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CO2/NH3 Cascade unit 250 - 1000 kW Operating Instructions

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW COPYRIGHT


All Rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied or published by means of printing, photocopying, microfilm or otherwise without prior written consent of Grasso. This restriction also applies to the corresponding drawings and diagrams.

LEGAL NOTICE
This publication has been written in good faith. However, Grasso cannot be held responsible, neither for any errors occurring in this publication nor for their consequences.

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW SYMBOLS USED IN THIS MANUAL
Danger! This is an important warning. Nonobservance these warnings can cause accidents with relevant damages on persons or serious damages on the compressor or refrigerating plant.

Warning! Attention! Caution! Important!

Hint! Tip! Note!

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW TABLE OF CONTENTS


1 Operating instructions.......................................................................................................................... 10 1.1 Delivery.................................................................................................................................... 10 1.2 Transport and storage ............................................................................................................ 10 1.3 Transport instructions ............................................................................................................. 10 1.4 Installation............................................................................................................................... 10 1.5 Assembly.................................................................................................................................. 11 1.6 Start-up instructions............................................................................................................... 11 1.6.1 Basics ........................................................................................................................... 11 1.6.2 First commissioning..................................................................................................... 11 1.6.2.1 Leak test....................................................................................................... 11 1.6.2.2 Drying, vacuum ............................................................................................ 12 1.6.2.3 Oil charge ..................................................................................................... 12 1.6.2.4 Checking the direction of rotation of the driving motor ........................... 15 1.6.2.5 Checking the direction of rotation of the oil pump motor........................ 15 1.6.2.6 Adjustment of oil pressure .......................................................................... 15 1.6.2.7 Mounting the coupling................................................................................ 16 1.6.2.8 Refrigerant charging.................................................................................... 16 1.6.2.9 Operating position of valves ....................................................................... 17 1.6.2.10 Checking the water circuits ....................................................................... 19 1.6.2.11 Initial startup.............................................................................................. 19 1.6.2.12 Setting the setpoint / limit values and safety devices .............................. 20 1.6.2.13 Switching on the CO2 refrigerant pumps .................................................. 20 1.6.2.14 Switching on the compressor .................................................................... 20 1.6.2.15 Checking the adjustment of the control slide........................................... 20 1.6.2.16 Checking the control slide adjustment times............................................ 20 1.6.2.17 Automatic mode ........................................................................................ 21 1.7 Shutdown in the event of dangerous situations.................................................................... 21 1.8 Switching off ........................................................................................................................... 21 1.8.1 Normal shutdown ....................................................................................................... 22 1.8.2 Shutting down for a lengthy period .......................................................................... 22 1.8.3 Measures during stoppages ....................................................................................... 22 1.8.3.1 Monthly........................................................................................................ 22 1.8.3.2 Four weeks before putting back into service ............................................. 22 1.8.4 Putting back into service after approx 1 year............................................................ 22 Start-up / Operation of GSC ................................................................................................................ 23 2.1 General Information ............................................................................................................... 23 2.2 Description of the Grasso System Control.............................................................................. 23 2.2.1 View............................................................................................................................. 23 2.2.2 Lamps/ Push buttons .................................................................................................. 23 2.2.3 Operator terminal....................................................................................................... 24 2.2.3.1 Key assignment............................................................................................ 24 2.2.3.2 Open table of contents ............................................................................... 26 2.2.4 Status messages .......................................................................................................... 27 2.3 System description GSC........................................................................................................... 29 2.3.1 Explanation of the system LED................................................................................... 30 2.4 Alarms ..................................................................................................................................... 31 2.4.1 View active alarms and warnings............................................................................... 31 2.4.2 No alarm signal and the compressor will not start.................................................... 31 2.4.3 Restart following Alarms ............................................................................................ 31 Description of Design and Function .................................................................................................... 34 3.1 Brief Description...................................................................................................................... 34

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW


3.1.1 Use ...............................................................................................................................34 3.1.2 Design ..........................................................................................................................34 Refrigerant circuit ....................................................................................................................35 3.2.1 CO2 low temperature stage.........................................................................................35 3.2.2 NH3 high temperature stage .......................................................................................36 Oil return system......................................................................................................................36 3.3.1 CO2 circuit oil return system ........................................................................................36 3.3.2 NH3 circuit oil return system........................................................................................36 Auxiliary refrigeration unit for CO2 separator ........................................................................36 Safety devices...........................................................................................................................37 3.5.1 CO2 circuit ....................................................................................................................37 3.5.2 NH3 circuit ....................................................................................................................38 Monitoring devices ..................................................................................................................38 3.6.1 CO2 circuit ....................................................................................................................39 3.6.2 NH3 circuit ....................................................................................................................39

3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Maintenance Instruction.......................................................................................................................40 4.1 General Information ................................................................................................................40 4.2 Servicing/maintenance and safety ..........................................................................................41 4.3 Searching for leaks on refrigerant side / leak test .................................................................41 4.4 Vacuating, charging and draining refrigerant and oil............................................................42 4.4.1 Evacuating the refrigerant (see also initial start-up) ..................................................42 4.4.2 Charging with refrigerant (see also initial startup; initial charge with refrigerant) ..42 4.4.3 Charging characteristics...............................................................................................43 4.4.4 Draining the refrigerant ..............................................................................................43 4.4.4.1 General notes on draining refrigerant.........................................................43 4.4.4.2 Charging refrigerant.....................................................................................43 4.4.4.3 Connections for draining refrigerant...........................................................44 4.4.5 Venting the refrigerant circuits ...................................................................................44 4.5 Charging and draining oil (see also putting into service).......................................................44 4.5.1 General notes on handling refrigerator oil.................................................................44 4.5.2 Check oil level ..............................................................................................................44 4.5.3 Oil filling.......................................................................................................................44 4.5.4 Draining, changing, checking oil .................................................................................44 4.5.5 Used oil ........................................................................................................................45 4.6 Maintenance Work ..................................................................................................................45 4.6.1 General notes...............................................................................................................45 4.6.2 Opening the compressor (see also compressor maintenance instructions)...............45 4.6.3 Dismantling the compressor suction filter (see the compressor maintenance instructions) .............................................................................................................................46 4.6.4 Replacing the suction filter..........................................................................................46 4.6.5 Changing the suction filter before refrigerant pump - CO2 circuit.............................46 4.6.6 Oil change ....................................................................................................................46 4.6.6.1 Meaning........................................................................................................46 4.6.6.2 Maintenance Work.......................................................................................47 4.6.6.3 Changing the oil ...........................................................................................47 4.6.7 Replace oil filter ...........................................................................................................47 4.6.8 Changing the filter driers - CO2 circuit ........................................................................48 4.6.9 Clutch maintenance.....................................................................................................48 4.6.10 Oil pump maintenance (for external oil pump)......................................................48 4.6.11 Checking the pull-in torques at fastener of fixing base ...........................................48 4.6.12 Changing the oil fine separation cartridges .............................................................48 4.6.13 Finding and fixing leaks.............................................................................................49 4.6.14 Cleaning the heat exchangers (heat-carrier / cooling agent sides) .........................49

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW


4.6.14.1 Chemical cleaning ...................................................................................... 49 4.6.14.2 Mechanical cleaning .................................................................................. 49 Steps to be followed before starting the system after major repairs ................................... 50 4.7.1 Repair information...................................................................................................... 50 4.7.2 Pressure test, leak test ................................................................................................ 50 4.7.3 Vacuum Test................................................................................................................ 50 Repair work............................................................................................................................. 50 Guide to disturbances, their causes and remedies................................................................. 51

4.7

4.8 4.9

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW TABLE OF FIGURES


fig. 1: Vacuum required to remove moisture from refrigerating plants .................................................... 12 fig. 2: Motor direction of rotation ............................................................................................................... 15 fig. 3: Stop valve opened ............................................................................................................................. 17 fig. 4: Stop valve closed................................................................................................................................ 17 fig. 5: Check valve......................................................................................................................................... 17 fig. 6: Combined stop/ check valve.............................................................................................................. 17 fig. 7: Control valve ...................................................................................................................................... 17 fig. 8: Combined stop/ check valve with integrated control function........................................................ 17 fig. 9: Solenoid valve .................................................................................................................................... 18 fig. 10: Change-over valve............................................................................................................................ 18 fig. 11: oil pressure regulating valve ............................................................................................................ 18 fig. 12: Overflow valve, safety valve ............................................................................................................ 18 fig. 13: Pressure controlled check valve ....................................................................................................... 18 fig. 14: Quick acting valve, spring-held ........................................................................................................ 18 fig. 15: Charging valve, draining valve......................................................................................................... 18 fig. 16: Service valve ..................................................................................................................................... 18 fig. 17: Oil temperature limiter .................................................................................................................... 19 fig. 18: Temperatur controlled valve ........................................................................................................... 19 fig. 19: Thermostatic expansion valve.......................................................................................................... 19 fig. 20: Solenoid valve plate with throttle screws ....................................................................................... 20 fig. 21: Exterior view GSC ............................................................................................................................. 23 fig. 22: GSC operator terminal ..................................................................................................................... 24 fig. 23: "Status messages" display................................................................................................................. 28 fig. 24: Restart following Alarms ................................................................................................................. 32 fig. 25: Diagram of the main components of the CO2/NH3 cascade, Part 1............................................... 34 fig. 26: Diagram of the main components of the CO2/NH3 cascade, Part 2............................................... 35 fig. 27: Oil fine separation cartridge............................................................................................................ 49

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW 1


1.1

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Delivery

At the same time, check the nitrogen filling and recharge to the specified overpressure of 0.3 bar ... 0.5 bar, if required. Dry nitrogen with a residual moisture of 300 ppm is used for this purpose. Warning! Cascades are to be adequately protected from external influences during transport and storage. This usually concerns lengthy standing times outdoors before installation and putting into service of the refrigeration plant. Grasso recommends the use of plastic sheeting to cover the whole product. The venting slots of the electric motors must always be covered!

CO2/NH3-cascade units are delivered with an inert gas charge (nitrogen) in the refrigerant circuit. The heat exchanger connections are closed. Check on arrival for possible transport damage and report damage in writing. Protect cascades from damage, dirt and moisture during longer periods of storage prior to setup/installation. (check inert gas charge) The compressors of the cascade unit are not charged with oil, therefore the cascade must not be started unless properly installed and commissioned. Dispatch is effected in the type of packing stipulated in the order. The cascade unit is generally supplied without packing.

1.3

Transport instructions

1.2

Transport and storage

Use the four carrier eyes on the base frame as slinging points for crane transport. To prevent damage on piping and components attach crossbeams to the ropes. Hint! Pushing and pulling on components or climbing on the cascade unit or pipes easily causes damage and should be avoided at all costs.

Cascades are high-quality products which must be handled with due care. Protect the equipment from impacts and put it down carefully. When transported by crane, the cascade must have the same position as in operation. Do not use attaching points other than those provided for this purpose. All the information needed to manipulate the cascade is indicated in the "Transport Instructions". Warning! It is prohibited to sling cascade units to any fittings or piping or at the eye screws/carrying ears on compressor, electric motor or switch cabinet.

After completion of erection on the foundation, and prior to starting up the cascade remove the transport safety devices installed in the works. The cascade unit should only be stored in closed, dry rooms if possible. Storage in the open air under a roof is only permissible for short periods.

