tOU X;wpou 'an' 'tour; u,,6p&nolJ(;, H o.nO\1111t)1e; epyaalar; sivut va emU~et va "olatl1Pl1aeL 01:11", uno €KKEvW011 nepto;(11 tva KOllflun ono tOV zmpsto tWV aq>l~ewv Kat tWV avaxwpytaewv, va OlaUlPitaet,ollA.aoit KUlt:Olli!j (mo ttt; attiec; non Oll~IlOUpyOtlV TllV EvWV11 G11YK€V1:PCOOllrou KOLV01)".

To l.tJuivt TIl,<; Da'tp(l<;
(llspmpro1:o,),p(l(j>lQ
lljlXlli011

0.llaplln:o"'tl1)

H n:p()'t(ufll T11<;Ilf)xm;KTOnK1}r; Apl1'llr; ,

OIl<l.1iIl<;

1:uc; spyaai.ec; 1[()1) avaq>epafll:: avaSl11:01lVTat JclJCJElC; LClva fmoP£OOUflS va npoosvvioouue Y 1:0V 1.&po '{11t;G@.acrcrae;, SlvoV'tac; A.\)(Jat; 0'1'0 aSll';~ooa fleCJ11S!l1t; <Jl''YxpOV11r;rcO),,11e;cpo0'6'YYl~ovtO.r; r 'to vepo Kat ia OlOUYfla1:U 1:(1) fIE Ott alJta aUVf:7IuyoVtaL 0'];0 OLKO~iar; OOfllWevo rceplB6.JcJ...ov,

UO't'aIJW,
Ta,1ta.aflta !11t0POUflE vc ta OO\)).t6 nonee; q10pet; va ?celt(111)YO\IY we; OpLO.0''];0\1 KOlVWvtKO fLUr; 'neplY1JPO, To' 'TCOtUW Olatpei !ll yi, Wr;anaT1lpa OPIOK-at BOllHu6l lOV uv6pwno va 8&aEL &1.a<pop6nKe~ EpfLl1VBisr; ern ,ErclJlepOUe; t~L1i~LO:TU. LTOV <pllVmaTlKO 1.&po OTO\l xwpo rou ~UVtl148 Kat itoU Aoulr; KapoJc'l9 La 1i;ol6.~no: aVrtpEtQ)nl~onal we; 8lat.pi::T€S. LtllV KOA.a<J11t01) ~6.Vtjl xopuooio opio an:Ot6A.el 0 rcOtall0C; Axi::povtar; non OWXWPlS6L 'IllV Xt:i)pa tWV t;;wV1'avwv ano mv Xwpa tWV VEKp&V. "Av oev J,uropwvo: A:uyiow nc; cvcot 6p6r; O\)VUJlEte; flo: Ktv110'W '10\1 Axepovta," ". A.E6t 0 cJ)pOUVt avtt~L6tW'TCi~oVtur; 10v norouo <HIV a~!Orc£pa<Ho oploavuflsaa oro )'\Iwota
48

A?:iYKL€Pl, N., H Oeici KwW.oOi.a, ILtq1.rtWPYllS KOTC)'lPru;,el<o. I. Zaxapo:n:Ol}AO<:;, Ollva 1986 A Kapal, A., MaS ctov Ku9pi::q>t11
K(l.Ltt

49

, J~tBAia, AOijv'o..l979

l)pljKE 1j .

AllKIj

6KEL

unp. LO.ltl'lPII KCli<!O'lj, 6K8. 'Y'1fllov.

20 U1UlPlCtO KOaJl,O Kat 'tOY WJ...o, 'tOY ayvroG'to. E1C'tOC;a1t6 'tOY AxtpoV'ta, Kat <Ttll GUvtxeta 0 Acivnte; XPllatJl,01tOi11ae 'to vspo ue OlCHpopec; )lOp<ptc; 7tOA.A£e;<popte; "(ta va aTIlla'tooori)aet 't11 OtacpopenKO't11'ta 't11e; xptiaTIe; 'tOU eoacpoue;. Av'tia'tOtxa 11 AAtlCll 1ttaro a1t' 'tOY Ka9pecp't11 ava"(1Ca~E'tat va 1taL;et £Va 7tEpiepyo Glca1Ct 7tOU rc opio reov ,,(pallIlOOV ron sivm 'ta 7tO'tallta, Kat "(ta va Jl.7tOpf:aet va aTI)la'tooori)aet 'to 1tf:paa)la a1[o 'ttl Ilia Ka'taa'taaTI ornv aAA.111tPf:7tet va 'ta u7tEp7tl1oi]ast. Orcv avacp£poJl,aa'ts ornv aU,,(xpoVll 1t6A.ll ExoW1e rn xapa1C't11Pla'ttKa K11CPtaOU, Kat 'tOU 'El3pou. 1tapaosiYlla'ta ron

I:'tllV A't'ttKti 0 K11CPtaOe;50 a7tO'tsA.ei opio ava)leaa cmv Ael;Va Kat 'ttc; U7tOI3ae)ltaJ.1£VSC; 7tEptOXtC;, TISptG'tEPt, At6ata KOK. Eivrn emGllC; 1tpocpavti 'ta opio 7tOU 'ti9ov'tat a1t6 'tOY 'El3po 7tOU otaxrop~st -Ka'ta GUv9i]Kll- ouo roco aV'ttee'ta xrn av'ttepa'tlKa Kpa'tll, 01t{J)C;11 Euaoa Kat 11 Toupicia, Kat 000 KUpiarxSe; KOUA.'tOUpsC; on aUyxpOVOl) KOaIlOl.) ~lac;, mv Ava'toA.i] Kat 'tll AUGll. t TIapa't11poUlle 0llA.aoti on 11 A.et'toupyia 'tlle; ep\lGl1e; Kat 'tOU VSPO\) Ils 'ttl 1l0pepi] roo 7tO'taJl,oU yivstat £vae; OtatptrTJe; ooov aepopa 'ttl ouvecnxornm 'tIle; 1tOA.1K To notnut atEKs'tat sll1t60tO ooo Kat 0 au't01CtVll'toOpOJl,Oe;, oro OtKatro)la at11 1t0A.111t01l 1tpoaamSs 0 i\£epE13pSI emOtcl>Kov'tae; "(ta 't11 7t01..11 rnv 7tU1CVroaTI rcov KOtVCOV1KOlV OtepyaatWv. H ~lopepil evo; rmroxtvnroopouou J.1owi;;et J.1e 'tll poi] evoe; 7tO'taIlOU. Xcococrnptcnxo eivm oe on 7tOAAEe;OOtKEe; ap't11piee; sivm axsOtaaJl,£vee; 1taVCO a7tO 't11 poti evoe; noruuou 01troe; 11 KaA.A.1PP011e; 1tavro a1[' 'tOY IA.lao. Ape J.1aAAov 1tpE1tel va aV'tlllE'tro1til;;ollJ.1e 'to 1to'taJ.1l ouv eve 1tPoBA.11J.1a'tlKOa'totxeio-ola1pE'tll orcv avacpep6llaate a'tll ouvecnxomrc 't11e;1tOA.1K To 7tO'taJ.1l O)lroe;, au'to KaeS au'tO, Sev 1tepleXSl a1tO )lOVO 'tOU 'tQ npvqnxn xapa1C't11pta'tlKU 7tOU avaepepa)ls. 'Erot 11 J.10pepi] evoe; 1to'ta~lO\) 01t{J)C; la 1tClpaOStnLCl tou K11<PtaOU usou cmv 1t6A.11, Y J.1S 'tll J.10pepi] evoe; avOtXt0U ayroyou Sev eivut owa'tov va ~tae; oooael rnv 07tOtaoi]7tO'te evvOtOA.oytKti-KOtVroVtKti ouvecncornrc 1t01l S11'tu~LS. To notnju O)lroc; unopsi va ouvetoospet ouotccnxc crnv op9i] oOllti 'tlle; 1t0A.11C;· ow Cl~iset va ava<pepOl.l)le 'to 1tOA.EOOO)ltKOcrl)a't11J.1a E 'tlle; Moaxae;52. Ta 7tO'taJ.1ta Kat ot xeiJ.1appot 1t0\) ota1tepvo\)v rnv 1t0A.11 uvcemicoovtut cov ypa)lJl,tKa 1tapKa oro eororepoco 't11e;. 'Erot sm'tl)yxave'ta1 11 01ULtO\)pyia 1tOA.A.WV011J.10alCOv XOlpcov, at onoiot SKJl,E'taA.A.eUOV'tat 'to atOlxeio 1tO\) e1t(1vco os uuro 1tpe1tet vn Sououvnn yta va sivm 0J.10PCPOt(to vepo). Ms mv 0111ltOupyia Q1.l'tOlVtCOVypaJ.1~ltKWV 1tUPKroV, rc onoin ~eKtVOuv a7t6 'ta 7t£p~ 'tlle; 7t6A.lle;"(ta va KataA.ti~ouv oro xsvtpo 't11e;' em'tl)yxavetat emGlle; Kalil oaJ.1coGll 'lOU 7tEptl3aA.A.oV'ta xwpou 't11e;1tOA.llC;11£ Q1.l'tl;. Me Q1.)tOV rov tP01tO eK)ls'taAAeuOJ.1aate to vspo oov 9E'ttKO atotxeio omv aVU7tn)~11 Kat mv K01VWV1Kli ouvacnxomtu 'tlle; 1tOA.lle;, Kat emKivouva 61tffie; to exouJ.1e aV'ttJ.1etW1tiae1 e~Leic; ~ltXPl miw:pa. E1t1Kivouva aepou 01 ayroyoi 7tOU axeotal;;ouJl,£ yLa va J.1stacptpouv 'to vspo axeola~ov'tQ1 Kata l3aa11 us rn XapaK'tllPta'ttKa 't11e; 7tEV't11V'taKoV'taE'tolle; 1tA.llJl,J.1Upae;svto orov 11 1tapoXii \l7tepl3ei mv 1tA.1UL~l\lpa auri) Ka'taKA.ui;;sl 'tOY 7tEptl3aA.A.oV'ta xropo 0llJ.1tOupyrov'tae; 1tOA.\)J.1eyaA.ee;Kataa'tpOepte; Kat 1tOAAEe;eops; aKOJ.1a Kat 9UJl,a'ta. I:'t11V 1tepUrtcoaTI 01tOU 9a eixa)le eva ypall)llKO 1tapKO cvri tOU OO)lllJ.1£VOU 1tSplI3WJ...oV'tOe; 't11e;7tOI..lle;, sivat 1tpoepavEe; on aKo~la xm ornv 1tepi1t'tWml KataKA.Ua)lOU 'tOU oi i;;1lJ.1tf:e;7tOU 9a 1tpoKaAouas 11 1tl..ll)l~LUpa 01tWe; Kat to KOlVroVlKO 1tpol3A.llJ.1a 'to onoio S1UlKoAou9oUas 9a i]'tav aacpcOe; A.tY0'tspa. To 1tapaOStnta aUto 'to aKoAou911as Kat 0 otiJ.10e; Aaptaac; £lCtp£7tOV'tae; J.1EpOe;'tot) TI"ve10\) Kat avaYKai;;ov'tae; 'tOY vn 1tepVael usou a1t6 rnv 1t6A.ll J.1€ eA.eyxoJl,EVll 1tapom· :EuJ.1cpcova J.1s ro oon avaepEpaJ.1S 1tapa1tavco " axsoiaGll 'IOU Xropou

oxt

50

N. rsropyaKonouloc;,

e. TCJEA.lou. Lll1tA.ro~UmlCl1 spyaCJla

~LS OE~t(l,

AvWtA.a0'11'tOU 1[o'ta)lOU KllCPlCJoU,

EMIl,A9iJva
51

1993

J\£cpt~p, A., To OlKairo)lQ omv 1tOA.11, £KO. TI<mai;11CJ11, Afh)va 1977

S2 Ap~ClV't1V~ A. KOG,.uiKll, T., l:11~l£lffiGetc;yta 'to ~la01Uta ellilKa Oe~lllta 1tOA.eOIiO~li~, elCo. E9vlICOU Me'tG6~lOl) TIoA.mexveiol), A911va 1996

21"

€l<'o:tf:pm9iv

'tau

1tOtalloll

€1tttP£7tEl

"ell"

av6.7n\l~11

iilwooibU

xwpou

noA.AmrN:i:lv

bpaoTllPtotircU)v.

\'()H' SllrtA~U:

f:otl: tJ):;.~il~,tllu.IU:'J~l
.. l !l:M!

A'_',HMlj lI~ll.rod ~~l':J,.-&,t"'lh'ooI- "",,'(:uhl~-r'

~tt>.~a'NA'.,.I.:."''' suuas.u:: COR U~iMNlti1.TION
~DQ..Y'iU1I&d~"I>\.
It~

o:o.;n.te r~~~Cl,i'II;1~

""';'*'" i~l1d ~"~.

klrYKpufllKQ'[QI.J..lllOTflTac; Nature}

1U;PlOX(I)\' {utTU01C; f1\'(ilTTlI~11C;

(1t1lYit:

Me

Hard,

I., Design

with

YQciTVJCS nt.q>Qvct.t ~

.il:'1"il

~<=>

.•"

'.

Moaxo.. B.. ~uipQp.Ct.)(f"ll

1:0)\1 t:n:iqHl\'tt(O.\' npllll'l\'(Hl xtn d,l:ilfh:pClW '1:IOp(l}\'~G'tunl.uttJUl 'tot). P'I.ltlj.li.a:TLKO,) kX&~(01) (1t11Y1l: Apa~u\''t:t\'6C;,A. KOo:p(IKl1. T., Lll,·U::UOfif.lC; 'fUI .0 1l6.011l1fl ELOlK(l.

OSIl!lTQ:'I;OA6000Ill0<; 1997)

22
~ev J,UtOpoUllE OJlCO~va ayvoTJooullE tOY evOOtUCOxapOlct11pa ron 1tOtall01l ornv 1t6A.T)0 onoioc cpaivetat a1t6 mv ouotaattKil oulll3oA.TJ tOU crnv aVa1ttll~11 nl~ 1tpootoyev01lC; 1tapcryOO'Y1'tc; tllC; 1t6A.T)~. E1Ctoe; a1t6 tllv 1tPOOtoyEViJ 1tapayOO'Y1'ttOOV1tOWV to. 1tOtallta atll1~aA.A.ave OT)llaVtuca I1E to cruvoAo tOU 1tOA.UI10PCPtKoUtOUe; xapaKn'!pa Ot11V aVa1ttll~T) tOU allYXPOVOU 1tOA.tttOIlOU. 0 Eav061touAo~ avacpepEt53: " T) ouvE:d!e; KllKA.tKil oXL 1l0VO 1tooonKil aA.A.a KaL evepyetaKil, avavf:ooOT) tOOVuoanKrov a1tOOEllatOOV XPT)crtll01tOUWT)KEnno to. ~aOT) tlle; zpotoroptc; Kat yta mv 1tapayCO'Yli 1tOA.UttllOll epyou, to 00 lletacpopLlcoll54 000 KaL Ka9apa uOpaUA.tKOll, uscco tll~ OuvalltKil~ evepyewc; tOOV 1taOT)e; cpllOeooe; \)oatOpeUllatOOv. Oi uoanvee; lletacpopee;55 Kat oi 1tprotEe; UOptroA.tK~ llT)xavee; A.ettollpyT)aav ornv E)'ytle; AvatOA.11 yta ne; lletaKtviJaetc; Kat tll J.1E:tacpopa I1€')'ciA.ooveoprkov, mv avtA.T)OT) vspou Kat rnv aA.eOT), eoro Kat 4000 xpovta, evro oi apx.aiot Il~ 1tp6yOVOt 6X,t 1l0VO XPT)atIlO1toiT)aav aUa Kat Oro1tOiT)aav to. 1tOtallta Kat ttc; 1tT)ye~ tOU vspou. Mexpt Kat ttc; apX~ tOU 200u uuovn, 11 avOpOO1tOtT)ta TJtav yel1atll a1t6 ouopoou; UOpOIlUA.mle;56Kat OT)llaVttKO tllTJlla tOOVemxoworvubv Kat Iletacpoprov tlle; XPT)crtll01tOLOuae rnv eoOOteptKil vtrool1tAoia. H evtanK11 eK~letaUCl.l(J11 tOOV orspscov Kat uyprov KtroaiJ.1OOv aveoteu.av, ouoruxroe;, trotee; ttc; opaatllptOt11tee; KaL sivct eunlX1wa on at 1tetpeA.atKee; Kpiaetc; aJJ.iJ. Kat1tEp$aA.AoVttKOi A.6yOt OiVOllVeA.1tioee;yta ouotccnxn aVaKa~l\jl11 ue ne; apxee; tOU 210u
auovc,"

To. 1tOtallta Aot7t0V oroaave OllVatOtl1ta. emxorvroviuq Kat ava1ttll~11r; os 1tOA.AoUr; Kat otacpopettKOUe; 1t0A.ttl0I101le; 01tOOe;yta 1ta.paOetYI1a. 11 Aiytl1ttor; Kat 11 Eupcom], na.patllProvtae; tOUe; 1tOA.tttOIlOUr;trotoU~ 1tOU avOtaav os evteA.ror; Ota.cpopenKec; xpoVtKer; 1teptOOOUC;,ue evteA.roC; OtacpopettKil KouA.toUpa. Kat OOI1TJ,111tOP01)l1eva Souue Ott a~tcp6'tePOl avStoav 0l7tA.a. oro vepo, H Aiyu1ttoC; eivat Ilia ypalll1tKil Xropa yi>poo ax' 'to NeiAo evro aV'tio'tOtXa omv Eupro1tT) 'to. l1E)'aA.a 1tOA.tttattKa KMpa OT)IlLOllpyiJOT)KaVyt)POOa1t' to. l1eyaA.a. 1to'tal1ta. tllr;. To. 1tOtallta AoutOV A.ettollpyT)aa.v Kat A.ettOupYO\lV us l1aUov uvrupunxo tP01tO we; 1tpOe; mv ava1ttU~T) tOU onuspwou 1tOA.ltlaIl01l. Ft rmrov tOV A.oyo 1tpem:t va siuccre tOtattepooe; npocsxnxo] otrrv eXOllllE va. axeOtaaOll~le Ol7tA.a OtO nottnu. EKtOr; cno rou; KOtVOOVtKOUC; 53Sav661toUAo«;' 0. E., fltaxeiptcr11 U&a.tlKWVnoprov: OeWp11'tlKee;ehi&ee; xrn pea.A.lo'tlKll npooEyytcr11, EuvebptO tOU TEE.-Tlltil1a Kevrpuop; Kat ~U'tlKll<;0eooa.A.iac; Aupiou, Noe~t~ptO<; 1996
54

H aKpaia eK<Ppacr11 tOU vepoo 00<;KUptOe;lle'ta.<pOpIKOe; a~ovac; napa.tl1peha.l crnv Bevsnn oxou 0 opoe; bp0l10e; 67tr0e; tOV evvOOUI1€ mll1€pa eXet avno'tpa.<flei. To vapo wro'teA£i tOV Op0I10, tOV KUpiooe; I1€tacpoPl1COw;ova av9pOO1t())v xm q11t0pewatwv evw 01 ~Ol1011ttKee;~letQ.(popee; ttc; 1to/...T)e;IltKp£C; ( wroarUcretc;) ylVOVtat 11€ rn n6bla..

5~at ornv Ellaoa to vepo XPT)crt~I01tOlOUVtav cov w;ova.c; ~tEta.<pop~. Fin na.pabetnla 0 llT)vWe; anOteAoUoe rqv ObOyta rnv I1€tacpopa ~UAoUano rou; UA.OtO~LOUe; Fpnnuou wro tOY 190 a.1WVa. we; rou e ttc; a.pxee; tau 200U. Ot UA.Ot0l10ltote blavUavc: navoo ano 200 kill. A~i~el va. OlHtelWOei Ott 11 ~a.OtKti I1€tacpOPlKti A.ettoupyia. tOU veooo criUtEpa. sivrn 11 ~1C:ta.<popa tWV A.WatWv. To ,(c:yovor; a.utO Kavc:t to. 1tOtO:l1laanayopeUttKO: yta. tOY av6poono Kat tOY wro~eVWVc:t ozo to vspo. Xnpnxmpurnxo stvm Ott to. IlE)'a.A.Utepa 1tOt0:111at11C;EUpOOltT)C; stvei tOOO ~LO/"'UO~leVU 1tOUwra.yopc:uC:tat 11e1tacp11tOU av9pw1toU 11€ autO: KallllAalCT)«;' Il., H XP11mpo1Coi17Ull rov vepob rwy 1COTapdJV a1CO rou~ uAoroJ1.ov~ atnv uetooop« Ol1'OOoPI7df~ 9J)..eia~ a1CD f11V Ilivoo (l90~- 20o~ auovac), Nepo 1tl1111~wi1r; KiV'1]Oll~Ka9a.pllou, EmcrTl1JlOVlKtiauvcivt11cr11uxo rqv atytoa. tOU Ynoupyeiou llOA.mO~IOU, t.C:K£~I~pLOr; 1997 XplarouAac;, fl. X, PUxavcr11 rmv ubQ:rwv Kat avnppu1tavnKll n:xvoA.oyia., eKO. EU~IC:WV, A911va1991 S6Et11v EUaoa 0 a.pt9Jl6~ tWV Vc:pO~lU/...(J)V ~e~a.lo on ~c:1tc:pvaru; 20.000. Ec: 1taveA.A.t'JvtadillaKa., stvm to ll6vo axoypacpl1c6 arolxeio 1tOUU1t6pXC:l,sivm on ~1c:tO:Il 0lUllOUpyia. TOUEA.A.11VlKOU t KpatOUe;, oru 'tOte 6pta rou ~pt911Kav 1t£pi1toU 6000 VepO~lUA.Ot a.ra ru 3/4 KU'tearpa.~l~ttVOt. flu 1t£plOO6'tepee; K 41ttO~PE\e" Pl.. E1tlGll'i 1tapaK(itw "uopaul.u\o' 1talxviola.". E9voypacplKa, lleAo1tOVVT)crtUKo .a.oypacpucoiOPWla., tO~LO~ Na.U1tA.LO989 A 6. 1

23
Ktv5uvou~ 1tOU ava<pepaJ.l£ an. exoU~e va cvnueromtooune oUWx 0't0 1tO'ta~t, 0 f3aouco~ M:ltOUP'Y11CO~ ivouvoe; tT)e;1tA;rl~~upae; napa~evel opcro; yta ne; Ka'tO.OKEl)ec;flae;57. K

"Elvat 9atll.UIGtOKat aXEOOvaKCl'tavOT]'tO. ~ OA.al1PE~OUvKal yaA.l1veOOuv~a<PVlKaa' atl'tO 'to cud9avo n A.l~voXcilpt,oav 0 av9pumoC; va ~el 1l0VaXa J.lEtOV iOKlOtOU Kat va 1l11V <MiKel OUt£ O"tOnap6v. oore O"tO napeA.96v. oUte O"tO~llov. napa ee Ilia Ot1YI111OU xpovou WtPO0010PlO"tTJ. El1tltrt Kat voO"talyia xm t Y 1tpoaOoKia"
I.M.navaytWtOnouwc;

Autec; eivct 01 A,i~veC;.AnA.o.>flev~ neOUXOee;vepou, nou om \)5attva uovomrnn rou; 1tEpnattlve 1tA.af3ee;Kal toepVlKt.a.58. E<pTtflepee; 1t11yee;'<Ol;e;59zon eK<pUA.i'ovtat os eA.ll nplv fletaflop<p<o90uv OptO'ttKa ce A.$a5ta. H OflOP<Ptti tOU~ rcsptcceuet yta ue; noA.lteiee; nou eivoi X'tlO~eve~ Kovta roue, L\oflllflevee; afl<P1geatptKa onou etvm Suvmov, 11noA.m:iee; autee; KOlta'Ouv npoe; tT) fleptti tOU e;11J.l£p<Oflevou aYV<OO'tOU,np09u~ee; va alXJ.laA.<OtlOOlJVe€va KO~l~l(X'tl pi'ovta. o To A.t~va1.o tom yaA.TtVlO Kat tt9aO'El)~l€VO tpaBll~e KOVta 'tOU tOY av9p<ono an' 'tOUC; 1tpoiO'tOplKOUe; xpovoue;;. Xpnotuozouovruc rc \)A.tKa nOl) ron npoooeps 11 A.i~V1']011~lOuPY1loe otacpOpee; E1tlVOTtO'etc;~e tT) f1OP<PTttOU ~OV09)WU, tOU naO'aA.Ofl1tllKtOU OtK10'~OU Kat tOU ye<pupwU. To vspo M:ttoupyouoe yl)P<O ron onv eva npootutsuruco cpiA.tpO uvnusou os mnov Kat tOUe; KtVOUVOUe;; 1tapaflOVEl)aV em orspui. Xupcocmpumxo napaOetYfla 0 OtKtO'flOe;tOU 1tOU rKA.aotOv~nepu60. Xnousvo; usou crone BaA.toue; \)mlP~e 1tl)pl;Vae; aVa7ttU~11e; evoe; <PtA.elPllVtKoU 1tOA.tttO'J1OU,1tOU ~Ttt110e Katacp,)ylO O'tO vspo Yla va npoO'tatElltei Q7t' tOUe; papBapoue; emOpofleie;;. TIeptcppaYflevo ano naoO'aM:me;; ~1tllY~evOl)e; usee otT)v mpCPll us ye~iO'flata ore avafleO'a OtaO'tTt~ata a7t6 Bepye~ Kat 1tllA.O,to X<OP10auto ano'teW,)tav anD 80 ~expt 90 KaA.UBee; to crUVOA.o. H KOtv<OVtK11 opaO'tllPtotllta M~Bave xwpa usou O'tO vepo (KOtVCOVtKftCOTt,texvee;, \jIape~a) evw e~<o anD auto U1tl;PXC:to Kt)piwe; m01.o eKflEtaA.A£uO'1']e; , tCOV KatoiK<Ov 11 ll1talepo~ ~e ta POOKOtOma Kat at KaA.A.U;pY1;O'l~E~ eKtaoetc;. OOe~ Q7t' ttc; KaA.uf3e~ autec; Ssv XP1lO't~01t01O'lVtaV Yla xmoudn anon:A.o')OaV an09TtKec; Tt epyaO'tTtPta. H 1tapouoia eA.aXlO'tCOV 07tA.o.>V, 1tOUanoteA.ei Kat ruv K1)pla uuiu UnOta'Yl;C; t<OV1tOA.ttto~WV aUtWV orou; eXGpoUe; roue, evro Ot iOtot yvropt,av noA.') KaA.a Kat ano nOA.') vcopie; rnv e1te~epyaO'ia tOU O't5Ttpou, unoolli..Wvet rnv Eniopaoll 1tOU a01(110e " CP')0'11tOU OtOlXeiou OtOUe; av9pwnoue; autoUe;. l:av vc e~llflf;pcooe to yaA.livlO tonic t1le; A.i~lVl1e; roue noA.ttloj.lO')e; nou itpGav vu ,itoouv KOVta tT)e;. TIapa5ElYflata A.t~vairov OtKtO~WV unTtPXav apKeta Kat Ot11 xwpa ~lac;. l:tll MaKeOovia ornv 1tEPtOXI1ava~eO'a orov l:tpu~6va Kat tOV AA.taK~lova umipxe ~eyaA.oc;; aptl:l~oc; A.t~vrov nou Ottc; oxeee;; rou; xeroocouocv A.aO~ 01t<Oe; t L\c:pptone<;, Ot natonA.~;c;, 01 Iluiovs; Kat oi L\of311pec;. Fin O tOY tp61tO KataOKEllite; t<OVOtKlO'~WV Sev f;XOU~Enapa va avatpi:~OUj.lE OtOV Hpoooto ozoioc ~ac; oivel A.e7ttO~ePTt neplypa<pTt yta m A,i~lV1'] IpaO'laoa (L\oipaV1']) "EtC; to ueoov tT)C;A,i~V1'JC; T O'tTtVOUV U'l'1lA.oUe;naooaA.oUe; xut entlv<O Ete; cutouc 9i:touv O'aviola ouvnvcousvc ~eta9> rcov, KataOKElla~OUV Ss Kal eioooov orevnv ana tl1V ~llpa flia yecpupav. A\)toue; tOUC;7tQO'oai..oue; 1tOU KpatOuV ta oaviota somouv Kat' apxae;, on<oe; ooiverm OWL fla,i oi noA.itat, Enetta o~<oe; tOUe; otitvouv crUflcp<ova us to ~TtC; eel~OV: oOaKte; vujupeuerm KavEic;, cpepet ana to opOC;nou A.eyEtat OPf311A.oC;psu; O'taupoue; ota Kaee ywatKa Kat roue O'tl1Ve1 ozo Kat<O. Aa~Bavet 5e 0 KaGevae; t 1tOua~ 'Y\lVaiKa~. Kat01KoUv Ss Kata tOY e~lie; tponov: 0 KaHe €vae; exet nav<o etC; ta O'aviota auta utov KaA.UBllVEtC;mv onoinv ~et, KaOroc; Kat uiuv KatanaKt11V, 11onoin eXet 5ti;~000 Kat<O

°

57 58

McHard, I., Design with Nature.

£1(15.

John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York

IOt<OllCl'tlO~O<; avaq>ePO~OC; ota nAeOU~levatrnv At~lVWV. 'Otav avttA.a~pav6~aO"t&rov XJ)6vo~1t yewl.oytKO')~6pou~.
M., H lCa911J.lEPlV11 O"tOU~ ~roli XPOlOtOPlK01)C;; xrOV01)C;; ..eKO. naxaolillu,

59

60Kou€vell.

A91iva 1988

24
etc; 'tTIv A.i~Vllv.:ra jll.tKpa natoux tu OEVOUV~te OKOlVt anD 1:0 n60t (POPOt)J,levOt ~L1;1tO)~KUA.lioouv lCq;t(J). Et,; 'W\J~ i.1rn01>~Kat 'ta 1>nOS\yyut OiOOHV ant XOPT01) \l/apLa, l.l1taPXOUV OE exsi roou noAA-a 'V¢.pta, I crll'tE 6~av O"llKroOO1>V1:11\' Ka'tanaKT1'1v, pin'tol)v KaTt}.) E~ mv A.t).LV11v).L€ OKOlVi eva ldJ<pivl aOElO Kat 0.<1>01> 1tept).Levouv Al)'11 copu, ollKwVOUV to Ko<pivLyqla'W 'VaPla."

!Je (tv-deEO"ll .J.!€. tOl)~ npA.t1:10~LO{l~ nou m~plyp<i'V(tf.l.eOt KUWIKOl tmv (11).LepwWv A1J,lVo:irov 1tourovtX01JV ,.!I::'tClq>spel La onhta 1:0l)~ an6 "to vspo cr«; oxBe<; Kat out; nA.ayti:.t; "t11<;A.i).LvTj<;, ayttcrtpe<pov'tac; fl.E Clmo tOV tP07tO T11 napana.vro oXi:.oll rcOA11t; 1)1taWpOl). Lnl'raKta al!<ptee~:npllCa x;ttO!-LEvfLit airAro~lEva ytava aYKaAHloonv tt<; Ka).L1t1.'lAe<; tOU t01It01) O"\)vOi:.'t01.)V 'trupa 'to lCataq>uYlo roov avO PW7tWV Tl1~ A[~lYl1<; YLa lotWteUOll Kat OaA1IroPit. (I>ttaY).Leva WUAtOtSpa Ille btl UAiK<l npooi:.«lepe 11M)!Vl) (TCEtPE<;.· KCtAU)!la, ~{)ACt)-a<; OU)1l100U)l6 ta KMa961iAex;ta :x,c:opiOllata rcov omnrov tl1t; np€ona~61«ope 1tV1Y~leva ow ll1tStOV, KOt'tat;01.)V oAa npo<; 't1']v i.Sta ).!€ptU 110. va.Ct'tevioollv 'n1\! wpal07Wlllll€V11 to\)~ 1l0P«l11 ctov uoattvo , . 62 Ka8 ~.eq>tll .

61 Ka't(jdSU)pitKll~, r.,1'a
62

1(€i~leva t01) KEvtpm) J(Al]POq}()PljUlls 1"1lt; npeO'~m;:· 1';KO.Etwpia

npoO'taO'im; .

Ilpsomov, Ayl()C;rep~lavO<; 1995

O'W; OXO£<;IUm; 'A1.llVljt;ge cmina 610 BEPUVtEt; tIl Ilia nclvOOornv KaYKeAOml. O'1"110aia roi»; rrpa[3UA.'A.ouv7tav(() ate VEpO. 'Erot 0 ta.;lOlWt11C; ~A£7tEt <pta.vovrac; ouo nOA.etc;:tLiu nou l)IIIWV£WL1l:av(J)O'nl 1.IIL\l11 Ill-U7tOl)WtaVaKA.al"Ul KUL a.vEO'1:pCt~l~Vlr f1£v U1tQrX£t xut Siv O'U!l[3aIVet tbtataO'lll Ilia BaAtpaou nOll I] ill'1 vn !lllv enavala!l~6:v£t, Yla'Ll 11 n61n Otl(oOOIUiOllKe g£ TEtOlO trona wO're l(itO£ tll~ IT1Weio va unopsi va avtavaK1.6;tat 010V KuOpt(jl'tl1tQU Kat £to'l '1 BaA:~pa8a p.eO'a 0'1'0 vzpo n:Epte)(EL OXt uovo o).;:;t;Ut; croA.(lICWO'tlt;K<ll rn CtVaylu(jla tmv npocr6\j1EU)V nOll u\jIO)VOVtaL rrav(() <ITll lilLYl1. a).la a.K0I-lU TO eUu)'t£ptICO tOO\! ooop,ati(J)v ~LE 1:0..tUBaVlU Kat rc nUtwlla1:a, 1"1]" npOOnttKl1T(()V OlaOpOrlu)V TOUt; K'aOpe<j>t£<;cr't~ VtOUACme<;. -o KUOp€Qlt1V;w..N::t; !poPte; (W.;aVEl t11V a';iu tU)VnpanLatWV UA.A.et;tT]V ' apVte-tal. Se» unopouue va nOU~LEnU)e; to KaOe tt nou ILOl~EI va' Xel a';ia nUV(() ttno TOV KaOpecpt11 avT€Xet av KaOp£q>'tlatei. Ot 5iStlps<; nOAEli; OeV elvm [5L£<;, YlCt1:L tinoT(lano aUl"O 7(01) DnOpxet i1 ·U\)JlBaiv£~ oruv Bal'tpit8a aEV £iVai OWlllETJ1IKO:O'e KaOe np6O'{):m:o1] XPPovoFia a:Vtct7tOlcpivOVTUlano rov lw.Opecp'Cl1tva npoO'wno 11 ~io. XelPOVo~l(a a:vemooa, m1l1eio npor; crtll1e.to. Ot 01)0 BaAtpuOet; 'ODV 11 ~t{a yta U1V (O.?.,11, OLt~OV"tat (jl)VEXELaern ~la1:W.,MAit SeV llyamCI1)VtUL" K
&}'.).11Ka.t 0P0!lOUt; \jIl110Ut; nov
tu
If

"Oi naAlOL eX'rlcrav '01 Bahpuoa

Kw..~ivo, I., Ot a6pcttEt; 1t6Ael~, ~L1:«l. A. Aul.avip1le; l:aO'a Ka1toytUVV01L01J/,01J,eK&. 08u(JU€0!;" Afh'lVU E. 1982 .

25

.-J-:

-~

UIOdV1\ 6\j1l) 'tOU OlI{U:r).lO\) TOll rKlaOllO''t{)\".l1tqnl . (mrm: KOUhf:l)." M., H KUOl'lIlf.PlV1l ~(Oi\ Cl''tm)~ lI'JlO'i<l''TlllnK01)~ Y.p{)"011~ (1988»

~.?

/

.! ~

-;;:_

_ _::;-.,,_

-_-,._._

.....

EUVexeio. rcov OtKtCJ~lWV o;utrov ~Lt(J(J; ern )~l~LV11 , £'IIW; KOa~oc; eqnlW:poc; q)'tUln~SvOc;;wrO Kal Ka)ca~LLo. Kat a.nOKOj.t.~EVOC; ano '[11'11 eSSA.tS11, ei.vm 'to; \ll(lpa.OtKa KaA.ufha yvwo"ta (DC; "1teM5eC;". To. Ktl).;uBta am:u cvtmpootoasuouv ~w. u1ta.l8po tp'rltlnlf:v11 'ow vspo 'Yta roue BL01tU/,a.tat£C; "1C; lci~V11C; Kat

~uAo

kU't(lO'·KBua~OV'ta.l

~i.e

'tOY

na.raooO't.aKO tpono. I1uvw oa naA.Olj~ ~lmlY~l£v6uC; usee OtO vspo 'tonoOE;W1Jv' oplsovnu an.oue; naIcO\lC; ylC1 vc OXll~lC1Tiaouv "CO 6a.1CeOO, 1tavw 0' alltOl\C; T01to8f.WllV UIcA.oUC; Ka0ew. Kat 8"{KapolU "Ita vn J3aA.01.)v 'tIl d1:£yll·63 BBiatT] aVtlp,€1:romOil1:0U uv0pWn01.1 CI1t€vavtl aT11 tpl)011 ~picrKtl1:11V uK[Jaia 1:11t;£KtppaO'll GTT]v n6"'1} H eA.A£L\jIl1Kat 0 KaTaKE;PllaLla~l(J(; Tu)V unuiflpLWV Xillpu)\.' npco ivou Kat UVUIjI1lXllC; Ctvayvwpisovto;t Oilj.l&PU WC;EYYEV1l npb011'utatatllC;' 0'1)YXPOV11C; n:6111t;. 'O~OJc;aU'ra 1:CI 1tPOBA11IlU'ta nC1Uouv vn uolctuvrm 0'1:0 ronio 'tllt; lllLVllS. H i&a 1) no)"ll evroccstrn 'twpa ca €.vll sopirrepooucocnxrrnu« lKIlVO vn ~le'(anaO'ac.l~J'(a ~lana. W.lV uvOpooncov t11V eucovc "[']1<;Xa.P(IK'O]PtO''tlK6 n:apaOetnla 11 BlO~L1lXCIVIK11n6)v11 :[e0epO~l1Ia'(Kalc(jj( rtou arroTeA.ciyta rou; ~letaVUd't8<; Ka'tOtK"Ol.lt; fr)i; to'} eniyetO rrctpaoewo. XTtO~tf;Vll 0taO'HKa ern nUpUK'tla 1:11t; Ici~VllS Ba.tK6.111~,'tl1V erroX'l1tO'l) KU'WO'Keua~6tu\1 11 (Jt81lPOOpO~LIK)1 ypa~l~l11 Ba'iKal11c;-A~lot)p, £XEL ~UiOtti va ~11At\jlct 08 a.O'!dl~ta (Ino 'nc; u1t6i,OlTIeS Blo~nlxavlKtc; iolcLc; 'tIV; Pwaidc;. 01 epyun'Kec; KarolKl8S rrou U\ll~VOV'tat rUpc.o 1:OV a1811Po8pO~LL1(6 (nap~LO 'SXO'llV t11 ouva1:0't1l1:a vc

oev

='.

26
cneyaaouv eva JlOVO JJ£PO~eeov 30000 Ka'toiKOOv. Ot U7tOA.oUtOta7tO<pacnoJlevot va 7tapaJlf:ivouv yta va JleyaArooouv 'ta 1tatOta rou; Otl~ OX9E~ 't11~ tEPtl~ :UJlVll~, ~ouv JlEOa OE JlE'taKa'taoK£UaOJleva ~a'Yovta i} ~\)A.tva 7tapa1tll'YJla'ta. l:'t11 A.iJlVll BatKaA.11 7tapa't11pEi'tat E7ti0l1~ 'to XEqlc.Ova eva EibO~ 1tpooooPtviJ~ JlE'toiKtOTJ~ an6 'tou~ \jIapoo~ 'toov 1tapaK'ttC.Ov xcopt.ci>v JlEOa ornv 1ta'YCl)JlEVll A.1JlVll. E1tEtOtl tOY XEtJlc.Ova rn \jIapta 'totJ.l7tllvf: KaA.u'tf:pa, KoV'ta o'tou~ 7tf:pi7tO'll 40 7tapaK'ttOlJ~ OtKtOJlO\)~ i} aKOJl11 Kat O't11 JlEOTJ'tOU 1tO'UeEVa ~eq)1)tpc.Ovouv 1tpOXEtpa qma'YJlevE~ \jIapOKaA.U~E~. AU'tE~ ot KaA.\)~E~ WtO'tEA.oUV JlE'ta<pf:pOJlEVou~ OtKtOJloU~, 't11v Ka'totKia 'tOOV7tpooooptva VOJlabOOV KatoiKOOV 't11~ :UJlVll~, 7tOU txoV'ta~ 'Yta t01tio neptit'YTJOTJ~, avti 'Yta 't11 O'tE1ta 't117ta'YCOJlEVllA.lJlVll, avat;;11'touv 't11V 'tpo<pi} Of: tpUne~ JlEaa orov 7to.'YO. L\ta~at;;oV'ta~ A.ot7t0V 'tOY A.tJlvaio Xc.Opo Kat 'tOU~ Ka'toiKOl.)~ ron, ~A.bro\)Jlf: Of: Ol..ec; a\)'t&~ 't~ neputtc.OaE~ mv A.iJlVll va EK<ppat;;E'tat 1tOA.\)Jlop<pa OE 0XE0l1 JlE 'tOY av9pco7t0. AEttOUPYEi E7tclvCO 'tOU 1tpoa'ta't£U'ttKo. Kat t;;cooyova. Aet'tO'llpyEi cov <ptA.'tpo a7tevavtl orouc e~OO'teptKoU~ KtVbUVO'll~ aA.A.a Kat cev neola Ota<p6pcov opaO't11P10ttl'tCOV 'tOU (\jIo.PE~la, KaA.A.tEpyEtE~). Ta i}pEJla vepc 't11~ A.iJlVll~ 'YaA.i}vta Kat "E~JlEPCOJleva" A.et'tOUpyO\lV Ka'tEllVaottKa KaA.c.OV'ta~ 'tOY av9pco7tO va oOJlitoet otov nep$aA.A.oV'ta Xc.Opo 'tOU~ 'toy 01K6 ton 7toA.mo~16, 't11V Ot1<11tou 7tp6'taOTJ. Tn A.et'toupyia (ll)ttl ron VEPOU sivrn OK07tlJlO va t11V e1ttot.ci>KoWle Kat va t11V OtEKOU(QUJlE O'tOV oxeotaOJlO orov cvcqispoucors 0't0 Jlo.A.A.oV~Exa(JJlevo apXlteK'tOV1Ka 7te010-tll A.iJlV11.

