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INTRODUCTION Lokmat is the largest read & circulated Marathi language newspaper. It is the fifth largest Indian daily and in Marathi, it is the largest selling daily with 9 lack copies a day. Lokmat has a total readership of 23.67 million. Its registered and corporate offices are located in Mumbai, Maharashtra (India) and its main administrative center is located at Lokmat Building, Lokmat Square, Nagpur (India). Lokmat Group is a Marathi language newspaper publisher in India. The company publishes three daily newspapers in English, Hindi and Marathi. It recently entered television broadcasting through a joint venture with IBN. 45000 copies produce per hours. Overall M.H. 13 printing center and manufacturing cost 4.70 paise and sale product cost 3.50 paise. Higher cost in production dhanterash (Diwali) cost of Rs. 16 to 18.Daily 120000 unit produced newspapers. Founded Jawaharlal Darda Language: - Marathi - Lokmat, Hindi - Lokmat Samachar, English - Lokmat Times. Editions Lokmat has 11 Marathi editions in Maharashtra. Nagpur (including Yavatmal,Wardha, Gondia, Amravati and Gadchiroli supplements), Aurangabad (including Separate Hello Lokmat Supplement For 8 Districts in Marathwada), Mumbai (including Ratnagiri & Sindhudurg), Pune, Ahmednagar (including Shirdi and Beed), Solapur, Kolhapur (including Sangli & Satara),Nashik, Jalgaon (inclusive of Dhule and Nandurbar), Akola (including Buldhana, Washim and supplements),Goa. Lokmat also caters to the Marathi speaking population outside Maharashtra. It has editions in Indore (Madhya Pradesh) and Belgaum (Karnataka). On 21 April 2009, Lokmat launched its Goa edition (Marathi) primarily for the Marathi-speaking population of north and north-east Goa.
Newspaper Production An aggregate of printing processes, whose scope and character are determined by the circulation, volume, and frequency of publication of the newspaper. The characteristics of newspaper production, in contrast to other specialized printing processes, are an operational interdependence between the editors and the printing office employees, based on a strictly established hourly schedule, and the utilization of highly productive equipment to expedite the typesetting, preparation of engraving plates and matrices, casting of stereotype blocks, printing, and delivery of the newspaper. Tie-up with Journalism Colleges In April 1999, Lokmat entered into collaboration with the Horniman College of Journalism and Mass Communication run by the Maulana Azad Education Trust (MAET). Lokmat agreed to offer theoretical education and practical training in different disciplines of journalism as well as provide on-the-spot training in different departments of newspaper production.
MANUFACTURING PROCESS Typesetting The composing room receives the story in an electronic format, with the computer text file already translated with typeset codes. In a typeset file, the characters are of the same "type"- style, size, and width - as they appear on the pages of the newspaper. The setting of stories into the type that a reader sees went unchanged for several decades until the latter years of the 20th century. Well into the 1800s, type was set by hand, letter by letter. Individual lines of type were then placed by hand onto a page form. When a page was completed, it was then sent to a stereotyping room where a curved metal plate was made from the page form. Modern technology has replaced the Linotype process through a method called phototypesetting. The first step in this process is the transfer of the dummy to the page layout section of the newspaper. There, an operator transfers the instructions on the dummy into a rough page prototype. A printed version may be looked over and adjusted several times by one of the reporters whose story is featured as well as by the copy editor. If another breaking story comes in, this page layout can be altered in a matter of minutes.
Ink is crucial. Ink is delivered every day from our suppliers. There are different qualities of inks, but we generally stick to one. We use four colours which enables us (by mixing) to get 4 colour we want. The colours are black, cyan (blue), magenta and yellow. The inks that we use are hydrophobic ('water-fearing'). Plate In order to get the image onto the paper we need aluminium plates. These have a special polymer coating which allows the ink to stick to certain areas. The process starts with makin the plates. The film of the page, usually done two pages at a time, is then placed on a lighted box. Next, an aluminum plate containing a light-sensitive coating is placed on top of the image of the pages. The way first, get sent negatives of the newspaper page by computer. These are then put in a machine which shines UV light through them onto the plate. The photo-sensitive polymer on the plate absorbs the light and an image of the negative is left on the plate. This is a clever polymer, in that it attracts the ink where it is exposed and where there should be nothing, the ink falls straight off. One plate is made for each colour. This process has now been largely superseded by a process called computer to plate (CTP). This is where the image is etched directly from the computer onto the plate using a laser. When they are made, the plates are put on a rotating cylinder alongside the other plates for that paper. The paper is then fed into the press. Presses were invented by Johannes Gutenberg. He was a German inventor. He invented the press in around 1436 following development by the Chinese as early as the 10th century. The route that the paper takes around the press is called the web. This decides how many pages the paper is and where the colour pages are going to be. When the press is ready to run, the ink is switched on and the cylinders on the press rotate very fast and print the newspaper. Image Transfers The final version of the page is then approved by the editor on duty - sometimes a night editor in the case of a paper that is slated for a morning edition - and sent over to a process department. There, the page is taken in its computer format and transferred via laser beams onto film in an image setter apparatus. The operator then takes the film to a processor in another section of the paper, who develops it and adjusts it for its final look. Photographs are scanned into another computer terminal and inserted into the page layout. The pages that are set to be printed together are then taped down onto a device called a "stripper," and an editor checks them over once more for errors. The
strippers are then put into frames on light-sensitive film, and the image of each page is burned onto the film. The film of each page is inserted into a laser reader, a large facsimile machine that scans the page and digitally transfers the images to the printing center of the newspaper. Printing The aluminum plates of each page next move on to the actual printing press, an enormous machine often two stories high. When the press is running, the noise in the building is deafening and employees must wear earplugs. The most common method of printing newspapers is called web offset. The "web" refers to the large sheets of blank newsprint that are inserted in rolls, sometimes weighing over a ton, into the actual printing press. The reels of newsprint are loaded in at the bottom floor of the press. The rolls are inserted onto a reel stand, which has three components: the first reel brings a roll of paper up to the press, a second is loaded and ready to replace the first roll when it runs out, and a third reel stays empty and ready to be fed with another when the first reel is almost finished. Each roll of blank newsprint has double-sided tape at its edges, so that when one roll runs out in the press, another smoothly takes up where the other left off without interrupting the printing process. The plate cylinders then press the image of the page onto a blanket cylinder, leaving a version of the page's image on the cylinder's soft material. Next, the large sheets of printed newsprint move on to another large piece of machinery called a folder. There, the pages are cut individually and folded in order. This entire printing process can move as fast as 45,000 copies per hour. Quality control technicians and supervisors take random copies and scan them for printing malfunctions in color, order, and readability. The bundles are now ready to be loaded onto delivery vehicle for distribution. Packing The packing stage, the newspaper is packed into bundles and then dispatched to vehicles for circulation. All newspaper packing for automatic and counting by machines.
COURSE NAME:- MBA 2nd semester SUBMISSION DATE:-24.06.11
SESSION-2010-12 GURUGRAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (MDU.ROHTAK)
MR. AJAY PATOLE SUB- OPARATION MANAGEMENT
SUBMITTED BY:MR. RUPESH KUMAR