Take special care not to attach the ropes near to small diameter tubing or to damage the same. Use spacers if necessary. Position the cascade on the transport vehicle such that it is prevented from sliding and tilting. The competent staff member or the company is responsible for ensuring transport safety. The storage area of cascades shall be roofed, plain and paved and secured against access of unauthorized persons. The cascade must be protected against knocks and impacts. Turn the shaft of the compressor at least every four weeks (approx. 1/8 revolutions).

1.4

Installation

Select the installation site with care so that any possibly leaking substances do not penetrate the ground or enter the surface or ground water (Water Supply Law WHG). The cascade units have to be installed in closed machine rooms and on a level surface. Provide enough space for maintenance work. Rigid installation The frame of the cascade unit is placed on foundation bolts on a prepared foundation. The frame must be levelled with suitable shims such that the coarse alignment (radial and angular

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW


misalignment 0.25 mm) at the coupling is attained again. Then tighten the foundation bolts. Installation with anti-vibration mounts The frame of the cascade unit shall be aligned with the levelling bolts until the coarse alignment (radial and angular misalignment 0,25 mm) at the coupling is attained again. Unless otherwise required by local conditions, the permissible ambient temperatures for operation are +15 to +40C. All foundation calculations, the selection of materials and the soil analysis are owners responsibility. Outside influences (vibrations, jolts) must be avoided. The unit may only be lifted for alignment by the mounting rails or by a crane. See to it in this connection that the cascade is evenly lifted by two respective small hoists in the transverse direction when small hoists are used (e.g. hydraulic hoists). CO2 - vent line NH3 - safety vent line Electrical connection cable (see electrical connection diagram)

1.6
1.6.1

Start-up instructions
Basics

The cascade may only be operated by trained and qualified personnel who are familiar with the contents of the user manual for Grasso CO2/NH3 cacades. The safety regulations for refrigerating plants must always be correctly complied with in order to prevent operating personnel injuries and damage to the cascade. The cascade is operated from the control panel of the compressor control. After the setpoint values have been entered, both automatic and manual mode are possible. The compressor control equipment's software and operating via the terminal are described elsewhere. 1.6.2 First commissioning

1.5

Assembly

Cascades dismantled in the factory for transport and positioning purposes must be carefully reassembled at the installation site according to the drawing and the PID. The separation points (flanged connections) of cold pipes must be insulated. All pipes and electrical cables must be connected so that no mechanical stresses or strain occurs. Connecting the pipes Before connecting the pipes, drain the cascade's nitrogen filling by opening the vent valves. All pipe connections are to be made so as to limit transmission of thermal expansion and vibration to the cascade as far as possible. Rubber expansion joints can be used for water connections. All pipe connections are to be fitted with fixed points directly on the cascade. NH3 connection to condenser Cooling water for oil cooler Connections for refrigerant-cooled oil cooler CO2 pump discharge line CO2 - return line

The following procedures should be completed in the sequence in which they are described: 1.6.2.1 Leak test The necessary safety precautions must be taken before carrying out the leak test. The leak test is performed with dried, oil-free air or with dry nitrogen. To check for leaks, a 3-hour test is carried out with dry air or dry nitrogen at any overpressure, but not higher than the allowable operating overpressure of the cascade. During the 3 hours a pressure drop of 2% is allowed, whereby fluctuations in the ambient temperature must be taken into account. Warning! Control devices which may be damaged at the given test pressure must be removed or blocked off before the leak test is performed.

The following are to be connected

A record should be kept of the leak test, in which the the pressure in the lines to be tested, the ambient temperature and the temperature outside in the shade must be entered at hourly intervals.

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW


After the leak test has finished and it has been established that the cascade is free of leaks, reinstall any instrumentation and control devices removed. 1.6.2.2 Drying, vacuum After the leak test has been completed, the system is evacuated and subjected to a vacuum test for 3 hours. Evacuation is used to remove air and moisture from the system. During the 3 hour period the vacuum reached may rise by maximum 5 torr.

Warning! Check the oil grade to be charged. See contract / project or Grasso recommendation.

The quantity of oil to be charged for the respective compressor is given in the compressor documentation. Warning! Due to the use of selected components, the refrigerator oils tend to absorb more moisture. Therefore, when charging a compressor the oil should be allowed to come into contact with air for a short time only. The contents of an opened drum have to be used up within one working day, provided the drum is properly closed between charging.

1.6.2.3.1
fig. 1: Vacuum required to remove moisture from refrigerating plants

Oil charge - NH3 side

The connection of the oil draining/oil charging shutoff valve (090) must be connected with the oil charging tank. Switch the valves to the operating position before charging with oil. Open the shut-off valve (090) until the oil level has reached the top third of the oblong sight glass in the oil separator sump. The oil separator is generally charged with oil via the oil cooler. When charging with oil for the first time, oil must be charged via the service valve (135) too. To this end the shut-off valve (065) must then be closed. 1.6.2.3.2 Oil charge - CO2 side

A B

Vacuum Room or wall temperature

After the required vacuum has been reached measured values must be logged hourly. After the negative pressure (vacuum) value, the temperatures in the machine house and the outdoor temperatures in the shade must be entered in the log. After the vacuum test the pressure must be equalized with refrigerant. Warning! Shut off the oil pump during evacuation!

1.6.2.3 Oil charge The compressor is filled (charged) with oil in the NH3 or CO2 circuit according to the compressor's user instructions. The vacuum present in the cascade unit before pressure compensation can be utilized for the first oil charge. A separate oil recharging pump is required after the pressure compensation and for refilling with oil.

The connection of the oil draining/oil charging shutoff valve (5720) must be connected with the oil charging tank. Before charging with oil, switch the valves to the operating position. Open the shut-off valve (5720) until the oil level has reached the top third of the oblong sight glass in the oil separator sump. The oil separator is generally charged with oil via the oil cooler. When charging with oil for the first time, oil must be charged via the service valve (5710) too. To this end the shut-off valve (5305) must then be closed.

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW

1.6.2.3.3

Permissible oil grades

Special refrigerator oils must be used. The choice of oil grade does not only depend on its viscosity and chemical properties but on the cascade's operating conditions. The choice of oil depends on the coolant, viscosity (at least 7 cSt at oil temperature before entering the compressor), evaporation temperature (pour point) and the oil separation performance requirements. Hint! When choosing an oil grade the compatibility of the sealing material for O-rings (elastomer quality) used in the compressor must be taken into account in addition to the refrigerant used (see overview). Not all the oil grades listed can be used in an existing compressor. It is absolutely necessary to assign the oil grade depending on the elastomer used, even if the refrigerant is the same. Oil grades are not always compatible with each other (cannot be mixed). Changing from one oil grade to another can lead to faults in the compressor's operation and to leaks at the sealing points. The compressor manufacturer must always be asked before changing the oil grade. If other oils are used without the compressor manufacturer's written approval, the cascade's guarantee cover expires.

NH3 circuit Cooling medium outlet Manufacturer Oil grade temp in C > -20,0 > -20,0 > -20,0 > -20,0 > -20,0 > -30,0 > -30,0 > -30,0 > -30,0 > -30,0 Fuchs-DEA Fuchs-DEA Castrol Esso Shell Elf Shell Mobil Esso CPI Reniso S68 Reniso S68 Icematic 299 Zerice S46 Shell Clavus G68 Elfrima FR46 Shell Clavus G46 Gargoyle Arctic SHC 424 Zerice S32 CP 1009-68 Viscosity at 40C in cSt 68 68 56 46 65 46 44 32 32 68 Flash Pour point point in C in C 190 190 180 172 205 171 195 157 157 226 -33 -33 -34 -36 -36 -37 -39 -39 -39 -40

Basis AB 1 AB M2 AB M M M AB AB M* 3

1 2 3

Alkylbenzenr Mineral oil Mineral oil with special treatment (hydrotreated oil)

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW

Cooling medium outlet Manufacturer Oil grade temp in C > -30,0 > -30,0 > -20,0 > -20,0 > -40,0 > -40,0 > -40,0 Mobil Esso Gargoyle Arctic Oil 300 Zerice 46

Basis

Viscosity at 40C in cSt 64 46 58 67 44 46 67

Flash Pour point point in C in C 202 204 236 262 187 268 266 -40 -41 -42 -42 -50 -51 -54

M M M* M* M PAO 4 PAO

Petro-Canada Reflo 68A TEXACO Mobil CPI Mobil Capella Premium Gargoyle Arctic Oil C Heavy CP 4600-46 Gargoyle Arctic SHC 226E Gargoyle Arctic SHC 326 (NH68 also) Icematic 2294 on request only

> -40,0 > -40,0 < -40,0

Mobil Castrol

AB + PAO PAO

61 69

211 233

-54 -60

The screw compressors are fitted in the factory with suitable O-ring elastomers at the sealing points; these are selected depending on the refrigerant and lubricant. Refrigerant / oil R717 (ammonia M CR AB CR PAO, M* HNBR AB/ PAO CR

CO2 circuit Manufacturer Fuchs Trademark Reniso Oil grade TRITON C 170 O-ring material HNBR

The screw compressors are fitted in the factory with suitable O-ring elastomers at the sealing points; these are selected depending on the refrigerant and lubricant.

Polyalphaolefin

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW


1.6.2.4 Checking the direction of rotation of the driving motor Warning! The coupling must not yet connect motor and compressor! 1.6.2.5 Checking the direction of rotation of the oil pump motor The oil pump is started with the driving motor electrically blocked (service). The stop valves are in the operating position. The direction of the arrow given for the oil pump must correspond to the direction of rotation of the electric motor. Caution! Since the slide ring shaft seal of the oil pump is dependent on the direction of rotation and can be damaged when this direction is wrong, checking must be reduced to a very short running period (less than 2 seconds).

Secure the electric switchgear so as to prevent the compressor driving motor from being switched on accidentally. With the control slide in the MIN or MAX position, it should be possible to rotate the compressor shaft easily and smoothly by hand. When checking the direction of rotation of the compressor driving motor pay attention to the conditions for switching the compressor on.

The adjusted differential pressure between the oil pump discharge side and the suction side of the oil pressure control valve is checked with the oil pump rotating in the correct direction. It must not be lower than the specified setpoint of 3.5 + 0.5 bar. While the compressor is not running and the oil has not yet reached the operating temperature, the differential pressure can be slightly higher than the indicated value. The differential pressure can be changed by rotating the spindle on the oil pressure control valve. (The differential pressure is increased by turning it inwards and vice versa). 1.6.2.6 Adjustment of oil pressure Before the compressor drive motor and therefore the unit can be started, the oil pressure must be set correctly by adjusting the oil pressure regulating valve (075). For adjustment only the oil pump must be started. For units equipped with a Grasso System Control (GSC) please select operation mode service mode. The set value of the oil differential pressure should be taken from the P+I-diagram of the specific project. Normally the set value is p = 2-3 bar (oil pressure Pos (110) discharge pressure Pos (105)). The differential pressure can be changed by rotating the spindle on the oil pressure regulating valve (the differential pressure is increased by turning it inwards and vice versa).

fig. 2:

Motor direction of rotation

A B

Compressor Motor

The compressor driving motor is operated in star-delta connection for a short period in the operating mode "1 (manual + manual)". After that the compressor driving motor has to switch off. If the direction of rotation of the motor is wrong, it should be corrected while the electric switchgear is secured to prevent the motor from being switched on accidentally. The motor must then idle for at least 1h. The coupling protection must be in place during this running-in period as required in the labour safety regulations. After checking the direction of rotation of the driving motor the coupling may be connected with the motor.