To VEPO Kalll1tOAll
rSVIKa
A<poU ava<pepei}KaJle 7tc.O~ E7tlOpa 'to vepo ocv OlwaVttKO 0'tOtxe10 JlEO' rnv 7t6A.11OK67tlJlo ea ittave va bOUJlE 7tc.O~ aVttJlE'tomit;;ouJle 'to vspo Ott~ mo a<pavtl~ JlOP<PE~ron. Mopee; 7tOU bEV Jl1tOpoUve va E1tllpeaoouve rnv KOtVCOVt1<11 ouvecnxornru tl1~ 7t6A.11~Kat' apxiJv, aA.m 7tOU ea Jl7tOpoUoave va crllJl~aA.A.O'Uve ce Jlta 7tt9avov Ota<popettKl1 aVtt~letc.01tt011 tll~ 7t0A.11~. Ta aOttKa UbpallA.tKa £pya btaKpivovtat oe l)bPEllttKo. Kat a7tOXetEllttKa. Ta 1tpc.Ota e~ao<paA.it;;o\)v 't11 0-6Mll'll1l xm rnv aCHraA.11 ~lEta<popu tou KatUA.A.11A.oUVEP01) ore OTJJlEia Ka'taVo.A.rocri}~ ron 'Yta E~t 7tapaOOataKE~ xplioEt~. Ot 0\)0 7tpc.Ote~ (1t60t~IO VEPO Kat Jla'YeipEJla) eivat Kat t;;COttKE~'Yla 't11v E7tl~ico011 ton av9pc.07tO'll, ot o.A.A.E~ rpsu; (Ka9apt6tl1ta 1tapa'YCOYtKE~ opaO't11pt6't11t~ OllJlOttK£~ xpi}oE~) KaA.\l7ttOuV 7tOA.mOttKE~ Kat ava7ttl)~taK£~ ava'YKE<;, Kat 11 tEA.eu'taia xpi}OTJ yta nuponpocrccic. Ta norucc a7tOXE'tEllttKa BPYU BXOW ot6xo tll crllA.A.oytl Kat JlE'ta<popa tCOV A.UJlatcov Kat nov 6~l~Pt.ffiV vsprov 'tOOV conxrov 7tEPtOXc.OVtco~ 'to onueio blaeecri}«; 'to'U<;64.

H I..El'To1)pyia
avOpW1tot>

'T(oV t>Opat>A1KWv

EP'YO>V

O"TT)V KOlVO>V1KT) EK<ppaaT)

TOt>

"Ta uopcruA.1KaEPYUtltav to OEtYtEPO 01tOUOooo'tll'ta ~IEPO~ OE t11~ 01HlLoupyl1d1~001JA.el~ tOU av9pcil1tou. npttrJlatt, av xpWt1] <ppovtiou l1tav 11 KU't0XUPWO"I1lli~ criyOUP11~cr'ttY'l~, OEU'tEPT] Kat E~ioou rutapal...,..., t'Jtav 11E~ao<pw..tO"ll'tOU 1tOO"l~IOU1!OU apOEUtlK01) VEPOU,OE 01JVOUUO~IO tT]V 1tpootacria 1 JlE tOU rut' nc; 7tA.T]JlJlUPE<;."

64KO'll'tO'oyt6.vvT]~ A.,-Eav901tOuAot;, 0.,TEXVlK11 YOpoAoyia,EKO. EOV1KOMEWOP10 TIOAlJ'tE),),Eio, A9t'Jvu

1996
6S

Eav961touA.o<;, e.I., L\laxeipl0'11 uoa'ttKWV 1tOpcov: OECOrl1l'tl1Ce<; eA.1tiO€<; at OEaA.lO'tUo11tPOGEY'YlO"ll, K Iuveoplo rou TEE.-TJltlJluKevtPllCllt;!Coo AU'tlK11t;0ecrO'aA.i~, Aaptoa, NOE~I~PtOC; 996 1

27
H owxciptOTJ eeov UOattKcOV 1t6pwV, ei;attiac; tOW teXVtKcOVtllC; rutattitaewv eviaxue wt6 ta l3a9l'J tCOVatci>vcov ouvepyattKee;, av OXt Ol'Jl.lOatec; !.lopcpec; ayponK'itc; owxeiptOl'Je;. I:tOV apxaio KOaJ.lO, evav KOa!.lO 1WU eiXe KA.l'JpovOJ.lTJaet rnv 7tapaOOo11 tfJC; KOtVCOVtK'itc; tOt0KtfJaiac; tfJe; YllC;Kat tfJe; oulJ..oytK'ite; opyavcoOl'Je; tfJe; epyaaiae;, uin xorvcovic l3ama!.lEv11 cmv apoet>Ol'J owtfJpouae avaYKaattKa otOtXeia wt6 rnv apxai:K'it OOJ.lTJnov CPUM:ttKcOVO~laowv Kat nov cpuA.ci>v,av Kat J.leaa a' eva ei;atpettKa ouYKevtpronKO KpatlKO 7tAaioto. 0 Kpiorooep Nroouoov 7tapatfJpei "H J.letatponiJ tfJC; ~oUyKAae; Kat tCOV j3aAtWV tfJC; 7tpoiatoptK'itc; KOtAaOae; anc; 7tWuotee; cputeiec; ottfJpcOv, 1WU eKavav mv AiYU7ttO to 9at)J.la ron KOOJ.lOl) E7tttetlx911Ke J.lOVOJ.leta a7t6 atci>vee; oulJ..oytK'ite;, ouVtOVt0J.lEvfJe; 7tpo07tagelae;. H et)l'J!.lepia tfJe; XcOpae; Ssv e~aptatal wt6 rnv epyanKOtfJta tOU ueuoveousvou XWPlKOU xm tfJe; OlKoyeveiae; rou, 67tCOe;ane; j36petec; XcOpee;, aU.a wt6 mv opyavcol.lEvfJ epyaaia ore apOetltlKa cppaYJ.lata Kat uno rn YOVlJ.l07tOtl'JttKa vepa tCOVetTJatrov 7tAl'JJ.lJ.lUpwv,ytati l'J Yl'J a7t6 J.lOVl1tfJe; eivrn aXPl'Jotll xwpiC; to vspo 7tOU7tpoJ.ll'J9eUet o NeiAoe; Kal ru apoet>tlKa KavaAla. A7to rou; mo apxaiouc; xpovoue;, 11 !.letpl'JOl'J tCOV 7tAl'JJ.l!.luprov tOU Nsisou Kat 11 auvtitp11a11 tWV apOetlttKWV i:pywv umlP~e to 7tprotapX\Ko Ka9TJKOV Kaee atyu7ttwK'ite; KUj3epVl1011C;.To apxaio Arynmunco £rOC; apXll~e ane; 19 Iouciou, tfJ J.lepa 1WU l'J 7tAl'JJ.lJ.lupa ecptave KOVta at11V Ke(jlaA11 tou ~i:Ata Kat TJ011 a7to mv e7tOXIl tfJe; npffitfJc; Auvaa'teiac; l'J etitota cpop0Aoyia KaOopil;ov-rav oll~lcpwva J.le tfJ ataElJ.l11 tOU 7tOtaJ.l0U, ytati l'J wt6000l'J tfJe; e7t6J.lEVllC;ouYK0J.l1011e;e~apnotav a7tOAUta coto evov "KaA.6" Neiso .. .Erot, l'J ouvaJ.ll'J 1WU pu0J.l«;;el Kat iAi:rxel rnv 7tA1ULJ.ll)pa sivct 0 Kt)plOe; tll<; SW11C; at tfJe; lOtoKtfJoiae; K oA.6KA.l'JpOUtOU 7tAl'J9uaJ.loU, Kat l'J aPX'l tl'Je; U7toXPEWttKllC; epyaoiac; -11 ayyapeia7tOU aAAoU eJ.lcpav«;;etat ccv 'rupawtK'it Kata7tatfJOl'J nov OlKatWJ.latCOv tOU nto uou , sivut crnv AiYU7tto a7tapaitfJtfJ 7tpoU7t6geOl'J OAOKAl'Jpl'JC; OlKOV0J.llK11e; tfJe; I;W11<;. ,,66 Mnopouue va 7tOuJ.le wt7t6v Ott ru l)OpaUAlKa epya 0l1!.lato06t11aav t11 ava7ttt)~l'J tfJe; OOJ.lTJe; tOU Opy:.tVWJ.lEvOU7tOAl'ttaJ.lOu. Oecv 0 avOpW7tOC; unopouos va eXet 117tOt11V e~Ol)aia rou to vspo J.l7tOpoUae J.leta va Souei tOY 7tOAltla!.lO rou 7taVW a' onro. Xnpmcmptcnxo sivut Ott o"-ot oi 7tOAlttaJ.loi 7tOU avalaav Kata tfJ olapKela tfJe; toropicc eixav va e7tloei~ouv a11J.laVnKO epyo ctov 'toJ.lea mrrov. I:av 7tpffitfJ rrepiooo aK~lllC; I.l7tOpOll~le va otaKpivoul.le a7tO to 2000 7t.x. ta uopauAtKa epya ornv Ilepoia, crnv AiYl)7tto, ot11V Kiva Kat O'tl'JV Kpnm. Ta 7tpcO'ta OUOtfJJ.lattKa epya J.ltKpTJe; KAtJ.laKae; euocvicmxcv cmv Afhlva (Ilsiciorpcroc) Kata mv av9tOl'J tfJC; daotK'itc; arxatoeM11VtK'ite; 7tepl0001)67. Oi Pcounioi e7tio11C;KataoKeUaaav oe OAl'Jmv curoxperopic ton; J.l£yaAl'Je;KAiJ.laKae; UOpetltlKa epya, e~aocpaA.il;ovtae; 1l7tOOelYJ.lanKee; yta rnv E7tOXll tOUe; ouv9iJKee; uytetvi]e; xm Ka9aplOt11tae;68. H cxorswn 7tepioooe; tOU Msoukovc xapaKtfJpiotfJKe a7t6 J.l£yaAl'J 07tlOeOOpO~1l1011 otov rouse tCOV1lopauAlKwv epycov us (JUve7teta ttc; J.l£yaM:e; e7tlOl'JJ.liee;Kal rnv ava7ttt)~taK'it Kat 7toAl'tlattKll KatappetlO11H AvayEvV11Ol'J ern AuOl'J eeeoe t11 j3a011 Yla t11 ava7ttu~l1 tWV \IOpaUAlKwv EpyCOV. I:tfJV avamu~l'J Kat rnv OOJ.lti reov epycov aUtWv ot11PixOllKe 0 ollyxpOVOe; 7tOAttlaJ.lOe;, J.liae; Kat ru UOpatlAtKa epya E1tE'tpe\jlav rnv 7tUKVWOll tllC; OO!.l11e;tlle; xorvorvice; Me rnv XPtiOl'J tCOV

Dawson, Ch., The Age of Gods, eKo. Seed and Ward, London 1934 6701 arxai01 KarotK01 'tllC; A9~v~ XPTJ01~101t010UUa:v m uopeuUll rou; uopayroyeia 1tTJyte;; xm y oJ.1~pootlCte<;. nollai ax6 toue; teA.eutaiOlle;; ll1tIlrXOllV UTI1V1teplOX11tIle;; m.aK~ svco tXOllV ~pe9ei arKetoi A.~et>J.ttv0l utOUC;7tp01tooee;;nc; nvUK~. ~TI1V Ilvusn e1ticr11e;; ZXel ~peOei Kat tva uopayroyeio 1tOUgewpeitat on elva1 ax6 ta arxa10tepa tIle;;AOljVac;;.
66

Ayy£161tollAo<;' r., Ka-raU1(£1l11 yewypacpuOle;; ~aU11e;;O£OOllZVWVrou llbPOOO"tlKOl) (JUu-rlUla-roe;;'tlle;; A9~v~., A9~va 1997
68

0 Bltp06~loe;; ypacpovt~ 'to 1tPWtO ypax-r6 Kei~levo Yla rnv apxtt£lCtOVtK117tepi1tOll to 25 1t.x. 1tEpteixe cs CX\Yt6011ylec;;yta 'tllv Kat<lUKet>ll ayroywv, oe~a~LEvwv Kat 110paywyeiwv. ~-ro ~l~A.iOCX\YtO:vw:ptP£1 0 a 6n .....a arOJ1a 1t01l 1talpVOllV vspo Yla to cntn rou; va ~011001)V us mv 1tA.l1PW~111 <pOPWVU'tl1 t tWV cruVtTU>llOll trov tpywv "(la tTl flCtU<popa tOU vspou."

Vitruvios, ~eKa ~l~A.ia, J.1tcp.I:teA.tOe;X. Zeptcp6~, eKO. ilapatllPl1tlle;;

28 uopauA.1.KooV epycov Ka'tacpepe 0 av8pco1tOe; vn unopst va ~et os 7tOA.UlleyaA.ee; <JUYKevtpOOoetc; ava emcpcivew eoacpou~ Kat va ~et aocpaA.ci>e;, eXov'tae; 'to a7tapaiTll'to VEPO l)OpEl)<Jl')e;, xcopic; va Ex_et 'tOY cpof30 rcov emo11l.uooV. BA.E1tOulle A.ot7tOvta a<J'ttKcl uOpa'llA.tKcl epya va a7toteA.ol)v Eva lleyaA.o A.ettO'llPYtKO llepOe; TIle; pcl<Jl')e; TIle; KOtVCOVUcTte; OIlTte; evro 11 OtEKOiK11<Jl') ron OUVOA.oU TIle; Kotvcoviae;, sivrn va O a1tOA.aIlPcivouv OA.ot 'ta OCPU.11 'to'lle;. Av u1t08eoouJ.I.E on yevtKa eXet 1tA.T]pC08EiT] 1tpol)1to8EOT] on to mlVOA.o rou 1tA.T]euoIlOU oe IlW J.I.E<Jl')7tOA.T] aUYX,POvou KOOIlOU Ilae; a1tOA.allBavet au'tcl rc ocpu.T] a~i~et va e~e'tclooulls 'tOY rou 'tp01tO IlS 'tOY 01tOW yivs'tat au'to. • YOpeUoetc;. H l)OpSU<Jl') 0TllV 7tOA.T] t aUtci>e; 'to oiKn)o poTte; \)7tO 7tieOT], Ka'ta Ba<Jl') unopouue va 1tO\)lle on T av'ttKa8t<J'ta 'to vepo rcov 1tT]yoov, 'to Ka8apo ~cooyovo vspo. H aVttKatclo'ta<Jl') auti) yive'tat Tt1tta, xcopic; vc 7tpooJ3ciUet rnv cpu<Jl') rou Kat 'tT]V A.et'tOllpyia yta TIlV onoiu eivrn 'taYIlEvo 'to vepo curo. Fin rnv at08T]nKi) rcov \)Opat)A.tKooV rmrdrv ouornucnov ea Ilae; 7tEt 0 KaA.pivo "To yeyovoe; sivrn 7tCOe; 7tOA.T] ev exst 'toixo'lle; ours 7ta'toollata oev eXEt rbtorn non va mv KclVSt va T] o 1l0tcl~St ue 7tOA.T] K'tOe; a1t6 'ttc; OCOA.11VooOEte; VSP01), non '\l\j1ooVOVtat KaeEta sxsi onou e1tpS7tS S rou va sivui rc 07ti'tw Kat otaKA.aoi~oV'tat Opt~ovtta sxsi onou e7tpE7tE va eivm ta 1ta'tOOlla'ta, Eva Ociooe; a7tO OCOA.Ttvse; 1tOU Ka'taA.Ttyouv cs Bpl)ose;, KatatcoVll0't11PEe;, um:pXEtA.t<Jtee;. Avtixpu orov onpevo ao1tpi~st Kcl1tOtOe;vurnlpae; it ll7taVtepa it aUse; cpaytEvtOEe;, onv O\jltlla CPPou'ta nou a7tOIlEtvav KPEJ.laOIlEva ere KA.aOta.... 07tOtCl01l7tOtE annUl Ol1KWVOVtae; rn ~uinCl 00\) cvcueou o'ttc; OcoA.T]voooetc;, oev eivm <J1tclVtOva otaKpivete; Ilia 11 xeptccorsps; veee; yuvaiKee;, A.e1t'tee;, IltKpOKallcoIlEvSe;..... 'Exco Ka'taA.it~et cmv e~ite; epunveic. Ta psuunrn 'tOU vspou 1tOU OtOXEteUov'tat J.leoa a1to 'ttc; OcoA.T]voooete;eXouv ncpausive; 0't11v Katoxi) tCOV vu IlCPoov Kat 'tOW vatci&.ov. I:UVT]etOIlEvSe; v' aveBaivouv ne; ll7toyetee; cpA.eBee;, ittav e\)KOA.o yt' aU'tee; va etoxcoPTtoouv <J't0 Katvo'UpytO uOcittvo BaoiA.elo, va ~e7t1101l00UV uno 7toUa7tA.ee; 1t11yee;,va Bpoov xmvouptot»; Ka8pecp'tec;, KatVOUpta 1tatxviOla va Xaipov'tat to vepo.... aU'tee; Ot IltKpee; KUpiee; 'toopa 1l0tci~ouv suXapto'tT]J.LEvee;, 'to npcoi tte; aKolle; va tpayouOclve. ,,69 • A1tOXEteUoetc;. H <Jl')llaoia rcov epycov MOXe'tElI(J11e; yta 'tT] 011lloma \)yeia Kat 'to e7ti1tsoo ~coite; o'tte; aOttKee; 1teptOXee; sivut oxsoov uutovorrn]. I:e 1tSptOXee; xcopie; Sixruc a7t0XEtWOlle; A.'llllcltCOV 1tapaTllpei'tat pU1tav<Jl') ron eoacpoue; Kat rcov 'll7toyeicov Kat emqmveiuxtov l)OpOCPOPECOV,e~lcpclVtOll OOJ.LOOV e~at'tiae; reov <Jl')1t'ttKooV <JUVST]KooVtCOV BOOPOA.'I~lcltWV, Kat OmU0l1pYOllVtat KivouvOt yta 'tT] OT]IlOOW uyeia70• AV'ti<J'tOtXa os 1tepwxte; 1t0\) !..ernEt Eva a1toteA.eOllanKo Sixruo Cl1tOxe'tSU<Jl')e; OJ.lJ3ptcoV, cs KaSe Ka'tatyioa Ot 0POIlOt uerctpsnovrm os psuuru, 7tapaA.llet 11 KivT]oT] Kat T] ~coit, 7tA.T)J.lJ.lUp~OUV au'toKiVT]'ta Kat O1ti'tta Kat 1tOUEe; oope; XclVOV'tat Kat avepoomvee; ~coee;71.

6~w.~ivo, I., Ot a6paw; A9i)va 1982

1tOA.eU;,~l'rcp. E. A. AO')"avi01]e; kaO'a Kcotojurvvoxousou,

eKO. OouO'O'eru;,

7°0 Chadwick opallatil;ovrav rnv 1t0),,11we; eva K01VWV1KO 'w~la oxou to VEPO npe1tet va KUKAoCPOPEi O OtapK~ Kat xpe1tet va mv eYKataJ..ei1te1 we; ~PWlllKO wtOPp1l1l1a. A01aKOnCl, to VEPO 1tpe1tet va KUKAocpOpeiJItO'a ornv 1t6).11 Yla va 't11VKaOapil;et wto tOV 10PWtCl, tu O'Kou1ti01a tu; eKKpiO'eu; 'tIlC;.'00'0 1tl0 ouvati)eivCl'l 11 poi) 'tOU, tOO'O 1tlO nA.oUO'la Kat uyu)C; sivrn 1] nO)"l]. Av to vepo OEV KUKAocpopei aOtaK01ta JIt(Ja ernv 1tO).l1, ellv 11 1t0),,11oev uoPOOoteitat Kat o£V wtOX,Et£U£1:at, 0 x,wpOC; OxWC; 0 Chadwick 'tOY<pavta.l;6tav, ).tllvOl;et xm O'wtil;El. Chadwick, E., The heath of nations, eKo. Richardson
R.W., vol 2, London 1887

71KOU't(Joytavv"c;, 6.., kxeOtOOIl0C; aO'tlKWV OU(T\)WVwtoxeteU0'11C;. eKo. E9vtKO Meroofho no).utexvelo A9i)va 1993

29
To XroPlOUKO oiKTUo,n TOU oxoiou T] KamO"K£UTJ £XEt E7ttKpm:ijo"Et O"TOVcrllYXPOVOKOO"Il0 llaC; oivE1 TT]v rrOA.UT£} 1a va unopouus va uvnnstronioouus ..E tu o~lBpta l)Oam ~EXCOpto"TUuno tu aKcl8ap-ra. TT]v rrOA.UTf:A.etaauTij O~ICOC; YEY1KUOEY T'lV £xm)~IE a~lOrrOtijo"Et. AVTi va OEXOllaO"tE KaT' sA.clXtato ulc ijma £K<ppatJT] ron VEPOll O"TI1V 1t0A.T]a\'ai;;rrrUIlE ~IOVOTll 1tpoO"mx9Eta KUA;UljlijC; tOU. Avri Yla va 1tpoO"rra80UJ.l.Eva KaA.l1mo\l~IE TO vepo Ha l']TaV o"K01tl~LO Kam<p£pVaJ.l.e va TO va KUVOUlle va A.eItOupyi]aet zotonxn aUa Kat i;;cooyova ~IEO"aOTI1\' ITOA.11. IOtaiTepT] ioroptxc 1tepimcoaT] a1tOTeA.OllV tu 110paUA.tKU €pya t'lC; ITOA.llC; llC; KVCOO"011 H T 73. OtOX£TWcrT)tOU vspou TllC;Bpo:oic; tCOVavucropcov yivetat Oi1tAa cno uin aKuAa. ~Tll uin ITA.WPU tT]C; KA.iJ.l.aKac;EXOUVKclvel tva IltKp6 Oxeto, nou 0 1tUTOe;TOll bEY aKoAou8Ei tT]V KAiO"ll tT]C; dillaKac;, 01tCOC; £Kave tvac; ouuepwoc n;xviT'K 0 ~ttvU)lK6e; UOPal)A1KOe; mo EmO"TlWOVt1(OC; ea eixe rrapaKoA.ou8ijaet tT] POft TOU vspou t'le; PPOX11C;cru; ITA.aYltc; TOU aITtvavTl B01.JVOU,ITOU a:owa.tl~e IlIKpoUC; p'UaKsc;. Tnv llPe~lT] POll tCOVPUUKCOV EKelVCOV ~tt~ITJf)'lKav Ot apxttf:KTOVSe; tT]C; Kvcocou Kat Otall6p<prooav TOV 1tllElJ.l.tva TOU 0XEWl) ourou cs 1tapaBOA.tK£C; KallrrUAEC;. ~ttC; rrapaPOA.IKtc; KallrrUA.ec; m)~aVOTUV T] tpa;oh'lTC£ TT]C;P011~; Kat m8avov vo EIl<paVtt;OVtouoav glKpcl UOpauA.tKcl clA.J.l.ata. ME tOV rpono auto to VEPO f:xaVE ~ltpOC; t11C;SV€pywxe; TOU Kal €TpeXe ftPsJ.l.a KSA.apU~ovTac;. Av OEY ,),lV6tav cure to vspo (-Ja eTpexe ue op~tli ITOUea lleyUA.rove 00"0 Kate~atVe OT]J.l.toupywvtac; IToA.A.arrA.a 1tpoBA.'hlClTa aTO O"\)VOA.O ron oucnuurro; t60"0 AC:ItOupyIKa, oSuvcuic aUa')'llC; KaTell(luVO"llC; CHIC; Y(J.)\'ieC; t'lC; 0"KUJ..aC; Bpe~t~lO rtov O"KaAOrrattWv, ooo Kat m8avwv atO"()'ltIKU a<poll '1 sucovu TOU 1ipe~LO\l vspou eKqJput;Et TUKTtKll KlVT]tJT]EYW '1 OPIlT]'tlKll KiVT]011 rou vspou OeiXVEt O"UVOA.lK11 aTU~ia rron mf)avov va ~l'lv rou; clpeac:74. Fie KaElapil;oVtat La BpW~llKa VEpU elXav KataO'K£Uclaet ltAal ern aKaAa gtKptC; Oe~aIlEYtc; Ka8i~1ltJT]C; anc; onoie; OtoXETe1l0TaV to tPEX01)p.EVO vspo UqJ,'1ve r«; ~tvEe; llAee; nou ltape:aspvs Kat llPEj.l6tspo Kat Kaeap6tEPO, ~tEta a1to UltEPXElA.t0"l1,O"wtXtt;E T'l POll rou.

ii~:~; ::';'>1
&f,I..OW

TO PIIfSVMID TA"K

/'

