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Name: Rules: Short answers are appreciated. Each question scores 2%. Duration 2 hours. 1. How does a router know what port to forward a packet to? By looking up the destination address in the forwarding (also called routing) table 2. What is the main reason to switch from IPv4 to IPv6? IPv6 has a huge addressing space and IPv4 is running short of addresses. 3. Is it IP "best effort" service policy very similar to virtual circuit switching networks service policy? No, IP service is connectionless and virtual circuits are connection-oriented 4. How long does it take to transfer 5 datagrams between two end systems connected by means of two routers (H-R-R-H) if ttx is datagram transmission time and tpr is propagation time? 5ttx + 3tpr + 2ttx = 7ttx + 3tpr 5. How many addresses are found in IPv4 datagram header? two, source and destination 6. List fields of IPv4 header that are related to fragmentation? identification, MF, DF, fragmentationoffset, length 7. What part of an IPv4 datagram is protected by the checksum field in datagram's header? IP checksum protects only the the header bytes but not the data bytes. 8. If the MTU of a given network is 514 bytes, which is the size of the first fragment of a 1024 bytes datagram being forwarded onto that network? 514 - 20 = 494 (closest multiple of eight but lower is 488) 488 + 20 = 508 bytes 9. How many hosts can be found on my network if my address is 18.104.22.168 and network mask is 255.255.255.0 ? 2^8-2 = 254 host (or one less if you have a router) 10. Show CIDR network ID (x.x.x.x/y) for the above network (question 9). 22.214.171.124/24 11. What are the new networks obtained by splitting the address space 10.0.2.0/23 into two equalsize subnets? (use CIDR notation). 10.0.2.0/24 and 10.0.3.0/24 12. What device you need to add to your network if you divided it into several subnets? a router 13. What is the minimum size (in bytes) of an IPv4 datagram header? 20 bytes 14. What is the longest prefix match? It is the function used in a forwarding table look-up. It matches the entry with more bits. 15. What is DHCP protocol for? DHCP is for hosts to obtain their IP configuration over the network. 16. What is NATP (or just NAT) for? Network Address Translation allows several hosts to share one public IP address. 17. What type of routing is based on Bellman-Ford equation? Distance Vector routing 18. Who is in charge of the reassembly IP of fragments? The destination host
19. How do you know the network mask of a network? It has to be provided by the network admin. 20. What does a router do to update its forwarding table? It uses a routing protocol (that exchanges information with other routers) 21. When is the switch from IPv4 to IPv6 expected to happen? Anytime soon 22. Which fields can be found on the translation table of a NATP box? Souce IP and port, destination address and port, tcp/udp and ttl 23. Why a NATP box prevents incoming connections? Because incoming connections match no entry on the translation table. 24. Which other network protocol works together with IP? ICMP 25. Does IPv6 require a new version of ICMP? Yes, ICMPv6 that includes some new message types. 26. What command can you use to figure out the sequence of routers to a given destination host? traceroute 27. What happens to fragmentation in IPv6? IPv6 does not allow routers to do fragmentation 28. Is it possible to mix IPv6 and IPv4 in the same network? Yes it is. IPv6 can be tunneled to go through IPv4 networks. 29. What is a Distance Vector? It is a list of destination networks and the estimated cost to each one of them. 30. What routing algorithm is used by BGP protocol? BGP uses a path vector algorithm (to avoid routing loops) 31. What routing protocols can be found inside an autonomous system? OSPF and RIF are two popular ones 32. What is flooding? Flooding forwards a datagram to all the ports but the one it came from 33. What is the purpose of Link Layer? Link layer handles communication between entities directly connected 34. Mention two of Link Layer technologies. Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) and IEEE 802.11 35. What operations are performed at a NIC? Frame transmission, reception and error detection (modern ones can do more tasks) 36. How does an error-detection mechanism work? It adds some additional information to transmitted frames, receiver uses that extra information to determine whether errors are found or not 37. How is parity calculated? Bits set are counted and parity bit is set if count is odd (so the total count is even then) 38. What is a broadcast? It is a transmission intended for everyone. 39. How do you control no two or more network nodes transmit at once? By using a media access control method. (Beware some of them allow collisions). 40. How does an Ethernet network perform with high load? Ethernet can get congested under high load due to the high collision rate 41. What happens on a Ethernet network after a collision?
Involved nodes will try again after some time (binary exponential back-off) 42. What was ALOHA network? It was one of the earliest wireless data networks set in the Hawaii archipelago 43. How are Ethernet addresses usually called? MAC addresses or physical addresses 44. What fields can be found in the Ethernet frame header? preamble, destination address, source address and type/length 45. In an 802.11 network, how is data transmitted between two nodes in the infrastructure mode? Through the access point. Source transmits to AP and then AP retransmits to destination 46. What is the "hidden terminal problem"? It is when two senders that cannot hear each other can interfere with a common destination 47. What type of network is a Bluetooth network? It is a wireless PAN (personal area network) 48. How do you obtain a digital certificate? Applying for it to a certification authority 49. What is a hash-collision? It is when two different messages obtain the same hash value 50. Why a hash-collision may be a problem for digitally-signed documents? Because we cannot be sure about the received message integrity (it could have been tampered with)