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW

Danger! An oil pressure adjusted too high or too low can lead also after short operation time to serious compressor damages or even to a total breakdown of the compressor!

Circuit NH3 CO2

Item No. charging valve 2865 6865

In comparison to normal operation conditions the oil differential pressure can be (at identical opening level of the valve) slightly higher if only the oil pump is operated (service mode) or in case the operating temperature is not reached yet. In this case the oil differential pressure should be readjusted (according to the value in the P+I diagram) after start of the unit and reaching of the operation temperature. 1.6.2.7 Mounting the coupling 1. The electric switchgear is secured to prevent it from being switched on accidentally. 2. Mount the coupling, observe instructions of separate documentation. 3. The values for radial and angular deviations given in the coupling documentation must be checked and if necessary corrected. 4. The real values have to record at data sheet of coupling documentation. Please send back a copy of the filled data sheet to: Grasso GmbH RT Holzhauser Strae 165 13509 Berlin, GERMANY Fax: +49 (0)30 - 43 592 759 Caution! Pay attention to maintenance instructions! Regreasing the coupling (if provided for in the maintenance instructions for the coupling)!

The location of these charging valves is given in the P+I flow diagram. Caution! Mixing even the smallest quantities of NH3and CO2 in the refrigerant cycles must be avoided under all circumstances! Use top quality (specially cleaned and dried) NH3and CO2 only! Whenever work is carried out on the parts of the refrigerating system carrying refrigerant or oil, extreme caution is required as leaking refrigerant can cause hazards. Note and observe the refrigerant safety data sheets. For health and safety reasons, safety goggles and protective gloves must be worn. Refrigerant charging procedure Equipment required: Refrigerant filling cylinder with liquid connection Weighing scales for refrigerant cylinder Special filling hose with cylinder connection Shut-off valve with connection adapter for the charging valve

When charging for the first time, weigh the quantity of refrigerant given on the cascade's name plate. To do this, place the refrigerant cylinder with sufficient refrigerant on weighing scales. Before starting to charge, determine the weight of the cylinder. Connect the filling hose to the refrigerant cylinder. Warning! The compressor must be ready for refrigerant charging!

1.6.2.8 Refrigerant charging After evacuating the refrigerant circuits, the system can be charged with refrigerant via the refrigerant charging valve and then the vacuum can be broken. The refrigerant circuits are only charged via the charging valves of the respective circuit.

1. Connect the refrigerant reservoir to the charging valve. 2. Open the charging valve. 3. Carefully open the reservoir valve and equalize the pressure. 4. Close the valve.

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW


5. Check the system again for leakages. 6. Start the compressor. 7. Open the reservoir valve. 8. Draw refrigerant into the circuit at a low compressor delivery rate. At the same time, continuously check the weight change in the filling cylinder. Warning! Only fill the quantity specified, otherwise there is risk of overcharging the circuit. 9. Close reservoir valve when the suction pressure nears the required values. Let the compressor continue to run until the refrigerant has been completely distributed in the circuit. Based on the values, you can now assess whether additional refrigerant has to be charged or not. Hint! If necessary, repeat the "refrigerant charging" process until the suction pressure reaches the required value. 10. After the charging process has been completed, close the charging valve and cylinder valve. 11. Drain and dismantle the charging line. Now lift the hose to make liquid refrigerant flow back into the cylinder. Before dismantling the charging line, carefully drain the gaseous contents of the hose into a water receiver in accordance with the safety regulations. Small quantities of refrigerant gas may escape. 1.6.2.9 Operating position of valves For the positions of the manually controllable fittings for the operation of the CO2/NH3-cascade unit see P&I diagram. The layout and symbols used in the R+I flow charts comply with the specifications of EN 1861, Issue April 1998. Danger! The valve positions must match the specifications given in the R+I flow chart to ensure trouble free operation!
fig. 3: Stop valve opened

Caution! Flow direction: from A to B and C

stop valve Valve opened during normal operation

Valve closed during normal operation

fig. 4:

Stop valve closed

Check valve Check valve during normal operation

fig. 5:

Check valve

Combined stop/ check valve Combined stop/check valve opened during normal operation

fig. 6:

Combined stop/ check valve

Control valve Control valve adjusted at: Commissioning changed operating conditions

fig. 7:

Control valve

Combined stop/ check valve with integrated control function Combined stop/ check valve with integrated control function opened during normal operation

fig. 8:

Combined stop/ check valve with integrated control function

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW


Solenoid valve Controlled by Grasso System Control (GSC) Pressure controlled check valve controlled self-sufficient

fig. 9:

Solenoid valve

Change-over valve
fig. 13: Pressure controlled check valve

Quick acting valve, spring-held manually operated if necessary

fig. 10:

Change-over valve

oil pressure regulating valve p x,x x bar setted control pressure from reference pressure
fig. 14: Quick acting valve, spring-held

Charging valve, draining valve and connections with cap

fig. 11:

oil pressure regulating valve

fig. 15:

Charging valve, draining valve

Danger! An oil pressure adjusted too high or too low can lead also after short operation time to serious compressor damages or even to a total breakdown of the compressor!

Service valve Connection Rp For pressure gauges and transducers

Overflow valve, safety valve


fig. 16: Service valve

fig. 12:

Overflow valve, safety valve

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW


Oil temperature limiter controlled self-sufficient by control element 6. The oil heater has sufficiently heated the oil Voltage connection Before switching on the main switch, all motor protection switches and bridge fuses within the cascade must be switched on. The cascade must be put into service in accordance with the operating instructions for the compressor control. 1. Switch on the control voltage of the compressor control.
fig. 17: Oil temperature limiter

2. Acknowledge existing fault indications. 3. Select operating mode 1 (manual + manual).

Temperatur controlled valve controlled self-sufficient

4. Switch on the cascade. Switching on the main switch on the switch cabinet supplies power to all the connected electrical loads and equipment and the SPC (programmable control) system, including the control and display unit. Hint!

fig. 18:

Temperatur controlled valve

Thermostatic expansion valve controlled self-sufficient

fig. 19:

Thermostatic expansion valve

We advise switching on the voltage in good time before an intended startup. The oil-fired heating requires a lead time in order to heat the oil in the compressor's crankcase to temperatures above the refrigerant's saturation temperature. This is intended to prevent refrigerant condensing in the compressor and to ensure any refrigerant already in the oil is evaporated. This ensures sufficiant viscosity for bearing lubrication while the compressor starts.

1.6.2.10 Checking the water circuits Check whether the cooling and cold water pumps are running and the shut-off fittings in the cooling water circuit are in their operating positions. While the unit/ chiller is operating under project conditions, adjust the cooling water control so that the condensing and oil temperature lies within the permissible range. 1.6.2.11 Initial startup The following prerequisites must be fulfilled for the initial start-up: 1. Main current supply available and switched on 2. Heat transfer medium and cooling water pumps are switched on 3. Media flows through the heat exchangers. 4. The valves are in their "operating position" 5. Sufficient refrigerant and oil charge Special features of operating mode 1 "Manual + Manual" Manual mode can only be realised under the supervision of the operating personnel. The control cycles are to be specified by the owner on their own responsibility in compliance with the system-specific control response. Caution! The cascade is operated manually! The cascade operates independent of the temperature and pressure control! Safety and monitoring devices are fully functional!

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1.6.2.12 Setting the setpoint / limit values and safety devices The setpoint and limit values are set according to the details given in the Control Manual and the projectrelated data. Check the safety device settings. Hint! See parameter list/ list of set values! 3. The maximum end position (100%) must be reached and signalled on operating pushbutton switch (capacity increasing). 4. The minimum end position (0%) must be reached and signalled on operating pushbutton switch (capacity decreasing). 5. Vent the adjusting device by moving the control slide to and for about ten times. 1.6.2.16 Checking the control slide adjustment times While the cascade is running, determine the adjustment times needed when the control slide is continually moved from the maximum end position to the minimum end position and back. For the automatic system to run smoothly, the adjustment times in either direction must be approximately the same. Minimum adjustment time Optimum adjustment time 30 sec. 60 sec.

1.6.2.13 Switching on the CO2 refrigerant pumps Press the "CO2 refrigerant pump ON" pushbutton 1.6.2.14 Switching on the compressor Start NH3 compressor Press the "Compressor ON" button The following switching operations are automatically realised with the compressor startup: Oil-fired heating switched off. "Oil pressure bypass" timer starts up. Minimum output level after reduced-load startup

The adjustment times are matched by means of throttle screws mounted on the solenoid valve plate.

While the compressor is starting up the following readings are to be observed on the cascade: Suction pressure, final compression pressure and oil pressure Heat transfer medium temperature Sign glasses in the evaporator or in the liquid line and compressor's housing

Start CO2 compressor The switching operations are analogous to those of the NH3 compressor. The "Increase output" and "Reduce output" pushbuttons can be used to reach the project values and run the cascade in steady state condition. The NH3 and CO2 compressor output levels should be alternately switched on and off so that, as far as possible, both run under the same load. The refrigerant charge must be checked and recharged if necessary! 1.6.2.15 Checking the adjustment of the control slide 1. Cascade is running. 2. Select operating mode 1 (manual + manual).

fig. 20:

Solenoid valve plate with throttle screws

Rotate in clockwise direction Rotate in anti-clockwise direction Influencing towards Maximum Influencing towards Minimum

adjustment time adjustment time DS5 DS6

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1.6.2.17 Automatic mode The system is designed for automatic chilling; it is controlled by the compressor being switched on and off and its output adjustment. Continuous operation and observation of the machine is not necessary in automatic mode. The necessary information on starting up the system is given in the documentation for the compressor control. Danger! Do not carry out any work on the cascade during an "Automatic shutdown"! Switch on pause" timer starts up

6. If the NH3 compressor is in minimum output and the value falls further below the setpoint value the compressor switches off.

1.7

Shutdown in the event of dangerous situations

The safety equipment of the CO2/NH3 cascade conforms to EN378 and UVV BGV4. Due to the automatic monitoring of the individual operating parameters, the control detects hazardous situations in good time and automatically switches off the cascade. The cause of the fault is then displayed on the control unit and can then be corrected.

Special features of automatic mode 1. Fulfilment of the following requirements: Release signal issued by GSC Switching on conditions for the compressor drive motors are fulfilled There are no queued faults System signals output requirements (temperature setpoint is smaller than actual value) Oil heater is switched off "EHB" (starting frequency limiter) timer starts up

The cascade concept is based, among other things, on the most tight, low-maintenance refrigerant circuits possible. However, residual risks remain, especially due to possible leaks or escaping refrigerant or rotating drive parts. Hint! The cascade can be switched off at any time via the EMERGENCY STOP button on the switch cabinet.

2. NH3 compressor drive motor starts up The auxiliary refrigeration unit has its own supply and can be taken out of service via a separate EMERGENCY STOP button. When the cascade is switched off, taking the auxiliary unit out of pressure can result in a pressure increase in the CO2 cycle and can cause the discharge safety valve in the CO2 circuit to trigger. Leaking refrigerant in the machine room can be detected with the help of a gas detector and alarm (not included in scope of supply) and can be integrated in the automatic safety chain. Hint! The safety information for the NH3 and CO2 refrigerants must be observed!