~

:~\~~f!~l~R~L:t':~~T~~ ;
""R'O~'S

.rc ALE

~~~

__ +-__ ~f

~y...at.OII'III.YN""~

I I A ~-IL-~

S

A1tOX£'TWTlKOL ayroyOL O'TT]" K"(OO'II(m\Yl,: Evans, A., The palace of Minos, 1964)

72XcoptcrnK6 8iK't1)0 O1t0XETeUcrT]C; TO 8iKTDOKUTa TO oxoio TU 0ll[)PlU Kat Atlle O1t0XETEUOWlEIE~EXWPtcrTOUC; ~ uywyOUC;YIUTOKaOe EVU.
74 H KlVTJcr1] tOU VEPOU ototx; 1lV00xTOUe; ywyol)C; orov a 1tp6~A.l]pu TIle; ruP~WOOllC; pOl']<;.H rupBW011C;POl'1 sivm llV1:tutcr011TlKll·

TU

UKaOapTU u8uTU Ta

13Evans. A.. The palace of Minos. vol 3. eK8. Biblo and T81111cn. New York city 19G4
UlJT1']

POl']

yiverm 8in),a O'E KUtOtKiEe;evex.et TO zou ltpoKw,d 06pu[30 KUt ElVUt cru<pWC;

30 nOOO llEYaAlJ ourozic Sa an01:EA01JOC:vn 8lEK81KOlloa~lE Yla "'Clla\lyxpoV1l (CJJl1 ~I.a rsroin ~oPQlil anox,E'tsunKou oucruou. Mic mlyxpoV11 £Krppaall mm1e; T11e; npoona0Elae;, 1:11e; pOlie; TIle; anox,e.'tsu011C; trov O~ppt.(Dv uSaTWV ~li;oa ano 8I.K't\)0 avotxr:wv aywywv £xEt yiVEl OT11v nOAU1:eXVEtOunOAll Zwypa.rpOll. 0 Bel;;llpoyAOU 0"1:0 oXE81aO~lo 1WU rrporeive ytn rov Xwpo, TOY ovnuenomce ocv repccno 1tapKO Kat npoona011oE va yiVEl hat rocre vc EIC~E'ta1Asu.Ei 000 unopouce La o<ps111 TOl) vspou (11).ltoUpywvwe; 000 ~1tOpOl)OE 8o~£e; ouopqxov ol1J.tooiwv xwpwv. BE~airoc; 'to nOAU'tEXVEio ocv oll~l6crtoC; 0llyavl0J.t6e; xwpie; Tl1V cotcpcirrrrr; E11at08110ia bev EK~e'talJ.zU'tl]Ke rov oxdhaop.6 curov Kat apKEtSC; rpoptc; aU.a~E 11 xa1aoE tIl OO~t11 ron. ESw O~Ci)(;a~iI;;et vn E~ETa.ooWle nWC; A..<::LToupyEl all~l£pa Kat nwe; 0a ~L1tOPO\)OEva AEl10UpyEi cv eixe ecpa.p).locrEld 1tAilpwc; oro o"0v010 0 apX1K6c; oXEOWOJ.toe; rou. 1:£ arKEra cuusic ,.l1tOpOU~E vc avayvropioovw: ubpau1tKb; Ka.WOK£UEC; TIOll £rpllP).looa.v oi Mi.vWE<; onwc; rla. 1ta.p6:8elr~a napaBaluce.c; Ka).lmller; orov 0XETO Sinl,a. ana ruv GKa1a aUa xct 8E~aW;VEe; lCaEhl;;110ewV. Avt:irpa.O"l] ztou 1tapa'tl]p01)~E ouo»; sivui on 0 oXE5l(1cr~lOC;crnv Baall rou VEPOl) KenO. Kl)P10 )"6yo stvm yta va btEKOtKei to an:01:£1Ecr~a. 1:0U 011Aa01, TO npcotvo. Eoci) eivrn E~lrpaVl,e; 11 anouoia'tl]C; zpovotn; 'rOU n01mExvelOl) ~Lt(l(; KaL 01:0V 'tO~18a mHOV evw Elxav 1tpoJ)4q>flet 1to110i X,WpOl 1tPa.OWOU Kat J.taAtOLa e~lq)(lVEi.C; Kat I;;WOyOVOL, £X£l 1tapa~IEJ,110Ei 11 Ka'ta.OKSUll roue. A1tot€4ojla autou sivci TO ~LEPOC; zou OVOp.a.I;;EWl"KEV1:PO1:11SnO},UteXYEtOll1tol11S" vu ~lllV EXEL a~t07tOtlled mJ).lrpUlVU ).le US OUVa1:6t111:EC; 1(01) EXEt.

.I

f

t
/

I
r. -

I
1)h(LT(I)V

A1toxsn.'l)'tumi uyw')'oi 0IlPPlW\1

T11e;nO).lJ't!:XvUOil1toJ.lle;

Z(I)ypi'upm) (PW't. K. I1sv~CJ11)

Me

1:0 n;apaO€ty~a 0.1)'.0 vivertn nporpavES on otuv OXEOla.SOl.l~lE ro vspo 0 oXE8taO~lOe; ~las yiVEtCll1tEPlLt6s Kat ovouotoc uv OD' OEXO~la01:£ rnv xupio»; yOV1~101Wll1tL1C11 Ql1)0"l1 ron vspou.

w:

Te1tKCt 11 E).lq>uV1ie;ci.1touoia 't01) VEP01) 01:11" n0111 11 sotco (HOlle; napa~lEA11~li:vous 011llomou<; xropouc; 'tl]C; sivm 11 anCtVtl1al1 T01.1 011~lEpa am cr1:OlXela 1:11e;Ql\)011e;· To vspo KaTaA11yeL ouv ~vl1~1l 1:0'1.1 Xffipol.l, nou rpa.tVE1:at uno La \1111),0.b£V'tpa OPLGfL£V(J)VOpO~LWVKat tl1V napa.~EVa. a.ypta 131acrt11011nou UVann)00EWl OLn}.u crt nutouc. 0 OrOflOe; aULoe; OWJ)e; nptv vivs; Op6~lOS • • 75 nrnv peuc, AUTO 1t0\) I3)"E1tOlljlE, rtou SOl)IlE cr1:11" Ka01HlEpLVOtlrCo. flUS sivrn 11 uywvia rrnv O!OlXEiwv vc q>avEpm80uv Kat 11 Kata1tCL'tllO"ll rcov 80~lWV 1011 XWpOll. A~iC,El },om6v nprv K4i00l.)~LE 10

75

Fur 1tap6.0El'Y~la 11A£w<p6poC; loxcyou I

(HO

011110 Zwyp6.rpou.

31 KtCPClA.Cll0utO ~etaOOUJ.lt a J.lf:tOUe; xropoue;.
tTl OXeOTJtOOVPUO"lKWVatOlXeimv (vspo, 'Y'l, aepae;)
76

os O'UvaptTJOTJ

Ta paaucci (J't'OlXSla Kal

01

XropOl

'000 Ka1 va em9uJ.lC)"UJ.lf: a ~0l)J.lf: os xounc a1tO~eVOOJ.levOla7t6 tOY neptf3aA.A.ovta xropo J.lue; oev v sivrn ouvato va a1tOlC'tiJaOUJ.lt avapro7t1Vl1 ucpij xoopie; va eXOUJ.le KaJ.lia £7tacpij J.lt tTl cpUOTJ. 0 Touw(3u, OtT)v KP1t1lCl'J tOU y1a tOY oll'YJCPOVO Eupoo7talKO 7tOAmaJ.lO nep1ypacpt1 tOY IIa7taAavylCl, OT]A.aOi]tOY Eupol7talO, va xurotxei ouv to J.lUOl a' eva OKAT]pOKapoun BAt7tel on autOl 1tOU ~ouv OtT) cpu01") Kat tpya~Ovta1 os antiJ avt1J.letOOm~ovtat we; 1tOAitec; oeUttptte; KatTIyopiue;. Msvouue us tTIv a1tOpia y1a to Kata 7t000 J.l7tOpOl)J.le Ka1 7tpe7tt1 tJ.ltic; va a1tOcpeUyouJ.lf: OtT) ~ooi] J.lae; tTl CPUOTJ at av sivui teA1Ka OOOOtOva OOJ.lOlIJ.lesvuv "KaaapO" xropo K x<opic; XroJ.lu, vspo, oMpa. Tnv a7taVtTJ01") aa ~tae; tTl oroatt ~ava 0 Tomapu orov aloaaKtt tOUe; OJ.loCPUA.oUc; Aeyovtac; "tJ.leic; OJ.l<oe;,1tOU eiueore eAfilGtpa 7talOla tOU i]A10U Kat tOU CPOOtOC;, tOU aa uslvouue moroi OtO J.ley<iA.oIlveuuu Kat oev aa tOU (3apUVOl.IJ.lernv Kapola J.lt 7tetptC;. Movo 1taprutAavttJ.levot, app<OatOl aVepOO7tOt 1tOU oev KpataV 7tla to XePl tOU eEOl) J.l1tOPOl)Vva ~ouv elltUXl-oJ.lf:vOt avaJ.lf:oa os 7tttPlvEC; oX10J.laOee; x.oopie;, cp<oc;,VEPO KUl aepu. ,,77 Knpto; AOyOC;1tOU T] ml'YJCPOVI17t6Att EXE1a7to~laKpuv6El a7tO tTl epllaT] eivm T] apVI1criJ tTIC;va eptAo~evti rnv 1tp<Otoyevi] 1tapayffi'Yti usou tTIe;. To vspo a7tOteAei tT]C;paoT] tOU xropou y1a tTl Aettoupyia autiJ. 0 x.apalC'tiJpae; OJ.l<oe;nle; 7t0A.T]C; 7tOU uaxoA.ehat ue tT]V 7tPOOtOyevi] 7tapayffi'Yti J.laA.A.oV~ExaatTIKE Kat KaJ.lia J.lT]tp01tOA11DE\, aoxoAehat 7tAtov ~lE mrm, aepijvovtac; to neola auto va to tKJ.letaUeueouv "pOT]aT]tlKee; 7tOAetC;,,78 Aev extt OJ.l<oe; OTJJ.laoia va t~etaa01.IJ.le eoro av ~exaanlKe Kat ytm:i 0 xapaKtijpac; tTIC; 1tP<OtOYevoUC;1tapayroyiJe; tTIC;7t6A11e;ana a~i~el va E~f,t(laoWlE tt ouunrooorouce 0 x.apaKtijpae; autOe;. 0 Bookhin AtEl "H taOOtEptlCli svornr« tIle; upxaiac; A61ivae; mlYa~el a7t6 avepro1tOUe; taxuroU x.apaKtijpa, 1tOU eixav aJ.leimnl uoookoon ern K01VOOVtKUroue morexo Kat eixav 1tAi]proC; av£7ttUyJ.lf:vtt K01V<OVtK0tTIta E7tEtOij Eix.av ataOepOl)e; OEaJ.lOl)e; ~le tIl 'YT].".79 To s<oOYovo VEPO, to 1tOtaJ.lt, to pualCl, tt AiJ.lVl1,T] Ppolli sivrn '1 (3uml yta mv Aettoupyia autiJ aepou oe autO KaA.oUJ.laote va omooous to OOJ.lT]J.levomn epUO"lKO 7tepl(3UAA.oV7t01.1~T]tUJ.le80.

H 1[111"1 Tl1C; 1[OAl1C;
H OOJ.li] 'tOU s<oOYovou V&pOU,tTIe; 1tT]yiJe;, orouc 0IUlOatOUe; xWp01.Ie; U7tOteA.ollO& KOJ.lf3tKOonueio 0tTIv KOtV<OV1lCl'J rou KaeE ronou, ~<oi] 7~n,V 7tapaypacpo mm1 Oa ayvoi]crowu; to KUpiapxo crtotX€io Kata tOV Hpumtto, rnv q>OO'tt<l, Kat JUac; evw mm1 J.l1topei va axOt&A.&lrnv Bacr11 yta til crUyxpOV11xorvervic, Qlwtta=€vepy€tu, stvm crtotxeio Ka:taatpoqn'Je; <Tt11 "J.l€yaA.l1"tOU eKQlPucr11 orou; xwpOUC;(7tllpICuytec;). 77 TOllt~i1, 0 TIaxw..Uvy1C1,J.1tq>.Kerepiva
1988

I\tCl7ttcr11-Ll111IocrOevl1e; ~ClcrICaAOnO\}A.oe;. 'Y\jItA.oV,AOllva eICCi.

78A~U;Et eow ~ava va avaq>epouJ.l€ t11V epyacria rou <I)UVtlKUK11rnv ozoin, eva ~ttpo~ rou 7t€Ciiol)zou o 01]J.110llpy&itat avuJ.l€cra <Tt11vn6A.ll KUl rnv O<iA.acrcru,un<lpxe1 tvac; xwpoc; 117ttWVKaAA.u;pyetci>vnoll A.&l.toupy&i cov o1]J.16crtoc; xwpoc;. To napaotrw ouv tCilalttpwc; ~toA.oytl A.Ucr11€tcrayooyi]c; t11C; 1tjXlYtoyevoUc;7tapayooyi]c; a€ A.avOavoucra Katucrtacrt1 ornv criJYXPO\,llnOA.1ln]V

79TIpocr1ta9rovtac; va tcroPPOm'Jcr&lmv UcruVtX&lCl <jlUcr11C; criJYXPov11noA.ll0 E.Haoward, ttle; omv 01]J.1lollpyia t11~ lCll7tO\mO/..ll~·

npotetv&

Ap~avnv~ A.-Kocr~uIlCll, T., l:1]J.l€twcr&t~yta ro ~Lu01ULa&lCitKo.Ot!lClta 1toA.&oooJ.1iac;, KO. EOvl1coU & M&tcr6~tou TIo/..U't&XV&iou, AOi]va 1996
80

Bookchin, M., Ta 6pla tTJ~ 1t6A.l1~.J.ltq>.rUIVV11~n<A.apvEtat~11<;, £KO. TIapanlP11ni<;, 0£<J<JaAovtlCll

1996

32 H H£0"11 t11~ KP11V11~, m1Y11~~(J)l1~tOU XWpLOU 11 t11~ n6A,11~ anOtEA,OllaE ruv tOn6(Jll~LO KOtVWVtKl1~ eKcppaGlK Avcospousvoc ornv n6A11 tOU Hpaddou 0 Enavo.K1l~ e~et(iSOVTU~ t11V KP11V11 Mopodv; t11~ anooioet mv tot6t11ta tOU ouocAOll 't11~, H KP11V11U1.1't11 E~EcppaaE Kat avwattKo. t11V tot6t11'to. 't11<;. To OKto.Aw0o avhLa 'tll~ oe~a~lev11<; ocpeiAe'tat H KpTjV'l Mopo~ivl o"r'l\' rr6l.11 T(1) HpUKhi(1) KP11T11C;crnv U1'l~11mlt11<;neplcpe(7tl)rfI: I:rruVUK'IC;, 1990) pWl<; t11<; yta va nuipvonv m)YX'p6vUl<;nsptccorspot vspo 6nw<; avacpepet 0 iOlO<;0 Mopodvi. EtO KaOe 1UllK11K/ctO unopouv va cHaBol)V 5, 011Aa811 a' 6AT] rnv KP~V11 40 o.tO~La auyxp6vw<; va 001)tl'I~OUV tn OOXeta roue Kat va 'ta ye~ioOl1V. A~it;et va avacpep9ei 11npoono.OelU non sxcvs 0 Mopodv. va yivet 6~LOPCP11 11KP11V1t us anO'tEAea~a va Bsopehrn 4 nuove; ~leto. rnv Ka'taoKellll 'tll1<; va an6 tu ropatorspc ~lvlHLeia E rou Hpcocseiou Kat tT]<;KpT]tT]<;yevtK6tepa,81

YOPU1)AlKU 7t(llXViChu
Ta uopaUAtKo. natxviota non 0Aen01l~le ouv K()oiL11~lata crouc OlacpOPOU<; WpOll<;oev sivct uin X npcDt:6w1t1l €Kcppaa11 'tOU mJYxpOVOl) xocuou. Ot ~llVWLKOi l)OpaUA.lKOi 11~epav 'tll XPllo11 tOU vspou yta va ucovozouicouv KaA,alo(hrrLKe<; Kat Ilrtlxay(J))'IKe<; nv Cty Ke<;. An6 rn ~UVCJ)tKo. aVo.Ktopa oev £Aemav 011te Ot nioaKe<; outs tc ava0pun1pta, 'Eva tEWlO aVa0pll'tl1PtO napla'to.ve'tat ce uin 'totxoypacpia nou 0p£()11Ke ow "Enltt rorv tOtxoypacplwv,,83 , OEVnapal'tll011KE crro aunl rnv npoano.Oaa KaW 6A11tl1 8Lo.pKeta 'tll<; toropinc. 0 Vitruvios cvcqrspet on "TO vep6 elver anoA.l>'tCJ)<; anapalt11'tO yta 'tl1 t;CJ)11llV t EUxapi(J'tl1al] Kat t11VKaEhULeptVl1XP110"1(S4 Ot xp~aet<; rou vspou yta otaK6a~111(Jll, ce mipKa Kat Kl1nOll~ mwarOOOt11011Ke ana rrjv OtacpopEttK6't11ta tWV XP11a'twv, 'Etct otacpopettKCt ovrursrromccv to vspo oro IOAo.~t, otacpopetlKo. ornv Iczcovio, otacpopetlKU, crnv ltaA.ia, omcpopetlKU an]" raA.Ata otacpopenKo. crnv AYYA,ia an' onou npoepxov'tat Kat at oHlcpope<; axolcf.<; tc otacpopetlK(l style".

o aPxt'teK'tOVtK6<; aXEotaa~6<;

Maopouue eUKoAa va Souus rnv aV'tiA,lW11tCJ)VolacpopetlKcJw nOA,tna~lcJw. flo.

to IOAo.~lto vepo anon;A,d to nOldJtl~o aya90 to onoio A,einEt coro to xwpo, Fi onto uvrtustroniorrpce us ae0aa~6 Kal usee an6 Alte<; ~opcpe<; crnv npoano.Oeto. rou; va EtKOVtaOUv tOV napo.oEloO usee OtO

81 0 i81O<; Mopodv; avacp£pel " .. ,Asv nap£A.El\IJasni al]<; vo KUllIJJtuv KPI'lVllmo euqiovicuu] Kat mo 0 Ulpaia ~LEOA.eC; EKeivec; nc; &taKoaiLllae1C;zon uzopeou.. .. ono»; imopel va avn)dlq>Od Ko:veit; ana 10 np01l:J,.au~la1I:OU nupourriuon oru; raA.l1VOtl]tE<,; cue."
82

LnavaK11<';, L. A.,

r., To HpaKA.e1Ooro n£paaila tWV UlWI'WV, .6.111L01> EK8, Hpad£iou,
3,

Hpailito

1990

83Evans,
84

The palace of Minos, vol

eK&.Biblo

and Tannen,

New York city

1964

0 Vitruvios eKt6<;T.WV aAAWV u&paUA.tKWV illlxavcJJVKat aw(hrrlK(;J<';evvoouuevrov nUlXVt8lwv avacpEpet Kat "to UopaultK6 1l0UCHK6 6pyavo".

85Plumpre, G., The water garden, eKo.Thamcs and Tomson, London

33
napKO. pEov'tas A vdOe'tCt 0"1:0\)<; EupCOrratKO"l)C; crX-cOtaa~lO')C; '"CO vspo oEX-cTat 8taKOa~lll1;lICli ~LOpq)li f3ima ax,cMv ~eoa ano 'to mipKO-raUtK6<; ox,colaa~lo<;, SVW crov halclKo O"%eotaa~o ~U7tOU~t to vspo va O"u~nA.lIpWVel to, €tKacrnKCt ne~Lm:o, xwpt<; va yiVc1:ell tOla.i1:epll o.wOll1:tK11 o.vClcpopa O''l:l)v CP\)O'll tau. 0 AyyhK6C; 6XEoto,a~l6<; npoon6Jhloe vc rraVLpbll€l 'to. Ota<POpE'ttKO: style Kat vu OA.oKA,l1pWCiElTl1V o:rrO\jlll Yla 'to rrapKo. Ot tCmQlVet; rrA.11oLCWav ~Le Ka8E rpono to vspo oo~wv'tas K1.lpi.cuC;1:0, naPKa 'Wl1C; ~leoa ana <imO'tKec; ~OpcpEC;. H npoanaOElCl 'Wue; aU't11 ~piaKet 'PlY o,Kpaia 'tl)C; EK<flpaOl] at aVOlxw11C; Xffip01)C; CHO'\JC;' onotmJ<; Ssv l.mUPxel vspo KaL to eJttn:eoo'to'll eoa([louc; npoarcaOei E1KovlKa va 1:0 avnKa·ra(HlloEL'1~.

XnpaitillPLti'n!(ll (701111=Harumichi

«Kpai(~ ,!,;K rI'TI (ll:jllii
I{)

cno tel napKa 01:11 1(0),11 unopouus .. va .om·)~le 1[o).}cU UOpo.UA.IKU ~C1.lXViOlU~7.nmXvi.ola 7tOU na{~ouv KUL ~lE 1:11 ~LOP(P11 ton vepou, U\)'tOll KaO' mrcou, "[;1<; lOloPltec; 'tQU, eV8PY€lo" 1[O)"U~lOp([lio" aAA.U Ka.t 1[Ulxviota non 1tai~o1)v ~e .L<; ~lVl)~lEC; T01) no1.1tLowm (1)OpOfmlcol)8~. H ;(PliOll 1:01) VepOU, ton Y?..llKO" vepou, ccv J1.t~itma EKcppuall W'U 01:0lXeiO\).OLvE1. .S1tl(jllt; .'tllV o,lvat0t11'ta, ettil vu nai~ouv !CUt vn S1CtKOtVCDv11 (01)V ue (lmo.

nq,lolu

86 87

Harumichi,

K., Formation

of stone,

£Kb.

Shokokusa, Tokyo AOilvCt I <)R8 Verlag, Stuttgart

Kunze, S., Apxm;l('tOVIK11 Kl]1tCJ.lV,£K8. M. fIOllpbru;,

Von 'Gretl Hoffman, Brunnen und Wasserspiele,

£KOJuliuw Hoffmann

880rsal:e!li J., Les Meulins, SKO.Jeanne Urffitlc.1979
Sugano M., Urban waterscape design, water mills, £KO. Grafic-sha Publishing Co.,Tokyo 1990

34

35
Yopauluca 1tatXVtOUl 1lE'YaA.u'tep..,~ KlillaKa~ nnpouourcrrpccv Kat cr'tll I:eBtl1,..., to 1992. Exsi XPllcrtIl07t011;O..,K€ Ilia Cl7tO't~ BClcrucf:~tOlO'tll'te~ rou vspou, 11 ()ep~LoxwP"''ttK0t11'ta 'tOll89. To vspo lQJKA.ocpopoUcre us otacpopa apxt'teK'tOVtKa tExvacr~ta'[(I orov XOlpo t11~ OlE8vOl'~ f:K8eOllC; Exrpo '92 oivoV'tac; iNa tOtai'tepo atcrO..,ttK6 aA.1,.a Kat I..ettO\lpytK6 a1to'ti:l..ecr~ta, ""lXOV'ta~ 'tOV XOlpo 'tllC;. Opiousvo, ClVotXtoi xwpot pp£X0V'tat an6 navw Il€ crtayoviota. svdi Ka'tacrKeuacr'tllKav "Kalltvaoec;" 7tO\) Mt'tOllpyoUV 1t€pi.noll onv '[(I \jlUyeia nou xp..,crtllonotOllV'tat orou; 1,.lyvt'ttKoUC; OMQ~C; 1tapayW'Y1i~ evtpyetClC;. EVTI)1tWO"lClKliXClPClK'tllpio't11Ke 11 \jIU~.., evoc icnpiou .., onoin MUOllpyoUcre a7t6 'to cruvexi:c; KatappE'Ylla ron 'tDiXDH, O..,~ttDHpyOlV'tac; eve EioD~ 'tEXVTI'toU • 90 Ka'tappaXtll·

TsJ..oC; 'tlOV OPOJ1lOV'ton VEPOU
Eioall€ laut6v 'to VEpO ClVaWya IlE 'tll I1DpQ)1iron, 't.., OOI1l] ron Kat rnv ClV'tllle'tOlntm; 'tOI) orov xwpo, 117tOpeiva IlClC;OWcrEt EV'tEA.WC; aA.lec; eixovec. Annpcirnro pEPaiw~ KCl8' 01,..., auti] 'tll OtaotKacria eiVat va KCl90picrolllle n anam'lcrEt~ £XO\lI1EEl1ei~ an6 mrro Kat vc KaeopicrOl)IlE nroc; pUnoulle oov crUvola mv ~wi] l1a~ os cuvcpmon Ile tn crtotxeia t11C;<pllcrlK A~i~Et lamav eow va cruVO'VicrOllIl€ mv 1t€pti]Yllm; IlClC;.

on

rJ..1JKa-uJ..J11Jpa vepa
Ta yluKa KClt'ta aA.llupa vspu OtCl<pepDUvana anD\jl11 K1,.i~taKae;Kat tOn:Dtii:tllcr1le; roue oro xOlpo. A:rt6 nl..eupac; K1,.iI1ClKac; ev xwpaet al1<P$O'1,.ia on tu YAllKa vepc ELVat neptopiouevrp; KAij.taKac; S ClqlOUmivta i] crX€06v nav'ta £XOllj.te 't..,v aicrfhlcr11 t..,e; anEvaVtl axH11~ Kat rou 't£lou~ tOUC;. AV'tiOe'tCl ma aA.llupa v€pa-eaAacrcrE~ oxoun Kat nv BA.i:nOll~lE rnv onsvovn axS.., eXOUIlE 'tllV Clioe..,Oll rou Clni:pClV'tOUKClt tOU 'tCl~t010ll 6nwc; oEi~Cl~le napamxvw91• Emcr11~ rc y1,.UKa vepn PpicrKOV'tClt cs aJ.lEOll otaMK'ttKli IlE 'to XOlPD f..lae;(to f.oa<poe;), uqiou an:DtEAoUV paO"lKO crtOlXElo 'tlle; ClVa1t'rU~i]e; ron KClt mClv anO\lcrta~O\lV unro nE9aivEl. A v'tWEta rc a1,.j.tllpa vepa Sev cruVOtallyOV'tClt Il€ 'to £oa<poe; a1,.1,.a IlE rov av0pwno Kat 'to Kal..ecr~la rou orov xwpo roue. Ta yluKa vspd €ivat Cl~tOnoti]O"llla Kat rn eK<ppaSO\If..lE us opouc '[11~ ayopac;; uoou Ila~ Sivouv €VtpyetCl (uoPO..,I..eK'tptKa i:pya), apoEllcr1192, lIOPEllcr11€VOl ru Cl1,.~l\lpavepa o€V npocr<pi:pOV'tClt yUl va ElCcppamoUv IlE 'tE't0l0lle; opou; Iliac;; Kat sivm aOllVatO vc ro xeptopioouus. Bepata 'tE1,.tKa ClK611Cl at au'ta 'ta EKcppa~O'\llle ue 'tOue; opouq nl~ ayopac; j.tf.crw tWV opycvrouevorv n1,.a~. K

89/!.. Kotl'tCJ()'yu1vvrlC;; at e. ::::avG07tOllAoe;,TEXVtKlI YOPO'Aoyta., EKO. EGVtKO MEtUO~tO' TIOAll'tEXVeiO', K A9iJva 1996 9OprO'gressive Architecture, A Penton Publication, July 1992
91

0 TI6s 7t£PtYPIlcpoV't~ 'to' teAoe; nle; Gll).acrcr~ avacpepet "opuooouue nopn cmv aYKoAta tou Katappllxtrl 6nO'll eva xaCJl1a 7t£pij.tEVEavO'tX"Co ~l~ OeXtEt. '()~lWe; O'pGWGllKEoro 01'0110' 11~ 111a va cr~avwJ1Evll avGpffimVll 110pCP1), amYyKplta ~leyoAUteplI oru; blacrtllcrEle; Cl7tOKnGe lCcltO'lKO TIle;r..,C;;.Kat 'to oepj.ta tllC;;~O'PCjl1)c;; ~e; EiXEto OA.6).ellKO' xrW!la tou XLOVlO'U." eEtO'Vt~ cto tEAoe; TIle; Oll).acrcrac; Kat CJtO'OPlO tllC;;"CO'V rou, 0' Ilos xeplypaCjl£l XWaKtllPLcrtlKa "CO' eEO Cl7tEPlOPlO'tO' ~lC:yaAc:iO' Cl\l"CO'U tou VEpOU. Floe, E. A., H acpl]'YlJCJllrou f\pOO'llp Txopvrov AGi]va 1986 nil!l, ~lt(p. EA.tVII AOavacrO'7tO'UAoll,EKO. rpal1l1a:tCl,

92"0 6poc;;tlle; eyyEtO'~EAnWtl1,a epya avrupepEtat os 6Aa ru teXVIKu epya Kat tu; Epyacriee; nou exO'"?,,we;; tEJ.t1c6 olC07t6rnv ~EA.tiwCJlltllC;;"eyyet~ 7tPO'O'OOO'U", 011).aOll tIle; 7tapayWYlKOtll"C~ TIle;'YlJe;OUO'V rupO'pa nc;; qron~ Ko)..).ttpyetEC;;". ::::avG6nOUAo~ e.t., AtaxeiplCJll UOattKWV 7tOpWV:GEWpl1tlKee;eA7tiOEe;xm PEaAlOtlKl] avnj.tEtWmCJ1l. tUVtOPlO' tOU TEE.- T~1)!la Ksvrpuou; Kat /!.l)nKlI~ eEcrCJaAi~ Aapl.cra., NOt~l~PlO~ 1996

36 Ap;oi Kat 'teAo<;, Aomov 'to. VEPa.. A vovvcopiccue rtw<; Ertl6PO\l\' o.1na. rta.\,CJ) ~ta.<; usou uno 't11 6ta<popE'ttKO't1l'ta rcov ~LOP<PWV roue. Ka'taA.11YOllW: on tu VEPa. tll<; Ha.).aaaa<; cnuurooorouv aY'tteeoEt<; Kat npOKA.T)OEt<; zou a1to'tEA.Ol)\' KiVll1:PO 61WlOllpyia<; Yla rov a.vHpumo, To. VEPa. 't1l<; A.i~VTJ<; m T)Pe~a Kat <plAOSEva VEPa. t11<;, xwpo<; eivci <PlAOSEI'O<; \'0. axc:omon;i, EI'W 1:0. a yta. vepa. rou norcuo» evexouv 1tOAA.e<;1tayioc:<; (KOl\'WVlKE<;, ana. Kat a~llYW<; npaKtlKec;). To. xapaK't1lptottKa. 01:Otxc:ia uuru C:KCPPu~OV1:al nno 1:11)ci~lV'l xut lOlain;pa !11V teXVTJ!11A.i~vrl nou us 1:0 <ppuy~a c:w1uyc:tuin vsu mala opiou 1tOUOev cotcvtnrut ornv <P\)0l1.

°

'0700)<; ava<pepei]Ka~e ue oAa to. rrapaoeiY~Lata ~la<; 0.1>1:0 non ertlOlWKOWle teAlKa, cs 6Ae<; tIC; KAi~aKeC; (~tKpec;-~eyUAeC;) eivrn vc Kata<pepouw: vn savaaXeolaaou~u:: rov xwpo roan: va 1tAllota.oOU~e Sava. to. ototxeia tOU, va rc 0£Baot01)~le, \'0. to ~11001)~l£ ana Kat vc naisoujl£ ~a~i tOUC;. To. otOtXeia rrou Ela.\jIa~e, ~All alJt1111 (1)\)011~La<;,aA.UXHl to csvco KUA.EO~L(i !1K "EmOujlro va 1teta.SW, va KOA.u~mlOW, v' aA.uxtllaw, va ~(01)'YKaviaw, va 01JpAla.SW. eO.' e£A.a vc' XW <ptepa., KaUKaAo, <pAouoa, vn ByCt~W xcorvo, v' arrOXt110(J) rrpoBoaKioa, vn KOUA.Ol)ptaoW to KOPJ.1i J.10U00. <piot, va uotpccno novrou, vc' us a' 01.0. ~le(Ja, va S£xuOw us ru; ~LUpw8te<;, vc s£nlA1Xtro cov rn qnrtn, va tP£SW onv to vspo, vo OOVlatW cov rov l'lXO,vo A.a~lI1/W ocv to <PWC;, vo napw GAee; nc; 1l0p<p£e;, va ~nw cs KCtBe CttO~LO,vu KatEBw 0)<; tov Bu(36 t11<;1)A.11<;-va yivw

ul~ "OJ

,I f;j I~IIIII~

w!% t~ li~f/1r,lqM!C'~uWW~~l1)?!M) !~f,
"

/~~I/Pj%' f"
Lld'tIJO 'tOU SCml)C

~~!j1~~ ~/j~

93

Flaubert, G., 0 1telpacr~16<;OU Ayiou Avtorviou, urrp. Kcoorn BapvW.lj. A(l1'jva 1977 t

37

Ta f.1syaA.un:pa epya tOU av9p<i>1toU reou OtaK01ttOUV (sucovucc) tOY llOpoA.oytKO KUKA.o Kat KOf3ouv rnv aeva11 <ruveXew ton eivm rn q>paYf.1ata. EKf.1EtaA.A.eUOf.1EVOl vepn auta f.11tOpoUf.1e rn va &x.OUf.1&EpO yta apom>at), UOPEllat) Kal to at)f.1ClVttKOtEPO 1tClpaYW'Y11 VepyetCl<;.ktl')V Euaoa V E 94 'to 114 tTJ<;emq>avEUlKi)<; a1tOppoi)c; nov noa'trov KataA.11yet ce allTa. Erci crXllf.1a'ttKa f.11tOpouf.1e va 1tOUf.1e 'ta q>payf.1ata eivoi KatacrKEllec; 1tOUa1tOteA.ol)V to ttA.oC; troy 0P0f.1rov tOU VEpoU. Ott EWOlOA.oytKa to q>paYf.1aa1tOteA.ei eva crtOlXeiO 1;ro11<; oco KClt crtOlxeio q>O~Oll yta rnv xoworvin 1;et KCltlivnl tl')C; KCl'tClcrKElli)C;.0 f.1Vl')f.1etaKOc; xapClKTi)pClc; tOU epyon tovi1;Etat uno to ysyOVOC; on 'to q>paYf.1asivat cr'tOtxeio 1;roi)<;KClt ava1ttU~ll<; ytCl tTJv 1teptOXli ceo E1ticr11C; OllVal-l11 crtotxeio Katacr'tpoq>i)c;. napaoeiYl-lata q>paYl-latwv 1tOU EXOUYClcrtOXllcrel us EKatOVtaoe<; i) Kat xtAtaOEC; av9p<i>mva 9Ul-lata ll1tapxOUV orov oteflvT) xwpo. Mnopouue va uvuospouue rn 1tapaOetYl-lata 'tOU Voyon Kat tOU Malpasse. H al-lq>tpoA.ia ClUTli ecrLtacr~lev11 orouc xctoixouq 1tOU ~ouv Katro a1t' to q>paYl-la EVtcrx.\>Etat a1t6 rnv 1tOA.·U1tA.oKOTllta tOU epyon. 0 nA.acrKopitl')C; Clvaq>epEt "OA.T) au'ti) 11'tEpacrtta crroPEllI-lEYll UA.11Cl1tO1tEtpa crioEpo Kat rourevro, taYI-lEYll yta v' ClV'ttcr'tSKEtat oro vepo, yta va KO\j1EtKat v' aA.A.a1;et10\)<; 0P0I-l0UC;(ron; V6~LOUC;) vepou, crUl-lq>rova J!e uurv rou avwtePTJ 98A.11at)va tTJv twpa eKte9EtJ!Ev11 oe ataiptacrte<; a~lq>tpoA.iec;,cs q>11J!ec; tTJv aV'toXli yta tl')C;, oAO'teA.a a<rul-lpipacr'tEC; J!E tTJ crepacrJ!la urropixomrc t01) epyOU".95 EllnlXW<; orov EMllVtK6 xwpo OEV eXOUI-lE f.1slPt 'twpa aV'ticrtOlXa 1tapCloeinlCltCl rtou va E1taA.11ElellOUVUlltT) tTJV ,96 UVl')<ruxta . To q>paYl-la ornv cruveioT)crT) J!ac; cvcespenn snion; ouv utn sucovo ta~11C; ornv cruvi:XttCl tOU xwpou. 0 T~6i.iC; avaq>epet: "Eixe 1tpocr1tafl1icret vc q>tla~et eva q>paY~la ta~11<; Kat q>tvetcra<; evavnc ornv pproJ!epi) 1tA.11J!J!Upa tOU e~roteplKoll KOcrJ!OU.Mnrmn. Meon Kl e~ro ru vepc eixav crxacret to q>paYJ!a ron: Ot 1taA.ippOtec; apxtcrav rncoun uin ((lopa va ~ecr1touv aypta crta , ,,,97 'tcrancrf.1EVa uoupeyin. Ilpocr1ta9wV'tac; va empciA.et rnv ta~11 ornv crllVexela t11<; q>llcr11C; cr\)YXPOVOC;avepro1tOC; 0 ol1J!toUP'YTJcreto q>paYJ!a, J!ta a1to LtC; J!eyaA.lltepEC; Kat cr11~laVttKotf:pec; KatacrKElle<; rou. H KatacrKElli) QUTi) npooptouevn va e~ll1t11PEtEi aJ!coE<; ClvaYKec; ron xowcovixou ouvosou, UOPEllat), apoEllat), 7UlpayroyT) EVepyetac; yivetat KO~lPtKO crtOlXeiO ytCl rnv urropin tOU avepcOmvou 1tOA.tttcrf.1oU. H crlJJ!ClV'ttK6Tl1'ra TllC; A.ettoupyiac; tou q>panlatOC;, eKt6c; a1t6 mv 1t01K1AOtTJta tTJC; lPi)at)C; tou vepon oov ~rottKOl) crtOlxeio\l rou ClVepW1ttVOU 1tOA.tttcrJ!oU, avaq>epEtat KUpiroC; ornv 7UlpayroYll EVEpyelClC;.H cr11~lClcria 1tOUOiVEl 11 E1tOXl1I-laC;ornv EVEpyEla Kaelcr'ta to q>paYJ!a J!Vl')J!EtaK6 epyo tOU crtl~lEpa.

1WU

94 Eav961touAot;, e.:E., AtaXelpl<rTJUOatlKWV 11:0pWV: SWP11tlKEC; O sA.mOSC; pSaAl<rttKT) avtlJ!StW1tl<rTJ, Kat :EUVEOptO TEE.-TJ!TJJ!a KEVtplK11<;Kat At)ttK11<;0SO"O"aAia<; tOU J\Qplo"a, NOE~lBpLO<; 1996 95nA.ao"Ko~itTJ<;. To <ppanla, SKO.KtopoC;, A01)va 1960 :E.,
96 EKtoC; axo

tOV EOatO"alo, <ppaYJ!a11:0t) O"toX110"e .6yw 11:A.1Hl~l\)Pru; a A EllnlXWC;xwpiC; OU~lata.

Koutsogiannis, D., Flood hazards in Greece, in "Geophysical hazards in Europe", edited by C. Embleton Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1997 97:Ee aut6 'to 1tapaoetYJ1a ~U;el vn 1)taKpivoWLS to avaKrltella tOOVveptilv. 0 T~6U£ rnv uln ((lOpa ava<ptPEtCll O"ta 'YA.UKa vspc (1tA.TJJ!J!upSC;) mv WJ..11 Kal <popa etc aAlLUPrl VEpa (11:aAippoLSC;).ToppayJ1a < WtO'ttA.el ')'La'tOY T~~ (~taq>oplKa) 'to 6pLOtl1~ 'taKtlK1i~ acrllvtx.t:ta~ avtl~lecra crt: CltIttl. T~6il<;. T., To zoptpero tou KaAA.ltEXV'l, ~lt<P.M.:E. EKO.rpallllatll, A011va 1990

38 .":8\6:V;~PU)1tPStfto:ee 0;1.6cti.~·ii~bl.t11C;toippi~Wl'm) va: 'eiqteta~1Bt>etill Ill" £VepyWiIOU vepoi! 'p'IDy:TttidaiuiyU~11,tOU.Qttt3t:Kcrgta .. np6Jt~C;.v.ll~e\S riu' tl1V\)rt(iP~11 "vepO~L11Xt:t\hlC;")'8xoulAeunO ' mv .$nom",,, to)V LOVjiLep.kuV". cmouv'oe' en:lypuq>eC;'(l\iiiipepe1:alfLlU', "Vi':.f)0!A1n!.aV11"XWPU; ··:i~mol*speu;;i;;.~cO n;H:hw~tciton:ri'nW' O\IP (Meqo11:Otu~da )Xl)11ol~l.o.1iotflthliceip{)x6c; ~Lt qnspCi . 'dit6';;:!C'ep~ji*e~)Mti!e~~ytci uopo66rilUl)' Kut n:LOavov Yfa cikedwi: Olt11ProV.9Jl 01ta'kcuottpoc; .kyvoo&i:6~: v~p'o~~~c;: 1tou.ayaq>tpeX(Itws·· "'n5puletrj~"aJr61:ov ..~ tPo'~().)~a 'dt~r t{j)iyPttq)tKit~. '·~ptokqt(lV01:0;1iaA.~1:i 'rqu 'MtBptoatll:ET: !3aqtltCt 'tou'n6vtOU1:o 64;r..X.,O· nt.-ivtoc; 1:0Y' Hho .·;~:·~YA.otov q.vh~tpi>t aav"e~ H-11xa\h1.~Eyqs ~v<i:)\:~nLOS Pr:oltcrtoi;t11Viota B7to;oi 1CCt~. y~qtOV ioto . ',. . '.' .' . .•. :·n' ..' . 99' . ·.S ftUAo,.ypucpet."O\'I'Wc;'6KL'i!eho Sm 'tP9Xrov U1:P8(j)O~l8V,O)Vol' Ylott'tbC; nun;ovioc; (1)veXroc;" .. ."~ztoprrrtK~,;6f1IDC;1i' ap;Ql1c)15 \i'Sp6i~UMm.tiXt·· t1tL\1011flei~ttpa}LattKu ,Cl;n6~bV.•. Ai~~avqpLV6 $:QdtKO "o.lio rov 3atWva 1t. X Hl0 ..' . .. .

9~Bertl'cit, Mqd'i, ..•.... Horizontal' \~~Ieflnii I,.'~:'" The illlef!\1it iona i'):'he "E,f(b. ':>'_. . ". '.'-:f'>:. :~ ," .' 99 Mapayl<UKlli;; M. Ot vep6~~lllol rou PeO\Ul,/o11, P51hl )lVO .1996' ,.
. . )-.,-i ..

l.moli nologi kal.society, 1994
r -'. "

1(J()'Nep6~UkPh~li~ ~lltLK11C;.· Me(£dp~ y <PU1):oupyl3iOveW;Yf.vt~ Kai aQ'hn1crt,:o\)"JvI61.joeiQ

··I\r.n'i.i]s.c . (jllJOIKCt "'OIKomiO-Tl'nlCttll ,Kat
KP111:tK1lseO\I(j),oytw;,i.:E:vWo

U5UttKO .'S1IvafUKO;. epzlJVWV 1985

39
npffit~rl 8K(])pa0l1 't11~ AfXWupyia<; 'LOll (j)pciy~cu:o<;, ccv ~L~~O 1(CipaY<OY11<; EV8P'Ye1ac:;, anOLEAOUV oi voPQllt4n. Kea o'tl1 Ilto. Kat omv UUil ncpim(r)oll a 6:.v{}pl\m9~ tJ:qU=:;WA.Ae\)etat 1>11V evep'YEta. Tal) Vspou 'jIta mv napa:yroytiCll LOl) 8~a8tKa.Ciia. XapaK'nlPt(;l'1:~KO et\lat os Ott npbo1tcHlllOE Kat Gtl~ OUO'l'tEP1.1t'tWO€l<;, 01(OU rou Swomv 11 suxmpla va e,!qlEtaA.A£ll0el. 'to aUvOA.o 'tile:; UaUt01t'["{J)OTl<;.H €1I;0xil ~la<;, f.n:oXl11toll xapCiKtl1Pl~Etat cm6 mv EAA.Wllll t0U vspou, npoon:aOei va €K"te'talA.ruSet J.t€ KneE W6n:0 ro o1WOA.o 'W)\! n:apex6~leVW" l)ontlvwv cnopporov !.it: mv lOta l€rr:oupylldlloytKiln:ou XP1101J.LOn:oL01}OaVo vspo Ot11" napay<OYllcll OlaOLK(lO'la. t Ta (j)par~a'ta 6~e; oev axouv TIlV n:OA.UtElcela rou 'nop61l11A.otl rem) napE~l13ai"Et ern (j)uOTl cmv KA.tj:laKa . ron avepwn:ou. H 1tapE~.l~o.0l1 TOll <ppawuro<; aVo.<pepE'Wt O'E O'a<pw<; !-lEya)l.>tEp1l . KJ..tllaKa. A~i~et lorn6v vn E~E'taoOWtE ,no)e; n:apef.lI3CtlVEt Eva <ppaYlla 0"["11 CPU011 Kat tt O'11llatOoot€Ll1 n:apBlll3aOll autll,

H 1IUpBjl13aOl1 ron avOpw1tol) O'Tl1 tpll(Y1l ava(j)EpEtat 01;11 oo~ni''Wu aVOpW7ttV01) 1tOAltlO'~oU10I. An:6 to ~€KivrHLQ tIle; 1)nap~11e; rou 0 6.vOpU)1(Oe; onv KOtV(i)\!tK6 Ci't'OlXEio, npoO'na.0110€ va 011jl10vpyi}crEl ne; 80llEe; EKetV€<; 1(0\) KavavE 1ttO (j)tM~EVll 'tll rpllQ'll yt' rmtov Kat "tllV xowcovic 7t01.) 8'1IltoVPYllO'e.