3. If the switching on conditions for the CO2 compressor drive motor are fulfilled the motor starts up. Oil heater is switched off "EHB" (starting frequency limiter) timer starts up

4. The control variable for automatic operation of the cascade is the suction pressure of the CO2 circuit. The difference between this actual value and the specified setpoint causes the automatic switching on and off of the CO2 and NH3 compressor output levels. 5. At minimum output and if the pressure continues to drop below the set "setpoint pressure" the cascade switches off. At minimum output and if the pressure continues to drop below the set "setpoint pressure" the CO2 unit switches off. CO2 compressor drive motor is switched off Oil heater is switched on

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1.8.3.1 Monthly

1.8
1.8.1

Switching off
Normal shutdown

Check that a gauge pressure is constantly applied in the cascade. Use a leak detector to check the cascade for leaks once a month. Start up the oil pump for approx 5 minutes. Manually rotate the compressor shaft (min 10 revolutions).

Shutting down for short stoppages (< 48 h) Staged output reduction of NH2 and CO3 compressors down to minimum load CO2 compressor first, then NH3 compressor Shut down coolant, heat transfer medium and cooling water system as necessary If necessary, shut down ancillary drives Leave the valves in the operating position Shutting down for a lengthy period

1.8.3.2 Four weeks before putting back into service Check the moisture content and ageing condition of the refrigerator oil. Analyse the oil and compare the values with the fresh oil data. Grasso advises an oil change after 1 year (ammonia, see Maintenance Instructions). Check the insulation resistance of the drive motors (see electric motor's User Manual). Switch on the oil pump. Check the cascade for leaks. Putting back into service after approx 1 year

1.8.2

Shutting down for lengthy stoppages (> 48 h) Staged output reduction of CO2 and NH3 compressors down to minimum load CO2 compressor first, then NH3 compressor Close the shut-off valves on the intake side and outlet side (or shuttable check valves). Switch off CO2 refrigerant pump Remove the heat transfer medium from service Close the shut-off valves (or shuttable check valves) in economizer suction line. Cut-off the refrigerant supply to the thermosyphon oil cooler. Close the manual cut-off valve of the refrigerant injection. Switch off the oil heater. Switch off the main switch of the power supply system for the cascade Caution! The main switch for the auxiliary refrigeration unit remains switched on! Ensure you cover the venting slots of the electric motors! Measures during stoppages

1.8.4

Change the oil filter inserts (see Maintenance Instructions). Switch the oil heater on at least one hour before starting the cascade. Open the shut-off valves on the intake side and the discharge side (or shuttable check valves). Open the shut-off valves (shuttable check valves) in the economizer suction line. Open the refrigerant supply to the thermosyphon - oil cooler. Open the manual shut-off valve of the refrigerant injection. Remove all non-condensable gases are removed by venting. To this end, check the condensing pressure and temperature (see parameter list). Check the oil collection sump and empty if necessary. Switch on the compressor and observe the operating instructions of the electrical switchgear. Functional run of the cascade to check the sensor technology and actuators (function and display accuracy).

1.8.3

In the event of lengthy stoppages, which last longer than half a year, despite the gauge pressure in the cascade, the moisture contant of refrigerant and the refrigerator oil must be checked. The moisture contant must not differ substantially from the initial values.

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2.1

START-UP / OPERATION OF GSC


General Information
Warning! Before switching on the CO2/NH3 cascade, carefully read through the operating instructions. The operating instruction are an extract from the GSC User Manual, containing important information for the operator about operating the CO2/NH3 cascade. The listed items and annotation is not identical with those of the GSC Manual. The note [X.X.X.] under the headings of these operating instructions refers to the corresponding chapter in the User Manual. For more specific information see GSC Manual or press the about the relevant display text. The GSC is supplied in the national language. A GSC is assigned both to the NH3 and the CO2 circuit. key to obtain more information

2.2
2.2.1

Description of the Grasso System Control


View

[Chapter 1.1.1. in user manual]

fig. 21:

Exterior view GSC

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2.2.2 Lamps/ Push buttons

[Chapter 1.1.2. in user manual] White indicator light (Running) This indicator lamp flashes slowly when the compressor unit is in the Ready state. Yellow indicator light (Warning) This lamp flashes if an operating condition reaches a preset value (Warning /Pre-alarm). Red indicator light (Alarm) This lamp flashes if an operating condition exceeds its permitted value, the machine shuts down on alarm. Emergency Stop button This red button can be used to switch the compressor unit off at any time in case of an emergency. The operator terminal controls remain functional. 2.2.3 Operator terminal

[Chapter 1.2. in user manual] The operator terminal is the interface between the operator and the control unit. All switching, operating and control actions are carried out via this operator terminal.

fig. 22:

GSC operator terminal

A B C D E F G H

System LEDs Function keys soft keys CPU operating mode setting digital keybord cursor keys System keys System keys LEDs

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2.2.3.1 Key assignment [Chapter 1.2.1. in user manual] Key Function Go to the menu item described Back to previous display Move to next display Switch on the compressor unit, start enabled Start 1st compressor (Press key for 5 sec. in operation mode Manual) Increase capacity of 1st compressor (in case of manual capacity control only) Start 2nd compressor (Press key for 5 sec. in operation mode Manual) Increase capacity of 2nd compressor (in case of manual capacity control only) without function

Call up display of actual values

Call up alarm signals

Lamp test

Switch off the compressor unit, start disabled Stop 1st compressor (Press key for 5 sec. in operation mode Manual) Reduce capacity of 1st compressor (in case of manual capacity control only) Stop 2nd compressor (Press key for 5 sec. in operation mode Manual) Reduce capacity of 2nd compressor (in case of manual capacity control only) without function

Call up controls settings

Call up operating mode setting

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Key

Function Call up the menu overview

Return or cancel input

Acknowledge, reset failure and warning

Confirm input

Press the button once for display of a help text.

Switch over to the 2nd keyboard level

Cursor keys

Special function of the shift key Change to the Status display

Change to the Language selection or Contrast menu

Change to the Digital inputs / outputs display

Change to the Date, Time menu

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2.2.3.2 Open table of contents [Chapter 1.2.3. in user manual] To open the table of contents, please press the Number 05 10 15 20 25 30 35 50 Heading Actual values Control Operating modes Limit values Fault messages Time settings Options Configuration key. A list of the available menus is then displayed.

Help text All the cascade's actual values are displayed here All control parameters can be changed here Selection of all possible operating modes Enter the limit value parameters Fault messages + histogram All time parameters can be changed here All optional windows are selected from here Enter: Refrigerant SC type Code with/ without economiser sensor scaling

90

Main system menu

To open these views, position the cursor on this view (using the key. Danger!

or

key) and confirm with the

Parameter changes made in the menu items 20, 30, 35 and 50 can cause serious errors in the operation of the CO2/NH3 cascade!

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2.2.4

Status messages

[Chapter 1.3. in User Manual] Open the "status messages" display, press the key several times, or press the key and then .

This view not only shows the most informative actual values but also the status of the unit / the cascade.

fig. 23:

"Status messages" display

PV: SP: Pos: Imot: Tc: dPoil:

Actual value (pressure or temperature) display always in C Set Point display in C Current control slide position in % Motor current in A Condensation temperature in C Differential oil pressure in bar

Hint! See menu 05 actual values

The status provides information about the current operating status of the aggregate / cascade. The following status messages are possible: Initialisation Initialisation of the control after switching on the power supply or after saving the settings (RAM ROM) A starting frequency limiter of the compressor drive motor is still active. A start lock-out is active, the oil pump has run too long by itself. (Minimum position not reached during switching on or off procedure) Unit/ cascade ready to start but one or several starting conditions are still not fulfilled, e.g. cut-in temperature in automatic mode not yet reached The control is waiting for an external starting release signal. Starting command issued, control slide moves into the minimum position. Compressor motor has been started but the switchover in "delta! has not yet taken place of the startup has not yet been completed. Compressor running in "delta" or startup has finished, the unit / cascade is in operation. An output limiter is active (suction pressure too low), "reduce output" solenoid valve is opened.

EHB 01 Oil drain 01

Standby 01

Release start 01 Forced slide to min 01 Startup 01

Running 01

Limit suct press 01

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Limit disch press 01

An output limiter is active (final pressure too high), "reduce output" solenoid valve is opened. An output limiter is active (motor current too high), "reduce output" solenoid valve is opened. An output limiter is active (external temperature too low), "reduce output" solenoid valve is opened. Oil temperature too high, "refrigerant injection" is released (optional). The unit / cascade has received a switch-off command, the control slide is moved into the minimum position The compressor has switched off Start delay after each switching off process A fault, which is still active, has occurred at the unit / cascade. Text display flashes Text appears as static text

Limit Imot 01

Limit ext temp 01

Limit oil temp 01 Stopping 01

Compressor off 01 Forced stoppage 01 Fault 01 italic lettering Normal lettering

The status of the whole cascade is displayed with the LEDs in Key Colour Green Status Flashing

and

Explanation The unit / cascade is switched on. The compressor could start any moment now. The unit / cascade is switched on. The compressor is running. The unit / cascade is malfunctioning. The compressor is not running. The (red) indicator light Collective fault flashes or is permanently lit. The unit / cascade is switched off. The compressor is not running.

Green

Continuous light

None

OFF

red

Continuous light

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2.3

System description GSC

[Chapter 4. in user manual] The system LEDs are located on the front of the GSC. These system LEDs provide information about the status of the controller. 2.3.1 Explanation of the system LED

[Chapter 4.1. in User Manual] The position of the system LED is given in Chapter Figure 22, page 24. Meaning of the status and error displays Display SF (red) Meaning C7-CPU-centralised fault Explanation Lights up for: Hardware errors, Firmware errors, Programming errors, Parameterising errors, Computational errors, Time errors, Faulty internal memory storage, Battery failure or the standby supply is missing while MAINS ON, Peripheral error in the internal peripheral functions.

Further information about the malfunction that has occured can be read out of the diagnosis memory using the PG. BATF (red) Battery error Lights up, if battery does not have enough voltage, DC5V (green) FRCE (yellow) RUN (green) Voltage supply for C7 Force-order Operating state RUN of the C7CPU is defective, is missing.

lights up, if the internal DC 5V supply is OK. lights up, if a Force-order is active. lights up, if the C7 CPU application program is running. flashes (2Hz) during the C7 CPU start up (the STOP lamps also lights up; after the STOP lights go off, the outputs are released). lights up, if the C7 is not processing a CPU-application program. flashes at 1-second intervals, if C7 CPU general reset (MRES) is required. lights up, if the connection between C7 and the extension rack is interrupted.

STOP (yellow)

Operating state STOP of the C7 CPU

SF-IM (red)

Switching module - centralised fault

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Display (red) Help (green) Shift (green)

Meaning Alarm active

Explanation lights up, if a malfunction has been confirmed, but is still active. flashes, if a further malfunction has been activated. lights up, if a help text is available. lights up, if the SWITCHOVER function is active.

Help text available Switch over function active

2.4

Alarms

[Chapter 6. in user manual] 2.4.1 View active alarms and warnings

[Chapter 6.1.3. in user manual] The Status mode is displayed by pressing the key several times. The most important actual values are shown in the first three rows and in the 4th row the status message is shown. By scrolling with the cursor keys 2.4.2 and all active alarms and warnings are displayed.