H 7tdpEI1~aOll 1:01.) avepo):n;ou rt'r11V (J..ilYl; 1:01) no/"'Lnoj.lol) beV BiX€ Ka:nmOtOtai't€po 1tept~aUovttK6 KOO'.O<;, ~L1ae;Kat ot 1<a1:aO'Kwee; ron avf)pW7tOl) aqJO~LOtO)vOVtOuoav O'Lya.-otya ('me 'to ntptpa'A.A.ov. To np6~1l)jla aVEK'1J\I/€'to 180 ouovu tIl O'nY~tl1 oxou 0 6.v0p(r)noe; el1a9€ vc Kov.apOXWTCtEtat j.lE TIl rpl)Oll, !lEO'a an6 o1lVOeCill W:y6Icw\' KaWOKelJWV onox; Ol ~lll'tponOlele;, ot I3tof!l1xCtv\.KE<; 7tEPWXEt;, 'to. ep),OOtCtOla, La 8LU/"'lon'Wla KL/"', To yeyov6e; aunl<; TIle; o11IltO'llpylae; aVEKU~/e we; npoBlll~la eXl coro tl1 <p110'11 t11e; 811W01lpYlac; mmic; KaO' mnl)e;, aAA.a. an:6 'tl1v119u01 1tArupa lOU OKOn:o'll TIle;. All't'l '1 nABupa ava<pepetat 0.1(0 tOV J'topv wC; 11 1WtKtA.Otl)'tQ. trlsavaYKat6tl11:a<;I04. "0 atOOllLlK6C; vouoceivc, aur6e; tWV em0u~lt(jjvllac;, nou Ej17U.oV'tit;;ouv 1Ii0~KiJ,.,/"'OV'tae; KC;i.09PtO'~levo OE~La 't:lle; avElpo)7tLv'lt; llHlK'I1t;. H av6.YK'llABSt: to "n:PE%Et vaqmc;" Kat '1 alCi911ttK11 "ll1copsl<; vc to K6.VC:l<; L€XJlIOut; OlUtpOpC:LlKOUe;tpozouc". H ~ 1191K1l:"O'OD xpetCt~Etat Ilia yuVatKa" Kat 1) dW()'1tlKll: "note yuvalKa E1ttOn~lElc;"
yUll'l~

'loftt'o(h;Sn~l/w!;<;

¥OU'tOOESUPEvq 0''Tll'' A!lJ.l{Q (q:l(i)'t. r. (11. LIlP'Yilvt119

Yli(LToliC~iLJlf'Vl1 Cl't'lJVA01\vQ ({puJ't. r. <1>. I:(lpyi\''t1\~)

101 0 'OO'K.apOuailvt 'tilV UpXttt!dOVLKll
tt

UVUcpe.PEl"Ttari av lltaVe cvsmn cpucrll to UvOPW7nV01'€'vo<; Ssv Ou dXE E<pEupn
', .: \ .' . . .

I02rtopV,

A., To

a.lae/7T./ICG €Kb.

NiKOC;B. Ak1;iou,

)Cal to TrO).tr!ICt>, O~uUa npo<; 'ton<; nIYK01ilvou~, Elcugepo<; Hmoc;, AOliva 1996

utqi.

Ilevo; Toax.a.yeat;,

40

~v
II1i:Q' .
TOV

Valei1ce
.yk61i:T11

<".

cucpttl1 g~\J1t1lPaL11Ull tOW crl:6XwvBuo"l~6~ieVll JLOVO .. at .. ' rto:paowcrt oro mlVOAO nl<;avOp(flrrO-rip;a(j K(1:ia6-k6\).~(j Ot'orcoii(j 'oe:v dxaVK&~tiaillO'0'lF1K1i npO<Jf:yytO"ll· H aVuYKO,toii)'tCi:t11.S xP11G11S atO"(hrnKW\) Kprtlwkov en1l" S0l-lllQ.wrWV . t(J)v Ku'ttiO"kBl.)cOV"npxlSE{ vtt'npOKilmet t11V' Q.nYl\· ron 2006, cm6u ina ocn:)yXP~vos i60"110;; E~cpavtSctai ·ci.vo:{ lCOP8tillEVOS ano XI)11dl~ui il aX'p110"ta "UK01lTtiota" tOU 1tapeA.fl6vtG(j. "En8tOitlta 1tpaY!J.al;(i.eivat01!(i)(jELVo.l OeV 00. ~leivollv6rru}(; sivm" SA.eYEoMnp&xr~tllV BUGll 'til';; m>A,A.oyu:n:tlCll<; a.u'B1~K(nacpo":l yivc'1:u(. KU1:Uv01i'to6n TO arrO'ti:.A.EO"l-tCi1:1~t;O:l1).llOljpyiu~ am:)'~elei t<A.l~po~6tl1lla. "(la 1:l(j ye\Il£(j .xou.apoxsura va ~11dOW usrcto d11l-uspatovx:ffipO aULD,· ytVe'tat oa.cpilS 11 avayl<awtlp;a t11<; utO"EhrnKI1S em;~epyaoto.<; .r llC;· ~leyUA.l1C;XetpOVO~liaS'tO'\) . avHpO:l1tqu. ft' (tiJtD E~'dUou 11vo).[00eoio. rta. to rrepIBuA.A.ov et0(i'yet'r11V1to.pa~le1:pO Quell oro vO!J.oaxao,to n:ou$TteBaA.A.q. ta 1:ap,€yafi.a e(rya,tlH y

fI

va

AtoOll1:lKU

~trtOpO":)~LE vc

L11v n;o.pe~LBacnll'Oll avOpffirrou mil" qlllO'll, ~leOQ cno illY Kata1:ci~O\)~Le OE rps«; Ki)pteS EvOnlteS

KUTUOKEUQ<JUKa

O"LotXei.a

Hrtpffitl} aVQ(pEpE'tatcrtl1v~£K6.0UP11 aVtl1tapaOEdll 1:11S KatMKE\H1S !J.E 1:11. CPl)Ol1. H o.V1:IJt(ljJ6,e!>OnCtUP1J't~€1:tn KllRiOJs~~tcra mi6. Kct1:UOKf;\JE(j ot01r'ot£(j QKOAouOol>V ~a~a. K(lVQVa euKM:igEi~y£(Qjle'tpio.. II ye(Q~lE.1:pia 0\)t11 nou OtDXE1)E.l 01:11\1 "sv Ouva~LEl O'U).t!J.E.1:p{a", . E~atpetm)Jlq)(:iniO: ue 'TIlV nAU1:aiV1KllavttA1Wl1 1:11()UYYEVelCl 1(01) WpatOl) ~LE tu; apxeruTtES ".t5aVlKE~ ilopcpes 1tOU W::P'{oPl~Ol)v nS1.J1[EpBa()ti~ tall urroKEl~lE~\.i:J~101·). 11M'

• HB!h'Il;ip11uvO:cpEpe~atG1:O 6XE6t~iJ~l6 1:0\) XWPO\l rrou xrvsirrn or« (lpl(~ 1:U~ils Kat ina~tasl(lS,
• H'tpitT)
.

avacpepetUt

."'",

01;lW ytvlKU aTaKT11 ~lOP.CPli ton
.'/

'.

xWpmi.
.

103Ald911-ct!'\li: <tOirtp()1:hv6~IZVO tpyo Oanj)OKo.lt~£; i1(.051O'11 cmOlCtCso;hrot£Otw; 1'0\) opi~ovt~ll 07r:OladS11tC01:EICOWI'1C; etm;li0a Ka'rc6:1iSE.ldTil lillf1WnpyiciEv6~ 11.11 an:OOEKTOll rontou npoOlwu ot'l

napE,
. .

~ EqJ11IJ£P[C;tl1s lC\)Ptpvild~(,O£ 111s EM11VtK11sL-.1Hio~po.tiLis, n:1jXoc;20 'ap .. q)ukou6780el. 25 Ol}1:wPptou 1990, ..
-. ~. 'j
! . .

lCOt\n;eea.:

",

".!

.

•. •

.'

..

.•

..

S 1560..; AG1lva
TIo.uloC;

104B~ardey,'C.M.,'H ictopln lWV chaO'lllKWV xr.n!oToo()u~~811~, ld'i, NeqI!D v11, Afhiva.1989 € ,
. .

OeOjptQ}\', IlT(p. l'l'llloo0EV11-;
(tl)t()

KOD[nBlK,

I

o~rovep6'€iva.~itP6nnto

atolX€lO'YI!l va.~u:u;awO"€t

\aof.lpone{SU')q~tlKQ:

tzyUJI€Oct all,"

1!Xsn

TO ma(hHIKoanotelEO"!lCL IUm; kat .mop€l

KaL

K<!t tlj\l (Ho.~i!l, ll?tOKP(OlflEC;, KpimlLcC; Kat :lJ7l:EPKpiatllSC;pOEc;.

41 L\tapaL;ovtat; 'tTl CPUcrll1tOtBSsv Sa rnv xapaKt11ptl;;aJ.t£ rot; taKtllCl't aUiJ. ours xm rot; ataK'tT). H YEWJ.t£tpia 'tTIt;CPUcrllt;JlOWl;Et J.t£to evscrpcuusvo cpvrrnxo ~liat; mlpallicSat;. rtO E~roteptKO 'tTIt; PA.t7tOUJ.t£ tOUt; Mxf3uptv8out;, ataKtet; xaOttKet; ypaJlJlet; vc ~e;dlVOvtat orov XeOpo &VeOoro eawteptKo 'tTI<;Kpataet rnv KataaKeuli " yvroat11 auat11pli Ilopcpli t"C; m>pallioat; uuro 1tOU unopouus va oouJle ccv "to XBpt tOU 0eou". To napaoetnLa nuto ~l7tOpOU~Lea to otaKpivouJ.t£ v av 00UJ.t£ Kat rnv OoJlTJ &Vat; OEv'tpou. To oevtpO Jlota!;;et xaOttKo Kat ataKto aUi:J. av ~etOOOUJle 'tTIVA.sttoupytriJ OoJlTJtOU, 9a Jlac; eK7tA.li~et ue mv ta~" xrn rqv tcopporda rou. To OEv'tpo 81tClVaMxJlf3avetat elvui to iOlO, (Jl"A.ta, Kepaata, Kll7tapiaOl) to avayvropil;;oulle, aUi:J. 1tO'tE O&Veivrn to ioto otvtpo. r'tTIv ava!;;Tt'tTIcrllA.omOv 'tTIt;napeJlBacrllt; ~l7tOpOlllle vc OOllJle mv tcoppozin 'tll<; CPllcrllt;Kat va 1tpocrn:aSTJaOUJle 0Xl va mv aVtlypa'l'0Ulle aA.A.a vu mv aKoA.ou9liaouJle. Xpso; sivci erov 1teptf3aA.A.ovttKO axeotaaJlO OXt vn 8af:WuJle ta epya Jla<; nporcooovrcc Ilta aKaA.aia9,,'tTI cruVoA.triJ ata~ia aUa vu xwooucore oru opin ta~"c; Kat at(l~iac; 1tpaYlla nou Ilac; 1tapa1tEll1tEt oro a1t6a1taaJla tOU HpalCA.st'tOl.l, to 01tOtO avacpepe'tal oro IltytatO KaA.o<; trov JlOPCProv1tOU eKcppa!;;ouv "XacOo"C;" Kat "allopcpe<;" Ka'tMtaaet<;.I06 Ilporccoovrce; (lU't11 t11V sucovo 0 re!;;av 'tTIv Ka90ptae ro<;eva "adA.pov XaoC;"I07.

Ta <ppaYJ.1aTa Kat or AiJlVE~
To crUvOA.o'tTI<;KataalCeuli<; &vo<;cppaYllawc; avacpepEtat GUVO/ctKUIlE t11" KataGKeuli tOU GtO 1tavrpeJla 'tTI<;ta~"c; Jle mv ata~ia, mv OOlltlCl'tKa'taGKeu11 Ile t" CPl'cr11~ltaC; Kat to cppaYJla, Y&VtKa,1tapellPaivet crllJletaKa cmv aA.A.aj'll t11<;IlOPCP11C; cj>l)CJ11<; t11C; oivovtac; t11C;t11 ouvat0'tTIta vc avacruvtaxgei avav'tTI ton cppaYllatOC; ern A.i~lV1l rtO

onusto autO a~iI;;et vu aKtaypacpliOOUIlE t11V opyaVtKll oxea11 tOU av8promvou 1tOA.tttaJloU J08 us m A.illV1llCat 1tffi<;au'tli uA.o1tOtei'tat e~eA1KttKa ue BaG11 rn tcropucc ata8ta rou Gutkind • 0

cpopOC;tOU avSpc01tOU a7ttvavtt a'tt<; anpoa01oplatec; ouva~lel<; t11C; cpua11<; Kat cruYKeKpllleva a1tevavtt oro vepo, 01tW<; autO 1tapOUOla!;;Etat IlE t11V E~11~lEpro~lev11 rou 1l0PCPll at\<; AiJlvec;, a1tOte4i to 1tpcOtO cJtaoto. ruvavtatat an<; nponovove; KOtVOt1ltEC; tOUi;;ouv an' 'to KllvTtyt Kat 1 tt<; JltKpoKaMtEpyerec; (rKA.aotoV~l7tEpU. Kuoropia'"). To O{:\)tEPO otaoto xapaKtllPii;;E'tat a1t6

l06..oU'

wanep aap~a eU\llKEXU~levrov0 Ka.A.AtOtOC; KOOllOC;"

I07re KaJlla nepi1ttWOll J.1t rnv aulloytattK11 am11 Ssv axoO'K01tOUlle O'tO vo VOllt~07t0t11aOUJ.1t mv napaAoyia 7tOUU1tSpCW1til;etat0 Auotap. A1tOaK07tOU,leOt11b1JVa:r6'tl1ta vu xai~oUJle 11£ tu opio t~1]e; Kat at~iru; ornv j3CtOll11e;ata911tlJdjC;Kal ,IOVO. t Auotap, Z.-<I>.,H usruuovrepvc KataO'taOll, ,ncp. Kroorc; TIaxayuDpYl]C;.eK8. Fvroon, A9~va 1993 MepA<il-MovtU, M., H a~cpllloAia t01) :EE~av to A9t)va 1991
1080

tum

Kill to

nvsuuu, unp.

AUKa Moupixn, EKO.Necp€Alj,

E.A. Gutkind oto j31j3Aio t01) "Our World from the Air". OUlKpivel rsocepn toropuca atlibla crt1] 't01) av9pW1tot> Wttvavtl oro neptBa.A.AoV.To 7tpWtO 01:liblO XapaKt11pi~e'tat axo rov cpoj30 Wttvavtl ~ axpoaotoptmec; ouva,lEle; tl]C;cpUO'11e; auvavratm 0''t1C; Kat 1tPU)t0YOVEC; KotVotlltee; 7t01)~ow
maOll

an:o 'to KU~yt Kat t11 flucpoKall.epYEla. To 8eutepo O'taow xapaKtl1pt~Etal axo ~lla nvcerruooouevn (ID[01tS7tOi91]0ll Kat opyavwJL€v1] 7tpOOap~lOyl1 t01) CPllcrtK01)7tEPllla.A.AOVtOe;. To rpiro mlibto XapaK'tljpil;Etat an:6 Em9enKDtllta Kat E7tIBOA11 'tOUavOPW7tOU 1tavoo ern CPUOll. lvm 'to mliblO axo t11 E Bl.OflllXavtJdjE7tavaataOll tooe;~J.1tpa. EKcppW;;Etat(11[0 UC; crUyxpovec;EneKtaaEIC; aotllCwv nepIOXWVae j3apoc; oaGtKwv eK'taoewv, ta ~10lu1xavlKa axoBA11ta Kat tl1 puxavcrt1 tOU nepll3w..AoVtOe;.To reropro mflOl.O, 7tOUcrUllq>(J)Va.1t tOY Gutkind acpopa O'tO !lEnOV, sivm 11 OlKOAoyt1C11 J ataOll ron av9p<il7tou mtEvavtl ero 7tSpt~allov. Gutking, E.A,. "Our World from the Air",1952
109 npolmoplKo<; J..tflvaioC;OtKtO~IOC; avlllCaAl)cpOl1Ke omv Kuoroptu Oi7tAaOt11AhlV11an:a ttc; avaO'KacpeC; ron Ka9TJYl1tTJ Ane. A. KEP~07t01)A01) t01)~eKivl1aav to 1992. tOU 7

42
J1ia uvamuOOOJ1£V11 <IU't01re7tOi911011Kat opyaVWJ1EvrJ npocupuojn ron ououcou 7teptpw..AoVtoe;. TIpc:OtJ111bc<ppaOT) aunte; 'tT)e; opyUVWOT)e; a7tO'te4i 'to 7tapaoet'YJ1a 'tT)e; ToevO'tot'tMlVIIO evci> J1E 'tT)V teA.11C11 'tT)e; J10pq111 ouvevnrtut orn 07tttaKla tWV \jIapabWV 7tOU llKJ1aoav one; arlEe; tOU cuovc J1ae;. H em9ettKO'tT)ta Kat 11 e7ttpoA.ll 'WI.) avOpci>7tOU 7tUVW ot11 CjlllOT),to rpiro o'tUOto tOU Gutkind, emte4itat ani> 'tT)V ptOll11xaVtKTt e7taVUOta0l1 J1EXJ)t mlllepa. H ).iJ1VT) Kat 0 7tEptJ3aA.1..ovtae; xci>poe; 'tT)e; OEXOVtat 'tT)V opyaVWJ1EvrJ eniOeOT) 'tT)e; avOpci>7ttVT)e; E~ouoiae;. H J1a~tKli e~a<pUvtOT) J1tKpcOV ).tJ1vci>v onwe; 11 )'i~lVT) KUpA.a yta t11 OllJ1tol.)pyia Kt ~ Ka.AJ..tepyriatJ1WV e15a<pci>v, KaOci>c;;Kat 11 oucmurmxonomusvn pU7tavOT) nov OtKOauO'tT)J1U'twv autci>vlll, stvm oa<PiJe;; EK<ppaOT) auto'll tOI.) otabiou. H uuvtc aunt one;; ).iJ1vee;; yivetat 7tOA.U em1<..'lvouVT) J1tae;; Kat ta oucoouorqucrc autU oev BXOllV ouvat6tl1ta autoKa9aptoJ1oU 6nwe;; EXOUVot rn 1tOtaJ1ta1l2. AKOJ1a Kat "tepEe; ).iJ1w:e;;,,113onwe;; O1.)VT)Oi/;etat vn a7tOKal..eitat ani> rou; Pci>o'oue;; 11 ).iJ1VT) BaiKCUv11, 11 apxatOtep11 ).iJ1V11tOU K00J10\) oev yA.Utwoav a7to tEtOtOU ei5oue;; J1etClxeiptOT) 114.

6tal1llVt'l)e;;, A., KUptaKrm1Cl') "E", A91lva 21 Auyoucrou 1997 110 H ToevotmtMv neptA.uJ1~ave 7tolloue;; roto rou; nepiCjllULoue;"1tAwtOUe; Kllxoue;;" zou Ol A~tEKOt 011J110UP'YTIO"av A.illVllTe~KoKo crspscvovrce; XW~La~LSsvio;(l)0"11roto A.uyaplEe; ~aI;;Ovt~ Mvtpa zou 0"t11 Ot p~£e;; tOU np600evav 61.0 aut6 to oUVOA.O ~lexpl tOY 1tUO~leVO A.i~lVllc;;. tIle;; LU~lCjlooVa LEtOY T~wpt~ L. ~ Bei:yav, OtOUe;;I01tavoUc; eto~okie; nou rnv xpootOaVtiKploav "0£ aVtiOeO"ll ue tle; ~LOUVtEe; 1toktc;; xm roix ~epoue;; A.6q>oue;; I01tavi~. 11 Tevotcusov 00 xpe1tE1 vn q>avl1Ke 1tapaoelooc; Ka9we; 01 XPUOlVOl tile;; Kij1tOl Koo ru A.eUKa tile;; Kripta ~pioKOVtaV Ot11 ~lEOl1yaA.aI;;looVA.IIlVWV. XepltplYUPIO~LEVOlaxo 'l'11A.a ~OtlVa." 0 Bei:yav xapa9EtSt td A.6yU1tOU M1tEpvaA. NtlaI;;. evoc; WtO rotx; otpatl())tsc; tOU Kopts~: "BA.e1tovt~ tetota OauJ1UOla 1tpay~Lata., OEV~Epa~LE n va 1tOUILe11 ClVI1tClV aA.119tV6on avttKp~OJ1€, Ka9we;; 0"t11 Ilta 7tA.eUpUum1PXav J1€YaAee;x6A.ete; Kat 11 iOla 11A.i~LVIl I)tav yqLUt11 xevo, Koo Ka9E tooo evOJ; unepu\jlooJ1EvoC; Op0J10e; 1t€pvouoe 1[(lVooWtO YEq>upec;Kat ImpOOTo. Il~ WtA.WVOVtClVJ DOA.TJtOU T Mel;tKOU" George, C.• Vaillent, Aztecs of Mexico 1111'a OtKOOUot1lJ1ata tOU yA.UKOU vepou sivoi XOA.UILOpq>a O"lWClVtlKa.IOtaitePll Kat OlK()ouonlJ1ata ttov A.tJ1VWV t600 ttov teXVl1Twv 000 Kat nov q>UOlKWV. q>Uo"lK6 To 11to A.iJ1Vl1e; A.ettoupyei aJ1€Oa oev OUA.eKtilP~ tIle; xavio~ tOU tozou, To I1pe~la vspc <pw)~eva vepu J1€yw.lle; KA.i~lOK~ Kat emtpexouv 0.0 ~WO VO XpOOap~lOOOUVUIIEoa
autU.

uvsin ~~et ore 'teXVTJtotoxio tile; tTJe; A.i~lVTJe;; eiVOt rnv q>UOT)oix; os r

Koo:ooOoopUKl1e;, r., To Kei~LEVatOU KeVtpou 1tA.11POq>6p11011e; DpeO"x~. eKo. Etmpln Ilpoorcotc; t11e; ITp~,o1tci>v,l\y1Oe;;repJ1av6e;; 1995 I1p(>ypaJ1J1a Life, ITeptOXll A.iJ1Vlle;; DA.aotllPa., AN.KA, Kapol'toa 1994 ~lia mA.ottKll aelq>oplKl'l tonplotlKll 1tapEJ1~aOT),

eKo.

112Tn vepa tooV A.tP.VWv eiv!ll Kat ru zepicoorspo euaioOl1tU vspc !lq>OUtl otatlKOtlltU tou; oev tOue;; emr.penel mv avaveooOT). 'Etm avtigeto ue tu vepa tOU xotonou, vspn nou ovcverovovnn Kat 1tOUEXOUV til OUVat6'tT)ta autOKa9aptCJJ1ou roue ru vspu tIle; A.i~lVlle;; ivm 1tPOpA.IHlattKU orev 0 av9poo1toe;; s oup.neptq>epetat ~iata 1tavoo tOue;. XPlOtOUA.~, 6. X, PfutClVOT) ov UOcltooVKOl ClVtlpuxClVtlKll tEXVOA.0yLa. KO.LWL~lewv, A911va1991 n E 113 To Vll<ri OxA.6v eva ax6 ta ~l£yaA.utepa vuotn t11<;A.i~lVlle; a'lKaA.11C; XOTEA.eOe B U Kataq>Uyto 1tOA.A.WV l:a~lavooV-LEpeoov tIl<; apXai~ avt~llottKile;; Opl10Kei~ tile; LlPl1PL~.
Experiment, Matoe;;-IouVloe;; 1996 teUXoe;;30 EtOe;;30.

114To nept~61lto ePYOOtaOlO 1tapayooylle;; KUttapLV11e;; tO M1taIKaA.OK eow Kat 30 xrovta Oq>llvet 1tUKVa O J1atlpa oUvveq>a KWtVOUax6 tn \jIllAa q>ouycipa tOU KataOtpeq>oVt~ ru rUpoo 0cl0"l1J1€ rnv 6~tVTJ~pOXll
11:01m~apUVOVta; Go~apa to OlKOm)(rtlUla 'tll~ t.i~1V11<;. 8

Experiment, Mmoe;;-Iouvtoe;; 1996 teuxoe;; 30 etOe;;30

43

','

H K(na:t(I~Yj tou q>pa:y~(ItO<; ava~tI::a(I ctu toropucc otuDta rou Gutking sivut 7IpOBllULanKl'l. H I-lOP<Pl~'t11<;1[apf:~~aOl1r; eivat B,lllla'YLari alA.ui;:sL O(I(pWC;I'l" eVVOlOA.OYlK11~lOP<Pll1:01) XWPOll. H .roape).LJ3aml evOS <ppa:y~aros 01'11 <pi. all (lV(l(pepSral EVVOlOA.OytKCt ornv OLa<popa 'tOU vspou. Ta vspa. tOU 1tota~0'0 aAA.a~01)V Ka,l ra noJ..1arrlu 6pta nou O1ULUtOOOtEl 1'0 cppan~a 01UllOUPYOUV nr; aouy€xelS<; ~ou vspou LOU no"(;a.~lOU Kat l'OU VEPOl) 1'11S li~LV1K Onwc; eloa~u:: (11:0 rrupnrravco K8C:PCtAUlO ownc;, 11 1illVll ucpopCt Eva (pv ..6~evo tonic 'YLU "CO oXEOtaO~L6 1:0\) a.v8pw1!lvOU '7tli:ptJ3aJJ..ovl'o~ svro mac; '7tota~l6c; EVExSt n6UOllS Kat Ola<pOrettKOl)<; KlV8l!VOUC;. H A,i~tVll7t0\) omttoupyeh:at a1t6 to 1:eXVlKO epyo Sev eivm ~lta ~LOlllo~leVl1 1i~lV'1, aA.lea eivrn ~La li!!vl1 i:t~to1[Ol~atf1l1atOellttKa, OlKOA.oytKa (ue 1:l1V K'Ut6.U'ltc11 u7to80~ni), oxeOlUOLtKCt aA.M. Kat 'to'upla1:lKa. Tin 61oue; au'tOl)C; 'tOl1e; A.oyouC; '1 OlULlO'l)p'yiCt 'COt} cppanLCtW<; osv I-lnopei. va Kutal'ayei. UKPU:U ow rpito o'tci8lo 1:01)Gutking a11a ~l{iJ" v OK67ttl-lO sivct vn 'to t<atO.'ta~oll!!E .. o Klino\) avCtl-leaa am tpiro Kat 1:0 t€tapw 0.<:10l0 onou to <pPCt'HLU EmSpa J3iata orov 1tEptJ3uA.A.ovta X<bpo rou av9pO:l1IO"t) cvnnpoorozeuovrcc; O~lW~ ralltox.pova EKc.ppaml OlKOA.OYlKliC; eou ;({)11o"l)<;.

'Eva 'tBX"lKO ipyo J!.7t0pf:i vn tl1Co'tf./.i:o'l:L (l7tp{IIT~IE\'(l, OU(uto'YU\ll i:K(rp1lI.Tll rou (LVOPW7tOl)G'TIl" <J)lHJll. 1:'"1 <J)o)'toypatpia tp(t)).lEC; CslsK(lwIH' 7t(l\'(o (l'I: ITTlllm)<; 1:11<; 1 AEH. (tpmT. apx£uJ\l 0. lIapo:nO,jTll)· ..

44 Icrropuca crra~hClKClTa Guttking
l:'teXOlCl 10 O'taolO, 0 <p6J30r;'tOU av9pcimou wrevavn 0'tl1 cpU01'I. 20 O'tclOlO, avamuoo6~ ClUt01re7tOi9t]01l tOU av8pcimou cpUcnt
0'tl1

AiJ.1vec; Ilponorove; J(olv6n],tec,; A~'t&J(Ol-T evOtonMlv, 'l'apaoec; Kat xropwnKa amtlCl

nu.. acuvcrcovuaspu

30 O'tclOlO, m$oA.li tOU av9pcimou Wt&vavn 0'tl1 cpU01l

MOA.UOJ.1&vEc,; A.iJ.1ver;-BatKaA.l')' A1tO~lipClVCJl1A.tJ.1vO>v, KataoKruTJ ev6c,; q>paYJ.1atoc,;

40 cnclOlO, OlKOA.oyt.KTj 'ta01l tOU O av9pcimou wrevavtlO'tl1 q>u01l.

npoatatrunKTj avtlJ.1etoom01l tOU av9pci>1tOU wt&vavtl ore olKoauatliJ.1ata trov A.lJ.1VOOV AeltOupyia Kat OlClxeiPlO1l ev6c,; q>paYJ.1atot;; Kat tOU xeptj3WJ..ovta xoopou tOU

Fin va ~£lClviJoOUJ.1e ClUtTJ t11 J.1Ellt11 E~etO:~OUJ.1Eto ;,evlKO J.1epot;; nov KataoKruoov Kal ta atOlXEia 'ta O1tOia 1tPOKU1ttooV a7t6 aute<;. AKOA.ou9rot;; 1tapagetOUJ.1E rnv 1tEpurtroOlOAoyia 060 q>payJ.1O:'trov erov EU11VlKO xoopo Kat ~Eta~OUJ.1E 7tOO<; uta A.EttOupyOUv. TdlKa E~eta~OUJ.1E a m9avit J.1E90ooA.oyia ylCl va avaOE~OUJ.1E to avappu9J.1l0nKO q>paYJ.1a t11t;;Ayia<; Bap(3apat;; eov WJ..o 't01t601lJ.1O 'tOO VOJ.1OU. H auVOA.lKTj J.1E90ooA.oyia trov atOxrov evo<; q>paYJ.1atOC;; ~eta~etat a7t6 t11 Muiixou . H MlJ.1iKOU E avaq>epEl: "aEOOJ.1&vou on to VEpO stvm 011J.10010 aya90 aivm 1tpoq>avec; on j3aatKOC; 'YevtKa atOXOC; Ka9E ~101tOi11aTjt;; Kat owxeiptaTjt;; sivm 11 J3dtiro01l t11C;av9pOO1ttVl}C;~rolic;.. Be(3aw 6tav ~EtOtKruetat ClUrOc;0 yevtKoc;aowJ.1q>toPlit11toC; OtoXOC; auxYa 1tapoUata~Etat otaq>rovia J.1etaO> J.1EA.et11tchv 'YlCln 11 KaA.TJ 1tOt6tl1ta ~roTJC;O1lJ.1aivEl OWq>OPEttKO: 1tpaYJ.1ata yw OWq>OpetlKoUt;; av8pcimouc;". H aw9t]nKTj ~101tOi1101l ev6C;; q>paYJ.1atOC;; KatataOoetat aVaJ.1EOa atOUC; U1tOKa'taO'ta'touc; OK07tOUC;IIS. Ti' a1lto A.outOV 11 0XEolaonKTj ypaJ.1J.1li 1tOU zporetvouue avaq>i:petat emv EKJ.1et<ill.ru01l 'tOO xeoiou 1tOU 011J.1WUPYeito q>paYJ.1a xropic; va 1tapeJ.1(3aivEl Ka9oAou at1.C; A.Ettoupyiec; Kat ornv aA.A.a'Yll t11c,; OOJ.1lic,;OU toiou tau q>paYJ.1atoc,;. 01. A.UOEtc,; t 1tpOtEivOvta1. ouv E1tUtpOo9etTJ ~ tau 1tEptj3alJ..ovta xropou 0t11v J(ataoKruli tOU tOU qJpclyJ.1atoc,;I16.

wwu

liS H MtJ.1iKOUavacptJ)Sl On tvat; U1tOlCa'taatatOC; OKOXOc;, uxva ~xopEi va E~U7t11PEtEi tEploo6tepo o 1 mt6 tva '}'MKO OK01tO.E1tEtOtl crow ~AttTJ tWV OKOXWV <n:0xc.ovevo; <ppay~a'tOC; E~E"tru;OU~ xpcilta 1CCl1 Kat 1C6pw toue; avtl1CelJl£VlK~ alC~ yiVEtat xpocmaO£la 11 ~AttTJ ttov Xap£AKO~c.oV <n:oxc.ov'tOU tpyou va J.1TJV1tT)J)Sru;&t £ 'tDUe;avtlK&t~ICOUc; OK01tOUC; nUa va Emtpt7tEl tTJVtCllnoxpOVT) ~t01toiTJait tOUC;.

MtJ.liKOU,M., T&xvoAoyia OUatT)J.lUtrov uoanlCwv XOpc.ov,EICO.I1axaoc.ot1lpiou, A91\va 1994
II~esign of arch dams, A Water Resourses Techcnical Publication, tICO. United States department of interior, Denver 1977

45
• TI£ptBo)J.ovnK£<;-Ou<oA.oytKeS bPOOtllPlCrnrres yllPW an:' rov rcqueurnpo. Orro»; txou~le n:et 0 A.t~voio<; xwpo<; sivct q)lJ.6~evos Kat yta roy o.Vt)pWiW Kat Yla ru; opaor11PlOtl1re<; rou. H texvrl'tll A.i~v111 nops] aVo.A.oya us 1'0 m:ptBo.A./.ov rrou 'tl1 cptJ~o~ev£i unopsi vc crlwarob0nl0£l u to KW .. ouu ron av8po)TC01) GtO\' xwpo tlK Ltl1V rc£pimwo11 ,(11~)-i~lV11~ OOt11PO rc£paoav s 20 XPOVtO ~c:.o. tllv 811~wupyia tOU £P(01) yta va avamux.0£i lln:ooo~l1i rsrotn nou vu £m,p£n:£t etlKOA.111tpOoBoGll O£ mrro (oooxouec). AKO)..Ollt)WC;~le),erCnat 11 n:eptBa)J.ovrtKl'J aVo.1tm~ll tll<; 1t£ptO;oiC;, H n:eptBa)) ..ovnxq avan:1'u~11 tl1C; n:£PlOX1l<;on:wC; 0ll1'l1 nporaivsrm uno roue ~£).etl1te~ yiv£tat ue OIKO).OYtKa novommo, rreipcurmxouc . aypOllC; opyavtKl'Js KaUtepyetaC;, UOPOBWA.oytKOl)C;omO~Olle;, opvcvoxm aVU\IJ1)X1'l~aepa{:l) ..rrncuo, op£lBaoia, Kw1t11A.aoia, tOtto1tA.ota, opetfkmxo rcool1)~a'tO, an:oKaruoraGl]-en:aVUXlJT1011 n:apabomaKOll xnpiou, 1tav~:mOtll~laKO oaoo~. 'O)..a cure Kat ~qLOvw~ltva 'to Kath; tva ~eXWPto.o. emrperrouv rnv nsupopo aVo.mll~11 tllC; 1t£PIOX11C; oxeolao~lev11. 1to.VWKat' oucio KOt Oxt om)..a, 0.0 1t£oio- )"i~l1,'11-

m..

nA.c:UOll ue ~tKPo. oKacp11. Tin vu yivet nuro o rcqueunjpc«; 1tpen:et va £Xel ~ltKP11 OtaKll~aVGll cmiOp11C;. Kat yevlKu vn £x£t 1tpoB)..£cp()ei 1'] an:O\i/iA.W(j]'1 ron. r£VtKo. O~LWe; 11n:A.etlcrll ~le ~llKPo. OKo.CP11 OtO cppo.ypo bev ouvictcrot ytati tva '(£WIO '(£;(\'tKO £pyo ev£xet1tOntc; 1tayio£c;. Oi n:ayib£C; Oll'tes ouvicrcvrrn ow y£yovoC; Ott o'ta cppan1am Ka'(u xovovn bEV 1tPOpA.t1tEml 11 nno~liA.0)011 rou rcqusurqpu. T a svcorousivovto beBUPK£~ J1fua 0'£ TUJ1lt.'lTItpfL(n1lY1l: Design of arch dams, 1977) vrpo yivov'tat urrin Bu8tolle; tcov oxcecov. To y£yovo~ om cppaY~lata exoWle £VlOV11btaKU~taVoll rou vspou K6.vet OUOKO)..O oxouc Kat 'tOY1tpOOOtOPtO~lO '(W\, 1tPOBA.1HtanKcJlV 01HlSi(j)\, T11~Ai~V1K TTap6.8Etypa tll<; nayioo<; <ppo.y~atOC; eivm TO cppa.nta nJ.. orupc ow onoio afl£ows p£'ta. 't11v Ka.aoKw~ n tOU Ka'tw oXc:80v a1to ave~txviaG.£e; OUV(h"lKS:;vauuY110e 10 Bratt! Ille; 1tPWTOXl)OVtae;ron 1959 eva KatKt ue 23 avO PW1tOU Msrc an:o onro tu apOpa rcov ecp1Hl£pibWV .lle; E1to;oie; e;. 1tPOBA11patisovmv Ylaw 1toiee; BarKee; Oa 11m\' Kar6.U11) ..Ee; yta III liftV'1- Av Kat exouv nspncet OXeMv 30 XPOVta Kat 11 AillV11 tXEt a~lorc01110ei rcO)"l) 010\' 1t£pIBu)J.ovta xwpo .11~ oev eivrn aKO~La CPtA.6~£\O"l 'to OK6.CP11. '0 ftCJJe; 11tt.dIG11 T11e;).ifl \,11~ W: xuvo 11 Kayto.K, yta 117 1 , I: ,118 etvat ouvanl . • KO)..1.l~BllttKec; opaotl']ptOIl1n:e; 0't11 ).i~tV11. Ot te;(\'11t£<; )"l~lve:; OE\' civet Ol Kata)J.l1' ..0'tEPE<; yta rsroie; 0Poo.llPtOtl'].Ee;. Auto sivcr xnrcvonto nv oxeqrrouue on orov GxebtOopo ~tae; )..if1Vlle;1to)"llC; oope; U1to).oyiSOU~lE olacpuy£~ Kat ui5pO)'11\Vis~ ron vspou. H rc£piTCLW011 Ka.a

117

NEo,;

Aywv,

Kap6haa

21 lcvouoplou

19GO

To KaAOIcaipL,(OD 1997 OUO mcoun nrouc txacrav 111 (0)1'1 roix; fltau a1lj HflVlj npomwflwvra;; vu WaptWODV ftE BapKa. 01 vromot KCt.lOlKOl an:08i60lJ\' TO yc:yo\'oc; mrro am 8£\,Tpa nOD tX.ODV ueivsi anl

l..il1Vl1118

Aoo» 10 1tA.c:ODf1£Va mrrn eivm rrpaK'tlKcJ)<; ar)llO[GW xrn W~l&cllom'

fIe

fllKpt'l WXD111W.

46
'tllvo1COiu 0 KOA1)llPllnlS1t£Oct UB Iliu 't"e~oll::r.oLUCPUY11, UPKBTo. ~l&yo.lll roots VU Oll!..ttOUP'YBl 'oiV1l,~1top~i VaiivaL onaVLa alA.a5~vvo)il~LOn:()tci\)llaa.B Vr.qul\/>'t"11laBalvOl*c un:' 0W1l IY . ((t)1:o to lOyO eay e1tttP~1C01jl1&TtS OpctG't"llPlO't"ll"[ESaUTe.;, oK6m.~lO sivm vn ru; C1Cl1:pE1COUlle .... q.E.~a. ftEP10PlO~iwo K~Lite)._ctl1id:vo yta~nlV. cucr1:a0iia T01) VepOD xwr:io. 'A)')c(), Heliu to Q%oto n;pOiU1ttei'Y~a 'tllXPi)QllUl.lt'ilti.V(ll 01:Lam 1Capo.Kna rrov WX\ll1:ci)VlWvwv EXOl)j.1EySVtKo. ."evtovrL'£ilv 1tQl)o'o,aia 60ctCPLKO\) ·KaADj.l~tatO'; nA01')o'tOl.)OC;.apyD..o1.)t;..'Me 'Ill. oli~llOUP'YiaT"t; .·li~Vrlt;}6 EOUCPl~OKaAuJlllayhiemli~(mllKm am6t; n:(),)BEi~l vc J(oluJt7tllael avaYKul;;e-rat '" va13projl.iOE.l Katva13oU't"llxtcide cUltl1· I>Cll liIlVll" nAa.01:11pa· atllV npooltaGeui vc k(ttctokEuUo1:ei. xwpm;ctva\l!llXllS jlEOa 0'1:0 vepcsvu ~tlKPO j.lepos TOU reapuKttou ltpaVO\lt; eix,&enevou(lei ~e .HaA.cXO'ol€<; KpoKaAet;.A6ywoJ;.lcOS t1l; anor:Otl1)t; Klidllt; '(01)npaVODt; 01 ······KpOlcalet; ((1)t£S··K(mi~UeU;ovtat·mov m\(-)~lE\ta 1:11t;·Aip.\/11~~Leypli'Yopo\)t; ·pi.)e~tODt;.tK67tlJ!O· Oa fttaV60tav Erct0uJlQUlt6 tE1:010\) etOOut;opaO't11Pto-t11taS Vet. KctTacrKe\.laSOV1:av 1CCipo.Ktta ]i$ylli~ ne<ODll~Ma:t{;J!Iata rconoisvc aKOA01ilO\)\/QIvO TO e()po.; t11~OtWcU~tavO'rj~ 't"l1<; d't6.8~1l.<;.Ta )l:laTwlla.'tct a'Uta Ga ,..'reOpOlloaV.vadvtxt l ano Jl7ter6v u'A)'.i:J.. Kalll1:epa uno nEtpa it 9)10: Iy1U:l~p6ta:(J11 Tllt;li)~l]t; atHllS aVmpE[1etat mo l(o.tO) O'TOcppay).1U 1:11<; Ay. BapBapw;. tnJ;.leiow O1ioiQ n:pe1t£t V(i npocrex0et otl1 lil011 eivot n npocruotc "[WV1IAarW).LaTWV cero n.; apyiADVS1[()U eaepXOV1:Ul uvanocpEl)Kr:~ ~lW~ areo BpOXE(;.· '. • ' [laVa a~toi't(nlleOUV Ot napelK6~lEVOL cn6x.OteV6r;cppiinLCl1:Ot; sivrn OKOn:1).1O ureo.pxouv va a~tOGEatuo'w CPpo.Y~la.'Eya <ppo.ht:U,eKTOt; are6rllv iOtUt01J t11" J(ct1:aol(cuij Kat tOY :m!ItetltllPU oS\! npoocpepBl 1:1r;.an:apal1:111:er; "el\re/"li~E1<;" rtou annrrouvtrn Yla va 1:0 KavODv ,eAKUottKo~BPO 0'1:0.etlp1J xowo. Tu; eKftil1~Elt; aU"[EC;~m:opOl)JLe O~lCOt; c 1:1t;0mUoupyllOOU!I6. v OtE1C1U.i)l;eu; ofo.Eva cPpqyJ;.la. IlnoP01W va vlvouv ano KClmoKe\.)~r; nou Oa elvalOxeOLUGj.1Eve<;

!fE-O'u otovspo.
01 KamoKClHlO"ttKEe; A\)08t<; p.eoa 0'1:0 vepo (nel;;o"(ECPU PEt;-KaA\) Bee;) O'l'l~tepU anoT8lo1JV .YEVtKc1 "aa\lV1lOtO'n:t; Kat a~tOE)f:UtEC; All6.ett; .. E1:0 CPpo.Ylla i:XOUjlE, nOAU1:E1Ela va et~tOreNOl)).Le ta cptA.6l;eva vepa 1:11<; 'AtIlV11S.yta rstoto» .. cLaQut; KamdKe\.lEt; mOws . ercimlt;. va '. Ht; Katct6KEUo.~01W6 nptv 'C11v n111PWOll 1:01) ialllCl)nlpa us

'.
.i

..'

Y!X!t-eliQ."do;{

Kul'lfttS

ELl\OVIl ilVptI.lLV(lt1l'o).fl

.. .." . Ht 'p~ .[in.OXt\. Ii' . ... .'. r-' . . .·qn f 'to "tp6 .oi)!) 1l'f;Pl7t't'{O(l'I;t~tl£kitl.1)~~ 1tlill1tPOSI!\'fi l1!{r~'t'(titK~;\)l\ -rl1S. TTl" 1flOav6vu,tfJv ;'XQWHP'ftK(ltr.l(r'iq;~lI·:C; 1t.CHl'~P~fI'l(O\iTfll !Jlf;rm.(I''t'llvtpa TOll '.

, <vpnYf.u1'toc; (1tl1yft: NntiollalGi:mgl'al~hic,Fcb

1993)

.

.

47