No alarm signal and the compressor will not start

[Chapter 6.5. in user manual] Compressor will not start, although there is no active alarm. Key Cause No start release signal Auto Start dly active The input start release is not closed. The time setting Auto start dly in control settings menu has not yet expired. The time setting Start to start in Timer settings menu has not yet expired. ON has been pressed and the LED K1 ON is flashing. Remedy Close input or install a link.

Wait until the delay time has expired.

Start to start delay active

Wait until the delay time has expired.

actual value < (set point + NZ) NZ = neutral zone

Check set point and neutral zone settings in Control settingsmenu. In case of suction pressure control the set point value is entered in degrees Celsius.

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2.4.3

Restart following Alarms

[Chapter 7.2. in user manual]

fig. 24:

Restart following Alarms

Caution! It is not possible to restart the compressor as long as the cause of the alarm still exists!

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Display of the cause(s) of the alarms after deleting the display on view (press the several alarms have occurred simultaneously: Step 1 Call up the "Alarms" menu by pressing the 2 key. Procedure

key) or in the case that

Select the "View" menu item for the alarms by pressing the key. The errors that have occurred can be viewed here with the date and time at which they occur.

Caution! For more detailed explanations for reading the error messages, see Chapter 1.2.2.2. (GSC User Manual).

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3.1
3.1.1

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN AND FUNCTION


Brief Description
Use

These 2-stage CO2 / NH3 cascade units are highly efficient industrial refrigerating plant and as such are suitable for use within the low temperature range with evaporating temperatures between -40 and -54C, e.g.. for freezing apparatus in the food indutry or for drying processes. The natural and environmentally friendly refrigerants CO2 and NH3 are used. 3.1.2 Design

The cascade unit consists of a CO2 low temperature and an NH3 high-temperature level with the following main components: (A) CO2 screw compressor unit (B) CO2 liquid separator (C) CO2 pump unit with 1 or 2 parallel refrigerant pumps (D) CO2 expansion device (not illustrated) (E) CO2-NH3 cascade heat exchanger module (F) automatic oil return system of the CO2 side (not illustrated) (G) automatic oil return system of the NH3 side (not illustrated) (H) NH3 screw compressor unit (I) NH3 injection system (J) CO2 condenser (K) auxiliary refrigeration unit for CO2 separator (L) low voltage system with control (M) joint stable baseframe

fig. 25:

Diagram of the main components of the CO2/NH3 cascade, Part 1

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fig. 26:

Diagram of the main components of the CO2/NH3 cascade, Part 2

These cascade units are delivered completely assembled, so that on site only the following have to be integrated: the CO2 liquid line to the CO2 evaporators / freezing apparatus (not included in scope of supply) the return line to the CO2 liquid separator the heat transfer medium lines of the NH3 compressor Compressor discharge gas (hot gas) and liquid lines to the NH3 condenser on site the vent pipes of the CO2 and NH3 safety valves,

In the case of cascades, which due to their size cannot be transported as a complete unit, the liquid separator is dismantled in the factory. This has to be re-installed on site and connected to the relevant refrigerant lines. extracting the heat generated by the evaporation of NH3 in the shell-side. The liquid CO2 in the liquid separator is expanded (relaxed) with the help of an electronic injection valve in conjunction with an electronic high-pressure level controller In the liquid separator, the refrigerant vapour and liquid are separated. The CO2 liquid is passed through the system's evaporator (not included in the scope of supply) by means of hermetic refrigerant pumps (pump circulation principle). Here heat is absorbed in order to cool the medium to be cooled.

3.2
3.2.1

Refrigerant circuit
CO2 low temperature stage

The compressors of the low temperature stage are state of the art screw compressors, specially developed for the CO2 refrigerant from the Grasso series C (see compressor manual, drawings and parts list). The CO2 screw compressor sucks in the refrigerant vapour from the CO2 liquid separator via the suction filter. After the CO2 refrigerant has been compressed to condensing pressure the condensing takes place in the plate pack of the cascade heat exchanger by

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The refrigerant pumps can be individually shut off and are protected against dirt by generously dimensioned filters in the inlet. The oil carried through the pressure line and the condenser into the liquid separator while the compressor is running is directly injected back into the compressor with the help of partial flow deoiling. 3.2.2 NH3 high temperature stage 3.3.1 CO2 circuit oil return system

Despite the very low oil carry over of the screw compressor, over a longer period soluble refrigerator oil accumulates in the liquid CO2 on the low pressure side. The result of this is the oil level in the oil separator falls during the startup period and oil has to be added accordingly. A slight accumulation of oil in the refrigerant does not have any negative effects on the system side and is completely normal. To limit this accumulation of oil, the oil is returned with the help of partial flow deoiling on the discharge side of the CO2 pumps. The partial flow is directly injected into compressor. 3.3.2 NH3 circuit oil return system

The NH3 circuit includes a complete chiller unit and its design corresponds to the FX VP type series, whereby the evaporator is installed as a cascade evaporator condenser. The condenser already exists on site. The NH3 compressors of the high temperature stage are modern, highly efficient screw compressors of the LT series (see compressor's manual, drawings and parts list). The NH3 screw compressor sucks in the refrigerant vapour from the NH3 liquid separator of the cascade evaporator via the suction filter. After the NH3 refrigerant has been compressed to condensing pressure it is condensed in the condenser (Grasso scope of supply or installed on site). The liquid NH3 in the liquid separator of the cascade evaporator is expanded (relaxed) with the help of an electronic injection valve in conjunction with an electronic high-pressure level controller. In the liquid separator, the refrigerant vapour and liquid are separated. From there the liquid refrigerant is passed via an outer circulation pipe into the shell-side of the cascade evaporator. The quantity of heat absorbed during evaporation of the NH3 coolant is drawn from the CO2 refrigerant gas flowing in the heat exchanger plates. The NH3 coolant therefore evaporates in the shellside, while CO2 condenses in the plates. The oil carried via the pressure line and the condenser into the liquid separator while the compressor is running is separated from the refrigerant again with the help of cyclically operated automatic oil return and is passed back to the compressor. This is a basic precondition for a fault-free operation of the evaporator system.

The NH3 side oil return system already tried and tested in the Grasso chiller series is cyclically carried out in the following steps: 1. Filling the Draining Tank (2300) The oil carried from the compressor in the refrigerant circuit is fed into the deoiling vessel at the evaporator's "oil dome". At the same time, the solenoid valve (2305) is opened. The solenoid valve (2310) is closed. The oil accumulating in the evaporator's oil dome continuously runs into the deoiling vessel. 2. Evaporation of refrigerant Any liquid refrigerant in the deoiling vessel can evaporate by adding ambient heat. At the same time, oil runs in and the oil level in the vessel rises. After a fixed unit of time the oil is then pushed out of the deoiling vessel. After the evaporation process a solenoid valve (2310) is briefly opened and hot gas presses the oil out of the deoiling vessel back into the compressor's intake side. The control timed for the solenoid valve can be parameterised at the control.

3.4

Auxiliary refrigeration unit for CO2 separator

3.3

Oil return system

The refrigerant cycles have an automatic oil return system with which the oil accumulated in the compressor's oil sump is cyclically returned to the intake side of the compressor.

The maximum operating pressure of the low pressure side of the CO2 circuit is 25 bar g.p. The section of the circuit is equipped with a discharging safety valve.

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In order to avoid a pressure rise in this area up to 25 bar g.p, while the system is at a standstill and thus to avoid the refrigerant from being blown out, the refrigerant is cooled in the CO2 liquid separator with the help of an external chiller. The auxiliary refrigeration unit is part of the cascade and is completely installed. It is delivered like the complete CO2/ NH3 cascade without a refrigerant charge. It is a small standard refrigeration condenser unit, which is connected to a pipe coil acting as an evaporator in the CO2 liquid separator. The auxiliary unit is switched on and off depending on the pressure in the CO2 liquid separator. Pressure relief device of the pressure vessel on the high-pressure side (6230) (discharging safety valve) The safety valve discharging into the outside opens the low-pressure side of the plant if pNDmax = 25 bar g.p is reached. Safety device to prevent the suction pressure falling below the allowable limit (pressure transducer 5100) If the pressure falls below the limit value the compressor control switches off the CO2 unit. However, before the limit value is reached the output level of the CO2 compressor is lowered to prevent the value falling below the limit value. Safety device to prevent the final discharge temperature from being exceeded (resistance thermometer 5120) If the limit value is exceeded, the compressor control switches off the CO2 unit. Limit value t = 80 C 3.5.1 CO2 circuit Safety devices to prevent exceeding of the maximum allowable final discharge pressure Pressure transducer (5105) If the limit value is exceeded, the compressor control switches off the CO2 unit. Limit value final pressure alarm (max) = see parameter list However, before the limit value is reached the compressor's output level is lowered to prevent exceeding of the limit value. Safety pressure switch (5350) The CO2 compressor is switched off if the limit value is exceeded. Limit value p = 0.9 x pmax bar (pmax = maximum allowable operating pressure on the high-pressure side) Pressure relief device (5340) The back-pressure independent overflow valve discharges on the compressor's intake side when pmax is reached. Pressure relief device of the pressure vessel on the high-pressure side (6420) (overflow valve to the low pressure side) The counter-pressure overflow valve discharges on the low-pressure side of the plant (liquid separator) if pmax = 48 bar g.p. is reached. Safety device to prevent the oil temperature from being exceeded (resistance thermometer 5125) If the limit value is exceeded, the compressor control switches off the CO2 unit. Limit value t = 60C Safety devices of the compressor drive motor Rated current limiting control (5016) realised by the respective compressor control. If the rated motor current is exceeded, the output level of the CO2 compressor is lowered until the motor current is back within the allowable range. The normal output control then comes back into force. Thermistor (5017) which shuts down the compressor drive motor if its winding temperature exceeds the allowable value.

3.5

Safety devices

The cascade is equipped with the necessary safety devices in accordance with the relevant regulations, in particular EN 378. The following safety devices are installed in every cascade.

Level monitoring of the CO2 liquid separator, level transmitter (6900) The CO2 compressor switches off if the maximum level is exceeded. Differential pressure CO2 pumps differential pressure switch (6910) The control switches off the refrigerant pump if the differential pressure falls below the minimum limit value.

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW


Safety device to prevent exceeding of the maximum shutdown pressure in the CO2liquid separator, pressure switch (5900) The auxiliary refrigeration unit (6800) is switched on if the maximum allowable shutdown pressure is exceeded. 3.5.2 NH3 circuit Safety device to prevent the final discharge temperature from being exceeded (resistance thermometer 120) The compressor control switches off the cascade if the limit pressure is exceeded. Limit value t = 110C Safety device to prevent the oil temperature from being exceeded (resistance thermometer 125) The compressor control switches off the cascade if the limit pressure is exceeded. Limit value t = 90C Safety devices of the compressor drive motor Rated current limitation (016) which is realised by the respective compressor control. If the rated motor current is exceeded, the output level of the NH3 compressor is lowered until the motor current is back within the allowable range. The normal output control then comes back into force. Thermistor (017) which shuts down the compressor drive motor if its winding temperature limit has been exceeded.