H Ollilacria 1tOU oivet 11 crUrXPOVTJ1tOA.t'teia yta 'to vspo Kat mv evspyein KaOtcrtu 'to CPPuYlla IlVTJllemKo epyo ym 'tTJ crUrXPOVTJurropic. 0 Rossi A.€et yta 'to 1lV11lleio "sivm Ilaprupia 'tTJ~ cru~l.oytJOi~ Oa11CJ11t;; tOU eKcppu~e'tal Ilecra a1to 'tl~ apxet;; 'tTJ~ apXl'tElCtOvlld)t;;119, Ellcpav~e'tal ro~ 1 1tpOl'tOYEVe~ crtOlxeio I20, ro~ cr'taOepo CJ11J.lEio " 0 Rossi Ka'taA.tlYEt UyOVta~ on " ... at)'tet;; ot ... apx.e~ Kal Ol llE'ta'tpo~ 'tTJC; 1tpaYJ.la'tlKo'tTJta~ a1to'teA.ol)V 'tTJ OOJ.ltl 'tTJ~ avOp<i>1ttVTJC; 011J.llOupyia~"121 . To CPPuYlla eivrn Ilaprupia 'tTJ~ (ruJJ...oytld)~ O£A11CJ11~cpol) CPPuYJ.la'ta KatacrKeuu~oV'tav a 7tUVta a1t6 tOU~ 011llocrlOu~ cpope~ tl aUtou~ 1tOll eeropoUVtaV crnt;; intopuce; cruy1Cl)pie~ 0111l0crlOt cpope~. A1tOJ.l&vet ym va xapalC'tTJpicroullE 'to CPPuYlla J.lVTJJ.leiova E~e'tucrOllIlE Ka'tu zoco auto eKcpput,;E'talllecra a1t6 't~ apxe~ 'tTJ~apXltEKtOVtld)e; Kat KatU nooo Eival1tpro'tOYEVec; crtotxEio. H atcr011'tlJOi-apXl'tElCtOVtld) E1tE~Epyacria EVO~uvnxstusvou eivot J.lla KatU cruvOtlKTJ 1tOA.u't&M:ta 11 onoin oev 1l1tOpEi va 1tel Kaveic; on unopsi vn eivm TO 1tpffi'taPxtKO ~Lf:A.1']~La J.ltac; xowrovim; Eivnt 1tpocpavEt;; on 0 uvepro1tO~ 1tpwta xctucxeucce uic KaM~a yta va xcrouoioet Kat IlEtU 011lltoUpyrJcre 'tOY napOevwva. H xorvorvic npxeinn va KaA;ll\jle1 1tpwta ru; ullEcrec; avuYKEC; t~ Kal Iletu va e~etucret av 0 'tP01tO~ nou Oa to KUVEt eivm atcr811ttKU opeo~ 1tpuYJ.la 1tOll Sa to KUvet, 01[O)C; Utajl£, 1l0VO ce 1teptOOOllt;;1181K11C; e Kal1toA.tt1cr~llK11C;aV<l1ttlI~IK Ta CPPuYlla'ta etvoi yevlKu 1l<lA.A.oV1tapaJ.lEA.1lJ.leva uno atcr81']'ttK11C; a1t6\j/effiC;. AUto stvm 1tpocpavee; acpoo 1tOtE OEV Oa KatacrKEllucrot)IlE eva CPPuYlla E1tE10l1 eivm ropnio aA.A.U YLa'ti e9>1tllPEtei KOlVroVlK~ avuYKe~, UOPeL)cr11,upoencrl1, 1tapaYffiYli~ EVepyE1U<;.rEYov6~ Eivat OJ.lOO~ 1[0)~ KaO' 01..11'tTJ OlupKeta 'tTJe;lcr'topiae; 1'] avOpro1tOnlta KatacrKtilacrE KOIVroCPEA.tl IlEYUA.a Epya uopaycoyeia ayope~ tu onoin tltaVE atcrOl1nKu notonxn. Ta tEA.eLltaia xpovla 11 VOJ.108Ecria erctr3aM 'tTJV atcr01']'tlJOi 1tapUJ.le'tpO nov J.lEYu/..(J)v epyffiv uson ozo 'to vOJ.locrxeoto Yla to 1tEPlPUA.WV Eroi V0J.llJ.l01t0111011KaJ.lE IltA.U~lE Kat Y1a rnv atcrOl1nK11 uov cppaYIlU'twv. Oruv vu evtU~OUJ.lE oro crxeOtacrllo Kat at>t11 tIl 1tapUJ.letpO eVoe; cpPuY~latOC;, oi Ka'tacrKeLlee; all'te<; criyoupa Oa Q1tO'tEA.€crOUV CJ11J.laVtlKU~lVTJIlEiatOU crllYXPOVOll1tOAttlcr~LO\I. H crTIllavttKO'tTJtatov KatacrKeuwv uzopet ti)KoAa va KataV0118Ei av E~etUcrOUJ.lE mv KAillaKu roix; To CPPuYlla eivat 11 Ka'tacrKeLJ111ton KOVtapOxnl1t1€tat OtapKWe; ue 'tll cpuCJ11To CPPuYJ.la eivui tpyo 1tOU J.l1tOpei Kal aVaJ.lE'tpu'tal J.lE 'tl1V cnepcvtocovn tcov ~OllVWV Kun nou 1t64~ OAOKA.11pec;OOcrKOA.a 'to Katacpepvollv. Km oruv to Katacpepvollv 7tote OEV a1tOlCtOUV 'tTJ cruvOe'ttJOi tcoppozin tOU atcr011tlK01) a1tOteA.f:cr~La'tOC; EVOC; PpclY~La'tOe;. C 'Eva CJ11J.lav'tlKo apXl'tEK'tOVtKU crtotXeLO tOU cpPuY~latOC; sivm Kat 110l7tA11CPUCJ11 To CPPuYlla tOU. crav ytcpupa, Ilia 4ltoupyia 1tOU1tOAA.€e; cpope~ rn cppUn1ata OteK01KO\)V, nvuqiepetut 01[0)<;opi~Et o Venturi oro "Kal to eva Kat 'to uAw" ornv crXeCJ11on J.lepOUe;7tpoC; 'to 01..0. To crtOlXElo autO r 1l1tOpEi va cpaivEtat P11'tOPlKO nno uin U1tO\jIl1, aAA.a scccov eivat &yKUpO o ' eva aAA.o e7tUtEOO eJ.l7tA.out~Et to V011J.latov~oV'tac; eva J.lEpOC;OU122. t rEVtlC<l1tUvtroC; OtTJv KatacrKeLltl EVOC; cppUnlatOC; OEV J.l7tOPO\IJ.lE va eiueors tOlaitepa Q7tal'tTJtlKO~ J.ltU<;Kal ym A6youc; acrcpa4iac;, 1tOU empUA.AoVtat a1to tIl yerowyia, 'tTJ 1l0pcpoA.oyia

II90-Otav eva OOJ.ll1CO crtOtxeio 1tPOlcU7ttEt~LOVO ota'tlKll ~LeAttl1 OEVsivci Kat' avaYKll <lP)Cl'tEIC'tOVtKO 00t0 £pyo av OEV£J(Et1tPOOEyytcrtei ato911ttKa. 1200:rO XpwtOYEVEr;; totxE10 9a ~lxOpOUOa!IEvu to avtIAl1CPOOll!LEav to OO!lLKO O o TImo 1[01) 01HLtoupyEhat OE J.lla tcrtoptKiJ OUY1C\)piaa<j>cn> £J(EIaq>O~lol<i>oEl tl11tp01lYOU~IEV11 01..11 elL1tElpia Kal OOtO EKe{!Cat UO'tEpa E1tavaAaJ.l.~aW:'tUll1 OOtOtEAEt 011J.lEtO avaq>opa.c;- otaOepo onusio. 12lRossi. A., H <lP)CltEIC'tOVlKTJ 1tOA11<;, tllt; EKo.Universary Studio Press, 0EOO'aAoViKl]1996 I22Venturi, R, H 1toA.uwK6'Ol'ta Kat 11 avriq>acnl (J'OlV ClflXl1EK'tOVlICli, J.l'tQl.rewpytoc; 1:. Ka't(JoUA.ll~, EKO.rEWP'Yl.Ot; . Kat(JoUl..1']C;,A9~VCl t

48
TOU c:oa<poU(; xm opi~oVTat uno ~lei~o\'oe; onucoicc Te;(\'OOtKO\'O~IlKa xpmjptn. cruxva oe\' £XOU!Ie TIl Suvcrornrc va em.l£~Ol)~le Tl1" KamcrKetn'1 e\'OC; (jlpanWTOC; Kat cv KaT! civet copnio eivm ytati npOKU1ttcl. T11V aKOAOuHia m>tll '[CD\' ~LOp(jlWV ,[11\' etCJl'rrayav ot uovrepvicre; ~le 1:l1V P1'ICJT] "form follows function", AC; e~eTacrou~le A.omov TI rtpoxurrret. Ano TTlV KaTacrKcuij EVOe; <PPUY~lU1;Oe; npOK1)1{'[QUV rps«; BaCJtKOl atcr0111:lKOl crUVTeAW'[£e;, To vspo, 0 neplBuANwV xwpoe; ylJPro an' '[Q <ppaypa KaOwe; Kat 11 iota 11 KamcrKellll tOU <ppUntaTOe; ..

To. vepn Troy At!IYWV anon:A.01JV
Ta~ltcuTijpU(; 01tOlaoijllme

mwaY1:lKOll<; Q'l)Vn:A.w'[s<; atcrB111:lK11<; a~ia<;, 0 TeXV1']TOe; non npoxumst uno 1:0 <ppuY~ta YeVIKU Ot:\' SXet va ~l1A£\Vel crt: tinom cno rnv CPUOlKll A.i!IVll123.124

Ll:: ouvdprncn us TOV CPUcrtKO nA.oll1:o nou unopsi va U1taPXel napUKna '[lIe; A.i~lV11e;, OWV yLU 1tCIPUOetYlla 0 WlllcUt11pa<; 011~llOllpyeirat os ~111A.0U\IJO~letpO ftc aypta Kat £V1:OV11BA.Ucr1:l10'l1, 11 A.lllVll Ila~l Ile 'to cppaYlla IlnOPOllV va a1toteA.E:crou\, a~LOO£am rtou nzropouv va a~I01tOt11eO'lJV 125 aKoll11 Kat TOUpm1:lKa •

mAmo ~ePCliwe; crufl~aiVet IlOVO orcv 0 xwroe; Y1')p(J)coto aUTO" Sumjpei rc cpl)(JtKa 1(al Ssv £xelnar£fl~et I] 1(amO'Keu1i tOU (jlraYlla'[o~ O'tO ,[01ttO (oaveIOOw.allOl-gl1llitc) o1)vo/.6 t01), wJa exa 1tar£FBet IlO\'O O'lwewKa KOVta O'tO cppaYlla. 1240 Ouai1.Vt

'[01)

xaraK1:l]ptartKa a)J.olwvOV'WC; to

ava<pzpet Y1a ne; AillVee;, "Lav 1tZOCl\'£ 0 NapKtcrooe; IlctClllOp<pW01]Ke 1] l..illV1] tl]e; xarac; t01), Kl (11[0 K\meUO yl..1)1(OU YepOU aU,a~e. Kat YElllOe a).lmpa o aKrllCl. Ki Ol ~puaOee; lip9ave KJ.,o.iyOVto.c; (11[' TO 50.00e;, Y'a vu T1]e; '[paYOUOI']OOUV xrn va '[I]V 1WPI]yopi]oouv. Kt alta eioave ltWe; 1] AiIlVll, (11[0 K\J1teI..A.OYAU1(OUVepOU IletallOr<PW01]Ke os K1l1teHO YCllatO a).lmpa OaKpua, cmOA.Uoav ne; 1tpaOWeC; 1tA.e~OUOee;nov IlaAAlWV rou; KCll(jlWV~ClV I().aiyo\'t~: _ ~ev 1tapa~eVEUO~laOte _ 'Htuvs ouopeo;
0

zou Op1]Vei~ JlC reroto rpoxo Yla to NapKIOOO Ilt(£\'£ t600 OllOpcpOe;,

NapKlO'OO~: PWt1]O£ I] '.[ll\'l],

_ Amo noio; ~l1[Opei va to ~£pcl Ka).lJtera ozo csvc; cmavt1]oav or ~puaoce;. Azo Il~ 7tClVtCl 1tpo(mepvouo£, un sosvn 1tavta ce ~lltClye Yla va ~a1tl.cil\'£l1t,.o.l con. vc 0'£ OaUlla~£l Kat va KaOpe<pti~et orov KaOpt<p1:l] tWV VepWV cou '[1]\, ouopqnn '[QU, Kat
I]

Ai ~lV1] cm6:vrq cs:
aLII" 6;(01] POU xut lIt: Koi'aSe.

_Eyw 0IlWC; aycm06cra to NapKLOGO, ytmi 0,(£\' ~a1t"wvo1U" orov KClOpt<Ptl] rorv uoruov tOU tl] blJ.."1ipOU ouopot«."

KCleptqm~a

Ouui.1.t, 0" H cr<piyyu oixwC; to aiVIY!lQ, PEt, reWPY, 0, Ma).tESOIl, 12:'07twC; Y'u 1tarUbetnlCl I] AillVl] ITAaOtl']pCl1tOU Oa tuv e~e'(aOO\)ll£

£KO, HplO(£\·6~. AOI'lva 1983 £Kt£VWC; ltapaKOtw.

49

"

I I

o TO:P.1tllnUlUC; TOll

011G(1)P01) (qxor, apxd.m) 0. n£lpunc'l\'T11)

Lll!-lOVw(6 ortueio orrtv ,"U;AE1:11apc:A.K6~.u::v(J)V crTOXwv TO ortoio rrpEm:l vn rrpocr€.xO€.L eivrn TO n yeyov6r;, ort ru vspc TOl) Ta!-ll£1.1T11paosv \mo.PXo\)\' KalU 111\' "Ldb:'l (O"WV crulll viverm nptv TI1V ol,oKATJProcrll rou EpyOl)). 'Etot exOD"L€.111VreOAlllEAtLa vo. crx£Olo.l;;o11"L£KaWcrlC€UEr;, nrrvr» 11 Kat flEcra ow vspo orev am6 areoucrlu~£L Ev J..lEP11npOBA11!-laUKO cnusio rrou EX€l crXEcrll Kat "U; TOV Xp6vo S(J)llt; rou EPYOU eivrn 11 !!11 ano~/iArocrll rcov 'ta"Lt€U'tllpmv. To. cpl1A.a "lEoa <HO vspo crareil;;ouv Kat vivovroa rpoqnj ym 'to. 'Vapla Kat toix; cvdrrspou; opycvtcnou; rem) 00. ~1100UV usoc crtll A.t~lVll ouo»; 'to. OEvrpa ano't€.AoUv 1to:yi.(kr;, Ot oaoisc KapaooK01)V usee crq A.t~LV1),orewr;, o.vo.cptpa~L£ ncpunrrvoi, acrol> oc.v cranil;,Ol.)v Kat 11 Ai!!Vll yiV€.'tUl arroyopEU1::1Kll cr1::11VrrOOEYYlcr11tllC;. r XapaKT11PLm:tKO t:(J)V vsrxov 'tCDV 't€.xvl1U))V At~lVWV sivut on sivrn lO),LY01::POCPlKU"126'Et:CH at 't€'X\'11t:Er;,A.i~LVer;, nou lO7[EPVOV'tat" "Le vovou; Il/OPlWV ron Y),1)K01) V£r01) o.Vo.re'T:l)OOOUV YP1'rYopa txEluaKu OtKO(J\)0t:11~L(l1::a.

:/

.

51

AllJ."'I
revU(cl

1:0>\1

Ima v vLv(Jw(q>o>t'.

r. &pnI(Orrm)f.CH;)

mivtw<;; '0 nepLB6.A.4nv ,Xwpo<;; yllPW em' TO <ppa.nLq, Kat TOV ra~Lteutlipo, tOta1:tspa O't11V <pCt<:Jl1 Ko,:taO'K81.)TJ~ tOU tj:lrm),o,V't:l~i.E1:CD1ti~C:l oopo,po 1tPO~?.11p,a:ta, MC:PLKO ana 1:0, 1tPoB?.ll)1etTo, rona., KtVTj0'11 Bo,psmv 0Xllf,10:r:(OV, 06puBoc;, OKOVll" eivrn O'a<pcil~ 1tPOOroPlvU, <i/"la o~troC;Eivat, }i.6Vl~let. M6vtp.et rcpoB'A.TJf,1o,'tU1:(J}\1En:qtBaoc:wv 'W\} avOpo)1to1i (x1t01:eA.OllV OL OCtveLOEluA.aIlOlKCU to gunite,

52

AavElo9ci.1..aJ101
Ot oavet08w.a~at 7tOU txauv xp110l~a1tat11eei yta to' epyo a1tOteA.ollV 1tpOKA1101l yta to' UptPWJ..ov tOtaitepa Otav nuroi axpllote\)OVtat Kat aqnivovtat Ot11V tl)XJl tOue;. Sa unopououus va cvnueromicouus OJ.l.OOe; oroororspc av q>povti~a~e va roue xapaKtllPioou~E. 1. 6avetOew.a~Ot 7tOU J3pi(J1covrat uson OtOV ta~iet)ritpa tOU epyou O€\I €\IOXAoUVKa90Aou tT)v KataoKetJi) ~ae;. 2. 6avst09w.aJ.10t 7tOU PpioKovrat OtOV uptJ3aA.Aovta xwpo tOU epyo'l) Kat epxovtat cs S1taq>l] J.1& Katvl] 8ta. rnv ~poU~e vc OtaKpivouJ.1& OlJC1tEpl1ttWOEte; • H upbrtro01l Kata. tT)v onoic 0 OaVEtOea.A.a~oc; ~1topEi vc J.1EtaoXll~a'ttotEi J.1&KataMllA.11 xro~ataupytKi) Ota~Pq>ro01l os Katt a.A.Ao,'Yta 1tapa.OEt'Y~a a~q>teEatptKO CtKtO~O J.1& 8ea OtT) AiJ.1V1l xwpoC; ava\jfUX'ie; Kat &Vll~epro01le;. i)

Eow

• H upbrtro01l

1tOU 08\1 J.11tOpei vn u1ta.p~et Ka1tOta Otaq>cpEtlKl1 XPl]01l tOU oavst09aA.6.~ (a1tOteA.si Kat TIl ouV1l9tcrtSP11 1tEpbrtroOll) ton: OK01tt~O sivci vc E1ttOtWKCUJ.1& mv €\Ioro~a.tro01l tOU 000' to ouvato 'YPllY0pOtEpa ~E tOY 1tEptJ3a.A.AoVtaxwpo. Auto EKtOe; a1t6 TIl q>UtaKa.A.U\jIT), osoic stvnt avaYKaia, ea unopouos vn yiVEt Kat ~E 1tpOO1ta9Eta E~O~a.A.UV01lC; 11 tT)e; 'YSO>~StpiaC; tau oaVStOeaAa~O'l) a1tevav'tt ornv <Pl)(J11.Na 01ta.yavE 011A.aOl] ta opic, 11 Kap1J<pl] tau oaVetceaM~O'l) nou Opi~El to' cr\)Vl19Ee;aJ.lq>lHeatpo tOU, Kat va 1tpa01taeal)Oa~E EtOt va rov aVtl~stro1tiO'aU~E 000 to Suvoro ouv €\Ilaio OW~ta a1tevaVtl ern <Pl)01l. Mia 1tp6t\l1t1l rsrotou eioouC; spyaoia EXaw EK1taVl10'El at Stockli, Kienast & Koeppel, 'Yta A.oyaptaO'~o TIle;Holderbank Cement und Beton AG (HC).128

r€\ltKa.1t6.vtroe; a up$WJ..ovtac;

exst ota1ttcrtro8si
xwpoC;

on y'Upro a1to ru q>paYJ.lata A.6yro tlle; evtOV11C;1tapouoiae; vspou ~ropai~Etat YPll'YCpOtEpa a1to rov O1lVlW11pUe~lO rou.

Gunite
AAAo 9EJ.1a to' onoio 1tpOKll1ttEl OtOV 1tEP1J3clAAOV'ta wpo 'WI.> spyou aivm 'to gunite, zou 7tO'A.A.&C; x <poP&c;ava'YKa~OJ.1aO'te va XP11OlJ.1O'1tatl]OOU~S va npoctursucouus eva 1tpavtc;. To gunite 'Yta ~7tOpoU~E va to' (1)vavti)O'au~E Kata. J3a01l 0'& rpsu; Kl)P1EC; LOP<PEC; ~ 1. Eudsiosta J.10pq>l].TO' 1tpavec; EXEt1taPEl tl1 J.lOP<Pl1 €\'oe; to'ixou 11 ~llac; cr\)VeEOllC;tOixrov. To al0'811ttKO taue; a7tOtEA.s0~a aVtlO'tatXEi Kcl1tffiC;J.lE ouro nov (1)V119110~evrov KataoKetJwv ~ae;. 2. i\:taKtT) ~op<pl]. T1'Jv ata~ia tT)C;KataoKetll1e;, orcv eivm O1lVO'AtKij,ea J.17topOUoe va tT) oet Kaveic; ccv oUwe<po 7tOU ~<l7tA.ro0'81ta.vro oro 13o\lvo. '01troc; sincus 11 <Pl)O'll08\1 sivrn taKttKij. 'Ercn J.11topEi etJKOA.OtEpa va OtaJ3a.~Sl ~op<pte; a.taKtSe; ono 07tOtO UAtKO Kat uv eivm. Sa unopouce EOW va O1l~Etroesi Ott O'K01tt~LO 11tav va OXEOta<;;otav srot to' gunite, WOtE va Oa O'1ta.'YavEta OPla. tOU, 11 S1ta<pl] ~E to <pU01KOromo. H OO'J.lroO'llt11e; KataoKetll1e; ~E t11 <puOll yUp<O tOU 8a tau 81tEtp&1tEva orexerm upuovncorspu 1ta.vro tll<;.

3. AtaKtT) ~op<pi) ~e ~OUA.sC;. Ftc va a1totovroOEi to' 1tpavtc; EXOUV01WLO'lJpyl19Ei 1t~OUA.sC;
avticrtotXSC; ~s autte; nou J3A.&1tOU~Ern xropaqnu. o l:av AUO'&tc; rnv avrt~&tro1ttOll tOU gunite npoteivovtur Ol e~lie;· lta • To gunite ~7tOpEi va avrtKataata9Ei ~s YSO>1tAEntata 1tOU EXOW O'a<proe;KaAl] sucovn a<pou J.1Ot6.~ow ~E xoptaptao~tvo 1tpavEe;. Auto o~lroe; unopsi vn yivet uovo otnv tXOU~E J.1tKP&c; diaetc; 1tpavouc;, Kat av tXOU~E 1tapcXl1 VEPOl) ~UKPli, xrop(e; <pEptU129•
128Stockli, Kienast & Koeppel, World of Enviromental design. Civil Engineering (Nature Conservation and Land Reclamation), Musital Quarry 1994, eKo. Francisco Asensio Cever, Barcelona 1995 12~et1on Limited, Civil Engineering Division, A Case Studyfor Protection, Severn Trent Water Authority, Lower Severn (Kidderminster) Ltd (contractor), UK, Autumn 1984., Witcombe Reservoir. Bank Erosion Divison (client), Birch Brothers

53
Av 0' xwpOC; nOD Dn:apXet to gunite eivrn EmCJKe\jIt~LOC;nno 10 1(01VO, ozrou urrapXEt TI ODva't"6nrca va Ka'tO.CJ1CcuaCJ't"ouv nE~Ol'>AcC; . ue qHJ1:OKCt}'1)\11l) al(6~la cHnoQUvClIiC:<; Ka'WOlCwec; (apXl'teKtOVtlCa n:(ilxvtOtCl O'tO gunite) nou vc OctxVouv on 'LO apyo exEt riVEl cvnxeiuevo C1.tOO'lnKf]c; enl;:~ePyaCJlac; OK01t:l~LOElVOl vn yivovtat. Evucvnxeiuevo nou BEY 'lln:op01)~le va 'to KplJ\j/oup.'e ~l1tOpOl)~l£ vn 'to KaA.A.(.Q1tlO-ou~eSeixvovtac; 'to, ea ~1topOUd'a~le /...omov ce gunite 'La oxolu sivm nnouovcousvo; cm6 nc; unoA.omec; Ka'tadlCweC; Ilac; va £1t€~BOU~lcxpOJHanKu wavCD rout; Mrtopouus vc 1tape~BOu~e nOlKtAo-cp01tWC; XP11ot~orrOtWvtac; atc'Aa xpw~la'tU mt~l£VLOU (rn onoic rtpbrct va eSEta.CJot*e ~111({J)C;~etWV01)V'tl)V aVl:OX'l rou) , AvaA6yror::, ~l6 1:11 ~lop(fn1 1tap£~lBa0l1C; 1) }"6011 rou gunite J.l1Wpet vn n:a.PEt nOAA.8c; Kat OlCl<pope:rucac; ~op<pec;. LK6ni~1O sivm va ~ei<aGapiOO\)~6 ~£ 1tota QltAocroq>ia napEIlBCliVEt 11 O1JYKeKpt~leVl1 Kai:aOK€ml gunite oro Xwpo av bl11caoll aVnnaA.e\lEtClt 'tll rpucn] Tj ev n:poCJ1tuS'ei vn B\IOCD~laT(J,)(1Et '6. Cl\ml. Av TO gunite <Jt11 (-leal) nou I3pioKetat 0 avtt'ttaE'LCll CJCl<pWC; n] QllJ011 oKom~LO sivru vc XPllOl~lo1CoLllcrO\]W; xpw~la'["(l 1[(lA£tUl; 1tO\] O ap}to~Ol)v OE ].lia 'Catcna Ko;tacrK81.n\. Avrillsru av 9SA.o\l).lE .va 'to npocupuocouue cs Cl\11:11 OlC01tlIlO sivm vo. XPllO't].lOrroll100\)Y 'Y~lva xp6)~lC1.ta (A.ouJcuKi wxpu) 1t01.) hcrPi)vOUY" 't11v KCltaoKwil 0:1:11 Qll)011130. H 1...1)011 101) BUll'i~LaTOC; 00; l'FClV erriO'llC; atOml ce gunite nou ~pidKov'tm oi1tA.u O''toQlPa.Yj.ia. Av E1tE~lPa:ivCl.~lE xpOJI.la't"IKu ow gunite ~leTa (2)u f:n:PE1tEVO; E1tS~lPOUW:: xrn os OAO to \)n:6A.ot1l:0 QlPUy~LU, Kun 'W 01tOlO elvot 6.tOrro UQlOll 11 KataO:K81.111 TOU (f}pay)!ct'j;OC; OlVctCt1tO ].lOV11n]~ uic cmVO),LlCliEllclKptVl; sucovc 11:01) bev \mapX£~ A.6yoC; vc 'tl1V anoCJ1:U eponouj OODus. 131 •

n

e

'

, j.

. 130H 'ltpOO7[Q0elU nou cixe riVEt va Baq>tel toguuite npa.<HVO KCI.:ICt ~qGl1 CruVQDClOEr«; ouo npotCiaw; ._XfJ1lcrt~101tOlWV1:ai; XfJcb!1d nexAS'ta<; yui vb. UcpC)llQlWOei Ile '[1t CP1HJ1\ Autot; Kat&' 'LOVypliqwvtu. stvoi lq:n 0 )..6yOt; nQu TJ npo(Jnu9wJ. CI.l.l1:11 ll11:eLi.lxc:· To gl.lDiie.1toU ~phjKE1:Ul 3{nA.ct <:ftO ~pCiyrul, ex!':. 1:11Ollvuton],ia; vo IqOppOnEi IloVO rou ILemV 7WplpOUovm x,wpo rou Kn1:eI zpdrco qialVEn:u on Ssv sivca licrXELO lIS til V AsttoVpytlCll Km:;nGKEU111:0U , cppttnu:u:pt; KeI'lt .nou 'LOU3tvel. V01UlntlKll mlVex,Wl. (nl" onqill to g(1l1i1C 0:1:11<Pl)all.1l11:6 }lOYO 1;01) osv eXEt) , KU1:eI O€utepo AQYWLilt; OOJS1HtEVI1~ \)ypa:oia<; 01:0 xwro r011 cppaYlla1:0C; Il€tU M6 KCm01ll W6Vtu qvll11:n)(JaOVL(lt rcuvw 'L.Ol)gUICl]!eC;non cHya (HYUto KaAl)7[1:01JV. C#~E 1:0\' xono vo; 81.Epeuvl1Gel Yla to 0a
1_, . . •

""

'

,,I.',

.

.:~ '.

ri _

'

' ,',

I.W

7l:t:OC; (Ja.lt1tOpoU~E va €7tttax.uvOei '1 8tO;bLKaGla (thtll.

.

'

54 L't11V A;UCJll v onoin uzopsl va npo"Ca(~ei. npenEL va eXOU~E nuvtu 1m' 0~/l1 "CU m VEPa. zrou ep'XoV'tal 0"6 enaCPit ~e'TIlv Ka"CucrKBt)it. L'{;(i, cnueic nou '1 KUmaKCl)ll tXEt EnuqHl ~E "CO vspo ol1~LOupyoUVtal Bpl)u KUl AElX11VEC; non uUa.~ouv .'1 ~lopql1i ron. A1)~11()11 "Cl1e;KtV1ltlKO"C111:W; amou tou yeyovo"COC;ea unopoucs vn anOTsAea£L ~ua O"OJO'''Cll EAKllanKa. (iEUKl) )"\)0'11YLa TIl" Kat lCutaaKCllll· H <Pl)tCU(Jl'j na.vOJ (no gunite us sapv'[tvLepsc; nptnsl va ano<pellyeml ~taC; Kat rc pt~ro~a'[a "COJV ourdrv unopsi va npOKa).,£O"ouv BAa.BEe;0""Cl1V KU"CUO"KEU11.

H KUTUGK&1)11

TOn

c:pp6:y~a"tor;

Ta Kp1ttlPla yta t11V E7ttAoYl1 rou nmou ron ·<ppa.nl(HOe; rron Oa xcrccxentroouus ElVUl xupio»; " ~Op(jloA.oykt 1:0U eMcpouc; '1 'YBwwyia KaHwc; Kat '1 otxovouucn BEA't1crnl A\)0"11rou tpyou. nOAAES cpopec; e~ anou Sev tXOU~lS 0uVato'[11ta EnlAoY'1C;tunou CflPa.y~aIOe; ~lLae; Kat '1 ~LOPCfloAoyia Kat tc xapan11plO"UKa. tau eM,cpOl.)e;sivci thoLa noll EnlBaA.01JV eva a'\l'YKeKpt~li:vo rimo cppaYI-lU1oc;.

wpa:yJ.1u't'u tt1t6 O'Kup6oellu
Ta <ppay~a:m xp"o"t~onotOU~e coto O"KUp60E~a eivrn ~lovoA.tJhKte; KU"CClO" KeuEC;. Oi KUptOn:pol eivca 1:U(ppa.nla"Ca Ba.pVt11We; Kat La TO~(j)ta (ppaY~LU'ta. runoi 1tOU

Tn cppa.y!!a1:a un6 O"KUp68qLCl AEl1:0UPYO\lV onv npwWyeV11 OO~llKa. GTOlxeia }.!tae; Kat ano"CSA.oUv'tUl M6 O'KUp686~la, nOll eivcn "CO KaT' e~oXllv 80~llKO lJA.tKO "COlI cnlru:;pa. To O"KUp68e}.!u aU't6 O"XBOOV naVm sivm OKlJpooqLa 1l~n1M)\I avtOXwv svro 0"£ apKs"Cec; 1teplmwCJ£tc; xorvorououv (J'[11V"C£xvoAO'YlKll"COlle; cpctNLOY1i. XapaKtllPlOTlKa. napa5£iY~lutu e eivm 'to Cflpay~a TIle; n).,m:a.voBp\)O'lle; ow nornuo Nscto (1J1t6 KataaK&111) KUOWe;enlO"lle; Kat "CO Arriaran orov noruuo Oria O"TI1V Ionnvic; To cppanlara nutu an:OtE/cOlIV n:pOJTOyevll O'LOtX€iu, cnusio ava<popctc;; cmv urropin .OJ\! KataO"KEnwv ~Ltae; Kat sivrn Ka"CClo"K£1)aO~lEVacno O"Kl)po6EI-la. us ~eyaA.ll nepl£K'ttKo'[llm 1:a(jlpac; (RCC). H tsopc a\l"Cli npoepX£Tat cno Ka'taAoma Al.'YVl"ClKWV epyoO"'[aairov napu'Y(O)'ll~ 'lA.eK"CplKlie; svep'YElCle;. H crlJV8wl1 1:11e;80~lLK1ie; KU'taGK£mic; ~E TIlv evepyBlu sivm ~OVa01K1l. To oKO\l1l:iot 't11e; ai.i/c11C; EVEPYEtaC; ~LOpcpon:Otli0"Ke. MOp(jlOnolTje"KE 'YOll1:CU"CtKU n6.vco

ron."

To (!)puYJ1(l nlS D).(t"t:av6{lpl)aTJS

(cp(i)'[. ClPXd(Hl 0. Hupcm()V'I11)

Tlporunr] Katao'KEU1l "C8tOtoU cppanlcnOe; anoTE)cel "CO Cflp&.ypa Arriaran GTO\! rrorcuo Oria G"C1lv Ionavin. Ilnvro O""CO (jlp6:y~et ex,onv KaletaK!;:lIaaTel OlIO y)c\)ma rtou tOvi.souv tuv icopponic xrn TO f.lVllf16taK6 xapuK'l:~pa tlV; KataoKS\)lie; Kat avaOEl!(VllQll\l t11 O"1Hl·aV"ClKo"Cllta. 1:1K

55
Ta CPPllrlla'ta atl'tCl WuWvWtO'teA.oilV Kae' OA.11 10\1<; 'ttl 001111 IlVllllelaKU Epya. To IlVlllletaKO arotxeio oro Arriaran 'toviafh1KE ax<'> ru yA.U1t'tUnou 011~Llo\lpyTJfl11KaV nuvw a111 ari:'I'l1 ton. l:111v ID.a'tav6PPUOl1 ti:tOta np6j3A.EIjITJ Sev lmupxel aUu 0 ~lVllJletaKo<; xapaK'rilpa<; neptcppoopei'tat axO to YF:'(ovoc;,on sivct 'to JlF:'(aA.lm;po JlEx.pl mlJlepa CPPuYJla erov K6aJlO wt6 RCC. rF:'(ov6C; Eivat 7t(Xvtwc;,on i:pya reroiou PeA.l_lVEKoUe; 07tW<;rn cppuYJlata KaA.O eivni va ta Ol1JlatoOotoUJle ICU7tWC; aav ar01XEia JlVtlJl11e; C6nwe; tXEl yiVEl om CPPuYJlata KpEJlaara, Taupwnm'> ro onoin i:XO'llVnupel ta ovoucru cvrpeov nou O11Jla1006't11aav JlE to epyo rou; 111v nepWXli to'llC;, M1taICoyuivvr)c;" maanlpae; KaL orov MapaflOlva JlE 'tIl 0l1JllOUpyia uoueetou oi1tA.a oro cpPIlrJla). MopcpoAoytICU tOlpa Jl7tOpoUJlE va E~EtUaOnJlE rou; bilO BaaLKOile; n17tOUe; cppaYJlatOC;. Ta CPPuYJla'ta papU111tac;, Kat rn tO~Wtu cppaYJlata. • >:to cppaYJla papU111tae; 11Jl11XavlK1irou ULtOllpyia 1tEprypucpE'tal cracpOlc;, JlE 111v aicr911cr111tOU oiVEt11lCataaKEUti. To cppaYJla 13apil111tac; avmiflEtal JlE to papoe; rou ane; uoanKi:e; nti:aetc; tOU taJllEUnlpa. To CPPuYJla f3apll'tll1ae; ateKE'taL. ea EA.eyE ICavEic;,on sivtn uin OWPlK1i ICa'taaICEUti. • >:e avtigeOl1 JlE to cppaYJla 13apllt11tae; to tO~WtO CPPuYJla av'tttiflEtala'ttC; llOatlKee; nti:aEtc; 61.1 JlE to papoe; tOO aA.Ail JlEtacpepOvtae; tn eoprin am nvrspsiouur«. A'll'to E7ttWYXaVEtat A.OyO't1le; ~eXWplanle; yEOlJlEtpiac,; tau epyoll. To aOlJla rou tO~WtOll cpPuYJla'tOe; eivm ICeA.ucpoe; to O7tOW JlEtacpepEt ttc; uoPOatanKee; meaetC; cero tOV rumeurnpn ora uvrepeiountu ocv ~ovllCee; OUVaJlEtc;oro otoua rou xwpie; va ovcerruccovrci ponte; KU~L\jI1KTo tO~WtO CPPuYJla A.OyW111e;A.e7tt6111tae; 111e;KataaKe1)lle; tall, rmmrsi 35% Ewe; 65% A.lyOtEPO aKl)p60EJla ax<'>'to cppaYJla 13apU111tae;l32, To 'to~W'to cpPuY~La os aVtWea11 ue to cppanla f3apilt11tae;, Sev (!".:eICetal, .MAil llnapXE1. To 'to~WtO cppaYlla eivoi nponuorepo ax<'>to cppunm j3apirnrrae; cno neplf3aA.WvuK1ie; ax<'>\jIEOle; 'Ytati A.OyW111c;, U1t't0111tae;, 't1le; KataaKe1l1;e; 'IOU nnurrouvtnt A.L),OtepOL oavELOfluA.aJl0l, nou 07tWe;, avacptpaJlE Eival1tpo13A.11JlanKO atOlXEW at11V KataaKe1n; svoc cpPuY~LatOe;.

Cbpa'YJ1UTU U7tO EOU<plKa UA1Ka
Ta cppaYJlata aOO eoacptlCa'l)A.tlCu anotEwi)v ne; apxaLOtepEe; KataaKe1)ee; avaaXE011e; 111e;potie; tOO vspou. Tt auto to A.OyO ta cppUnLatO a7t6 eoacpLKa 1>A.1KU OEY anotEwilV npWtDyeVt1 atotxeia. Xpqcuioaotouv 6Jlwe; nporune; tEXvow)'lKec;, yvOlaeLe; ym 111 KUtaaKe1)ti tOO cppaYJlatoc;,. To YF:'(ovoe;, Enlmle; en 1t0A.A.te;, cpopee;, 'to lHI'Oe; tWV cppanlatWV outrov eivm 7tOA.U JlF:'(Ct).o 1tEP1CPPOUPEito JlVllJlElaKO ron; xapaK11;pa. Eniatle; Ol 111tOW17tEe;ICataaKEUte;, zou A.ettoupyoUv 1tCtvWO"Eauta (U1tEPXEtA.tO"tee;" OupoCPPuYJlata) opcouv va to mULatOo0nlO"ouv ocv J.lia a-6yXPOVll KataaICEUti rou mlJlepa. H OJ.lowyevEUl to'llCPPUYJlUtOe; JlE rn llA.1Ka t11<; cpl)atle;, KaflOle; E1tiatle; Kat 11 Uta~ia zou EICcppa.I;;Etat7tCtvroos aut6 to Kavouv va olaj3U/;;etal e1lKOA.OU;paaOO aUnl xm va npoauPJl6l;;e'tal ICaA.UtEpa 1tCtvw 111e;.

Alafh1nlCee; 87tEJlf3aaEtc; orov CPWtO rcov cppaY~lUtWV stvm 01 napE~lBaaEle; nou OEY E1tE1lj3aivO'llv a111v OoJlti tOU cppaYJlatOe;, Kal j3piO"KOVtat 0"111ve~WtePlK1i 1tapElU rou. Tsroie; 1tapeJlj3aO"Etc; O"E cppaYJla'ta nou exouv yiVEl orov EA.A.11V1KO XOlpo eivm oro CPPUWa ron n11Vel0U Huiae;, xm oro cppaYlla tOU Mapa9Olva.

132Kw..Kclvtl,E., YOpauA.1KSC; KatacrKsusc;-cppliy~Lata, SKO. TO~Leac;YOatlK<l>VIloprov, YOpauA.1KWV Kat E>aMamwv'Epyrov EMIl, A(hlvu 1994

56

I:T(l q>pnYllu"C(l un6 eoaqlt1ca.uAtK<i !17tOpOU)1£ va OI(lKp{VOUp

£

ODo AUOclC;,

. Lav npci>:nl ,,;6011 ~nopo~~Le vn aVCl(p.~pou~LI:;11V enEvolloll 'W.W <ppa'Y~L(l1:wv~E EOCl(PtKCt A.lK6. ~e . u qJu'tU(O KMUP-I-l(l, Eivat"ol-tCO~ s1l'u01')~lC:VO va 06.!30UJ-I,E'[a ~LV1Wl;;ta nOll orew~ ava<papaJlt toy to x,apo,K"f,Ilpa 'WU~ tX,01)~. to. <jlp6.y~Lata; ME .n m:pt!3a),J.,oVTtKO KOatOt; 0am KQ,VOUIlf::Clwr6; To. qJPQ,y~~ UnO eoa~lK(l UA.U(Ct;jyyw ron (lu~,wevou 61~ou TOU shim to'~p6.Y!.la nou ClTCCUtet yt~ n\v ) "Ka:t(lO'K.Eml +0'1.> tOU~ neptO'oo .. sPOl.)t;; oaVelOH(l~6.~LO\)~, To <pp6.y'~lo.awr6 A.Qvt6v ),m:Opel '[e).,LI<6. a v 8tOEl 1(0.'[6. .K6.nolov "[p6n:0Ile rev 7tc:ptf)a'A.A;{J\ltax.wpo 1:OU. 'O~lW~ yLU va YlV€l m)T6, ClV 01 \oaVElOeaA.a~Ot %0:0 00. aV1:A.1icrOwle 1:0 eoa<p'll<6 K6)~1)~l~~aOEV ei"c;u 0'1:0 m,ivOAO tOU~ f-ltO'u 0'1:0V talueutr)pa, TO 1reptf3aU,.oVtLK6 Koams LOU' roniou Oa eivat J-I,aU.ov IlE'yaA.l)tEpO ctn6 ta O<pE')...11. I'l.>V tU; n')...l..ots 'oqo 1ttp~crcr6,[EPO Q't)'YKINtPW)LS.1l1dva.t 11 al.cr(hp:~Kll acrWEx,w:t cr.,)" Ka1:a.O'KEU11 ~6C; 1:f:totQu EPYOl> T60'0 EUKo')...6l'epu J-I,1COPOl»)lEa EKllE't'UUwHOl»)l£ 1:a ouqni o.td911tlKcl. 'W1J v 0CP€.A,l1, 6m:o~ rov tctfJ,tel.l'tllpa. HapMel;nw. en:evDW1E.v01J cppa.y)tu't'OC; un:9:px,et KCtt OtllY EX')...Ma (cpp<iYlLa ITl)vetOu HM::tuc;), 133 ~

Lay oeU1:epll ')...U011ILnopoil!iE vuctvacp£j10Wu,: tnv en:e~epYUqla n1~ E~())tept1\l'lt; A.t00001L11C; "[01J cppa"{J-I,ul'Os ILE rrpocr(hlKll ILtKpOtep())v 1CetPWV 0(P11VW~lEVo)VtaKl:tKo. orouc €~O)l'€PlKOUC; ')...iOou<; j.1.€1:ato n:EPU~ 1:01.)epyou. Tstoton eio01i<; 5ta~l6pcp{J)011 SX€t. yiVEt ow cpp6.nlO. Narramata ornv Ia1Wlvia. Kat elC1:t~l6.tat roC; 11tnoEl1rrtKo. ~€'htcrn1 ')...{)0'11 ~llas Kat: aq111V€1~EKo.()ap111:l1V EtKOVa LOll <ppcl.'YJ-I,UtO~ 1:0 cppanla 8ev EKcppo.Seratn:leov Kat ouv ~ltUCttUICIll Kato/~i0011011 ~leyaA.wv A.iOwv,

133 /J.ev U1tapXet KaveVat; 16yoc; vn yivet o:~ml11 \37[e~Epya(jia o.v 1:Cl Q\,TepdoILUTU tou <ppanLU,[oc; €LV(U E1ffiv8u~vQ.)LE gunite to O1tOlOELO'l Kat O)'ll<iJC; (}U 011P.10l1pyeiUO'llVEX81Cl (no l~ouv6,

57

"

A10030~tl 61:0 cpp6:y~a Naramata

m11"

At(JoooPlt
0''t11')

0'1:0

cppti:YJlIi

:ECP111W1

Io.1t(Ovio.
(1t1lYl1! Sugano, M., Urban waterscape 1990)

E)J.(ioa
AI)UK61tOl)AO~)

(pmT. F,

Wpayp,uTu

U7tO O"Kl)p60tl.UI

I:ta cppo.ntllt:IlIl1IO (jK"tlp60e~lll ollO unopsi vu.eivct or TClAa.vf:£ e1t£~LBaoel<;.
H rrprolTj Ctvwpepeto:t o'njv errBvbuOll rou (j)paY~la.wc; ~le ~6.va U),lKo. ox; rtpoc; at)'to. 't11£ KIl1:aOI(£\)11"to)>, 6n:oo£ yta rrapaOemla 'to <ppanla. tou Mopotkovc rrou eivm 0).0 en:eVbl)~lBVOus Mapucpo. Me "tOVrporro (uno ow <flpanLU 1tpooOi50Ul1e~lla OtaKoo~lllnKll svvoic K6:n.o onoio Sev O1..l~lPaoi~et us "tOVxapctKtl;pa tou ~lla£ Kat TO (ppay~LU ~lOVObtaK00l111ttKO OLOlXei.OSsv ai.vatI34. . .

58
ornv an:oooCil1 ~LV1WelUl(01) xaf)aK'Cllpa Tal) q>pa'Y~lG1;OC;~LeoCi cero aU'Yxpove<,; Ka:mOKcuE<,;. An:Ojl:6lpa 1:ETOlOt) 1::i.80u<,;KawoK£H1l<,; sivct 19 cppanm Arriaraneorov 7tmQ!10 Oria (rt11V IG1tuvi.u, To XaPUkt11PHJ'tlK6 CLU1:01f1)0C171;{lOsi .va Ctn:OOOlO£1 TOV oUYXJ)ovo . lLV11!L£lctKO XUI')(~KTllPU rou cppay}tU1:0<'; Kat. u~loloy sitmouv 11 U LOOllttKCt ~E/' Otll Al) en1. U

H betl'cepl1 ci.vuq>epuCtL

KCtv6vuEuKleiotec:;. ~tenov'tat !Leaa un61:Ouc:; y6~lOUC; 1:11C; AumK1)C; yecop£'tpio.<,; KUl O1[01:SI..O\)VO:UV0EOSt<,;BU01KWV K 0XlW<ll;COV (£oGata, 1tapa:X),.ll A6ypgJL~tO, l.ywvo, Kl.')K)LpC;).0 1 1)OpCl1)f,.U(ec; Ka1:ClcrKeu£~ QtLO)<,;, KCt'tUOKCU6C;1tOU 00lWOUV vsp« icClt 6Xl TO\)<'; UVOpWn01)C:;EXO\lV TO Xo.PClK'tllPLOttKO on sivm 1t€pto06liepo 1tAClO1:tK8c;o.no w; OllV1)OC;U;'KClto:O"KSUEC; La<,;.KQtaoKeJ)(i(ou~u, ~ Aotno\l Kat{ nou n:poKUn't!>t KCl'tU' Buml UnO. i.mol..oyt(JJL01)<';Kat 6xL uno aPXlteKwvlK6 crxeo1o T6 anoia O~lo)C;Olvtl np6w1tu alcrGl1'tLKl!. anOTel..ea~lata xou a~i.~el vc to avayvwpi.oO')~Le. 2:xe86v os 6Au 'ta ,<ppuYlla~.a, Ej:,upavil;;ovw.t a\l'l'u rc t600 yq111;eUTLlql a'tO'lX61Cl Ot Il1tepXEl~lC5te<; WHC; 1wnQ,K6~la Ko.~ otuv osV eivm en. sWVTCtVla KCUeVL<lenlcrnv KaTctOKeui].
slVUl KCl'tCx

MtA.Wv.~ 'Y&V,\KO: 'ttl; ~qtaOKel)f;C; ~ln:OPO\)~LSYo. 801)~Lc on 'Yu~:

.a

'to

q>pliyl1(l. tou Mapo.Otb~a 0 e·1CXli7..tCJtl1S7mO~te\ia etvmuvtiypacpo TOU\iaOl) tau An;O'cA(!)VCl. AK6~UI (,W1Xe{0 autO Ssv elvei ()1)V(l'to va XctpUKtl1f)lG(;l to (ppaYllU GCt\! IlV1Wc:i.o Il~ Kat 11 .~lVll11£lUKOtllt(l1rou c:lt18lOJKO:\)ll£ a.n;01;O cppaYILU £LVCtLJLV1]!tpaKO'tll'Cci. TOUGIULepll K(U OXl tOD xOtS.