Security devices against exceeding of the final discharge pressure Pressure transducer (105) The compressor control switches off the cascade if the limit pressure is exceeded. Limit value final pressure alarm (max) = see parameter list However, before the limit value is reached the output level of the NH3 compressor is lowered to prevent the limit value from being exceeded. Safety pressure switch (350) The NH3 compressor is switched off if the limit value is exceeded. Limit value p = 0.9 x pmax bar (pmax = maximum allowable operating pressure on the high-pressure side) Pressure relief device (overflow valve 340) The back-pressure independent overflow valve fitted to the oil separator discharges on the compressor's intake side when pmax is reached.

Pressure relief device of the pressure vessel on the low-pressure side (discharging safety valve 2230) The safety valve discharging into the outside opens the low-pressure side of the plant if pNDmax = 16 bar g.p. is reached.

Safety device to prevent the suction pressure falling below the allowable limit (pressure transducer 100) The compressor control switches off the cascade if the pressure falls below the limit value. Limit value p = p f(to-10 K) However, before the limit value is reached the output level of the NH3 compressor is lowered and the hot gas bypass is opened on the ND (low-pressure) side to prevent the pressure falling below the limit value.

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3.6
3.6.1

Monitoring devices
CO2 circuit

3.6.2

NH3 circuit

The following ACTUAL values are continuously shown on the compressor control's display. PS pos Comp1 Output level Compressor1 Current consumption of the motor Differential oil pressure oil circuit monitoring Suction pressure (controlled variable) Final discharge pressure Oil pressure Final discharge temperature Oil temperature Suction gas temperature Suction pressure's saturation temperature Final discharge pressure's saturation temperature Operating hours of the compressor motor

The following ACTUAL values are continuously shown on the compressor control's display. PS pos Comp1 Control slide position compressor 1 Current consumption of the motor Differential oil pressure oil circuit monitoring Suction pressure (controlled variable) Final discharge pressure Oil pressure Final discharge temperature Oil temperature Suction gas temperature Suction pressure's saturation temperature Final discharge pressure's saturation temperature Operating hours of the compressor motor Hint! Hint! See manual for compressor control

I (motor) Comp1

I (motor) Comp1

D (p[oil cir]) Comp1

D (p[oil cir]) Comp1

p (0) Comp1 p (k) Comp1 p (oil) Comp1 T (Final disch press) Comp1 T (Oil)Comp1 T (suct gas)Comp1 T [p(0)]

p (0) Comp1 p (k) Comp1 p (oil) Comp1 T (Final disch press) Comp1 T (Oil)Comp1 T (suct gas)Comp1 T [p(0)]

T [p(k)]

T [p(k)]

Operation Comp1

Operation Comp1

See manual for compressor control

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4.1

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTION
General Information

If repairs are necessary, contact the service department of Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology. Warning! All service and maintenance work must be carried out with care to ensure the CO2/NH3 cascade maintains its efficiency and functional reliability. Any guarantee claims will be rejected if the customer failed to follow the Maintenance Instructions.

The CO2/NH3 cascade may only be serviced / maintained by qualified operating personnel. These maintenance instructions shall be adhered to during all maintenance work. Moreover, all health & safety and fire prevention regulations and the safety regulations for refrigeration systems must also be observed. This maintenance manual contains the service regulations and records (certificates) for the CO2/ NH3 cascade's first 10 years of service. The maintenance certificates are completed and signed as part of the inspection and service / maintenance by authorized fitters as evidence of the work done. During the guarantee period these confirmed maintenance certificates are also a precondition for possible claims under the guarantee provided by Grasso GmbH.

Caution! Pay attention to maintenance manual!

Check Final discharge temperature

every 24 to 72hrs X

weekly

monthly

Remarks Minimum superheat must not be lower than 25 K. Maximum final discharge temperature 100C. See parameter list! The viscosity may not be less than 7 cSt at max. speed. The oil pressure must be at least 0.5 bar above the final discharge pressure, an oil pressure fault may be caused by a clogged oil filter. See project value (parameter list). Determine the superheat on the discharge side by comparison with the final discharge temperature. An oil level must be visible in the sight glass at all times. If the oil level is below the bottom third of the sight glass, recharge oil. While compressor is stopped, the heater must automatically start up. If the thermostatic cutout (limiter) switches off the heater, this may be an indication of an oil shortage. See set values in the parameter list.

Oil temperature

Oil pressure

Final discharge pressure

Oil level in oil separator

Oil heater

Adjusting the safety devices

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Check

every 24 to 72hrs

weekly

monthly

Remarks Solenoid valves must switch audibly when the output is adjusted. Check in operating mode "1 (manual + manual). Cf. maintenance schedule for necessary maintenance/servicing work. Empty oil pump collection sump.

Output control

Number of operating hours Oil pump collection sump Oil collection sump shaft seal Heat exchanger (for chillers only))

Empty oil collection sump shaft seal. Visual inspections for leaks and replace ring gaskets if necessary. See heat exchanger documentation.

4.2

Servicing/maintenance and safety


Caution! The safety data sheets of the refrigerant used and the refrigeration oils and in particular the Grasso safety information for the refrigerants NH3 (R717) and CO2 (R744) are to be observed when working on the CO2/NH3 cascade.

Before starting work on the CO2 circuit the refrigerant must be completely removed by suction. When working on the CO2 circuit ensure good ventilation in the room, including in the area of the floor. Contact with the refrigerant can cause cold burns or frostbite. Released gas can have a suffocating effect.

NH3 circuit Danger! All work on the NH3 refrigerant circuit, primarily opening, are significantly more dangerous than the familiar safety refrigerants!

4.3

Searching for leaks on refrigerant side / leak test

Prerequisite for perfect functioning of the cascade is an absence of leaks in it. Leaking parts or connection elements lead to refrigerant and oil losses. The leaking point must therefore be localized and repaired in the event of: Loss of inert gas charge (delivered condition) Loss of the entire refrigerant charge or resulting undercharge
5

Before starting work on the NH3 circuit the refrigerant must be completely removed by suction and evacuation. The pressure must then be equalized with the environment by way of dry nitrogen. Only then can the circuit be carefully opened or work performed that could lead to unintentional opening of the circuit. Personnel protective equipment must be used if the escape of even small amounts of ammonia cannot be ruled out with certainty. CO2 circuit

The most striking feature when leaks occur in the filled NH3 refrigerant circuit is the pungent odour of the refrigerant. The odour threshold of ammonia concentrations in air are far below the allowable maximum workplace values (MAK values) and is very far removed from

see "charging characteristics" chapter

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the hazard limit, which ensures a very good early warning effect. Leak detection methods: Regular visual inspections: Smudges/dirt stains indicate leaking refrigerant/oil mixture. Leak test with nitrogen or dry air with a dwell time > 3 h: Brush all connection points with foaming agent. Oil-filled compressors or circuit section are to be charged with nitrogen only, not with air, to generate pressure. with NH3 or CO2 leak detector Leak test with other aids: Ammonia dyed red litmus paper blue blotting paper dipped in phenolphthalein turns red (moisten) For the leak test to determine leaks on the refrigerant side, e.g. in case of escaped inert gas or refrigerant charge, a test pressure must be generated in the refrigerant circuit which does not exceed 16 bar. If equipment is tested individually, the maximum operating pressure given on the respective piece of equipment for the corresponding pressure chamber must not be exceeded. Danger! Oxygen must never be used to build up the pressure because of the risk of explosion! The purpose of the evacuation is to remove any air or moisture that may have penetrated the refrigerant circuit. Evacuate the cascade by means of a vacuum pump. The cascade's compressors are not to be used for the evacuation. During evacuation, all affected parts of the circuit should be at least at room temperature because cold parts hinder the removal of moisture. If there is still any moisture in the cascade it will lead to a rise in pressure. Evacuation is to continue until the pressure no longer increases. Pressure comparison requires a constant ambient temperature. 4.4.2 Charging with refrigerant (see also initial startup; initial charge with refrigerant)

Liquids are charged 1. after the leak test and evacuation of the respective circuit 2. for recharging/topping up. The refrigerant circuits are only charged via the charging valves of the respective circuit. CO2 circuit NH3 circuit Item (6865) Item (2865)

The location of these charging valves is given in the P+I flow diagram. Caution! Mixing even the smallest quantities of CO2and NH3 in the refrigerant circuits must be avoided under all circumstances.

If leaks are found, relieve the test pressure before starting the repairs! Evacuate the system after repairs and after rechecking for leaks.

Liquid refrigerant is added via the refrigerant feed valve of the respective circuit. The refrigerant cylinder must be securely connected to the filling valve (drawing in valve) via a lockable filling hose. Ensure the filling hose does not contain any air (e.g. by including the line in the evacuation process). The refrigerant is drawn in after slowly opening the refrigerant feed valve and the cylinder valve. The charge volume capacity of the cascade is given on the manufacturer's name place and in the "Technical Specifications".

4.4
4.4.1

Vacuating, charging and draining refrigerant and oil


Evacuating the refrigerant (see also initial start-up)

Evacuation is necessary: 1. after intervention in the refrigerant circuit and elimination of leaks 2. before the initial start-up / after restarting

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Place the refrigerant cylinder on weighing scales during the charging process to check the charged volume. Avoid overcharging the refrigerant circuit to prevent wet steam from being sucked into the compressor. After the pressure has equalized between the cascade and refrigerant cylinder, a pressure difference for further charging can be generated by: the compressor of the cascade (for initial startup) or a connected auxiliary compressor. To this end there is a level measurement probe (item 6900) on the separator, whose signal is detected by the GSC control and indicates the charge level. 4.4.4 Draining the refrigerant

4.4.4.1 General notes on draining refrigerant This action is required: if the system is overfilled if the refrigerant or oil circuit is dismantled and repaired for maintenance work on the oil circuit if foreign gases are detected in the system

Once the circuit has been charged, the cylinder and refrigerant charging valves should be closed tight. The refrigerant charging line and the refrigerant cylinder are to be removed. The system is in normal operation. 4.4.3 Charging characteristics

Whenever work is carried out on the parts of the refrigerating system carrying refrigerant or oil, extreme caution is required as leaking refrigerant can cause hazards. For health and safety reasons, safety goggles and protective gloves must be worn. When work is carried out on the cascade, the refrigerant and oil must be moved to storage locations or disposed in accordance with the regulations and with the least possible loss. If any liquid refrigerant is still left in the section to be opened, continue drawing it off until it evaporates. Caution! Watch out for possible risk due to residual refrigerant!

Comply with the charge quantities of the respective refrigerant circuits given on the manufacturer's name plate or in the technical documentation of the CO2/NH3 cascade. The cascade's performance is reduced when it is under or over-charged. The cascade charge can only be correctly assessed during operation (steady state, full load). NH3 circuit If the cascade is correctly filled, a liquid level can be seen in the upper sight glass of the external circulation line (not separator) of the cascade heat exchanger during operation. Undercharging characteristics: During operation the liquid level can only be seen in the lower sight glass or not at all Excessive intake superheating Evaporation temperature too low No refrigeration Cascade is switched off because of negative pressure/partial vacuum Unallowably high compressed gas temperature level can be seen in the liquid separator's sight glass.