1342:1:0

Kat to

S9

Y1t&ptf.u..unes d-rO tlfiPOttJ.f.K-rPtKO {:PYO'Till) N {:O"un)

(~<L)1:.

npzli()u 0.

n IlfH11tO\,'tl!)

'Om) o.cpop6: to i8w.:'to CPPuYI-Lu. • To cppuY!-La j3apUnrru<; a7to crK\)POO€~lo. o.rr01£).£1.111" KCl1o.aKf:UacHucll €l~OVa )..lia<; cHunKl1<; morn<;. H e1I:om )..la<;O}lCO<; sv ElVClLrrH.ov cnauKl1· Zsi ~L€111\1 KlV1lcrJl mv €VepyeLo., 111v S
'[;€x,vo).oyi.o... .

• To '[;o';co.o q>p6:y~u ~€1. (J'tllv S~OXI1 ~Lo.<;. 7tXaa'tlKollltU 1O'1l, 11 tcoppoain 111<;KuwcrK8.111<; H 'tau, 11 01.1~l)..l£tpia 'tOU Kat 0 (1)\1o.~ll(J~lO<;101), (1rrol£).01)\I utOlxela 1[011 bEV 't(1 cuvuvrcus G€ ouvoucouo, Ko.~lia UAJ.11KataaKf:llll. To 10~COtO <rpuy~w (6\ rnv mOXIl ron Kat €KCPpaSEl w; aVIl1tUpaeeOEl<; 'rIK ElVUl avo. }lV11~Lciotoll Ul1YXPOVO\)7to).mo~lol). tva CPOlltOl1PlOtlKO

as

OV€LpO.135 135 H~w..A.ttEXVUC11 TUml nou Zl-t~Q.viQ't11i<€ O'U~ apXf:~ IOU uuovu Ita.<; Ct1[z51()c, nILE<; crcv Opia!-i~o trt<; ~lOI-LllXa;vt~lS S1t(lVtitTIllml<; Kelt O'nl'tEXVlKU Kat KOlVWVIKU c7(l'C€UYIIU'CU 1[0\1 EKQlPCtSOVtav eKctV11 rnv e1[ox1\. t.lIlK11Pui;,e rnv ouOtacrnlCll 111S (lVtmapa.Oe0'11 0'1:11" 1[o).ltla'ClK1l 7W.l.odu. \)lOOZ1WVTU<; !-ita 1tOA.e).ltKl\ .<xpvllnKJl 0'1:0,911 O'E Ka.O€ tt 1[OU eixe l<JtOPlKE<; ava<popi:<;. E K'to<; ceto (lU1:E<; 'tI<; SEO'at:; 11 qJ0U1:0UP10'ttK11 llPXI1:ElcrOVllCl1 OEV dXE BpEl Op6~LO 'YIU vu EKQlpa.O'El 1:11\1, tOtE, VEU KUtama011. 0 Framrton avrupepe't yU;l tOY !Jl'HlaVUK61EPO UpXl'CeKtOya qlOll'COllPI0'1:1,{Antonio SaM' Ella "evro EnUlpVE !leO'11 Evtivnll ce Kcdls: !iV1l~lvl1crtlKll UPXIIEK1:0V1K{l Kcn apa avrrvna 0f. KuHE 0''tU11 K{j K(ll m)pa.~llOOf.lOll ).lOpWn to. crxeota. tOU slvm 'Ye~lu'm [11[0 tE1:OIE<; El Kovec;.

Framrton K, Movtspvn apXltEK'tOVU(11, EKO. 0epe1.lO,

AO{lva. 1987

OSncrcrero;, A91\vd.

Nre Mi.Ks1.l M., 01 ftprot01COpl£c;

..

HIe; teXV1j<; tOUE1KO(itOl')

.

atQ)VU, Imp. !\svanrmlllw:rO€UKI],

EKb.

60
• To q>payJUl a7t6 roaq>lKa uJ..tKa Afryro troy \)J..1KooV tr)<; KataCJKEl.lll<; ron, e'lE1 'lacrE1 .... po<; tr)<; e .... VTJ~taKOtr)ta<; tOO Kat Kata eva ....po<; to atcr{ll1tlKO tOU EVOtaq>tpov. A6yro ooCJl1<; tr)<; t avaYKll<; 1tOl) EKq>pa~Et to q>pay,",-a Y1a a\)~lWE\rl1 ~llt11ml oavElO()aJ..a~lrov, Kaeicrtatat ro<; 11 1tpoBJ..11 attKOt£P111tEptBaA.AovttKa KatacrKEl111 autll<; t11<;Kat11yopia<;. ....

AvaJ..t)(Jl1 TCOV1tapEJ..KOJ1EVCOV(JTOXOlV '1'01) 'Ppa'YJ1aTO~ nla(JTtlpa t)OP0l1J..EKTP1Koi> EP'YOt) TOt) NE(JTOt) ME90()OAoyia
l:ta ouo 1tapaoEiy,",-ata
1tOl)

Kat '1'01)

Sa 1tapaeecrouJl£

£~£ta~O'lIJlE 7tros; £7ttopa to f.pyo ornv

t01tlKfl

xowovtc. 0 tp01tO<; .... tOY onoio ea to Kavou,",-c .... A.Etatat ro<;c~11<;: E E
1. E~cta~ou""E rnv Otaq>Opc'ttKOtr)ta t11S;aV'ttJlctoo7tlCJ11<;roy KatOtKrov eve .... oro vso q>paYJla t son (E>..,craup6<;) Kat to 1taJ..tO q>paYJla (nA.acrt11pa<;). 2. E~€ta~oo .... to aUvoJ..o tTl<; Kata(JJ(El.111<; tcov cppaY~Latrov Kat 7t00<; tu avtlJ..a .... avuat e p KOtVroVtKOaUvoJ..o. 3. E~eta~ooJle
4. E~£ta~oo
'to

tOV 1t€ptBaA.J..ovta 'loopo yt)pro a7t'

to

cppaYJla.

.... mv atcre11'ttKfl tr)<; KataO'KEl.111<; aO' EVO<; ppaY~Lato<; ~E'lroptO'ta. e K c

nO)~ aVTlJ1ETo)1ti~El aTtJ.lEpa 1') T01tlKll icowcoviu

Ta 'Ppa'YJ.laTa

A~i~£t va ~£K1viJcrOU""£ rnv ,",-eJ..f.t11 7tapat11PooVta<; tIl olacpopEtlK11 cvnuenomou t11<;t01tlKfl<; xotvrovinq. Fur to q>paYJla nJ..aO't11pa OEV £;(0\),",-£ mhl£pa Ka~lia apVl1tLKfI avtiopa0'11 )36 EVOO avtiSeta omv t01tlKfl xowcovic tr)<; /lpuJla<; ncpcnjpouvrm avncSpucr£H; yta to cppaY.... tOO a E>..,O'aupoti. To y£"(ovo<; auto oq>eiA.etat KatU KllPlO Afryo O't11 Ot7tJ..ll KatUta~l1 tOU q>puY.... to<; a orn 4 crtaota 'tOO Guttking. H 7taponcria rou cppanLatOS; ornv cpaO'11KatacrK€UllS; tOU oro 30 crtaotO Kavet to 8PYO 1tpoPA.11 atlKO yta mv t07ttK11 Kotvrovia svco avtieeta .... 11 J..ettOUPYtKfl a~t01tOi11CJl1tOO q>paY.... to<;, 1tOU BpiO'K£tat O'tO 4 O'tUOtO, eivm CPtAlK11ue to 1tEptpUJ..J..ov Kat a roi»; KatoiKooc;; tOO. :EtO crtaoto auto O'lt ~lOVO OEV ~l7tOpOl)V va Kataypaq>OllV apVT]tlKf.<; avnopucret<; aJ..M avti()etu Kataypucpe'tat em A.i~LVll nA.aO't11pa 11 ()etlKfl aV'tiopaCJT] 1tPOCJ1tUOEtaC;; £7tavuXP11CJ11S; a~t01toi11cr11<;tOU 7tEptpclA.J..OVtOC;; Kat 'looPO'l1t11<;J.......,,11<;137.

13~0 <ppaylla ma<mlpa um'lpXav avnopaaEu; Ka'(a rqv q>aa11KataaKEU1)~ tOU, Oxt OtKoAoyU(t~ aJJ.it allty~ 7tpaK't1.Kt~. Ot avnOpaa£~ au'(t~ ouvtctcvtm os oLacpwviE~ aXE,(\Kt~ ~LE'tL~ wtaA.A.otptWaE~, avaJlEaa cmt AEH Kat '(ou~ N£~p07toAhE~. 01 avtlopaaw; aute~ EKcppam:l1KClVKat ~cra wt6 aullaAlltllPto ~ 16 ~K£Il~piou 1957. 0 t01tlKO<;'tlmo<; 'tl1<;E1tox1i<; axoAl']OTJKE1t0).).£<;<popt<; JlE to a 9EIla au't6. 0 ioto~ 0 K. TcrO:r:ao~avttyKaa'tlllCE vn olEuGw)aEt ~Ltaw tOU ,(01ttKOUtnnou 't1l OttVE~ll autll Kat va Ka911aux.acrel rnv tomKiJ xorveovtu J..tyoV'tQ4;"wtoKa'tacr'tacrll~ reov 7tAllyeVtWVN£~p07tOAltWV Sta 'tTI<;XOPllY1la£ro<;E1<;autOU<; wtO~lHLtooaEw<;Ii EYKa'(aatacrEw~ TW" su; aAAac; icrtl<; ~iac; zpo; tu KataAl1<P9Eiaa" .

fla 'tTIVurropln 01 V't6mOl NE~po1toAitE~ ~L1Q4; rn apoEu61lEva xwp6.cpta EiXav ~IEyaAl),(£Plla~ia eixav Kat crKa\jlel apOronKa KaYaAla ee 6Aa rn Xwpacpta apSEuOIL£va Kat ~L11. 1tpO~A1UlaAu911K£o'tav 11 AEH To tKkta& 'tTIVaflpayya &Ktpo1t1\<;lwpi<; va tx£t wtaA.A.otptwOEi 'to a1lVOAotWV XropacplooVKat ~OAe'6't1lKav ' OAol iI1tW<;-67tW<;. N£~ Armv, 31 A£K£Il~piou, Kapohaa
1957

137l:tallat61tol>A.o<; A. Kat auVEPYO:r:&<;, EIOllOj XWpOtaK'tllCl'1 ~lEA£tl1avWtt1)~11<;nov OlKtallmv 't1l<;A.illV11<; Taupw7toU I" q>aOTl,YEXQAE ALEu9uvcrll xwpota~iQ4;, ]OUAtOC; 1993

61

H £1tlppOii 't'll~ Ka't'aO'KE\)ii~ TO\) <ppa:YJ1aTO~ IIAaO'Tiipa ernv 't'01tlKii Kotvo>via
ClVtWxJlf3ciVEtat to K'OtVUlVtK'O cr\IVOW to q>pciYJla (K'atci tTJ OtciPK'EW ~UlTt~ tOO epyou) smJ.i:X91')K'E to q>pciYJla nAacrnipa. To EPYO EXEt OtcipK'Eta ~UlTt~ 7tEpixou 35 XP6vrov K'at eXEt acpOJl0tro9Ei a7to tOUe; av9p<i)7tou~. I;\IVtaX9'llK'E Wt7tOV EprotTJJla'toAOytO 7tOU avacpepetat omv 'tomKft xowcovia tTJ~ Kapoi'tcra~, -('to K'OV'ttvOtEPO coroco K'f:v'tpo crtTJ AiJlVll K'at 7tp<O'tEUoucra'tou VOJloU).
1tO.)~

Tic va E~EtacroUJlE

H JlE9000A.oyia 'tT)C;cn)V't~1')e; avacpepEtat os e\1K'OAee;Epro"titoElc; 7tOlI 7tOAA,f:e;cpopee; Jlae; &ocravE 'tT)v EUK'atpia 7tpocrromKfte; E7ttK'otvrovia~ JlE roue Vt07ttOU~ xcrotxouc. Ta EprotTJJla'toAOyw <JUJl7tA.1')pch9'llK'avan6 'tOY ypcicpov'ta K'at 'tOY mJVEpya't1') rou rtaW11 t.paK'o1touw.
Ot anavnicrEtc; 7t01I Jl7tOpouoav va oo901JV l1taV YEVtK'ci a1tOAUtf:~ (vm-on), Yla va Jl7topeoOUJlE va E~E'taoOUJlE 'teAtK'a 7tOU K'AlVEt 'to crroJla. t.EV a7toK'AeicraJle O~tUle;e\1K'OMe; epro"titcrEtc; K'picreroe; Kat yvrooeroe;. 'ti'twe; rou eprotTJJla'tOA.oylou EiXE tTJV totat'tspotTJta Ott avaq>epe'tat crnv ovoucoic rou cppaYJla'toe; 7tOU 7tpo(J1ta9Ei va E7tlf3aA.Ael 'to' EA.A.11VlK'O K'pa'We; Yla rn vspu TIle; A.iJlVlle; (TaupUl7t6~) allci~oV'tae; 'tT)v u7tapxoucra crAaf3uc11 ovoucoic Meyoof3ae;. H 1tp0geol1 litaVe va OOllJle av xrn Kata nOoo au"tit 'll ovouuoin eXEt e7ttK'patlioet crnv t07tlK'll xowcovin. Ilpcyunn apKE'tEe; q>opee; avaYKacr"titKaJlE va orocrOUJle OI.eUKptVTtoete; 'to zoio; sivm 0 TaupUl1toe;. E7tlKpatEo'tePll Wt7t0V ovouaoin ron q>paYJla'toe; xnt TIle; A.i~lVl1e; ornv 1teptOX1i sivrn q>paYJla nA.ao'tTtpa, AiJlVll ID.acr"titpa.

o

Oi Epro"titcrEtc; 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, EiXav tte; e~lie; tOtat'tepOt11teC;. • H EpchtTJ<JT) , 5 Kat AtYOtepO 1') 7 nrovs epUltlioele; Kp\oeUl~ xm YVrocreUlV. 4

• H epdrrnon

6 eiXE mv em.A..oyTt (xroJla, 7tf:tpee;, unsrov) cppaYJla Kat exouv K'a'tavoTtcrst rnv JlOPq>li rou.

yw va e~e'taoO'lIJlS nooot eXow K'a8owu)

OSt to

• H Epro'tT)<JT)8 EiXE'tT)V emAoyft (xrnvocpocucr,

aYPottK'ci, rouptotuca, <JT)JlClVttKft Eivat 1')Ka'tacrKEUTt yta 'tI1V aUVelOl1011 ron xoouou.

yta va nooo

62

(e1ti cruVOA.oU49 BproT1111a:tOAOY1roV) EprotTJ01l
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. H Ail1VTJ Tnupronou

A1t(lVtTJ 011 1tAe10'1'11> ia<; q anOTEAel a~108eaTO; (eivor NUl (eivat Nal Nal
50-60

Ilocooro
98% 92% 74% 85% 83% 87% 65% 61% 98%

% TroV

a1tavri} cemv

ropaia) To q>pa:yl1U tTJ~ Ail1VTJ~anOTBAei a~108eaTo; ropaio)

NOl1lSETE on 01t010<; ~A.e1tEl tTJ AillVTJ 1tpe1tEl va (3A.e1tEt Ul TO q>pa.Ylla; K rvropil;;eTE CPPcX.ylla; rvropi~erE 1t010~ mlPE KataOlCeuacrtEitoq>paYlla; tTJv a1toq>a01l va 1tOTE 1tepi1tou
xcrnoxeucorrpce

to

11A.acm1pas M1tEtOV

Ano n UA1KOeivm KataOlCeuaOIlf:vO to QlpaYJ..la; eytVav Kat iJtav cruv8e8ellf:va Ile auto;
Ilox; morsuere

To q>Pa.Yl1Uam;; 8ulllSet 1tpoaro1ta 1) YEyovora 1tOU Nat on 8a eixe ava1ttUx8ei 0 VOllos Ka8oAOD

Kap8itaa~ Ihcreuere

av 8ev um;pxE to cppo.Ylla; on

crnv Nat 11 AillVTJ eXet crull~allEl TOUptcrttKlj av6.1tru~ 1tOD1tapatTJpeitat ru TeAeUTaia xpovta OtTJv 1tEptOxil; eoeis 1) 'YVropiseTE av u1tfJpxav <pO(3Ol ij 'OXl evcmceu; zptv xutnoxeuucrei TO q>po.Ylla 1) Ot11 8t6.pKEta KaTacn<EU1)fOU;
'OXt

10. EixaTe

83%

11. 'EXet TO q>po.YJ..la pVl"]TtKec;cruve1tetee; ern sro1) oae;; a

95%

63 :ExClA.uii;oVt~ to epO)tTUlatOA.Oyto J.UtOpolllle va [ty6.A.oull€ tc €pciltTlCJ11 ~€xO)pUHa Kat aKOA.oUSO)~E1ti rou OUVOA.ou. 1. H A.illVTIwrotdei 2. To cppaYlla wrotdei 3. revtKa 61l0PCPo a~toStato. 61l0PCPo a~tOOtato.

t9i~O"UIl1t€paollata

yta mv KaS€

f}A.btouJl€ VOTJllatucrl O"UvtX€ta rou cppaYllatO~ Il€ tTl A.iIlVTJ· aVall€Oa ornv npOTJYOllll€VTJ Kat rnv unapxouoa

4. Ynap:xet XPOVtKi} 1t€pioOo~ OtaOllo~ IlCatacrtaCJ11.

5. H anclvtT)CJ11 0tTlv epWtT)CJ11aun') eivm avtotOpTJtT). 0 nA.aon')pa~

to 1925 ell1tV€UOtT)Ke mv 1ICataCJ1Cetlyt cppaYllato~ orn Oi:CJ111tOU tOU 'll1tapxet crTtllepa. H an6cpaCJ11 OIlO)~ Kat TJ1tOA.tttlcit :rcprotof}ouA.ia yta va ecpapIloogei TJ KataOKellyt avytKe OtOV KapallaVA.yt 138. :EtO onueio autO I~A.btoulle Ott to cppaYlla unopsi Kat 1tepti:X€t tOY 1l~lletciKO xapaKn')pa 1tOU tOU oivet ItlVticrtotxa TJKaSe tomlcit xowcovin 01tOU aun') to txet avaYKTt. 0 nA.aon')p~ yttav 0 TJyi:tTJ~ nou avi:oe~e TJ 1t€ptOm. Fie va to avaoei~et to yeyovoC; a'lltO TJ to1ttlcit xorvcovin i:oeooe oro 'rppaYlla to xapaKn')pa auto. TJ KataVOTJ011 t11~ OOlltlcit~ 1l0PCPyt~tOU cppaYllatO~.

6. H epWtT)CJ11aun') f:ylVe yta va e~etaotei revtKa f}A.f:1tOUlle i:Xet KatavoTJeeL Ott

7. :EUIl1tepaOllattKa ce aun') rnv epdrrnon Il1tOpOlllle va 1tOlllle Ott Kata f}aCJ11TJ lcipta 1(l1tcivntCJ111tOU 1taipValle (Kat 1tOU1teptlli:valle vn 1tapOU~le) l1tav Ott 9tllli~et tOY nA.aan'tpa. ApVTIttKi:~ IlvTtlleC; Sev KataypacpTJKav. 8. [otaitepa CJ11llavttKi} Kataypacpetat TJa1taVtl1cr11 ce a'lltll tTJV epci>tTJCJ11. aypOttK11 ava1ttlJ~TJ H 't11~ mptOm~ Sev 9a ll1topollOe va ouvteA.eo()ei Ilta~ xm TJ1tapayeoYll aU~I1811Ke aA.llato)Oci>~ us tT)v OTJlltOupyia rou cppaYlla'to~ Kat mv apOel)cr11 rrov eoaq>ci>v. (BA.. 1tiVaKa ayponKi} :rcapayroyit oro 'ti:A.o~ tT)~ avciA.'l)CJT)~ rcov epornioscov) IOtaitep11 evtU1tCOcr11Olleo~ KaVet to 'Yeyovo~ Ott Ot mptooo'tepot KatOtKOt Xeopi~ 'to cppaYlla Sev 1l1t0pOllOav va btaKpivouv ciA.A.ou~ evallaKttKOU~ tp61tOu~ ava1ttlJ~TJC; rou VOIlOl). 9. rIOA.U A.iyot 9u1l0VtOUoav tt~ avtlopaoet~ yta rnv KatacrKeml rou q>paYllatO~. H 1tA.et0'l'TJCPia tOU~, clv9pro1tOt lleyciA.TJ~TJA.tKia<;139vro a1to tte; vsorepe; yevtSe; (50 :xpovci>v Kat Kateo) Sev e avacptp9TJKe tino'ta ym auto. Kat a1to mrro to 1tapaoetnla ~A.€1tOU~H; Ot apV11tlKi:~ Ilvytlle~ on €XOUVof}TJo'tet a7t6 'tOY Xci>po. 10.BA.btouJl€ yevtKa Ott Sev avayveopi~ovtat a1to roue xcroixouc apvl1ttK€~ 1teptOm A.6yeotT)~ 1tapouoiae; rou cppaYlla'tOe;. cruVS1tete~ CJt11v

138 0 macrnlp~ 7tpo<m«i911oe ue apKetOUe; xAaYlOUe;tp67tou<; va e7tt~w.Aet mv ge011 rou yta tfI ol1~noupyia ron cppO:y~uX'to<;. latOPlKll avaSpolui t11<;15111UO\)pyi~rou CPPtlrlla'tO<;avaq>epe'tat axo 'tOY H 'tmE xpUtaYTJ rou EMIT., Kourooxoor«,

KOUtOOIC6CJ't~ A.. YOPOllAelCtpuc6v spyov Msyoo~(l, Icropixov xm 11 cru~l~OAittOU et<; rnv e9vtlCitv oecovoutcv , AOt']va 1958
13~·O atOlXeio mn:6 avSlCU\lfeaxo mv epenvn nou sytve oro KA.ITH. Kapoita~, Ka9w<; Kat XOMa aMa atotxeia xou 9eropw on Q7tO'tSAeaav t11 ~a011 y\a va Katavo110ei at11 ~leAt't11TJ ~Wvtavt'] urropta rou CPPc:tyllatO<;.H ~ia tfI<; EPetlV~ oro xwpo autO yta ~l£va eixe low.hep11 O1l1laaia Kat axO'tEA.e<J£ oe~a~ ~Wvtavt']<; Ilvtlll11<;.

64
:Eu~l7tSpaoJ.1atl1cci oro oUVOAo J.17tOpol)J.1E nol)J.1E on OEV f:XEt napaTllP119Ei lCaJ.1ia apVlJtlKij va auVE1teta emv Uttoupyia rou cppciYJ.1a'tot; 000 acpopa TIlV tontK'll KOlVrovia EVro oi aV'tlOpaOEtt; trov KatoLKrov yta 'tTJ I..LJ.1VlJ 'to cppaYJ.1a ELVat oacproc; I:lE'tlK&<;, Kat 07tWC;E~ MAoU Kat 'ta vo1iJ.1a'ta nou 'tou<; &XEt&roOEt. IOUltLtEpo EVOtacpepov exouv 'ta voijJ.1a'ta 1tOU eXEt 'OroOEt 11 'tontKij xowcovic orouc 'taJ.1uro'tijpgc; 'trov A.tJ.1vrov. I1oUSe; 't07ttKtc; xotvcovie; 1tOU i:xouv aJ.1E011 OXeOTJ J.1E'tTJ YTJ Kat tOY Xropo 'tTJe; "eaj3ouv8" J.ti:oa 08 au'tijv XaJ.1i:voue; e11oaUpOl)e;. To cpatvOJ.1EVOa\l'to OEV napaTllPEi'tat oru; 1tOA£t<;Kat ta aonKa KMpa. A7t6 'to yeyOVOt; amo J.11tOp01)J.18 nol)J.1E on oro nioro J.1epot; tOU va KE(j>al..wU roue at civ6pw1tOt cutoi avul..aJ.1pavovtat 'tTJV iota 'tTJ YTJ roe; 911oaupo Kat to ioto 'to xro~La onv 6EJ.1atocpUA.aKa tOUOOptotOU, U1taplCtOl) 1i avll1taplCtOU 9110(l1)P01). :E.t\(; m:ptoxtc; ttt; 01tOiEe; J.1eA.e'tijoaJ.1ersrotot 911oaupoi u7tijpxav. ava)...cyya J.1E to 1tVeUJ.1aKat 'tTJVurropia ron KaSE ronou.
Ot 911oaupoi mrroi ouvoi:911Kav

'Erm yta 'tTJA.iJ.1VlJ1A.acr'tiJpa 01tOU onl rUpro 1teplOX11umipXE 11i:opa nov aV'tap'trov I

O'tO oeUtepo 1ta'YKOOJ.1to1tOUJ.1OI40A£yEtat Ott ot al)J.1J.1axot yta va rouq EVlOx\lOOUVpiXVavE J.1E'ta a8ponA.ava papata xpuooU.

:Eta. cppciYJ.1ata tOU 1totaJ.10u Nsorou 11 tcropia tOU ronon 11'[(1\' ollvOEOe~ti:vl1 J.1E tOV J.1Sya AM~avopo Ka9roe; E1tiOTJe;Kat J.1E mv Ejvurin 006 non ouveces to B'l)~aVtlO J.1Ern .M)OTJ. 1:e autij rnv t01ttKij xorvorvin 1tOU at ~l\'1i~tEt; rou xropou litav oa<prot; EVtaXl)~li:vet; 0EropEltat a7t6 roue Vt01tlOUt; on: •
:rtOU

To IXlUVOI1ayyaio OtO ozoio dxe rc xpuaropuxeia tOU 0 AA£~avopoe; OEV sivci 'to I1ayyaio oVOJ.1a~OUJ.1E aijJ.1epa al..A.a ro pouva 1tOU BpioKOVtat yl)pro ana ru cp pay J.1ata. I't' autO ICJ':apouva auta u1tapxouv lCUA.tVOptKOi apoot XPU(01) nou exouvE J.1EivEta1to tote. p :~'tTJVEyva'tia 000 (OtO KOJ.1J.1a'tlnou BpioKetat ~leoa ow cppanla) rnv e1toX'i tTJe; Bu~avtlv1ic; aotoKpatopiac; eixe riVEt J.1ta J.1eyaA.l1A.l1o't€ia os ooprio xpuoot) nou ~EKivuy8 a1tO mv KroatavnvOU1tOA.11 yta va Ka'tUA.1i~Et ern ProJ.111.AtyE'tut on oi A.110'tee;9a\jluVE rc A.cicpupa Ka1tOU O'tTJV yUpw 1tEptOX11 xm u1t6 (l1l't11 't11 A110teiu mipe Kat to ovoun ton 'to xropt6 E>l1O(l1)POt;.

:EE KUJ.1ia mpi1t1:roOTJ J.1E 'tTJ J.1EM'tl1 U\ltll O£\I U~lCPtoPl1Wl)J.1e rnv ll1tap~11 o1wv mmov trov 911oaupcDV. A~~8t oJ.1roe;va 1tupunlP1ioouJ.1e 'to YEYOVot;on ~lOl..tt;OA01Cl..l1Pro811Ke 1 KU'tUOKEllij 1 rcov epyrov 11'tomlCl) xoweovin Eeeoe OAo'lle;'tOUt; SI10UUPOllt; ~li:OU OtO VEPO Kat nuput'tij911KE u7t6 'to (lYroVtcDOgc; xoe; tOU ai:vuou \jI~iJ.1u'toC;. w ~tapa~ov'tae; tOY Xropo nepiooorepo \jIl)XPUt~tU usou U1tO a1lt11 tIl ~lEA.i:'tl1ea uvuyvropiOOUJ.1E Ott i:vae; XaJ.1i:voe; el1oaupOc;, 1tOU PpiOKE'tut y£\ltKa os ~liu 1tEptOX11OEV eXEt i:va OUYKEKptJ.1i:vO 't01tO 1tOU 9aq>'tTJKE. ea J.11tOpouoe va sivm Oa~l~li:voC;o1touoli1tote, usou ern AiJ.1Vl1 eitei:~ro a7t6 au'tij. XapaKTl1ptanKO oJ.1We;1tUpUJ.1i:vel to yeyovoe; Ott 0 av9pronoe; Oetet 'to XP'llOO J.1£OU CJTll A.lJ.1VlJ aq><n> au'tij yivE'tut 1tMoV 0 OeJ.1u'toq>\)AaKae; tIle; J.1Vl1~l1le;tIlt; tOntK'lie; KotvroviQ(; KUt 11 av'ttK8tJ.1EVtlCl)tTJe; a~ia 8KcpP~E'tat U1tOKet~lEVtKaos ~lovaoEe; XPl)OO\).
Al;,101tOi''1(J1} Trov T(lJ.11£UTTtproV

1. fta 'tTJ l..iJ.1VlJ rnao'tijpa.. :Enlv 1tPOta011' nle; ANKA. nporsivovtci Krom)l..attK&e; Kat 10't1.01tA.olKee;OPUOtTJpt6'tTJ'tEe; usou OtOV ta~LtEllt1ipu ~le xavos KUt KuytaK. To oq>aA.J.1a1tOU napu'tTJpij9111CE crnv opyavroOTJ uva\jl'l)X1ie; eivrn l11tPOtU011 ytU tononAoiu. 'Eva ton01tAolKO oKciq>oe; avE~ap'tTJtU tOU J.1eyeeoue; tau J.11topei Kat cvcemiccst (J.1E KuM aVEJ.1o) J.1eyaA.£<; tUxU'tTJtEe;, 1tavro tcov 10 K6J.1Brov. EK10e; rmrou 010 umonsouco oKaq>Oe; 'll1tapxet 1taVtu 0

140

0 BEAoUXteiltTV;6tav 1tprotOBYliKE cto avtclptlKO OPlOE Ole; topa. tOU to NlOXWPl, XWptO 1tOU

~pi(J1CEtU11tapaKna t11e;A.iJ.1VTJ~·

65
KivbUVOt; TIlt; piat11t; rrvcrpormq. To ycyovOt; on Ot'l Al~t\'l1 nt.acmipa tu oevtpa exouv Ilea a oro A.lllvaio xwpo xcve; TIl A.i~l\'1la7tayopcutlK11 Kat lblat!f:pW~ c7tlKiv&uVT] Yla TIl A.cnoupyia cun]. Axouc Kat yLU ru; KWm1A.atlK£~ 6pUorllpIOl11tE~ ouv IOaVtKO usco bEY EKt:lllcitaL Ott sivtn ro tcayta.K, 7tOU cvcrpsxetm c;1IKOJ.a. ana aKa<pll aXEolaallEva erot waTE vc IlEtWVETat CJTO EA.a.XtaLQ11mOaVOTIFa cvnrpomp; rou; Kat ~\lelcrT)S TOUS.
xcpcueivei

2. Ftc LOUSWlll£UnlP£S OA.aWVOBplIOT)t;-el1oaUpOll. LTOUS LUlllCUnlP£S UUtO\IS U1tOIVWDe11K£, (Kat umlPXEt n:p6~A.SIV11yta an:0'l'lA.w0l1) 0 xwpOS 7tOU EmlPEa~Sl TIlV UbPOA.11lVia. Oi talllEVnlPc:t; mrroi OWDt; txow 7t0A.l1 ~lc:yaA.a Ba011 (Kat unoroun rrpuvq) aiA.a llc:yaA.l1 OtaKUllavOT) (1Taefl11t; Kat an:am;itat avaA.utlK1i ~IEJ.f:t11 TIl" a~LOn:oillO"l LO\I~. yta Kat or«; ouo m;puttwasu; cnouciucs 11 n:P00AEIV11tl1~ OlHltOupyia~ Un:080~l~~ usou ere VEPO nprv tT) KataaKEU~ tOU spyou. T'lV n:apaBA.E\V11mlnl t11V cvrucuthcru EK tCOVuctspcov 11ANKA ornv n:p6TacrT) TIle; ortou nporeivst Ollllloupyia uupivnc Yla ~ltKpa aKa<pll

Ava1tT\J~l1 'tOU 1ttPlPUi..i..OV't(l XwpOU YUPW (lltO 'tOU~'t(lJ.uGU'titPt';
'On:w<; uva<pepallE to A.tflVaio romo an:Ot£AEi TO KaA.Ealla yta rnv aVa7tTIl~ll LOU avHpwn:ou Kat tOW Spccrrjptontrcov tou. MEA.eTIl avan:nl~lle; TOU A.l~tvaiou xwpou YLa t11 A.i1lV11nA.alJ~pa KaElWt;KaL n:paypalllla ast<poptKllS roupiorucnc n:apE:~L~aOT)S lJ)_07tOtEi11AVa7tnlC;Lai<TtKupdircor; (AN.KA. A,E.) cs ouvepyccic us to Ilcvencnuuo MhlVWV,tOV avan:TII~taK6 ouvosouo tl1<; AillVT]e; m,Ucrnlpa, TIlv t07tlKTt EvCOOT)O~IlWV Kat KOtVOtlllCOVv. Kapoitaas (TE~K), roue 8~flOUC; Kapohoac;, LOCPCtOWV, OaAaflCt, Mou~aKiou, Kat tl1 ol1~lOttKll e7tlXEip11OT)toupicuou uvu\jIUme; Kap5haae; (~ETAK). To n:paypalllla 7teptAallBUvEt \In:0001l'' Yla nuvemcrruncxo oaaoe;, otKoA.oytKa uovommc. 011lltoup),ia UOPOBlOA.O)'tKO\1 o"'CU8 10\1 rmoxrrructuon 1, e:rtavaXP11OT) 7tapaOOataKOu xnplou, 011Ill01.)I)),ia neipnuctucou aypo'l) 0PY€1Vt!CftsKaA.A.IEpyEtaS, OpyclvWOT) ava\jIUme;. OapaTIlPOUflE Aomov Ott 11 A.illVT]mrni onuspc a7tOTEA.Eirnv BacrTl tOU xwpou YLa rnv 0111ltoupyia n:oA\I7tA.EUP11e; at 7tp6w7tT)S n:£pIBaUovn!Cfts K EK7tuibEUOT)S Kat touptatt!Cfte; aVCt:rttU~l1t;.
'-CMNHMA

:J

:1Io(~AC'{li(: (aVC!£II<-:~KQ )

~C·.JCr:::7.C

,iiICC!..iC7.i<C~

,J,':,pC\; CP,{C'_J1J(:iC; :<C.\;"Ii!OY;:IC~

~

:Jc,(c'Jwcn
)·_i!:lCC;\

~"CI+J1';X:":<;

rl~:.::;.;C'=

<:.Ji':n.\CClc
iC7.:i',\CIC

.,.._;___,

,.~

C·...e:r.IC"':T'L.;,C~.:

~~/. ':;;j.

:c=c~

H 7tpo-rarrTI Tl1~ AN.KA.
UEUj)OPLk."1] to\)PUi1:LK1l

(1t1lYll: OVIiYPUJ.lIl(l Life. OqlLlr/'ll l.ill\'TI~ OI.UO'TlhlfL. Ilia 7ttJ..o'tuo't 7tuptJl~atr11, !:KO. AN. KA, Knpditrm 191)-4)

66
'00:0 wpopa,'tCl. UBp011A.E1crPtKU epya 1:01) NeOW1) cv KCtt 11 nEptBaAA.ovtlKll ~lEAB't11rtou exouv EK1COvTtOelot Flcpacxeuonousoc Kat fECOPYlUOlle; avayvcopi~Et rnv aOtCl~rptoBil't11tll a~ia rou atof)l11:tKOU a'itOtEA.eOj..latOC; 'tCOV A.t~tVWV 01 ronucoi rpopeiC; OEV ~lnilKav OtOV Kono vn avapco'rilSouv 1:1 ea unopouos vn roue npooqrepst 11A.i~lVl1EKTO~ coro ta a~lwa '"CeXVOOlKOVO~lKU OcreA.11 (evepyeta, UpOEt.HH1) H napaA.1W11 Oa urropoucs vn anooElxOci noll) 011~LlouPYtKll KaL vti ).t11VXPELa.O"1:Et xuf)ei 11 a~I01tObl0l1 ron xpovou oneoe; EytVE ornv li~\lll flA.aonlPu ornv onoin va Ot ~M'tEC; 'trov 1tUPEA.KO~evCOV otOxeov n01) avarpepa~ll:: EKnOV01)\!'tCll 35 nEpt1tOU xp6vtu ~e'"CUmv KU'"CuoKeuil'tOu epyOl) , H aV'"Cl0'"CotXla~laAlo.(t rcov O'}O Al~LV(iN, nOll BplOKOV'"CUlOE av'tiO'tOlXe~ xpOVtKt~ nEpLOxEe; coto tn aO'tlKU KEV'"Cp(t 01) VO~L01)'"C01)~ (11 Ai~LVllflAaonlpa 1 OE ~llO'li copn anD 'tTl Knpfiiton Kilt Ot ta~L\E\)nipE<; ron NeO"'"C011 3/4 t11<; ropa<; cno .'1 ~pa~ll) OE unopouv va a1tOtEA.eOODVto ~EKiV11)l(tyta ).tta vea aVaml)~laKa '"COl)PtonK11wGll0l1 tOU VO~L01). 'Eva Oll~aVttKo O'll!lei.o 1tOD np€1tEl En:lcnle; vc avayvwpioo\l~LE 01:11VavumuS11 tou Xwpou sivm n aVtlKE1).tEVtKij a~ia."e; 1'1le;. 1:."v A.i~lV11 flA.a01:11pa rc OtKom:oa «ov napaA.i~lV1WV n:EPtOXeDVeveD 'tTjv OEKaE1:ta 'COl) 1980 Kat one; arXEe; tou 1990, 1tf)LVKCtWOKEuaoOei to OOtKO OtKtUO '110,cUKoA.11 np60(3aOll 0't11 A.t)lV11, Koo·dsav€ R008pX· Eeo<; 1900 oPX. to '"C6tpayeovlKo ~EtPO (a1to1tA."eeoplo~EV€e; n)lE<;) 0'l1~l6pa (L 997) tu svroc OlKLOftOl1 KU~Lai.voVrat Cl.n6 70000px. eeoC; 150000PX. "to .£-rpa.Y(OVIKO ~Lhpo. :Ell~lepa en:i011C;1:Ct eKtOC; OlKlOfLO\) zroi: sivrn a~lrpd~6a.'"CPlKU0." A.t!l"1l oWtXi.~ouv 4 €Kato~l~\)PlCl. oPX. '(0 O'"CpEftfla €VW m eK't6e; OlKlOflO1) n01) OeV exauv U] U~VI1 2 eKmo).tf.!-upta oPX. ro 0'(pEflfLa.141. AK6~la Xomov Ka.l fL€ aV'"ClKelfLEV1KSC; ~i£c; a otamo1:eDVOU)lE 'IllV a~ia ron at0011tlKO\1 anOteA.€OfLa-rOe; 11)<;A.tflVl1<;.

eea.

Tonto TIl<; J.lflVTJ<; ilA.(l(f'[11pa (<p(o"t. r. ApItK67((n>)._Il~)

LW 'IafLt€l.l1:iJPa. rou E>1l0aupo1l oi uflee;Tl)e; a~ia<; tl1~ '111<;8EY EiXa.V 1tPO),o.BEl vc a.Ua~ouv

)liae; Kat" f.!-eM"tll €K7tO\IlW11Kea~u~oeoe; ~lEta ttl 0IHLlO1ll)Yi.a.tou -caPiE1ltllpa. rEyov6e; ELVat no.v'"C(Oe; on Ot K(11:0tK01 8~ataeav6).tevO\ mv a.AA.ayli "[11e; ~iac; "[11<; a YIV; O€V nmIA.av€ KaOOA.OUOlK61tE8a. crnv 1tEptoX'l Ka.l11 ayopa crov rouse curo EXEl EvtEA.WC;"naYWOEl".

141

ETa

€1C1:6C; oucicuou OtK61CEoo. vu ollco80flllOO\)\I a1C(tlt01)V1:UL OtpEJlpata yta 4

KwotapeA.oc; .E., Jl€Olt11C;, poOCD1CtK1l n €7LlKOlVW\lia., ap6inJa 1997 K

67 Tu <ppo.YJ1UTUIU.acm1pa,
KptTT1Pux 'YUXva e~etaO'oUllg

011<JUUPOU, nMl't'UVOPPU<Jll;
mv at0'911tlK~ tOU Ka9'

svo;

q>pa'YI!Uto~

etvm:

1. 0 1!VT)l!eUXK6~ xapUKnlpac; 3. H Ma~it
TOU O'TO q>uO'uc6

TOU ep'You

2. H at0'911TtKrl TTl~ KaTaO'Keu~~ TOU (nA.a.O'TtK6TTlTa Kat I!Opq>~ TOU ep'You) ronio
't'O)v

• 0 J1V1JJ181UKO; XUpUKnJPu;
To cppaYJ.la ID..acmlpa roe; eva rum'tdel np(rru7tTJ KaTaaKEUll 'tex;voA.oytK1le; Ka'taaKEUlle;. 0 ID..acmlpa oro oe~t6 av'tepetaf.la

ipycov
roe; f.lVllf.letaKa.

Kat 'ta 'tpia au'ta epya JUWpoUJl8 va 'ta xapaK111piao\*e

a1to 'ta 0\)0 'to~ro'ta cppaYf.la'ta 1tOU u1tapxouv CTtTJVEUtloa orov EA.A.11VtKOxwpo Kat a1toA.u'tTJ EKcppacrTl J.lVllf.leWK1l<; 'tp01tOe; e1ttcrTle; 1t0\) £Xe1 crTlf.latooo."eei us 'to yA.U1t'tO rou ."e; a'te\jITJe;nepuppoupsi au'to to V011l!a.

To cppaYf.la rou e11aauPOU rrepuppoupet to f.lVllJietaKO tOU xapm\t11pa roe; 'to oeUtepo J.leyaA;u'tepo cppaYl!a orov KOaJ.lOcoto eoacptKa uA.1Ka. H a'ta'tLKli rou ~LOPCPli Kat 0 OyKOe;rou oev f.l~ aCPllvouv mptOwpta va af.lcptBaA.A.oU~tE yta tl1 ouva~LtKli rou spyou nurou. Tur va Katavoitaouf.le to f.leye90e; rou a~iI;;et va 1tpoae~OU~tE Of: A.e1't0l)pyia 'tOY u1tepxetA.tanl rou. :ETIlv cprotoypacpia A.ettOupyel 0 evae; a1to rou; rpsu; U1tEPXEtA.tatE<; ue 1tapoXli 200KUptKa f.lEtpa 'to OEUtepOA.e1t'tO. H cruVoA.tK1l 1tapoXli tOU evoe; nno rou; rpeu; U1tePXetA.tcr'te<;orov avot~ouv ru 9upocppaYf.lata cptavet crta 3000 K\)ptKa usrpc 'to oetl'tepOA.e1t'to. Ilupumprovrcc rn mrroxivqru Kat tou<; av9p<i>7tOU<;f.l1tOpoUf.lEva OO\)f.lE zoco uucpoi Kat A.iyot ouivovnn rmroi oe aXEcrTl f.lE to cppciyf.la Kat T1<;O\lVaf.lE1<;nou at)'tO aUYKpa'tEi. To cppaYf.la 'tTJC; A.a'tavoppua11C; stvm to ~teyaA.\'>tepo cppanUl tOV Koa~LO a1tO RCC. Auto Kat n f.lOVO 67tr0C; avacpepaf.lE ae 1tapa1tavro Kf:cpaA.atO 'tOU OiVEt to xapaK'tlipa svo; a1tO ta crTlf.lav'ttKo'tepa f.lVllf.lEta rou crtlf.lEpa. • AurOllTtKtl Tt}C; KaTu<JK£UllC;

rcov sPYOOv

To tO~CJ)tO cppaYJ.la ID.ucmlPu 11 ouuuerpla 11 toopponic ron Kat 11 1tA.aattKO."ta TIle; KUtucncEUite; 1tA.11poiOA.ee;1<;npoli7t0geaEte; yta mv Op91l a1aOl1't1Ka ~LOPCPli t evoe; ovnxeuievou. 142 To cppayf.lu TOU e"aaupou ev't\l7tooata~Et aacpwe; ~tE rov OyKO ron Kat tl1 cuuuerpio tOU orov to PA.f:7tOUJ.lE J.lUKpoaK01ttKa. Orcv 'to 1tA.11crtaaoWte O~LO)<; 0'l)vOA.tKl1 atasia nov Ppaxrov us touq 11 O1tOWUe; sivm E1tevOUJ.levo to KataVtl1 1tpave<; a1ton:A.ei aaX1Wo eeaf.la. :Eav A.UcrTl tou 1tPOPA.llf.la'toe; au'tou f.11tOpeiva 1tpo'taOei 11taKLlKl1 e1tlKa/c\I\jll1 ~le nsrpe; tau Ka'tav." npnvouq 61tou elvat opere auto a7t6 tOV e1ttaKE1t'tll os a~tE(j11 Oeaal1 (yta 1tapaOEtY~ta KOVta omv atE\jITJ tOU cppaYf.la'toe; 01troe;eXEt yivEt oro cppanla Naramata at11V Iumovin). To cppaYJ.la 'tTJe; ID..atavoPpucrTle; av Kat eivat cppay~ta papl)'tl1ta<;. A.6yro tOOV tEpacJ'ttCJ)v UmpXEtA.tcrtcOV'tO\I 9u U1tOKnlae1 f.lta tOtai'tepa 1tA.aattKll 000 Kat buvaf.ltKll f.lOPCPll.Kat autOU 1') ioopponin 111tA.aattKo."ta Kat 1') O't)~lf.lEtpia 1tA.l1PO\lVru; 1tPOli1toef:aEt<; yta t11V op9l'} ata911tUCa f.lOpcpit rou, To cppaYf.la autO 9a a1tOtEA.eaE1KOal!11~ta at11V ioropin nov Ka'taaKEUcOv. • 'EVTa;l1 TOU cppaYJ.lUTOC;<JTOCPU<JtKO roxto

To cppaYf.la IIA.aottlpa a1tOtEA.et utn tO~Lli oro CPUOlKO ronio. H f.lOPCPll'tl1<; Ka'taaKet)ll rou aA.A.a Kat 0 ~EKa9apoe; a'toxoe; 'tTJe;tau oivouv rmro to xapaKtlipa. ' Eivm O~tOOe; oacpee; on au'tll 11I!am yivE'tut ~EKa9apa. ato811ttKa opOa, Kat a1toA.\)tOO<; mtEtaKa. H XPOVlKli OtapKttO 1tO'lJ PA.e1tOUJ.lE a to <ppayf.lu O'tO tonio 'tTJe;A.if.lV1l~ eivm hyo'tepo a1to 5 A.E1t'ta t11<; cOpa~, orov 0 1tapaA.if.lVLOe;

142

BUKaAW E.r .• 01ttUcTl :EuVt~ll.

!\moupyia

Kat DapaywYl1 Moporov, EKO.NtcpEA.11. Ae11va 1988

68
op6f.1O~ £ivaL 1 ropa (XP6vo~ !JetPTJ~O~ us to alltOKiVTJtO'43). napaj34:'I'TJ tTJ~ op9lJ~ atG9TJttKa ataml'; tOU tp-yOU tiVaL ta tva1t0lltivavta oW) a1tO tTJ q>aGTJKataOK&l.llJ~ ron oro aptGttpCI cvrepeiouc tOU q>p<iYllatO~. To q>paYlla tOU 8rjGaupou 1tpooapIlO~ttal Kal,.\)tepa oro ronio aq>o\) rn q>llotKa uALKa a1t6 ta O1tOia eivrn KataGKSUaGllevo to Kavouv va svtcocenn Kal,.\)tEpa a1t6 ttl q>\)Gll. nap' OAn auta 'Il MOVTJ 1tQpouoia tOU gunite O'tO OE~tO avtEpetGlla KatavtTJ ron q>paYllato.;; tOU aq>aLp£i IlEpO';; 'tOU lapa1Ct1lpa au'too. To cppaYlla tTJ.;; nAa'tavo~p1.)GTJ';; avtttieetat Kat amo om q>\)GTJ. H ~EKa9ap'll 9EGTJ 1tOU mptypa'l'alle 1tapa1t<lvoo lnAaeL a1to rnv evrovn ncpouoic gunite GE WKl,.eiOela 1l0Pq>i] OtO oe~t6 avtEpeLGlla oi1cAa GtTJ O'tE'I'TJtOU q>paYllatOe;. I'tn mv aUaY1l tTJ.;;eucovcc au'tll';; av e1tleUIlOUIlE o xropo.;; va eivat e1ttGKe'l'lIlO';; Yla 'to KOlVO (1tpoono.;; Gttl KOlvlJ eea) nporsivenn va Kal:aoKwao'touv OtO'IlPE';;KataGKel.lEC; Ot11V1tPOGo\jlll rou gunite onv apxnEK'tOvLKa "1tatxvtOta" 1tOU va e1tt'tpt1tave mv allCPteea'tptKij OeaGTJ a1to tOV E1tlOKE1tt11 ron tal-llsutljpa KaL tOU CPP(l'Ylla'to.;;'44.Ta "1tatxvtOta" au'ta aval.oya us to llf:ytOo.;; Kat mv KAil-LaKa'tOU';;ea 1l1tOPOUGav va mpttlouv Kal IlOVlllO xropo t~UmlPe'tllo1l';; 1tapolll';; umjpeouov (J(lIA\KeiO EVTJllePoot\KO';; ata9lloc;;) yta to KOtVO.

l:ull1tEpaO'I·UITlKcl
Mzopouue va 1tapatTJPlJOOl)lle Ott lmapxtt avttotO\xia ornv aVtLllEtro1ttGll tou 't01tlKoU 1tATI9uolloU avalltoa OtO cppaYlla nAaOti)pa Kat ta q>paYI-ta'ta rou Nscrou. AvttatotXia f3M:1tOUlleKat OtTJv geOll rmv epyoov OE ouvnprnon us ta aottKa KEv'tpa ton VOIlOl). I'ia 'to AOyoo aU1:0 Gooo'ta EIOllV lleA.ttTJeei Ot 1tapeAKOf.\eVO\ O'tOXOl nov q>paYI-La'tooVron Nsorou yta va 1l1t0PEOOUVva 1tapaj34:cp90\)v 0\ n)xwv a<>1)Val-tiE';; 0 aVEKI-IE'taI,.Ael)'tO.;; rOVO';; nou Um1p~t Kat x oro cppaYlla nAaatljpal45. I'.K01tlJ10't1l'ta tp'YOU• Av6)..cyya ~ tTJV lleAenJ nov 1tapeAKOf.\eVooVO'tOXWVEVO';;EpyOl) Kat rnv KataATJ~i] tTJ.;; 9a 1l1t0POUGav va 1tpof3U1tOvta\ 'ta 1tPoj3l,.l11-tattKa onusiu 01tw,;;: • A1tO'I'1Am0ll 'tOU 'talltwtljpa IlE £\)911V11'tWV oopeorv rtou rou; tvo\aq>epe\ 11 aVa7tt\)~l1 trov 1tapEA.K0J.l&VooVtOXoov (tomxoi 0Ilf.\0l-K01VO'tlltEe;). H a1toljllAmGll ron taf.\leUtljpa eKtOC; a1t6 a 'to on 9a A.UOElA.et'tOUPYlK<l tpof3AiUtata nov OtOXoo\, mmov 9a oWLj3aUel Kal ornv lletwOll 1 tmv cpep'tWVUA.cOV 1tOU 0l1IlLOUPyol)V1tpoj3A.lwa G'tO ota91-t6 1tapayooY1l';; tvepyeta.;;. Taxeia
gunite)

J1ElkrllC; 1tapEJ...KOIlEV<OV O''t0X<OV 1tplV 'tllV OJ...OKJ...ltP<OO'T) 'tOU

• • •

a1tOKa'taG'taOll

1tl9avrov aLo911ttKrov 1tpoj3A1ULatooV ornv 1ttpLOX11(oaveL09aA.allotnpw mv oI.oKAi]PWGll tOU ePY01) I-LeOaOtO vspc ..

~l1IlLOUP'YiaKa'taoKwwv

~'Ilf.\touP'Yia ll1tOOOlllJ';; 'YLa tTJ q>W)~EVTJ geGll rou <ppaYf.\atO.;; era oocooucrnuerc tTJ<; mptom.;;, av9pc01tOu,;; (XoopOtaKttKij I-LeA.et11), 'l'apta (LXOll6GKaAE<;), swa Kat 1tOuJ..ta (opto9EtTJOll 1tpoGta'twOlltvOll OaGOlle;, q>ooA.\ee;).

143KpiO'IlCt 7tpOttI!6ttpo va J.lEtpTJ9ti 0 wovo.;; ue to (lUtOKiVlltO1tapa 'I XtA.10f.\ttpUOl tO<Tta<rTJ yta va w 11m; OWGtt KaAmtpa tTJv avtU.TJIjITJou tm(JlCE1t'tllorov oLacrxil;;a tnv A.il-LVll· r 14+ro CPPO:yl1asivui l1VTJJ.lEla1Co 1t0\) Oa S1tpt1tE vu 'to avaoEi~o\llle av e1te~Epyru:;;6Ilacrtav tTJ A.UGTJ spyo

aun'J.
145 TIapaaKeU61tOUAoc;-feoopytO:011C; ErIE. navyaia-~l)I-lpOUAoI Ml1XavlKOi, "Me}J.TI7 nSpl[JaJJ..ovrIKwv eunuboea» )l1a tnv evPVrEP'1nsplOXll tnt; EM/7v/Kllt; N:Krl.Vllt;rou xotauou Nf:aTOU, ~EH. A911va 1994

69

,~ ".-

',.

1l:CHIW),cn1(hlKIl\:' Ov., ntlps}lBaivsl0l1}lstCtJ<:U O1::o1;o1tiq,~Wc,,6; a\~"[@t'tct to JtllKor; rou q>ptiY~lUTOS ElVUl ~lSy<XAl'il"tpo uno' til" cnt<pu\ietu 1:01.) '~¢gVQU,~c6till8Vei.'avIOu(J~q crav ~1)Ulk6 TonLo:' T .,' " .
'-r' -,",
'c_ • "

'r6'\~P6.1!l4il1J,[§, us (tvd(')Sal1 ~tStllq>PU'Y~I~,a

1)

",1t!:\PlOX1\nO\I;KaidO:'Ktvu~Sm\rotp'Yo swrn evrovc (popntiJ.levll~le ~lV1WS<;: "[11£Vs6~spl1<; ~o~a,i~1fjC;dPX&tucfEA;tqO~, HBep'Y1va ~lS ttSJtv1'lW:r; Tllr; upxaiar; El)va5aG, uq>OlJ SKEt " "'ta~dlJ~cO\iiJ¥l,uke8qvmv BatHAterOW'VJ<tlt1l,BtpotO, ~lgtIC; lL\h'uig illS VS6tSP11S ..... '''.v.• •.» ' ·,.~·,' '~ptq'KOVtat .. O;pa80lilUkOl '.OlKlOflOttO\l, n )701'., ",180\! nubvu. '01 ,'Qlf~l£iI:lQi}lla:t?t()~;, n,Il'''lC'''J,Tm' '. ~SSP'Ya:'O"t~~ civa&T11A~011S' (YnEXQ6E~~~1~tO~ 'StPOtitS?

t~pa.

70
epyo: rrpoO',:aaiCJ.-aVo.Oe~~11 ola:r'lPll1:ewv m:plOXrov Kupmoonc-Mxcpunourcq). feyov6<; eivat &n "l1 Bspota OEV £'Xet aKOJ.la rnv u1COOO~U1ta vc :roue; a~t01tOll1crel WUPlG1:tKo. 61tco<;en y tL1topoOae· (yta 1tllpaoetnLU OE\! eX6t Ka.0.),.)..11',OU<; xropm)<; crta(j~leuml'; KOVta moue; 1Capa000UlKOtl<; otKlaJ.lOUc; 01)1:e 1tO)..?.cl ~cV08oXEia ym va lptA.o~SI"laotlv e1tlO'KemE<; cmv 00)..11) . ;1

AlaTl1pll"t~o

K"TijHO G'tllV

m;p\oxi]' K,)pi:Iil(l"(la~(I"TTJVBi~p()Ul «pm7-. F, ApfU\61t(JuJ,o~)

Av'ttGt-OtXla 'Tyts i<papJ1o'Yii~'TllS EAAa01K6 xropo
Mepoe;

I·HJJiT'rt~lie 6)J.. <; f.1eAAt'~<;it s<pap~o'Ys<; orov e
vc aVlXYStllOln cs Olio epya.
l

AV:rt01:otX.lE<;cr"'C11V l!eie"'C11Kat tl1V $cpap}.loyl1, unopouv

ANKA

}llCJ.C;tlv..:icn:olX11<; }liA.£'tT)<; stvci ern 1tA.o:ima 1:01l 1[poypCtp.~La;wc; Life Tj1tp6ta:&q 1:11t; t yta"'C11v A..i~LvTjIn..acr"'C1ipa non a.va<pepaW: napa:n:avw. H ~Le?ce.l1u\n11 O~.lWc;oLU<pepet cmv

71 KAip_o.Ko..'tOU epyO'l>, ~uCt.r;Kat 0 1tapUA.tf1VlOr; 8p6~wC; 0'111 A.t~tVl1DA.c(0111pa yta 111" Oll:l0")Jo1110ti a1tcutei }ito. wpa,EVcO 0 1tapo.A.i~"I.OC; Op6~LOC;1'ta.to (lvuP1)'ne~llCl'tlK6 ep1'o t11<; AyiuC; Bapl36.pur; etVCtt 5-10 1mra. Ere: tn EVolacpepOVta O""COlXEia1:11<;~eA.etll<; OU:peuVli(111Kav OlUlelUKU Kat KUtaypaqnj1<av oav 0ettKaKUt apVlllilKa Cl'''COLXdaone; 1tupanuvO)TI;apa1'p6.cpoll<;. E<papIl.OrTl1Wl.l UVtl(J"COtX.ei O"tl)V DUGl ~la<; 7tPOtaO'll eivui 11 OlU~OPCPWO"jl rou avupp·l.le~t(l"'CtKOV epyou'tOl) LtpCnou (Nouor; Al'twloaKupyaviw;). To epyo o,m6 1tpOeKl)~/S va exsl nr; Oto.o"CaO"eLr; O).,u~1ttaK1')C; 1t:Ldivac; YLa. ayrove<; ~ki O"CO vspo. 'E"CO"l 0 1t:£ptB6.U.oY·ta.C; xropoc; ron DEVtpo<pmeu1:l)Ke. ll:11!l1.OUpYll011kB e7tiQ11r;· Kat tva ~LtKp6 OKUAmT6 7teplmepo Kill n:AmtT\ 1t1a"Ccp6p~a yta vu lJ'Ti6.px.et £\.)KOA.ll 1tpool3aml ow vepo. L11~UVtLKT\ en:tml'; Si.vUl xru 11 )..,UGll a:vtllletrom~le; TIle; 8n:fNOU(J11t; tb1.)7tpavm'>r; ,to onoio (ato. mwei.a 1tOD sivrn KOVt6. crte) vepo Kat eX.O,?v "V01Ul,attKl;" O1,)Vex.~LU ~LVat errevo£bUllevQ ) W:KpOK6.A.er;. Al.lTl111taV ~ltCl. TCO)..,\) 1<(111)1{)0"l) nOD tbtuQ'e tSlaitepu SenKO awEhrnKo aTCOteA.eO"~LU.

I,

B8Ba.iror; av<tflwo: (Jta SUp epya ~Ln:OpO:l)~u,:: OlClKplvot)~l8 t'lT'! ~~11C;ogl.cpopa: 11,0eacrl1 a1t:a to yo, 1(OtvO 01;0 tpyo tQ'uE,;pcttO'u O€\I eivrn a~le011 a/INJ. 0 trrto"K£m11~ xpeta.s8tat vo, to Spouo rou yta VU,!l1IopeO€t va. 08t'W epyo eyw 0"'t11v AYLa 'Bdp!3cipa .' 0 8mOKe7t't11~ 00, {3piO"KE"CUlO€ a~6(Jll enttcpTt W: 1:0 ep'Y9.
u

EN01nJ.Lo"ClliClC; J.LSAZ'tllS itUpSAK6~s"wv <pPO:YPClTOS 1:'11<; 'Yld~ nappapa~ A

O''tOXrov "CO'\)avctppue

J.LlmtKOV

'" To aV€lppv0l-1-t01:tKO CPP&:Ylia'ellS Ayiae; BapB&.pCt~ ~l8A.e't6.taL ornv 1teptOX,11 Clv6.j.l.eoa crt11 Bspoiu Kat TIl Bspvivc. 0 KUptor; OOtKOS a~ovac; xou ouvoeet .11v E0vLKll 080 A0T1Vwv-6woa1ovi.K11C; 1-1-£ t1l'Bepyi.vo: 6rrroS e~a.A.1ol.l KUlO K1)ptOt:; 081K6c;6.~ovar; nOD (Jnvoeel tIl Bspotn fleTll Bapvlvc TCspv6.el 7tapa1tJ.l.vta anO to avapp:1.l0j..lLOUKO 'Ppa'nla tll~ Ayiac; Bap{36.pae;. To yeyovoc; rmto 'tonotleleL to cpp6.YJ.l.a O"W x.ropo. i::TCJLWOT8 va ava<pi::peTo,t ow 0'()V0),0 t11C; E'A.1llvucllr;

72 1COtVCO~I46 xm Oll O'E Ilia cruY1CEKptIlEvrt ta~totCOttldl 0lluoa tT]C;.1470 tmO'Kbttr]C; A.outOV 1tOU 9t41 va tmO'1CEcptEi tT] Beprivc sivm avaYKaO'J.ltvoc; va 1tepuaet 1tapaAillVta a1to to avappu9lltO'ttKo CPPuYlla. Fie to J...6yo euro to CPPuYJ.la O'1COmJ.lO sivm acpou exet avacpopee; oro crUVOA.otr}e; EU11VtKT]e; 1COtVCOViaC;, a J.l1tOpei va 9ecoP119ei a1t6 alltf} onv tva 1CUA.eO'lla tT]e; 011IltOUPYtKT]C; v opaO'tT]pt6tT]tae; tOU cpopea 1tOU to KataO'1Cel)aO'e.

o cpoP£ac; 1tOU 90. to 1CataO'KetluO'et, 11 ~EH, sivui ermpic 1tOU atOXellet orov 1CataVaA.cotf}. 0 1CatavaAomle; XPllatJ.l01tOtei to pellJ.la 1Cat tie; 1tapoxee; 1tOU rou Sivei T}~EH wu cruX,Vu ayvoEi tr}v S11Cova tTlC;oov etatpia. To Yf:'(ovoC; <rotO eivm M90e; xat T}~EH ocpeiA.et va ~sA.tKi>aet tr}v St1COVa tr}C;. To avappu9IltO'tt1CO CPPuYJ.la tT]e; Ayiac; Bap~upae; Kat T} J.leA.£tT] 1tapu.Kollevcov O'tOxcov tOU (6xt a1tapaitT]ta T) cruYKeKptJ.lEvrt J.leA.£tT])eivm uiu euxmpic yta tT] Pu.ticoO'T} tT]C; St1COVae; rotf}C;. <
llpo't'UGll E1tiAUGl1C;;'t'OlV 1tapEAKO,U:VOlV GTOXOlV TOU aVUppU9f.1lGTlKoi> (J)payf.1u't'oc;; 't'll<; Ayia<; Bappapa<;
Ms90ooAoyia A.uot}C;;napsJ"KOJlSV(t)V OTOX(t)VTO\) avappUSJllO'TlKOU <ppclYJlaTOC;;

Tt}<; Ay. Bappapac;;
Tta va e~etclO'OUIlE tOUe; 1tapEA.KOJ.lEYOnc; O'tOXOl)e;ron CPPuYJ.latOC;J.leA.etUJ.le: • • • TT} IlVllJ.lStaKotr}ta tOU epyOll1Cat rnv ataEl11tUOl ton tOtOU tot) CPPuYJ.latOe; Tov taJ.ltetltf}pa tOU epyou

Tov 1tept~uA.A.ovta Xropo tOU epyou

MV11J1SlaKOTt}Ta Kal al09t}T1K11 TO\} avapp\}9J!H;T1KOU Bappapac;;

<ppclYJlaTOC;'t't}C;Ayiac;;

To. CPPuYllata a1t6 soacpt1Cu UA.tKcl a1totsA.oi)V ne; apxatotspee; KataaKEl)f:e; avurixsO'T}e; vspou. AiYyco tOU J.lf:'(e90ue; Kat tOO U\jIOUC; rou; J.l1topei va EYexo'llV J.lV11J.letaKO xapa1Ctf} po, To avappuOlltO't11CO CPPuYlla tr}e; ayiae; Bap~upae; O~LCOe; A.6yco tOU uucpou tOU 1)\jI01)e;,ouattlXroe; Sev J.l1tOpei va evexet tOY xapa1Ctf}pa uurov. H uouuusrpin t11<;Ka.aaKEl111<; t01) Kat 11 J.lOPcP';tOU Sev smtpi:1tOUv rnv avuyvroO'T} EYOe;f:pyou tOJ.llie;, EYOe;J.lV1ULStaK01'>pyou. flo. to A.6yo <rotO om e A.UO'T} eytve 1tP0O'1tuOsta va a~t01t0t11Elei ataEl11t1Ku to cpPuY~La(eKto<; av 1tupet rnv J.lOpcpr,tOU oev cppaYllatoc;-yecpupa) LE ap1Ceta O'T}llsia 1tapa1tclVCO avacpi:pa~Le rnv A.Ucr11 t11C;E7t&vOl)0'11C; Katuvt11 1tpavoue; tOU rou CPPuYllatOC; J.le cputuca UA.tKa xm rnv cpiltEl)cr1i rou. Ltr} A.llO'T} t11e; scpapJ.loyr,e; 61lroe; OEY EytVS 1tpoO'1taOeta "auy1CaA.U\jIT}e;"cov svvouov 1CattCOVatotxeicov 1t01) e~aptwvtat r a1t' to CPPuYJ.lawu tr}C; a~to1tOiT}aile; tOUC;. Msou O'tO 1tA.aiO'to mno OEY rrporeiverci 11 e1ttvollO'T} rou KatuVtr} 1tPavooc; tOU CPPuYJ.latOC;IlE cp1lttKO KclA.UJ.layta va eivot O'acp,;c; 11 1tap01)O'ia mrrou 1Ca9' <rotOO tOU epyou.

14~·tO

oUvOM>tllt; EllT}vtKi]c; KOlVWviac;uvaqltpoVtaL OLTUqJOL MaKsoavwv om Bspjtvu tOW

I47f\a 1tapaostYJ.la Ot oixotooptcte; zou uveBaivouv cs Wt6~LaKpa Kat 1tapOtva ~Ltpll WtOtEM>UVuln e~' autwv tWV t~tOMtlKWV OJ.la.oWV.

73

TaJ1tE'VTJ\pa<; TO\) Ep)'O\)
'tOO epyou 1taA.l }.jyyro 'tOU J1Eye90u~ 'tOU oev urropei va 1tEpttXEl 't~ J1vit~ 1tOU avacpepaJ18' 6n 1tEPtEx0UV rn cpPclYJ1a'ta non E~E'tclaaJ1E ore 1tP011yoUJ1eva 1tapaoEiYJ1a'tcl J1a~. Oi A.iJ1v~ OJ1ffi~ 67U0~ eXOUJ1E 7tpoavaepepEl J11tOPOllV vc A.EltOupyollV ro~ 9EJ1atocpUA.aKE~ 't'll~ J1vitJ111~. Sa J11tOpoUaaJ1E A.outOV va OOJ1itao\l~E 'tOY 7tEptpclA.A.oVta xropo rou 't£XVll'tOU 'taJ1LruTijpa Etat roa'tE va tOU oroaOllJ1E eJ1EL~ tl~ J1vitJ1E~ nou 9tA.ouJ1e oivovta~ os mrrov J1OUaEtaKO xapaKri}pa J1Eavaepope~ CJ't11i\EH. eetOllJ1E A.ot7tOVoro nnprncnc 7tpave£ ero xropo J1eaa CJ't11 A.iJ1V111EYclA.a[3toJ1l1xaVtKcl atotxeLa 7tOU ouvrekouv at'll paatKi} apX'1 't'll~ A.EttOllpyia~ J UOpo11A.EKtPtKi}~7tapayroyit~ pEUJ1atO~. 1:tOtXeia 07tro~ atpoptA.ol, yevvTttPtE~, aVtA.iE~, K.a .. 1:E crutO 'to CJllJ1Eio E7ttXetpoUJ1E vn EKJ1E'taA.A.f:UtOUJ1E OtaKUJ1WCJll t'll~ atcl9J111~ 'tll~ A.LJ1V11~ 't'llv (Wro'tcl'tll mcl9J111 A.tJ1V11~ ro U'I'OJ1EtpO 42, Katrotcl't'll a'tcl9J111 A.1J1V11£ U'I'OJ1E'tPO 39). Meaa o oro CJ't11v~roV11'tll~ otaKUJ1WCJll~ E7ttOtOOKOllJ1ec llA.o7tOl11eEL Xropo~ J1vitJ111~.EKJ1EtallEtJOJ1acr'tE v 0 stet mv KaA.U'I'l1 Kat a7t0-KclA.U\j111tOW J1V11J1ElaKrov atOtXElrov a7t6 to atOtXEio 1tOU J.l.a£ evOtacpepEt vn 'ta 1tEpttXEl. To VEpO. 'taJ.l.teUTijpa~ rou epyou Kat rn VEPcl ron eivm to CJllJ1aVtUCOtEPO atotxeLO nou 7tp£1tEt va EKJ1E'tcxJ..A.eu9oUJ.l.E. ro }.jyyo aU'tO nporsivovrm yeq)lJpe£ Kat KataaKelle~ J.l.eaa oro VEPO 7tclvro Fta ce 1tclaaaA.ou£148 cs crllVOUaaJ10 J.l.E7tA.wtcl 7tA.atro~lata. Oi KataaKwe£ ame£ 7tpoteivovtat oov EK7taww'ttKO£ 1tEpmatOC; J1eaa a't'll A.tJ1V117tO 't11 J1ia149 Kat cero mv OA.A.11ov 't07tO~ avaepopcl~ a o Yla va ersvtcouue 'tll A.LJ.l.V11. AEl'I:OUpytKcl Kat aepou 11 A.tJ1Vllsivrn J1lKPOll J1Eye90uc;, cxomuo aivct va a7to~/WugeL npw mv uitprocri} 'tllC;yta va J11tOPoUVE 7tA.f:OllVE va aaepaA.ro£ J1tKpO aKoep11 av xpetacru:i.

o 'ta~ltel)Tijp~

o

llsptPciJJ..cov

lroPO<; yvpro ano TO <ppciYJ1a Kat TOVTaJ11EUT1]pa.

Av9pro1toyevE~ 7teptf3aA.A.ov. To qJpowa, W KUfl€ qJpcl)'~ta, exet aaqJeL<; uvuoops; CJ't11V (1VWm>~11Kat mv eviaXUcr11 t:11<; 7tlKi}<; xorvorvta; 0Xl ~tOVOKatU t11 epUcr11KataaKwit<; 'tOU W i:pyou aMU Kat J1E'tcl a7t6 amit. Tur ro AOyO auto npoteivetrn U7tOOOJ1itrstotu roots va eivm ouvaTij 11 WU7tt:ll~l1 crllAA.oytKi}<;7tprowf3ouA.Lac; tll<; t07tlKit<; xowovtcc omA.a a7t6 tOY ll7t6 f.~Eta<ll1 :x.ropo. ZrotKO 1tEptf3aA.A.ov. Meou om A.LJ1V11rporstvsrca va 01lJ.1.louPY1lgel VllaOKt 1tOU va eXEt r l)1tO00J.l.TJ eproA.t£~)150 va eptA.o~eviJaet mllvu 1WU e7tlaKemOVtal Ka'tu KatpOUC;'tllv 7t€ptoxfl. ( yta H ll1tOOOJ1it KaW sivm vu 7tpOpA.E7tel Kat J10vtJ111 7tapaJ1ovit yta KUKVOll~ 1tOU tXEt 1tapa'tllP1l9Ei on U7tUPXOUVoro WapplleJ.l.tmtKO 7tOUito11 A.EttOUPYEi. IxSuaKo 7t€ptf3aA.A.ov. KUeE qJpclYJ1a a7tUEt t11V ll7tUp:x.ouaa POll ev6c; zoruuo», Fur va a1tOKataO"taeEi auti) J11tOpei va 011J1tO'llPY1leeilXe'll6aKaA.a, )'ta 7ttatpoqJe~ Kat XtAta 1tOU va f:vrove'tat us mv 7taA.tll Koit'll tOU zorouo». H lXeUOaKaA.a J17tOPElva Aettoupyei We~clp't'll'ta u7t6 tOY U1tEPxetAtati) Kat va KataaKwacr'tei KOV'tclKat 7tapUA.A.11Aaos curov J.l.ta~ Kat O'tW M:t'toupyei (wef3aivouv Ol7teatpoepe~ Kat tn xtAta) a7t0teA.ei a~to7tpoaeKto 9taJ1a.

l:up.nspaO'JulT1.KIl H J.I.~ EmWcr'tllKE KUpiro~ oro av9pro1toyevt~ 7t€ptpUA.A.ov Kat roue e7tlaKeme~ J.l.ta~ Kat os au'toU~ txet avaepopt~ 11 i\EH. H ataOl1tlKi} rou XroPOll O~lroC;stvm aA.A.11A.EvOetll s rnv xA.wpioa u 14801.Kat:MKWtc; cs 1to.OO'aAoUC; ~ttO'a O'tO vspo Ilru; 1tapcm&II\jlOUVcmo uove; rou; O'TIlVIlU'Yli 'tOU 1tOA.tnOJ1oU 01troc;avacptpaJ1E 1tapcmUvw. 14geta011 trov Kat:aO'KEllaO'ttlCWV O'tOtxelwv-lcJ'roP1KllllVI111l1.

ISoOl cproi..1tc;(Il)'ttc; Oa ~1tOpoucrav vc elvm npOtUnec; apx,tteKtOVtKEC;KatacrKeuE~ zou va WtoteAtcrouv
1tOA.I't£te~ tu nOVA.to. A.i~V'K yta t11t;

74 xm rnv 1UlViOa TIl~ 1t£PlOXlie;;.Ftc vc rovicouue 'tOY xapalC'tl'Jpa mrrov !Cpiv£'tal anapaitTJtTJ II 0llllWUPYia £vae;;ypalllll!CoU mlp!Co oro npavee;; non eX£t ueivet avtnacpo ana rnv !CamcrKeuti. I:ll!lacrwA.oylKf:c;; avacpopee;; 'tOO xwpou eivm 'to n£ptpaAA.oV, II OtKoA.oyia Kat ot Ilvtill£C;; rou, Zll'tall£ 0llA.aoti mv oomacr'ttKi] KataV011crtt am tOY £1ttcr1CE1ttl1TJC;; l£'taj3oA,tic;;TJe;;umlPxoucraC;; t 1 t Ka'tacr'tacrtte;; crt f!ia aVW't£Pll atcrSll'ttKl1-nOtOnKi) aUa Kat OtKOA.oytKi] otax£iptcrtt 'tOO 1t£ptj3aAA.oV'toe;; oll npaY!la'teuollacrte n 11£auto 'to EpyO.

Tic mv Mmoopyia autti eivm Kata tOY ypacpovta unnpuirnto vc OlllltOl.lpyftcrOllll£ 'ttC;;OOJLf:c;; au'tf:c;; nou Sa owcroovs tTJ ouvatotTJ'ta euxaptcrtTJC;; npocrpacrttC;; rou smcrKf:1ttTJ oro Xci>po. EmUx9riKe A.o1.1t6v A,ucrtt tOO napKou ytati A,6yw tTJC;; II lCA,illaKae;;ou epyou O£v Sa titav ouva'to r vc Ka'tavo1l9si to epyo a1t6 'tOY SntcrKE1ttTJ zou Sa OtEcrXt~£ tOY napaA.illVlO OpallO 11£ 'to mrroxivrrro acpou 0 xr6voc;; npocrnEA.acrttC;;eivm n£pinou 7 A.ema TIle;;wpac;;. I:tTJ A.ucrtt npocrex911Ks to avayA.uq>o 'too npavoUC;; zou e~£ta~oolls Kat O£V aA.A.aXSllK£KaSaA.oU II Y£CfJIl£'tpia rou IltaC;; Kat au'to eK'tt!la'tat roc;;Eva a1t6 tc cnucvnxorepc atcrSllnKa ocpEA.llnOU oivet to cppaYlla.
crX&OtacrIlOe;£voe; napKou £VEX£t nOA,Me; oucrKoA,iee; nou npocrnaSi]crall£ va KaM\jIOllll&. 0 Laugier avacpEpSt: ..... npf;m;t va 1l1tapxOUv nA.a'tsiec;;, CJllll£ia otacr'tal.'lpWallC;, OPOIlOl. npf;m;t vc UnaPX&l !CavOVtKOtTJ'ta Kat cpaVtacria, crXEcrl'tC;; rn avnSEcr&tc;;, m)Vl1StcrllEva Kat acruvtiStcr'ta x cr'tOtX£ia 1tOU va notKill.ouv tTJ crlCllvT]· MeyaA.l1 nl'tSapxia cru; A.e1ttOllep£tec;, cr'liYXUcrtt • ~" ~_,,151 avacr'ta'twcrtt !Cat a'ta."ta cr'to cruVOMJ . Ot Xci>POtzou Otallopcpwcrall& 11&TIl MCJl1 'tOU naPKOU sivm Kata j3aal1 XWpOt usou oro vepo. Ilpotsivetc; O!lffiC;va Ota!l0PCPwSO\)v Ot XWPOt tOU napaK'ttou npaVOt)C; Ill' cplltOKaA.U\jl1lam \jI1lA.aoEv'tpa, 1tOU ea A.eltOUPYOt)Vonv llXll'ttKO nttacrlla nvuusou <J'tOnapKO xm tov 0POIlO. H Evv0ta 'tOO nap!Coo Kat Y£VtKa rou 0111lomOu xwpou ano't£A.el Kata j3acrll tll Ot£KOilCllcrtt rou Vl'KPOU, 1111napaywytKOU xpovou rou aVSpwnou stcn 01tCUC;; 'tOY aVtlA,allj3avollacr't£ ornv crttll£Plvti enoxil· rupro cro 1840, l1taV noM tlle; Ilooae; Kanotat l'KK£VtPtKOi nl'pmat11tEe; va Pra~oov PQA.'ta !lta x£A.Wva crne; KatvoupytOK'tt<JIlEv£C;; £~t1tOptKf:C;; roe; tOU Ilopiotou, 'ttC;; o 1t£picpllll£e; Arcades. I:' autOUC;;rou; ronoi»; 'tllC;A.allnplic;; ouvruounyopim; 11j3oA.ta 11£t11 x£A.Wva OytA.ww:Ilta £1ttOl'tK'ttKi] crna'taA.ll xpOVOU.152Eivnt cracp11C;; aKpaia Stcrtt apV1lcrttC;;rou xpovou 11 01tCiJC;; av'ttA.allj3avollacr't£ onusoc. Kat sivm crKomllo va eaU~ta<JOl)~t& tl1V npovorrnxornru 'tOY tTJC; 9scrttC; auttic; 150 xpovta nptv, 9Ecrtt n£ptCPPoV11crllC;ron xpovO\) rou ayxouc;, torv \jIUX0A.oylKWvnpOpA.lllla'trov 'too xp6vou-xp1WatoC;.153

o

151LaugierM.A .• Observations sur I' Architecture, the Hague 1765, p.p. 312-313 onwe; avwpepe'tat oro Tafuri M., Arclutecture and Utopia, Design and Capitalist Development, The MIT Press, Cambridge Mass,1979 152 Benjamin V., Charle Baudlere, tVat; A.UptKOe;ornv aK~l"1 'tOU Kanl'taA.la~LOU, uer. rui:lpyoe; ncou~06A.l1c;,&KO.Al&~avopeta, AOi)va 1994 153 oou~ evav U1tonOtjl£VO ouUoyo 7[(IVWoro Oe~la auto ano roo; Tou~il-Ka~u. Ac; " k't1]V Eupci:l7l11 A.iyot J1OvOavOpro1t01 U1tapxouv zou 1tPU'Ylla'tlKa sxouv ;wovo. 'Iawe; Kat lCavtVat;. Ft' autO Kat Ot 1t£PloolrrePOI1t£pVav 'tPOXUOl1V ~wiJ rou; cov uln ne'taY~leV11 't11 7lIhpa .... Ilootov ;wovwv tlllJlaiv£t 1toaa cpeyyapla ex&\ ~i]O&1Kav&ic;. Amo 'to ~le'tp1]~la Kat 'to \jIU~tILOstvci yqlU'ta KtVOUVOUt;, yta'ti stm ot avOpro7tOllla9av& n6aa cp£yyapta OlaplC£itlUV1lOwe; ~wiJ 1OUe;.0 KaOSvat; A.Ot1tOV 11 npoatX£t tci:lpa 1tapa 1tOA.U, t 6'tav E:X.OUV K nepaa&l 1tOA.A.U cpeyyapta, Aiel: Trope npenet DnOUvc' vat va neOavw. 'Erot 0&\1 Vlci:lO&\ lCallla Xapa Kat neOaiv&t npanla'tlKU ouvroun." " Tote Etat~aA.& ornv Ka01Hteptvi) ~LOU 11 ma ~wi) to£o. ron OavarO'll. Msrpoue« ru ;wovla zou us Xci:lPl~avan' to 'tEA.Oe;. 'Eljlaxva 1tapa()eiY~la'ta avOpWnwv 't11e;l1A.lKiat; uou zou eiXav 11011neOavet. Kat ue ~aaavt~e 11 tota nwt; Ssv Oa 'xa 'tOY KatpO va oloKll1pWUW to epyo uou, TIOlOepyo; ~ev eiXa tOEa." KallU A., H 7l'twcrtt, Il'tcp.Iwa.vva EuOwuaoou, eKIi. r paI1Ila'ta, AOl1va 1987 TOUla(iit, 0 nmtalO:vyn,
1988

~ltq>. Koreptvu AlantcrJ1-L\lULocr9Evl1C;; L\a<JKaA.61tOUA.O~, £KO.'Y\jItlov, A9~va

75 H avrnpopu WutOV tOO 1tUPKOU, rou 0l1J.l0mOll Xffipou, vouuioaoieirm va oXEOlacrtEi Ecrtro Kat t1CtO<;ltOl..11<; tav autO avacpEpetat oro a\)VOW tTJ<;EU11vl!dJ<; xowcovinc Kat OllJ.latoOotei tt<; &
xpT)oe~ e1C1taiOeuOll-ava'JIUXll. A~«;el va Oll~let.ro(lei Ott, 1tapOW 1tOU 11 l..iJ.lVTJppioKetal eKto<; ltOl..11<; Xffipo<; OUtA.a oro U1tapxov avapptl(lJ.llOtlKO e9>1tTJpet&i mv xorvorviu tTJ<; Bepoiac yta 0 U1tatept£<; 1tOl..lttonKE<; opaotTJptOtTJte<; Kat a91..o1tatotE<;.

H .1.:60'11

TO\} 1tapKO\}

Ftc tTJ I..UOll tOO 1tUPKOU a')).jJ, Kat tOU uouosuncou Xffipoo em}J;x(ll1Kav Kata paOll u1tai9pte<; KataOK&l>E<;. 0 IleptKl..T)<; Furvvonouso; elX& 1t&t: "0 Pio<; sv El..l..uot eivm tl1tal9ptO<;", yt' autO 1tpo01ta9ijoaJ.le va a1tOorooouJ.le ue TIl !..DOll ron 1tapK01.l 111ll1.l1taiepte<;KataOKE1.lec; Kat 1.l1tai9ptO

uouosto.

,

154

H XP11otJ.lOtTJtatOU OI.7tWU mrrou 1tIlpKOU eonncnpce os ouo pamKa allJ.leia 1. To 1tpcOtO atoElTJnKo xapaKtTJptOnKo nou OteKOtKei 0 talltet)tT)pae; tOU cppaYJ.lato<;, 'IOU KuSe cppaYJ.lato<; eivat va tOY ereviooous. H kOVtUYK avacpepst Ott 'To pl..i:~Llla 1tOUatev«;et sivct ,. , , ,,, 155 uoxptc ono mv toto pta Kat KOVta omv uuoviomrc . 2. To oeUtepo ato911ttKO xapaKtTJptottKO
1tOU OtSKOtKei to epyo Kat 11!..DOll eivm 11KataV0110ll tTJ<;av9pffimVTJ<; 011J.ltOupyiac;, 01tffi<;aUtil EKcppa~etat tcropuca J.leoa cero t&XVLKU Epya.

Erot unopouus va 1tOUJ.1E tt avttotaotel..l..oulle O
KataOK&l>EC
1tOU

rnv lOtOPU<11IlVI1~111 rnv uuovtornrn. us

1tPOteivovtat

• Tic vc rovtoouus

t~ J.lvTJJ.le<; J.lEOa ceto n<; KataoK&t)e<; S1ttl..f:XellKe oxsotaoJ.lo<; svo; UOpOJ.lUI..ou onoio; tPOCPoOJtsitat ono vspo IlEOro lJOpmJl..tKO\J Koxl..ia (Il11XavTJ &mV011IlEVTJ a1t6 tOY ApXtJ.lij(11). 0 UOPOIlUI..o<; eivm 11 V011ttKll paall t11<; apX1l<; t11<; I..sttoupyia<; evo<; cppaYJ.lato<;, os IltKpij Kl..lllaKa Kat avacpEp&tat 01tffi<; einnus Kat 1tapa1tavro one; IlvTJlle<; tOO av9pffimvou 1t01..tttOIlOU. 0 KOXl..ia<; eivor 11 apxmOt&P11 Il11XaV11 avl)'l/CDOllC; V&POU 01tffi<; avacpepet Vitruvios. A11lltOUPYO\)J.1E I..ornov eva UOpat)I..tKO Kl)KI..o us ttC; paotKE<; 1.l0pa1.ll..tKE<; J.l11Xave<; ta va J.l1tOpeoet KaeS e1ttoKe1tTlle; va KataV0110et rnv paotKll roue apXll. EKtoe; y a1t6 rnv KataVo11Oll tTJ<; paol!dJe; roue aPX11<;~l1ta~l& ~l& tOY tP01tO curo va avnl..11cpgei €1tlOKe1tt11<;TJ\" totOpt!dJ auv€xeta one; KataoKE1.lee; tCDVCPpaY~latCDV t Kat ne; l..&ttouPyiee; roue. H atOll tOO UOpoJ.lUI..ou ea unopouoe e1tlall<; va sivnt Kat 11apX11 evoe; uoucsiou'".

°

°

°

°

°

154() Kw<Ttavt1.vto11<;avacpepet: "H apXLteKtOVtKli (nov Ko.Oe tOXO y&wi1911KE YUl va crtEyo.crSt, va KcV.U\jISt.Kat Ka:racrKE1.lacrnKo. 1apXtt&KtOVtKll \jIo.XVEtva Bp€l tva crKEA.etO 1 XOD Oa cr't11Pi~et,ua <TttYl1 es €va optouzvc u\jI~ a1t6 rnv e1tlcpav&tanl<; 11K Kat cruvOtt€l XffipODC;, aum:ptKOUC;Kat &~roteptKOUc; e av(i)..oya J.1& rl.illa rou K6:9& tOXOl). Kat OXOl) to rl.i,ul stvm acpll..6~evo Kat to tozio oxorswo, 0 to 6:v9po>1toC; rl.eivetat "!lE(Ja". Evffi eKei OXOl)to idi,la sivor l11tl0 Kal <ptA.lKO Kat to roxio OI!OP<PO Kat cprotetV6 0 av9po>1tOC; OtA.et va By&t t~{t). Kat 0).0 to "XatXViOl" omv apXltEKtOVtKll stvca, rote, yta va opyavfficrOl)J.1& Xffipo tOU rostiou fficrte va SOUllEavEta Kat Ollop<pa anOtE es XlO KA.et<TtOU<; to XcilPOl)<;, WJ.ote oe mo avOtXtOUC;.... l:tllV EnllVtK11 apXl'tEKtOVtKi) Ot ,lE'[aBa:rtKoi THLtl)1taiOplOtXcilpOt iJtav XUvtOte €va 1tprotapxuc6 opyavwnKo Kat cruv()&nKO:a,[Olx&lo. AllA.tc; Kat Dxoa'[Eya Kat xpo<Ttffia CJtTJv Kvw(JO Kat CJtTJ <I>at<Tt6,<Tta BuSnvnvo. ~LOvacrn1pta,auA.t\; Kat l)7tO<JLeyaKal otn anA.o.(JxlLla, ano tov O~l1po !lEXPl Kat crTJJ.lepa, 1]A.aOiJ 0 eKel OXOl) uin EA.A.11V1Kli apXm;KtovtKli elva! avffiVU~11 Kat eK<pp6i;et aU1:6 1[()\) YUPeU&t1] <pU<J11 '[0 rcnio Ital;i Kat on OA.Olot "KUtOtKOl" ,[OU (OlOUtoniou ~A.t7t01lVKat Kat Vow.t;;OV'tatvc eX.Om' eev avaYKaio Kat anapain1'[0." KW<Ttavt1.violl\; A., Fin mv apXLtEKtOV1Ki),EK. Aypa, A9liva 1987 155}:oVtO:yKE. H atcr()llnKi! tll~ crtwxi1\;, ~1,[Cp. Neve Haaia, EKO.NecpEA.lj.A911va 1983 15~0 uoueeto au'[o Oa ~1topei va cruvoeOEi 0.11Ecra~IEtOY 1tEPl~clAA.OVtax.cilpo toll Kat ru; uxai9ptec; Ka:racrKel)E~.NOll~anKa '[0 yeyovo<; autO txet cruVtXE1Cl ~Ilac; Kat 11~EH etvoi ermpio XOl) cruVOtw.eYE'[at

70
btUTI1Pll1:f;(J)\! nEptOXWV Kupmcccc-Mnupunoutuq). fsyov6C; O.J(O~La 1:1)V 1YTcooo~nl 'YLa va 1O\)C; a~lOnOtl1C>Et 1:O\lPlC>"CtKclomut; Sa J.:l1t~J?O\lO:E.(yw.! 1i:<fpq;bSt'YP·(l 'OE\! eXSl Ka-cak)cl11ouC; x.wp~n).c; G'[oJ~~lC1)qllC; KOV.a. GlOVe; 1tapaOOGtUKOVC; O'tKtG~OUC; Qun no/.M ~evoooXEia Yla. vn q)l/cO~e\!11crO\lV em0K67m;;c; CITl"jV

epyo: npo(J'tacrit;l-C;tvabEt~ll c1VCn 6~t 11Bspour Oe\! SXe1

nOA.l1).

Ano'lfltrtO\)

"

paO'V-1Ko-(l "Tcl(j)O\l 'tllS Bt:pyivf.lS (ml.'y1\: Oa()!IO'KCl)(I1C0l)'.OC;-rl:Wp),uili1l<;,
,

.

1993)

AV't'tO''totXt(l

't'T]\; £«)apIlO'¥l1<;

TTJ<; !l~Ah'l<; Jl~ <lA-ABC;1l~J.iT~C;

11 ~«)apflo'Ye<;C1't'OV
Mo Epyo..

EAAaOlKO
AV'ttGtotXleC;'

Xwpo

on,v ~eM't11 TIlV c;<pb:.P~I()Yl1, Kat

~l1tOPQ1)\I va (1Vt;(\'81.n:01)\1

os

Mspo;' J.:lto.t; o.Y'"dm:o(Xi1C; ~lEU~l1C; stvoi ore 1tAaLolCl 1:0U npO'Ypcl~L~lCl'tOC; Life 11 7tPO'tClcfll TIl<; ANKA yto. 'nlV lijiV11 TIACl(J'tllPU 1WB ava<pi::pClFE 1I:ClpClrrclv(J), H W:1i::T11 al.l'tll 6~L(i)C;OW<ptPEt ornv

76

YOpauhKOC; KOXA-iac; (cpo)'t. apxdml A. Kom:!To),uivVll)

Yl')ptJ,.rIJ1.0l
(7Ill'Yl1: Orsatclli,

J;, Lcs Moulins,

1979)