4.4.4.2 Charging refrigerant The liquid refrigerant can be removed from the system and transferred into refrigerant cylinders or suctioned off as refrigerant vapour using an extraction device. The cylinders into which the refrigerant is transferred must be evacuated and cooled beforehand. A sufficient number of cleaned, dry and subcooled cylinders must be made available ready for use before starting to empty the refrigerant. The refrigerant cylinder must be placed on the weighing scales. The charging hose is securely screwed to the service valve of the respective refrigerant cycle at one end and to the valve of the refrigerant cylinder or extraction device at the other end. Then the service valve and then the flange valve are opened slowly. The refrigerant cylinder charge is measured using weighing scales whereby it must be taken into account that the cylinder may only be filled up to

Overcharging characteristics:

CO2 circuit The CO2 circuit's charge is detected by the level of the liquid CO2 in the liquid separator (item 6000).

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80% of its capacity. If this charge volume has not yet been reached, although there is still refrigerant in the system, the cylinder pressure can be reduced by discharging gas from the cylinder. For example, the cylinder's gas side can be relieved via a hose connection with the service valve into the suction line. If the cylinder is 80% full, the refrigerant feed valve and the cylinder valve are closed and the next cylinder is connected. Repeat this procedure until all the refrigerant has been bottled. The transferred refrigerant volume must be documented. After transferring the refrigerant into the cylinders, reclose the feed (drawing in) valve. The system is evacuated until it is completely drained. After the extraction equipment has been switched off no further pressure rise may occur. 4.4.4.3 Connections for draining refrigerant NH3 circuit The NH3 refrigerant circuit or circuit sections can be drained via the following service valves: at the low-pressure level probe item (2875) the charging and draining valve in the liquid line item (2865) the service valves in the suction line (gas side) the service valves in the oil return line the ammonia concentration does not lead to nuisance/skin irritation, etc. If the gas bubbles fully dissolve in the water there is no air. Eliminate the causes of air penetration. CO2 circuit Venting of the CO2 circuit can only take place via the service valve item (6865) in certain circumstances. The CO2 air mixture when the system is at a standstill should be drained to the outside in a controlled way using the hose connected at the service valve. Note and comply with the safety regulations for handling the coolant.

4.5
4.5.1

Charging and draining oil (see also putting into service)


General notes on handling refrigerator oil

Oil drained from the compressor may not be reused. Always use fresh oil from sealed containers! Make sure the oil cannot mix with other oil grades or types. 4.5.2 Check oil level

The liquid level in the oil sight glass of the oil separator should be between 1/2 and 3/4 of the sight glass height. 4.5.3 Oil filling

CO2 circuit The CO2 circuit can be drained via the following service valves: Service valve in the pump discharge line item (6925) Service valve in the injection line item (6865) 4.4.5 Venting the refrigerant circuits

Follow the compressor start-up and operating instructions for refilling oil. 4.5.4 Draining, changing, checking oil

It may be necessary to drain the oil: to inspect or repair the compressor and if there is too much oil in the circuit if the operating hours of the oil charge has reached the oil changing interval based on technical reasons if the oil was impermissibly contaminated due to a breakdown or accident (e.g. intrusion of water into the refrigerant circuit). Air which has penetrated the refrigerant circuit or remains there due to incomplete evacuation, will accumulate at the coldest point in the condenser during operation, because it cannot be condensed. The result is a pressure rise in the condenser by the partial pressure of the air fraction. This leads to increased energy consumption through to cut-off off due to overpressure. NH3 circuit Venting takes place during operation by means of the service valve (installed on site) at the condenser outlet. Conduct the air into a water tank while the valve slightly open so that residual ammonia is absorbed. If necessary, change the water in the tank to ensure

The oil in the cascade has to be changed:

The serviceability and performance condition of the refrigeration machine oil is assessed by a rough visual inspection (contaminations) or laboratory analysis: after 5000 hours or at the end of one year's operation or

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after remedying major damage. if the oil is dark coloured or highly turbid The CO2/NH3 cascade and parts of the cascade must not be left open as penetrating moisture endangers its function. The main principle must be to allow as little air and moisture as possible to enter the cascade. As far as possible, all foreign substances must be kept away or eliminated as well, e.g. welding residues sealant residues auxiliary materials such as greases, oils or solvents

Depending on the results of the analysis, the owner must decide whether to release the oil charge until the next assessment date or whether to have the oil changed. Impermissibly damp oil must be removed from the unit immediately. oil change sequence(see also the maintenance instructions for the compressor) The cascade must be run for at least half an hour to reach its operating temperature before the oil can be changed. In mode 1 "manual + manual" with the compressor running and intake cut-off valve closed, transfer refrigerant from the compressor into the condenser. If necessary, to this end change the set value of the minimum suction pressure limit on the NH3 side to 0.5 bar (a) and reset to the original value after evacuation Use an extraction device to remove the residual refrigerant (from the compressor). Use nitrogen to generate a slight overpressure. Drain oil through the filling line into a container provided for waste oil. Used oil

Welding and soldering work may only be performed with written permission. The necessary safety measures must be set out in the permit. These include: complete emptying of the respective equipment personal protective measures when opening equipment cleaning with suitable substances concentration measurements ensuring adequate ventilation

Renewed acceptance is necessary after any repair work or changes are made to pressure vessels requiring official acceptance. The welding may only be carried out by approved welders with valid welders qualifications. 4.6.2 Opening the compressor (see also compressor maintenance instructions)

4.5.5

Refrigeration machine oil drained from the circuit is no longer suitable for use in refrigeration plants. It has to be stored or transported in appropriately labelled containers. The operator is responsible for its proper disposal.

If the compressor has to be opened to clean the suction casing or to replace components, it must be depressurised. Sequence Transfer the refrigerant into the condenser while the cascade is in operating mode 1 "manual + manual" by closing the suction cut-off valve and the oil return shut-off valve. If the intake pressure has dropped to p = 0 bars g.p., switch off the compressor and close both manual shut-off valves on the compressor. Attach hose to pressure chamber service valve and use extraction equipment to remove residual refrigerant. The compressor may now be opened. Comply with the relevant health and safety regulations. The work on the compressor must be carried out in accordance with the compressor operating instructions.

4.6
4.6.1

Maintenance Work
General notes

Work involving intervention in the refrigerant circuit is only to be undertaken by trained fitters in compliance with the terms of the guarantee. The CO2/NH3 cascade must always be taken out of service before dismantling. All live parts must be disconnected from the power supply and the refrigerant must be removed from the apparatus concerned. This work must be performed extremely carefully in compliance with the safety regulations so that the operating personnel is not harmed by the refrigerant or refrigerating machine oil contained in the system. Equipment under pressure must not be opened until it has been completely drained.

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Each time the compressor is opened, remove all air that may have entered by means of evacuation before putting it back into service. 4.6.3 Dismantling the compressor suction filter (see the compressor maintenance instructions) 4.6.5

Warning! In addition to the usual cleanliness, work on the suction filter requires special care because the compressor is completely unprotected against coarse dirt particles during this work.

The intake filter is a dirt trap on the intake side of the compressor. To clean it, proceed in the same way as for dismantling the compressor. Remove the intake filter after the ambient pressure is reached. After cleaning or filter change and reassembly, you should evacuate. 4.6.4 Replacing the suction filter

Changing the suction filter before refrigerant pump - CO2 circuit

1. Switch off the unit/ cascade. 2. If the suction filter is very dirty it may be necessary to replace it outside the normal maintenance schedule. 3. To change the suction filter insert before regrigerant pump, close the following valves in accordance with the P+I diagram: (6005) Stop valve before suction filter (6085) Stop valve behind suction filter

1. Close the discharge-side shut-off valve on the unit/ cascade. 2. Open suction-side shut-off valve and shut-off valve bypass check valve - suction side - and thus equalise pressure with the low pressure side. 3. Close suction-side shut-off valve and bypass valve - check valve. 4. Draw off residual overpressure via vent valve of suction filter or drain taking into account the safety regulations. 5. Unscrew housing cover of compressor. 6. Remove suction filter element. 7. Clean suction filter element, wash out with suitable grease-dissolving cleaning agent then blowing out with compressed air. 8. Renew round ring on suction filter element and reinsert suction filter element. 9. Renew round ring on cover, firmly close cover. 10. Use a vacuum pump to evacuate the unit/ cascade. Warning! Shut off oil pump!

4. Equalise pressure with the atmospheric pressure. 5. Drain refrigerant (6925). 6. Dismantle cover of suction filter (6010). 7. Remove the filter element and properly dispose of manner if it is highly soiled. 8. Carefully insert a new filter element. 9. Close the suction filter cover (6010). 10. Reopen valves in accordance with item 3. 11. After the pressure has been equalised, vent suction filter via the vent valve (6920). 4.6.6 Oil change

4.6.6.1 Meaning Aged oil features an increasing loss of lubricity. So all rotating components of the compressors are endangered. The filter elements become prematurely clogged and must be cleaned and replaced at shorter intervals. The degree to which oil in refrigeration plants has aged must be checked by analysis and comparison of the data with those of fresh oil. Oil ageing can also be judged from the darkening of the oil colour and the deposits found in the oil filters. If the degree of ageing cannot be assessed reliably by laboratory analysis and the results of visual examination, it is advisable to change the oil at the following intervals (see Maintenance schedule).

If evacuation is not possible, the unit/ cascade is vented in the next step via the vent valve on the suction filter. Collect escaping refrigerant and dispose in accordance with the legal regulations. 11. The unit/ cascade is pressurized with a slight overpressure via the shut-off valve bypass check valve discharge side. 12. Then check all components for leaks. If this has been done, completely equalise pressure with the pressure line and then check the unit/cascade again for leaks.

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8. Use a vacuum pump to evacuate the unit / cascade. Warning! Shut off oil pump!

Warning! Oil change intervals Change oil in SCUs using ammonia as refrigerant after every 5,000 operating hours or after 1 year at the latest. Change oil in SCUs using ammonia as refrigerant after every 10,000 operating hours or after 2 year at the latest.

4.6.6.2 Maintenance Work Take oil samples for analysis and comparison of the data with those of fresh oil at regular intervals. Examine the colouration of the oil visually and evaluate the degree of contamination. 4.6.6.3 Changing the oil 1. The unit/ cascade must be run for at least half an hour to reach the operating temperature before the oil can be changed. 2. First shut down the unit/ cascade as described in the Operating Instructions. 3. Open the shut-off valve in the bypass line around the check valve - suction side and the suction-side shut-off valve to equalise the pressure between unit / cascade and suction line. If several units are operated in parallel, if possible the refrigerant should be drawn off to attain a pressure approx. 1 to 3 bar above atmospheric pressure. Then reclose the shut-off valves bypass and suction-side shut-off valve. Otherwise the pressure can be reduced by opening the vent valve on the suction filter and then disposing of the refrigerant as specified by law. 4. Then drain the waste oil via the oil draining/oil charging valves and dispose of (Important! hazardous waste!). Once this has been done, reclose the valve and if possible continue to draw off the refrigerant with a compressor connected in parallel until atmospheric pressure is virtually reached. 5. Otherwise depressurize the unit / cascade by opening the vent valve - suction filter, taking into account the safety regulations for refrigeration systems. 6. Open the drain plugs and valves on the oil cooler, oil separator and oil filter with multifunction block to drain any residual oil. Then reclose the drain plugs and valves. 7. Replace the filter element of the oil filter and clean or replace the filter insert of the suction filter.

If evacuation is not possible, the unit / cascade is vented in the next step via the vent valve on the suction filter. Collect any escaping refrigerant and dispose of in accordance with the legal regulations. 9. The unit / cascade is pressurized with a slight overpressure via the shut-off valve bypass check valve discharge side. 10. Then check all components for leaks. If this has been done, completely equalise pressure with the pressure line and then check the unit/cascade again for leaks. Charge oil and startup the unit / cascade in accordance with the Operating Instructions. 4.6.7 Replace oil filter

1. Switch off the unit / cascade. 2. If the oil filter is very dirty it may be necessary to replace it outside the normal maintenance schedule. 3. To change the oil filter insert, close the following valves in accordance with the P+I diagram and the oil filter with multi-function block documentation): (065) shut-off valves upstream of oil filter (070) shut-off valve function oil (080) Control valve - injection oil with integrated check valve function When closing the valve (080) note the number of revolutions actuated. When opening the valve it must be returned to its initial position (see item 10). This is necessary to ensure the final temperature remains unchanged and therefore to avoid possible vibrations in the oil line. Shut-off valve bypass oil cooler (optional) 4. Equalise pressure with the atmospheric pressure. 5. Drain oil. 6. Dismantle oil filter cover of the multi-function block. 7. Remove the oil filter element and properly dispose of manner if it is highly soiled. 8. Carefully insert a new oil filter element.

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9. Close the oil filter cover of the multi-function block. 10. Reopen valves in accordance with item 3. The valve (080) must be returned to its initial position. 11. After the pressure has been equalised, vent oil filter via the vent valve. 4.6.8 Changing the filter driers - CO2 circuit The axial grooved ball bearing ist not adjustable. The axial play is predetermined by the manufacturer and cannot be changed. The axial grooved ball bearing should be subjected to a visual examination and replaced according to the oil pump documentation, if required. 4.6.11 Checking the pull-in torques at fastener of fixing base the pull-in torques at the top the pull-in torques underneath 25 Nm 100 Nm

1. Switch off the unit/ cascade. 2. Filter driers (6055) should be inspected according to the normal maintenance schedule. Replace the filter drier if indicated at sight glass. 3. To change the filter drier (6055) close the following valves in accordance with the P+I diagram: (6050) Stop valve before filter drier (6090) Stop valve behind filter drier

4.6.12 Changing the oil fine separation cartridges The oil fine separation cartridges generally have a service life of approximately three years. If the oil carry over of the unit / cascade increases severely (oil recharging at unusually short intervals) the cartridges must be changed: 1. Close the discharge and suction side shut-off fittings. 2. Draw off refrigerant and depressurize the unit / cascade. 3. Check the pressure on the display of the control or connect a test pressure gauge. 4. Dismantle the pipe bend on the oil separator. 5. Dismantle the check valve installed in the oil separator, this step is omitted if a shuttable check valve is used on the discharge side. 6. Remove the securing wire [3]. 7. Undo the hexagon screws [2] used to fix the oil fine separation cartridges. 8. Remove the cartridge [1]. 9. Install the new cartridge in the reverse order. Warning! Securing wire [3] must be reattached !

4. Equalise pressure with the atmospheric pressure. 5. Remove the filter drier (6055) and properly dispose of manner if it is highly soiled. 6. Carefully mount a new filter drier. 7. Reopen valves in accordance with item 3. 8. After the pressure has been equalised, vent filter drier via the vent valve (6065). 4.6.9 Clutch maintenance

1. Switch off the unit/ cascade. 2. Secure the electric motor against accidentally being switched on. 3. Visually inspect the plate packages. 4. Check the tightening torques of the fitting screws. 5. Check the alignment of the electric motor and if necessary correct it according to the steel multiplate clutch documentation. 6. Regrease the clutch (if provided for in the maintenance instructions for the clutch). 4.6.10 Oil pump maintenance pump) (for external oil

An amount of leakage oil of up to one drop/minute is required for lubrication of the slide ring seal and thus permissible. The slide ring seal is free of maintenance. If the amount of leakage oil is too large, replace it according to the Oil Pump Documentation.

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the type of heat carrier or cooling agent circuit (open or closed), the quality of the heat carrier or cooling agent, the materials in the circuit, the flow rate.

Deposits on the tubing of the heating exchangers increase the difference in temperature between the condenser temperature (tC) and heat-carrier outlet (tW2) or between evaporating temperature (t0) and cooling agent outlet (tK2) lead to greater pressure drops. This reduces the chillers performance, output, flow rates, etc. The pump power input is increased. The cleaning cycle depends on the installation and should be defined in accordance with it. 4.6.14.1 Chemical cleaning A specialized company has to perform the chemical cleaning of the equipment. The materials used in the components of the package must be taken into account in this respect. Chemical cleaning requires a separate cleaning circuit for which separate connection possibilities should be provided. To do so, proceed as follows: Block the corresponding heat exchanger from the remaining circuit Drain the heat carrier/cooling agent or cooling water from the heat exchanger Connect the cleaning circuit to the heat exchanger (check for leaks into the environment and other parts of the circuit and remedy if necessary). The handling and cleaning technology must conform to the manufacturers information pertaining to the cleanser (neutralization, flushing, disposal). The delivery rate of the pump for the cleaning circuit has to be set in such a way that dislodged contaminants and particles do not cause the heat exchanger to become clogged. The cleaning circuit must be in the form of an open circuit to prevent pressure from building up in the system and to be able to observe the cleaning process. 4.6.14.2 Mechanical cleaning Module welded plate heat exchangers can be removed for manual mechanical cleaning. Proceed according operating instructions of plate heat exchanger. Close all plate modules and check them for leakages after cleaning works.

fig. 27:

Oil fine separation cartridge

4.6.13 Finding and fixing leaks Lower refrigerant levels in the containers are due to loss of refrigerant as a result of leaks. For this reason, all pipes, connections and valve glands should be checked regularly, especially in the initial period after fitting, with a suitable indicator (litmus paper, etc.). Leaks are revealed by a change of colour and must be sealed immediately. The supplier is not liable for losses of refrigerant caused by a lack of or improper maintenance! New flange gaskets made of It-KVD are subject to fatigue immediately after installation. For this reason the flange screws should be tightened three times at 24-hour intervals. After that, hardly any further fatigue will be observed. 4.6.14 Cleaning the heat exchangers (heat-carrier / cooling agent sides) To avoid excessive soiling, the unit has to be equipped with a filter (mesh size 0.3 mm) installed in the refrigerant and heat carrier circuit lines immediately in front of the evaporator and the condenser. The soiling and the associated required cleaning cycle are affected by the following:

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4.7
4.7.1

Steps to be followed before starting the system after major repairs


Repair information

Particular attention is to be paid to the aforementioned maintenance instruction. Danger! Before carrying out any maintenance or repair work the personal protective clothing must be checked.

When repairing the chiller system, it should be borne in mind that new and advanced refrigeration plant is expected to meet the following standards as regards the technology and manufacturing processes they embody. Requirements: Absolute tightness of all devices and pipes. Dryness and cleanliness of the entire system. Use of welding methods causing only a minimum amount of dirt to collect in the system. Pipes bent on a pipe-bending machine only using refrigerating oil. If repairing the piping system from your own stocks, you are recommended to use a pipe with NBK sur face quality (soft-annealed and descaled, mechani cally or chemically descaled after soft annealing). When carrying out repairs to piping systems, care should be taken to maintain the original piping routes. Only pipes of sufficient quality should be used which are certified according to DIN 8975. Pressure test, leak test

Only spare parts made by the original equipment manufacturer may be used for repairs and for replacing wearing parts. They are available from the customer service department of Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology under the following address: Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology Holzhauser Strae 165 D - 13509 Berlin Tel.: +40 (0) 30 435 92 766 Tel.: +40 (0) 30 435 92 759 Please remember to carry out the following steps before starting up the system again following repair or maintenance: Check the charge of the unit / CO2/NH3 cascade with service media/resources (refrigerant, refrigerating machine oil, heat transfer medium) and set specified charge levels (sight glasses, level indicator). Charge using the built-in charging lines and record the charge volumes in the machine's log book. Set all fittings according to the operating instructions. Check all important technical parameters after switching on the unit /CO2/NH3 cascade until a stable operating condition is reached.

4.7.2

See operating manual, start-up instructions 4.7.3 Vacuum Test

After the pressure test has been completed, the system is evacuated and subjected to a vacuum test for 3 hours. Evacuation is used to remove air and moisture from the refrigerant circuit (see operating instructions).

4.8

Repair work

Modifications and repair work may only be carried out by experts or persons with suitable training with the manufacturer's agreement and must strictly comply with the rules set out in the maintenance instructions for the components concerned.

Non-permissible operating conditions result in the shutdown of the refrigerating system or part thereof by the automatic safety system. If this happens, the causes of the shutdown must be determined and rectified. The safety devices should be checked at least once a year and the switching values confirmed.

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4.9

Guide to disturbances, their causes and remedies

The units/ CO2/NH3-cascade units manufactured by Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology are highly advanced, automatic and extremely efficient systems. It is, however, possible that disturbances may occur, making it difficult to maintain continuous operation or causing part or the whole of the system to break down. Table of disturbances Failure The suction pressure is too low, performance reduced and the system overheats. Cause Slow loss of refrigerant through leaks in the refrigerant circuit. Remedy Check the entire system for leaks. Repair where found and top up the refrigerant if necessary. Replace manometer. Check capacity control devices, connections for solenoid valves. Remove suction filter elements, clean or replace.

Pressure gauge defective. Defective capacity control devices in the compressors The suction filters in the chiller are clogged. The suction pressure increases and the compressors become covered with a thick layer of hair frost or makes noises which indicate the presence of liquid (refrigerant) in the compressors. The condensation pressure is too high.

The compressors are sucking in wet Check liquid levels, drain some steam or liquid when it is started up. refrigerant if necessary. Repair safety The safety device to prevent a too device. Check superheat. high liquid level is not responding.

There is air or other noncondensable gases in the refrigerant circuit.

The refrigerant circuit should be vented.

The compressors do not start up after the system is switched on or turns itself off again.

The electrical circuit is interrupted by Switch on the power supply, check a pressure switch in the safety chain. the pressure switch and replace or set properly as appropriate. No oil pressure is building up in the unit/ cascade. The oil circuit is disturbed by clogged oil filters or leaks. Replace or clean the oil filters, seal the leaks and top up with oil.

The compressors do not adjust to the required capacity.

The capacity control device is malfunctioning due to disturbances in the oil circuit or mechanical influences.

Check the oil circuit. The compressors should only be repaired by experts. Check the position detector of the compressor control slide. See above.

The compressors are shut off very often by the maximum pressure governor.

The condensation pressure is too high. The maximum pressure governor is defective or set wrongly.

Remove the maximum pressure governor, repair it, set it correctly or replace it.

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS CO 2 /NH 3 CASCADE UNIT 250 - 1000 KW

Failure The compressors are shut off very often by the minimum pressure governor.

Cause The suction pressure is too low.

Remedy Open all valves on the suction side of the compressors. Remove the minimum pressure governor, repair it, set it correctly or replace it. Check the evaporator as to elevated oil concentration, possibly drain oil

The minimum pressure governor is defective or set wrongly.

The heat transfer capacity of the evaporator decreases. The unit/ cascade is extremely noisy in operation.

The compressors or the drive motors Please, call Grasso Service for more are defective. information

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