IIpO'tElVe1:C1t e~ anOl) uSpaultKo m.lpKO peoa ow vspo. 1:1:11V rrap6.:ypa<po uSpaUltKa nmxvtSta napa1:11P110aw; 01:1 a;lJ1:a hODV n:olA.ec; CPOPESOX/~Oll ~lE 1:11V EVEP'Yeta,'57 ewotet 1:11V 01tOia~npIlYIL(tte\)e1:a. lJ AEH. l1pOleLVe1:aL A.ourOv 11 SlWtoupyia eV6C; UOPCftlA.tKOUnapkou 158 ""EOU ow vepo. Ta uopauAtKanat';(viSLa unopouv 8)lWAU vn Il1t01:eA.eOOUV £VU KITE atoGlJtlKO yeyov6C; ull6. U1JtO KUpto)C; 1:0 KaV01.)\I oruv KawoKetJu/;,OVtC1l 1l7tepBOltK6. anlo'iK6. Kat bev eKcpp6.Ce"CO,L'tovspo cuv psuoro OW1XElO ouv SO~LLK6c; JOpEetC;.L1:11Vnepm'tO)CYll q 'tOU 'taj.lLEU1:11pa ostou 1:0 vepo BptOKEL 1:11" an:611ltl1 EKqJpa011 'tOU o'tlj lij.lVl1 elaxtcr'to7tOtOuvtat ot m8av61:11H::C; vc EX01)~le au-to to mo011'ttK6 ano-cElso~la. AK6j.la KaL av SK<ppaOOUj.le to vepo onv oo~uK6 olOtxeio, Yla nap6.0£lnlCl W: 1.1omon:iOetKe<;, I61:£ EX01)j.le 1:11V ),OlJ1:etH1Kll aV'Ite£011 'tIle; oplC6vtlac; en:tcpaVElCtC;T01) VEr01), ~u::1:11VKaOe'tll1:01i l)OCrrOn:~oaKa.

ana

clj.lCOa J1E TO 71:eplB61A.Ov. H ODVOlaA.A.llyil 1ll)I1'1 Oa !l71:0r01)(Jea eivm uK6!la mo tV1:0\1]1o» u1tlipxav (HO v uouceio ~a(l cs KUKA.o<popia vepa rou InYA01). ru 157H O'Xt011 ctuTIl <.Xv Kat €~l~lEG11 1l1LOpei vc Kamvoll0d ano 1:11IlOPfjlll lOU 71:UlXVlOlOU. flu 71:etpaoelnm Eva atvtptpWl cs ~tiCt l{~Vll, eivut7tpo<puvt~ an eKfjlpW;et t11" a:viiOEcr11T01) (PUcrLKOU vepon nl~ lillV11~ us to .eXVll1:o vepo '[au UoCt't07[i8m:u. EDKOA.a KCt'toJ..apcdvel Kuvei~6nl1 <p1)crtKI'l Otml rou vspou sivm 11 opl~6YnCt &vro 10 vepo tOU uoa.t01ttOUK(l xpet61;etat evepyel(l Yla. vc BreOd Ot11 Oem1 cum'1.
I

58PU<pcul')..iol1C;B., ~'tOLXELciJollC; ataOlTHKli, I>KO.TOl) elKO<HOD npo)to1).

A(h'1va 1992

~

F'1li:

til...

a~
t&!~
KWu't

Jij:iOOf!flinllrt
oJ'J11V ~"
t;"IJIJTIit'.EIfJ:

'ron

il,'iln(1tim~1

[1'[

I

\rq:al ( t,\l.'F~~1lL..:tlj. Srotl'tllPIimJiI''[~)

e:mttxQl1KE
Q1:~ elGL

tcu JDIIP";UlI 11f. IIA~'IJu)JU.lL o:l'1!UHIl 0 ;(I:)I-;r.o;

a1~':>;

if,'qlf10tw

~rO'i) il.!(lO 'I ~J'I16"t~I;'U 'LIIKpLlJ (rItO n.;; ,,5po\I1lVI~ 1I;Q1 ra~' '(j1~~LG1nl" 0 ~!&i1M~lo..; 00Il1 r.L\'lll tbotCv.; nnn mttllU£1 o:mJ!,' '[I'Wlflt;;rrrll vn ":':"'''IJ1;riJGf.L l:ia.tl'W,x; all e\i>l~ OJlMDIf«IW{,'1,"IJ l!Uj",,~ pwa. et"t~1 ).i~!\.' E, LOll';; jA;llJOrtrl ' va E crf)~~ 1'l:m.1 vu .£~J"~otL tTt;; ~j~L\'tj~ )'!.iIpi~ I,."Q: tpl)EL 0;0: OPWf] .P.ItIlIP~ I1E to ....A1T~lllilillni:.tul-l,Ll] Ooli~mPl) ;IIJ]J~I I O:riuIJt "Uwp!S , ~'t/(I) l:mnrwa Gf.Q T!;111 1a itl'lm'~ Uri.' ~r.;(L''ltT.ilv )..Jl1.'M'. EKobn;u!O oEivlll [1C:'='t
\'u ltlJ9&!.OOwa1!f

:Ptno t;.II;1;U~on t
r!.(ll"PtJ;
I)I~

'[i£1

to

S;t1i:1rl:!rp.,:;;

WID .. II'! o(j)LQi
1Eoo ~~

l~m IJ"tCl

:rrO:flKol.l

~I(!l

prl)~'"'O"l..1~IlIDP..ll U.I,; oi~J.a\/

i:lfldI&T}j.i£v(lll non

",La

'fl ..... ra;:pMyil frr.ITq]lltitOO1t w

it

'1((L1M ....;IJ~ t

1I:PCltEiI.'G'l'llll

,'.cpo

(1U!~(Tfr,;p_Ipa.
ps

Tt

'j'lirrtEj1O:)

:n:JJOJ.Eivol;'t)m~

DL ~a~OL

~i.;

TIl AIEH

-,-1). 'ill;

\,\(I

E'L\.IIJ1 Iil1.iOOtr£!lf40,u';'OII I«))~~'~

IIIID I~t.titpl~ EJ;.i~fll (36'1'tp,a ~lJ~1 1J1;tj~'l~~IJ~1JLEimL
~lIl~Ll "rlfi 111'< 1fparrtl~O~1.l

t1K'

01,orroiCl~ 1.'11 EJuwrl!'r1i,;}'lh'

78 'tOu~ mID 'to vspo. Ot OptSOVtl01 q>opetc_;nporetvstci va eivut ano X/1A;upa nou XPElo.SE'tat Ol-to)c_; I wlat'tEPll1tPoOoxil y1a 'tTIVnpoomoia rou ano tl1 Oto.~pCDOll To VEPO tCDVq>pay~'[CDv YEV1KU osV' d~(;ttww.hapal5UlBprotuco onffi<; '[Q vspo illC_;8uAaaaac_;nap' oAa auto. ctlcom~Lo£ivat ot m6npec; KU'taOK&ll6<; va ~aq>'[Q\JV J!E l.lnOo'[pOJl-ta primer (j3aatKO o'[OtXe1.o '[00 .xpeOl-la.o~ au:t:oU sivei 0 miYKo<;) EVeO a'tll O"l.lVf:XEla vu nEpaOW{IV us Eno~tK(i xpwJ!a'ta (auto. nou 'te",tKCt npoo'ta'teUouv 'tIlV Ka1(l(1KeD11).159 Oc eAKtlat11pB~ nou XP1lcrL!-lonOli!0l1Kav npen-Et vc eiVat yaA.paVlOl!§VOl 6VW to MnEbO npO'tElVB'taL vc eivni ano yaAj3avlt;e nA.€Yf!a y1a vn IvCtIlPavst 0' emOK61t't11S O"tlVOAl!<'U1'nlV ato011a11 tou VePOl). Me rev 1:p6'1to «oeo npoonuEiOUlle vc (jUVbUO.OOUI!8 ap!lOV1Ko. KaL ABrtOUpytKO. ra rrupaoootut<u 1.'-).,lKo.us L11V KaWOK&llaOttK11 , 160 'tEXVOYVffiGla , • H nAconl e~€8pa 'itO\) nporsivetm Yla L11V EV8eX0l-leVll cpt1o~Evia ~LlKPcOVnA.eol)l-lEVOJvI61 Kat C1tt&K,ewt:WV l!1topBi va aXel nAW1:11pec_;ana Bapf:A.tCt, I-Ltac_; Kat tXOWl£ XPl1crtl-LOn0111C'Bl oro xwpo {3tO!lllXaV1Ko. o'tOlxeia yw. moEllltlK11 A.E1Wtlpyta.
J

• •

.11all6pc:pwO"1l ern \IlloaKla nou eO. rrpOKtH!'oUV an6 eO. to errttpe\VEl \)\Vol-l€tpOU ton a86.q>01)C_; , ([)toAt£c_;;jro'uhiliv Ottt v1l0a.K1a "

1:0

Xffipo icovtu aLll YEqmpa npaYlla zou

lS9KrodtavtlVlollC; E., M'I1Xa.vu<:6C; epyoi~iou

METKA., DpoO'rolllKll

£1HK01VUlV[a.,

8ilO'al)POt; 1997

16°Mecra 0;71:6 rnv avu98crTl a.Utll .~l7tOpODW: va 80DIle ~l£Ta.<pOPlK6;111V crT11Ple;11 1l1t; m'lyxpoV11C; 1(panu:nucoL1lw.c; (~taJ..All(tC; Ka'[w.JKEutC;) ern lcrTOPlKU too; Oc:,Li;A.ta(~UlL\lOl <popEh;;), Cf'COLXeta. 1(OU onroe;eXOUI-lB a.va.<ptp£t xpt1m~t01Loblcr£ 1£0AA£t;<porte; 0 livOpronoe; yla. vc aXE:8uioel TOV nOA.mcrIU) TOU !!&O'o. ero veco (npo'lcr1:0P!KOLOlKlO'Jldi, ~/apliotKU O'~ttto.). 16tH 1tA.eU(J111lE !-LUepa(J'1<:aC:Pl1 npOTBlVEtaL va sivci av£~tA.eVK1l1 alcA-a It6vO (l1tO XP110'tec; 00llYOUC_; beV 1£0U aa exouv E1La<p1l I-lB'[11A.ettoupyia tOU nclpKOU.

79
• IxElu60KaMl natxviol
n01)

• H 'Y8((mpa nou oorlYei cto (ppaY~la EK<ppaOt11Ke ocv crutuco emOKE1rtr] yo. Del, nv to smEl1.lJ,Lsi,to <ppaY~la Kat mv tXEl1.)OOKa?.a.
--

KaAet

rov

, KIlTUO'K&U£;

1tO'O 1tpO't'eiVOVTIll

AlO'l:hl't'lKit TOU; A.&lTOup')'la napaTCO~l1tll ow; svepyetaK8S aUYll .ou nOAttlo~lOl)
--

yop6J1UA.o<; Kat uopcruA.tK6c; KoxA.iac; yopaUA.1KO napKo

I1Vl1~lec; Kat rnv evvoic

Ilnproroumj npanla,[,f:lle"Cat

CH11v 11

evspveic,

nou
LOU

tl.EH

cmv ioropuoi crnvexEta O"COlxeia "COnoEle'tllusvc crE napano~L101 Bl.OJ111xaYlKa o'tO xoopo J1ecra optOEle'tllJ1£VO VEPO <popea rtou Ka"CacrKe\Hloe 'to epyo (yevvrl1:pl£C;, avtA.iec;)

oPtOO£'tllJ.ltvoC;
opautT\pt6'tll1:SC;

_.

xwpOC;

Y1a

Koll)~lB11nKec;

Ka1:aVOll011 ana "COV emoKenl:ll 'tllS yeac; ~LOp(Plis rou vepou rrou nporsivouue us aU1:6 LO 8P10 Km:av611cr11 ano tOV E1ttOK£nL1l l:llS yeac; ~LOr<plis LOU vepou n01) nporeivouus ~le a1.H6 1:0 epyo YnoOO~tll ytO. "Cll(ptl,o~evia 1t1:11VOOV

ne~oyeqlU pec;-nepinLEpa.

Nlloa.Kta

(D(O1 tEe;
IxOuOOKaMl Fsqrupc Kat uovomrn n01) o011yd ere <ppaY~la. KCI.l TI1YtxOUOmmA.a

. Ka.tClVOllcr11 'tOY ana emcrK87nll 01](OA.OY1Kl1S olaXEiplO'llS 1:0U epy01)
Kcrovonou

nle;
'tl1S

a.rco tov £1tlO"K81t1:'l OlKO)"OY1K11SlaxdpLcr11S tOU spyou o

Kurcvoncn cxo rov E1tlaKi:rnll 'W\) aUVOA.oD ron spvou 1(01) qJpaY~la1:0S xm 1:11C; otKOA.OY1KliS OlaxEip1GllC; 1:0"1.)

OL ~tOp<pes ,[())V KaWOKCUOOV nOD urrapxOl.lV ~u~:aa ow vepo XP'lGl!-l01WlOl)V, Ka'trX xcvovo, Ka1:aK6pUqJ£S Kat OPlsOV1:W; Ka1:aaK€Uacr1:1Kes ypa.~L~lt~. Auto vivstut aK6muo a<po\) a1:6xoc; ~la.S eivct vn unopeoouue vn nai~OWlE us LO op1sovno Eni1cEOO 1:OU VEPOl) Kat n~ avnOtae1C; ncn 0.1)1:0 !-lnopEi vc EK<ppam:t. npOKll1l:T01)V A.OmaV uson uno n~ Ka'['aaKcuec; 01 avnOeaEtc;: :Extow,.tOV01Ul'tL01) 'tOt) Bilal KaOE1:01 <popzi.C; Kat 0 Ol6.A.OYOC; (70'1'1tl:Bilal, E., Froid equater 1992) cutcov w: to aW1XEi.o. To LOlO xapaKl:llPt0"'C1KO npo'telVe1:D.l vc ErrEK"CaOei, ZKtOC; ana 1:0 VEp6 Kat GtO npO,[,ELV6~lC:VO napKo. Me au'['o rov tpono eO. eivrn m0av6v 01)\10.1:11 1 cotsucovicu Ev6S OpO~lOU '['01) vspou nrivco oro eoaq)Q~, 1 oU~lq>())Va!-le rrtv etKaO"'ClKTtnpotncn 1:01) BiJal!o:;.

162

Bilal, E., Froid equarer, EKb. Les humanoidcs associes, Paris 1992

80
E7tf.t.Oti ~ 81t1.CJ1ct'l1~rrov 6).)..rov cppanUltWV a~tDAoyi)efJKaV roe; 7tOA.tl'YDT}tEUnKa Ta Ka9apa j3tO!.LfJXUVtKa:w<O!.LaTa, xpro!.LaTa 1ta)J;tae; (KOKKtVD, xirpwo, !.L1tA.e, 1tpacrtvo) nporeivsmt Kat 'Yta 'tT} A.UOll tWV KaTaCJ1<EUrovva XPT}crt!.LD1tDtlleDtlV avttotOtxa xpro!.Lata. E~ elMoU aq>Du 0 q>Dpeae; XPT}ot!.L07tOtei KaTa xovcvu ru :w<O!.Lata aUto. OK01tL~LO eivm va rn XPll01~L01tDtlloet Kat eOro 'Yta va rcapa1tf:!!1tOUV 0& auTOV. EmOll~ eva !.Leyaw J1epoe;reov KataOKEurov XPT}crt!.LD7tOtei 1taVaA.a!.L13aV0J1EVa E otOtxEia. Auto to xapaK'tT}ptO'ttKo 'Yiv&tat OKOm!.La !.Ltae; Kat 0 q>Dpeae; 1tDU EVOtaq>epSTat 'Yta to epyo, KUPtO xapaK'tT}ptO'ttKO eX&t ta &1tuvaA.a!.L13aVO!.LEVatOtx&ia. npo01taeroVtae; 13&~airoe;va OeODU!.L& o auta Ta OTO'tX&ia J1&'tT}V A.UUl} Kat 'tT}V O'tKO'''-oytKi} otaXEiptCJ1l, !.Ltae;Kat 01tWe; avaq>epaJ1& T} q>UOll OEV stvm TaKttKi} orooa!.LE eva xapaKtijpa ata~ia<; O'tT}V E1taVaA.11'11T}. Auto ytati T} etKaonKi} 1tp6taUl} 'tT}e; aKPt'tT}C; &1tUVaA.fJ'IIllC; unopei "va 13uSioet to' U7tOKEi~lEVD O'tD !.LT}Of:v rou Ul}!.LatvO!.LEVOUKat va 013tiOEt 'to' vOT}!.Laaq>tivDnac; !.LOVD 'tT}V &tKOVa 'tOU onv aO&tO'Kf:A.Uq>DC;,,163 H cptJ...oOo~ia 'tOU eyxetpi}!.LatDC; Kat 'tIle; OXeOtaonKi}e; 1tpO'tamle; TJ'tav va eKq>paODU!.L& !.Lia Ka'ta j3aUl} jazz &tKoVa !.Leoa ornv etKaonKi} nporcon. H eucovc jazz i)xrov eeA.a!.L& va !.L7tOp&iva ota13aotei OTDV unO &~f:'taOll XroPD !.Ltae; Kat to' ~lltD\l~lEVD l1mv to "O'tiA.~Dv XaDC;" tDU OX&OtaO!.LOU!.Lac;.I:& UVti9&Oll ue Ka1tDtO onin 1tDU 11 eixovc tOU q>aVta~et onv tpa'Yo\l~h (neou 1tPf:nEt va !.L1tDpEiva !.LtAa O'tDV avepro1tO) EOW aqxnpeouue 'tllv 'ta~ll Kat tT}V o~ltAia O'tD ustpo TOU OUvatOU Kat OteKOtKi}oa!.L& mv atcrfll1ttKi} tl1e; 01(1)1t11e; EVOe;opvovucou vrousrou. Tou vepou Kat TOO UVepW7tOu. IO..eivovTac; rnv 1tEpt'Ypaq>i) TWV Ka'taOK&UWV 1tapa'tl1PDllll.e ott e1ttAf:Xel1Kav KataoKe\lee; 7tOU &K!.LeTaA.A.eUDVtata!.Leoa rnv J,lSTa13O'A.TJ 'tT}e;'ll1tapXO'l.loae; Kataotamle; 'tDU VEPO'UKat OT}ll.tOUPYO'Uv 'tT}V a1tapai'tT}'tT} 'll1tDOOJ,li)'Y1a 'tT}V atoe11ttK11 'tDU a~t01toitlml- E1tL'tPf:7tO'llVEE1timlC; rnv ava1t't1.l~fJ opao'tT}ptOtTJtWV 'tT}e;to'mKi}c; xowcovies; J,llae; Kat oi 1tapEA.KO~lEVOtOtOXOt a'lltO to OKDnO eXDUV. ~fJll.tOUPYDUJ,lE A.ot1tOV ttc; O1.lVei)K&e;srot coors va a~tD7tDtT}eei 11 1tapa1tavro U1tOODIl.i) a1t6 mv TomKi} xowcovia Kat va UVa1t't1l~Et OtKf:C;'tl1C;1tpW'tD13DuA.iee; lDV U1tO e~f:taOl1 XWpD. O

163Ap<lV't~tlC; E., Ioropie; 1tOUapEcrav cre Il.EpIKOUe; vOpci)1[ovC; DV ~epOJ. eKo. 'IKClpDC;, et)va 1995 a n A

81

EnlAO"(OC;
H ~UGT) 'too 1tpo'ta9l')KE 'Yta 'to 1tEOto Eq>apj.toyll<; a1taitllae
1tpayj.ta'tEUnlKaJ.le Ka9' O~l')mv OUlpKeta tTle;epyaaiae;. 'tIlv cr\)VgeGT) tON EVVOu.OV 1tOU

APItKa Katata~aJ.lE 'to aUvow tOU tpyou oe anvapt11GT) us ro xapaKtllPlatlKa nou J.lUc; evOtacptpoov va avanrux9oUv. Ta xapalCtllPlattKa Kata'Ypaq>11Kav oro Keq>a~atO "<!>paYJ.lata" Kal all'ta 1tOU a~toA.oyi)911Kav on J.l1tOpol)Vva avamnxOouv OtO EPYO eivct: 11 a~tonoillGT) 'too 'YpaJ.lJ.llKoU1tapKOU (XO>POU 1tOU J.ltvel aVe1tllpeaato a7t6 mv KataaKEll1l) xm 11a~tonoil')GT) trov uoa'teov, yta ava\jlllm. 'Erot emv aUvgeGT) 'too epyou eKJ.le'ta~~t11KaJ.le mv cr\)VOeGT)OU uoatlVOU Ot01Xeioo us mv t "taXUPlt" 'too J.lOPCPlt-~l.J.lVl') mlVaptl')Ol') us "aal:levite;" cKq>paacte; omlle; tOU UOpau~lKOU ce 1tapKOO xm 'too J.lOUaetaKOUXoopOU0't0 1tapalCtlO 1tpaVEe;Kal tu 1l0pal)~lKa 1talxviola usou <Jtl') ~iJ.lVl'). H AUGT) OU 1tapKOU, tOO J.lOlJOElaK011 oopou Kat tcov UOpaUA.lKOOV t X natl"lOtWV oev lttav ollVa't6v va EKcppaatel. a'tl<; diJ.laKee; nou eq>taae 11J.leAhll, os nAijpIl avaAllall. LIlj.taVtlKll OJ.teoe; rnv yta ouv9ettKit A.UGT) It'tav 11Ka'taycypaj.tj.tev" sunstpin tOU Ke<paA.aioll "t.pOIlOl tOU VePOU" 11oaoin EOcoOE epe9ialla'ta aUa Kal MOEle; yta mv J.lcyaA.lltf:pll a~LOnohlOll tON tpyeov. A7t6 'to KecpaA.ato curo GT)!IDVtlKCrtepa epe9ioj.tata yta t11 MOll tll<; auvf)etlKll<; ~lJOll<; a1tott~oav 11 tatoptKit avaop0J.llt trov A.tJ.lvaicov 1tOA.ttta~loov, avaopo~111 1tOU oOlryei crnv Ol')J.llOUpyia OpyavlKO>V Ka'taaKEUoov cs naaoawllC; uecc OtO vepo, Ka9<i>c;EniOlle; Kat Ot A.UOet<;tTle; napa'Ypa<poo UOpaU~lKa 1tatXVlota 1tOUOOllYOllV 1tl9aVE<;AllOW; tOU uopaUAtKOl) 1tapKou. os l:tTlv Ka'ta~l')~ll 'tl')<; ~UGT)e;, oev 1tpE1tel va ayv0110ei 11 YOllteia tOU uoanvou O'tOlXeloo, xapaKtl')plattKO 'to onoio Ka90oltYlloe OA.OKA.11Pll epyaoia. To cr\1J.lBow tl')e; J.lV11J.llle; rnv 1tOU ell1tEpttXEt to vspo, a1tOtEA.eOEKat to svcucuc Yla rnv np6taOll rou uouosicxo» XoopOU0't0 6pto tou VEpoU. KA.eivoV'tae; tl')v epyaaia 1tpenel va avayveopioouJ.le Ott 11sucovn tOU vepou 11'tav 0 OOl')y6e;tl')e; ~UGT)e;aUa Kat tTle; EpyUoiae;. 001110e; A.ot1t6v, 11 UVU~11tllOlltIle; uAllOetac; rton eK<ppa~Etat J.lE 9auilaoriJ nA.llPOtl')'tU oro l'taiVYK orev avaq>epet Yla to vspo: "Ilnpuuevst aA.1l9tVo crov Eau't6 'too Ka'teo an6 Onoteooltno'te mlV9ltKee;".

82

r£V1Kcl

Benjamin V., Charle Baudlere, Eva; AllptK6; crnv nCOll1;oUAll~ £KO.AA£~avop£ta, Aet')va 1994

aKJlt') ron KwmaAtaJlOU, usr. rt.ropyo;

Bilal, E., Froid equater, £KO.Les humanoides associes, Paris 1992 Celan, P., TOll Kav£v6; 'to pOoo, Jl'tq>.Aa~o; r. Xpnoroc,
£KO.

Aypa, Af)t')va 1995

Chetwynd, T., Dictionary of symbols, tKO. Thorsons, GB. 1982 Dawson, Ch., The Age of Gods, tKO. Seed and Ward, London 1934 Diels, H., Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, Experiment, Berlin 1934

Mmoc-Ioevto; 1996 'ttUxo; 30 e'to~ 30.
eKo. Oxford

Flaubert, G., 0 m:tpaaJlot; tou Ajtou AVtOlVtOU,Jlt<p. Kdiora BapvaJ..11, Af)11va 1977 Gardiner, A., Egyptian Grammar, Being an introduction to the study of Hieroglyphs, University Press, London 1950 George C. Vaillent, Aztecs of Mexico
Gung, Psychology

and Alchemy volume 12, The collected works, eKo. Rowtlege and Gegan P.,

London 1954 Lurken, M., The Gods and symbols of ancient Egypt, tKO. Thames and Hudson, London 1974 Page, L.D., H 0JlllPtK'ij OouO'CJEtU,f1't<p.Kpinovu nUV1lyllp11, EKO.nun:uot')f1U, Af)'lvu 1995 Tolkien, R. R. J., The Lord of Rings, tKO. George Allen and Unwin, London J 983 AAtycipt. 1986
Nnrvra,

H eetu KOlf1OlotU, ~ltq>. rlffi,JY'l<; Koroipnq, EKO. I. ZuXaPOn:OllAo<;,A9t')vu

A~tJ..6c;, K., 0 HpaKJ..ettOC;Kat 11q>tAoaoq>iu,urtp. ~1lf11itp'1C;~1lf111tptaOl1C;, tKO. E~avtat;, A9t')vu 1974 Apavt~ll;, 1995 E., Ioropte; 1COU aptauv at JltptKOl)C;av9pwn:onc; 1tOU ~epOl, tKO. 'IKup0C;, A91lva

Aptatot€Ao'llC;, M&'tuq>uatKa 983,6,30 Ftopv, A., To alu()rrruco tau TO 1t'OAITI!CO, OJltAiu 1tpOC; tOl)~ ntYKOllivOllC;,~ltq>.navoc; Taaxuyeac;, NiKO; B. AJ..e~iall, £KO.EA.eUgepoc;T\11CO;,AI:lt')vu 1996 ~taJ.lavt1l;, A., KUptaKattKfl "E", A91lva 21 Anrouorou Hpailittoc;, 1997

AAavra, J.ltq>.A9avamo<; Kllpla~01t01IAo<;, tKO. Kcxroc, A9t')va 1995
1toJ..eL<;,unp. E. A. AOAuvioll<; ~aou KUn:OytaVV07rOUAoll,tKO.

ItatVYK., J.ltq>.Richard Vilchem, AVtpea~ TaaKuJ..11;, eKo. Ilupwoc K6af10;, A9t')vu 1982 KnAPivo, I., Ot aopattc; Oouaaea;, A9t')va 1982
0lICOJOJ..l1tal' (vAeia,

KaJ.lllMKTtC;,Tl., H XP'1ulJ..lo1t'oi'1lT11 OV vepoii TWV nouuubv T

a1rO 'WV~ VAOTO~OV~OT1JV J..leTarpopa am) TYfVIlivoo (190(;;- 200, aubvac), Nepo 1t1lYll~Olll~ IdVTta11C; Ku8upJ1oU, EmOtr)J.lovlKfl auv1ivtr)01l1l1t6 mv atyiou rou Y noupreiou Ilosmouou, fleKEJ1PptO; 1997

Kapoitaa, Toupiouxo; ob1'fy6~ AiJ.M1C; "N. n).a(ITIlp(~", EKO. Sigma Advertising, Kapol'taa

83 KapoA., A., M~ orov Ka9pecptr) Y o/tA.ov/P$A.ta, A9iJva 1979 Ka1 't1 PpijKE 11 AA.iKll exei, Iltcp. LO)t1'lPll KaKtaT}, £KO. Ecrin, A9iJva A9iJva EKO.

Kspvei, K., H ,.LU9oA.oyia'tON EA.A.ijvoov, Iltcp. A11lll;tP11 Ltaflo7touA.ou, KouevuA., M., H Ka911J1ep1vlJ

1996 1988

~(J)1;orou; 7tPOlcr'tOP1K01)<;;WOVOll<;,EKO. na7taOl;J1a,
KatacrtaaT},

AEKa'tcrac;, n.,H Katayroril A9iJva 1951 AlIO'tap, 1993

reov gecrJ1c.Ov Kat nov oo~acrtci>v, EKO. BtPA.io NeOW11VtKOU A.OyOU,
J1tcp. Kroorce; na7taytci>P1'llC;, EKO. Fvdicn, A9ijva

Z ...(J).,H J1etaJ1oVtepva

MctVtac; I., )tVOpCIJ1Co(; tau Nepo, Teoopu:

tau a;fo'1XOl }-lux.r; }-lw<poxpov'1r; 1CrM'1r;... , NEpO 7tT)ylJ ~ooiJc;KtVllaT}C;Kat KaOapJ1oU, Y nO mv a1yioa ron Ynoupyeiou Iloxmouou, AeKeJ1Pp10C; 1997

MepA.c.O-MovtU, M., H aJ1cp$oA.ia rou Le~av to J1an Kat to 7tVe1)J1a, ~lt(p. AA.eKa Moupixn, NECPa11, A9iJva 1991 Nso; Ayc.ov, 31 AeKEJ1ppiou, Knpdiron 1957

EKo.

Nso; Ayc.ov, Kapoitcra
NtEJ1n6P,

21 Invounpiou

1960

NitCJE, <1>.,Ioropin Kat ~ooiJ, J1tcp. LKOlltEp67t01lA.oC; N .M.,EKO. Fvdicn, AOiJva 1993

NtEJ1n6P, Tu7tOC;, A9iJva Ouav.c,

r., nIlVllYllP1K6C;, J1tcp. Kc.ocrtac; Oucovouou, EKO. EW)OEPOC; r., LXOA.W 7tCIVooornv xotvcovin rou OEa~latoC;, J1tcp. navoc;
1988

Tunoc, A9iJva Tcraxeac;,

1995

eKO. EA.ei>9EPOC; AOiJva 1983

0., H crcpiyya oixooC;to aiv1YJ1a, uer. Tscopy. E>. MaA.te~oll,

EKO. Hptoav6c;,

nA.acrKopitllC;, L., To cppaYJ1a, eKO. KEOpOC;, AOiJva 1960 nA.outapxou, LUJ1nOcrtoV Txopvtov n1)J1, ~ltCP. EA.EV11 A9avacr07t01)A.oll, 1972 EKO.

n6E, E.A., H acpiJYllaT} 'tOU Ap90up fpaJ1J1ata, A9iJva 1986 Pall.

B., AKOU av9pOO1tclKO, J1tcp. Mopin NEOqJc.otLcrtOU-ZI;Ka, EKO.n1)A.11,A9iJva 1992

Pacpa11A.W11C;,B., ItOtxEtci>ol1C; mcr011tlKi), eKO. tOU E1KOcr'W1)npdrrou, Afh;va Povrsv, A., H TeXVll, J1tcp. A.LuppoC;, Eorin ron P1PA.iol.l, A01;va 1954 TapKocpcrKt, A., Mupruposojto, Iltcp. AU~avopoc;

Icrap11C;, EKO. N£cpEA.1l, A01;va 1990 1990

Tt;60c;, T., To 7tOptp&to rou KaA.A.ttEXVll, urqi, M.L. EKO. Fpcuuorc, Afll;va Touw~it, 0 na7taA.<lvyKt, Aet;va 1988 <1>iCJep,E., H avayKat6tr)ta

J1tcp. Kntspiva Ala7ttCJll-A11~LOcr!:)ev11C; acrKaA.67tOUA.o<;, EKO. Yo/tAoV, A tr)<; TEXVll<;, utrp, (l>o1>i"a Xatl;;tOaKl1, EKO. E>EJ1EA.tO, 9ijva A 1984

<1>p6tVt I., H EPJ111vEia tOOVoveipov, J1tcp AEqJtep11C; Avuvvdiorou, EKO. E7tiKOt)POC;, AOiJva 1993
ApI1TEKTOV1KeX

Bache1ar, G., H 7tOt11ttKi) ron xc.opou , ~ltCP. EA.EV11 BeA.tcrou Xats11VtKOA.iJ, AOiJva 1982 Bache1ar,

koovvc

Xat1;,11v1KOA.l;, £KO.

G., To VEPO Kat 'ta ovapo, J1tcp. 'EA.CJll Tcoum, EKO. Xatl;;llVtKOA.iJ, AOiJva 1985

Bearcley, C.M., H urropin tOOV atCJ011ttKc.OV 9eooptci>v, ~l1qJ. AllJ1ocr9evllC; Kouprjnx, nauA.o<; Xpt.otOOOuA.Wll~ eKo. NecpEA.ll, AeiJva 1989

Berthol, Moog, The Horizontal watermill, EKO. The international molinologikal society, 1994

84 Bookchin, M., To ewcsaA.oviKll 1996 Framrton, Opta 'tTl~ 1tOA11~, wcq>. rUIVVll~ rKAapvi;'ta't~11~, apx,tT£K'tOVUCl;,£KO. 8£Ilf:A10, A01;va 1987 der Stadt, VEB Verlag fug Bauwesen, Tokyo AOijva 1988 01tffiC;avacpepETat The MIT Press, Berlin 1976 &KO. napa'tTlpllril~,

K., Movrspvo

Greiner J., Gelbrich Harumichi,

H., Gruflachen

K., Formation

of stone, &KO.Shokokusa,

Kunze, S., APX,lTEK'tOVtKltKlt1tffiV,£KO. M. rtoUpoac;, Laugier, M.A., Observations CSTO Tafuri M., Arclutecture Cambridge Mass, 1979 Le Corbisier, Orsatelli, Plumpre, Progressive Keiuevu yta

sur I' Arclutecture, the Hague 1765, p.p. 312-313 and Utopia, Design and Capitalist Development,

mv Ellcloa,

IlTcp. !\ijoa naAaVtlVOll,

eKO. Ajpc

1987

J., Les Moulins,

&KO.Jeanne Laffitte, 1979 and Tomson, July 1992 Studio Press, 8&cscsaA.oviKlll996 London

G., The water garden, EKo.Thames Architecture,

A Penton Publication,

Rossi, A., H apXtT&K'tOVtK"ijtTlC; tOA.ll~,&KO. niversary ' 1 U

Venturi, R., H 1tOAU1tA.oK0tTlta Kat 11 avttq>aCS11 CS't11VapXtteK'tOV1Kij, Iltq>. reOOpytO~ L. KatcsOOA.llC;, eKO. reOOP'Ytoc;L. KatcsollA.11~, Ath;va Von Gretl Hoffinan, BaKaA.W, E.r., 1988 Brunnen und Wasserspiele, LuV'ra~l1, Aerroupyic . AuWollatLK"ij spynoin eKO Juliuw Hoffmann Verlag, Stuttgart &KO. N&q>f:All, AOijva 1tOtaIlOU KllCPtOoU,

01tttKlt

Kat napaywY1; Mopqxov, 11£ Oe~ta, Ava1tAaCSll rou

rewpyaK01tOuA.oc;, e., EMI1,AOijva 1993

EOvoypacptKcX, nEA.o1tOVVllCStaKO Aaoypaq>tKO tOP111la, tOIl0C; 6, Nall1tA.to 1989 lAttcs, I., WO Kat ta vspu 'tTl~ All01l0crllVl1~, Il'tcp. Krooru Xa't~11''llKoAij, AOijva 1992 KwcsTavTtvtollC;, A., Fio mv apXtT&K'tOVtKl;, &K.A:ypa, Afh;va 1987 AEcpe~p, A., To OtKai.coJ.la CStTJv 7t6A.ll, EKO.na1ta~l;CSl1, A01;va 1977 Mapa)'KcXKllc;, M. Ot VEpOllUA.ottOU PeOllIlVOU, pf:eUIlVO 1996 Mtxdijc;, n.A., AOijva 1990 AtCSOllttKcXeewpijJ.laTa, Touoc 3, £KO. 'Iopu~la navaytWTl1
APU1T1VOr:;. )twa

EKO. Xa't~I1Vl1KoAij,

Kat 'ECPllC;MtX&A.ij, Kalpf:rm'/. Avrpew; HpaKA.ijc;, EOVtKO

Movrepvo-Mercuovtspvo, £vvrW<Tl1<11 e7rlTpo1Cll: Fubpyo; Mlr).e(iv17C;, };(JJv7P17C; £opoYKar:;, EKO. L~tiA.ll, AOijva 1988

Mc.opat'tTlC;, K., Ikrrpo, 11 7t6A.ll ~aVa1tA.l1(Jla~Et TIl OaAaCSOa, Ilpoypuuuu lop1lJ.la Epsuvrov, AOijva 1996 Nts MtKU.t, M., Oi npcotosopie; tTlC;tEXV'lC; tOU EtKOOtOll cuovo, eKO. Ooucscseac;, AOijva LtyaA.oU, M., AutA.c.oJ.laTtK"ij epyacsia, 01 VepOJ.lVAOl TIJr:;r(lar:;, LoV'tcXYK,L. H atCSOll'ttKlt 'tTlC; SLW7tijC;, Nove Honic, C J.ltcp. EMn,

~Lt(p. Asvn na1taJ.latOEaKll, A01;va 1997

&KO.N&CPf:A.11, AOijva 1983

Tw.ulvTlc;, A. PouoKac;, r., AillVec; 0l1tOA.l'tei&c;tou vepou, eKO. tonic, AOijva 1996 <DuttKcXKlle;,N., A9ijva 17t7t6oPolloc;-<l>aA.11P1KOC; OpJ.lOe;:1tpOC;tva E7tavaKa90ptollO 7t6A.lle;8cXA.aooa, Ilpovpnuun HpaKAijc;, EeVtKO 'Iop1lJ.la Epenvcov, AH1;va 1996 t11C;oXtUlle;

85

TqvucO;
Chadwick, E., The heath of nations, EKO.Richardson Techcnical R.W., vol 2, London 1887 Publication, EKO. United States department Design of arch dams, A Water Resourses of interior, Denver 1977

Evans, A., The palace of Minos, vol 3, EKO.Biblo and Tannen, New York city 1964 Gutking, E.A. "Our World from the Air", 1952 Koutsoyiannis, D., Flood hazards in Greece, in "Geophysical Embleton Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1997 McHard, Nakajima, 1990 hazards in Europe", edited by C.

I., Design with Nature, EKO.John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York M., Urban waterscape design, Naramata
dam,

EKO. Grafic-sha

Publishing

Co., Tokyo
Bank

Netlon Limited, Civil Engineering Division, A Case Study for Witcombe Reservoir, Erosion Protection, Severn Trent Water Authority, Lower Severn Divison (client), Brothers (Kidderminster) Ltd (contractor), UK, Autumn 1984. Stockli, Kienast & Koeppel, World Conservation and Land Reclamation), Barcelona 1995 Sugano, M., Urban waterscape

Birch

of Enviromental design. Civil Engineering (Nature Musital Quarry 1994, £KO. Francisco Asensio Cever, Publishing Co.,Tokyo 1990

design, water mills, EKO.Grafic-sha design, Naramata

Sugano, M., Urban waterscape
1990 Vitruvios,

dam, 8Y-0. Grafic-sha

Publishing

Co.,Tokyo

.MKa I3tl3A.ia,Jltq>. I:tSA.to<;X. Z8PEq>6<;,8KO. napUt11P1lt1l<; yewypaq>lKliq, ~clmlq, oEoO~levWV ron UOPOOOtlKOt')cruat1iJ.latoq,

AyyiJ.imc:rowq" r., KataOKetl,; 'tT)<; 9';va<;., A9liva 1997 A

Apal3avttvo<;, A. KoaJlclKll T., I:llJlEt<l>aE1<; 1a to ~l6.EhUla EtOtK6. eSJ.lata 1tOA.coooJlta<;, EKO. Y E9vtKOU Metoolhou TIOA.UtEXV8iol), eilva 1996 A E<PllJlEPi<;'tT)<; UI38pv,;aewc; 'tT)<; UllV1Kll<; ~llJlOKpatiaq" tet)X,o<;20 ap. q>t')/"ou678 a8A.. 8156a., K E A9liva 25 OKtool3piou 1990 KaA.Kclvl], E. YOpauA.tKSC;KataaK8usC;-q>p6.YJlata, 8KO. Tousc; YoattKWV Ilopcov, YOpaUA.tKWV Kat eaMOO'lOOV 'EpyOOVEMTI., A611va 1994 KatO'aooop6.Kll<;, r.,Ta K£iJl8Va tOU KevtpOl) 1tA.11POq>6p11allq, t11C; npea1tac;, TIpoO"taO'iac; Ilpsomov, Aytoe; Feoucvo; 1995 KOlltaoyt.6.vvttc;, ~., I:xeotaaJlOe; TIOA.utCXVeioA9liva 1993 aattKWV e., £KO. Etmpia

Olrn)OOV a1tOxet8Uall C;, 8KO. E9vtKO Mstaol3w T£XV1Kll Yopowyia, Ioropucov 8KO. E9v1KO M8t0013W Kat 11 m)~ll3oA.li tOU EtC; rnv

KOlltO'oyt.6.vvttC;, ~ Kat 2av901touwe;, TIOA.U'teXVEio, 9,;va 1997 A

KOlltO'OKOO'taq" A., YOpollA.cKtP1KOV epyov Mtyool3a, 89vtKllV OlKOVOJltav, A9,;va 1958 Koootavttvtolle;,

t., MllxaVtKOe; Epyota~iou METKA., npocrW1tlKll eaucoivcovic, ellcraupoe; 1997
1997 nOA;UtEX'l'EiolJ,A9,;va 1992 Aeliva 1994 A.tJl8VtKWV epyoov, EKO.EBvtKOt') Msrcojhou

KooO"tapSA.o<;,t., JlEO't'tT)<;, 1tpocrOO1ttKll emxotvorvlc, Kapohcra MsJlO<;, K., Mae~J.lata

Muiixou, M., TexvoA.oyia O'llO''tlJJl6.tOOV l)OattKWV 1tOPOOV, 8KO. Ilcacccmtpiou,

86
NepOJ.l.UA.Ot t11~ BU'tt1C11~Meaapa~ Kpl]nl~ (PvalJai oncoanamuara tau Vc5aTlKO c5vvafllKO, Y <pU1tOUP'Yeiovro~ 'Yevta~ Kat a8A'1t1a,.101l, Moucsio Kp'1tllC11~ £8voAoyi~, KMPO £psuvrov
1985

Eav96ruroAo~, e. l:., LltaXeiP1tTTJ \)Oat1KWV nopcov: eewp'1t1KE~ eA1tio&~ Ka1 p&aA1a't1Kl] 1tpoaf:rytcrtt, l:UVEOPlO tOU TEE.-TJ.l.l]J.l.a KevtP1Kl]~ Kat LlunKl]~ e&aaaAia~ Aaptaa, NOEJ.l.PplO~
1996

ITapaaKE\)6ruroJ..o~-rewP'Ytao'1~ EITE, M&A.ttf;~ Kcovoruc EITE, M&A£rTJ IT&PIPaA"-oVttKWV E1tUttroaewv Kat &1tavOp9OOttKWv J.l.Etpoov uno t11V KataaKSUl] rou cruJ.l.1tA'1P<OJ.l.attlCoU avappu9J.1.ttT'ttKoU EP'YOU"A'Yi(l~ BapBap(l~" crov nomuo AAtaKJ.l0Va oro v. HJ.I.(l9ia~, LlEH, Moro; 1993 ITapaaKsu61tOUJ..o~-rewP'Ytao'1~
flepzpWJ.oV'nlCWV

EnE,

navyaia-LllJ.lBO\)Aot

M'1xaVtKoi,

''MeA!:ot

e1Cl1C'rWUeWV )'10. tnv evpvtep11 7CeplOX~ inc; E)J..'7V1K~~ )"eKav1J~ tOV 7Cotaflov uin 1ttAottKl] a&t<poptKll touptanKll1tapEJ.l!3acrtt, uin 1ttAottKl] a&l(poptKl] tOUPlOtlKl] 1tapEJ.l.!3atTTJ,

Niatou, LlEH, A9l]va 1994 np6ypaJ.l.J.l.a Life, n£plOxTl AiJ.lV11~ nAaatllpa, &KO.AN.KA, Kapoitaa 1994 Ilpojpuuuu Life, IT&PlOxTlA.iJ.lVTJC; ITAaoti]pa, £KO. AN .KA, KapBitaa 1995

l:aP'YEvnt~ r. (J). KClt Pe9uJ.l.tWtaKll A., Ot op6J.1.ot tOU vspou, IToAwOOJ.l.ia~, EMn, 1997 L1tavaKll, L. 1990

Epjucin oro J.l.a9'1J.1.(lt11~

r., To

HpaKA&lO oro 1ttpao~ta

tOOVuuovcov, £Kb. ~lhtOu HpaKA&iou, HpaKAelO 828-1939, £KO. T&X"tKol) &1tlJ.l.&A1lt'1piouEAA.aBo~

L1tavaKTJ, L. r., H UOPSUtTTJtoo HpaKAeio\), ' TJ.l.l]J.l.aAvatoAtKl]~ Kpl]t11~, HpaKA£tO 1981

l:'taJ.l.at6ruroAo~, Ll. Kat cruv&pyat&~, E101Kl] x.oopotaKtlKll J.l.&AEtTJ ava1tTl)91~ tOOVOlKtOJ.l.WV t11~ AiJ.l.VTJ~ Taupoo7toU I" <patTTJ,YEXn~E ~lel)elJVO'1 x.oopo'ta~iac;, IOl)AtOC;1993 Y1tai9plO ETEBA XPttT'tOU~, A9Tjva1991 Moucsio YBpoKiVTJcrtt~, Keq>aA.apl1 At Furvvu, Ilosmcnxo T&x,vOAoytK6 'IBpuJ.l.a £KeS. LUJ.l.J.leWV,

A. X., PU1tavtTTJ 'tOOVuMtOOV Kat nvnpuncvrucn

t£X"oAoyia,