This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
UNESCOREGIONALOFFICE FOR SCIENCEAND TECHNOLOGY FOR EUROPE (ROSTE)
1262iA DORSODURO - VENICE, ITALY 30123 - TEL. 041-5225535 - FAX 041-5289995
BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
D. PAVLOV, G. PAPAZOV and M. GERGANSKA
UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Technology for Europe
.. which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.KThe authors are responsible for the choice and presentation of the facts contained in this book and for the opinions expressed therein.
Several options have been considered for this purpose. and battery researchers and manufacturers t o meet at j o i n t conferences t o exchange information and opinions o n the problems of energy storage. Elsevier in Amsterdam issued the book entitled “Power Sources for Electric Vehicles” edited by B. as well as new advanced types of batteries are being used. In 1954. M c N i c o l and D. I t has become general practice for experts in the power industry. the electrocliemica1 power sources used for propulsion of these vehicles cannot yet meet the challenge. I t has. A number of demonstration battery energy storage plants and facilities have been designed and built. a new t r e n d in electric power production has witnessed intense development during recent years. however.Preface In an attempt t o make the power industry more effective. one of t h e m being the battery energy storage system. and are now subjected t o testing. Development and large-scale commercialization o f electric vehicles has become oiie of the greatest challenges o f the late 2 0 t h cen- rent knowledge in the field. a serious environmental impact in t h a t it causes considerable air pollution in large cities and densely populated areas. Annual international i . It is now opportune t o siirrimarize the results and experiences so far acquired in t l i e design arid utilization of battery energy storage systems.J.A.. tury. B o t h classical lead-acid batteries. Rand. which presented a comprehensive survey o f the curM o t o r car transport i s being increasingly adopted. that of energy storage.D. since it is an important and indispensable element of the n o r m a l functioning of every modern social community. However.
The English version of the text was provided by Mrs. M. Sofia. T h e current status and the problems confronting battery energy storage systems for the power industry are presented by Prof. Papazov. Sofia. Pavlov. Pavlov. D r S c i . D. G. w i t h the purpose of attracting wider public attention t o t h e problems of these systems. t o the development of battery energy storage systems.conferences o n t h e problems of electrochemical power sources show that more effort is being placed o n broad-spectrum investigations in t h e field. the aims envisioned by UNESCO for this book. Bulgaria 11 . Gerganska. by Dr. Papazov. and i f our efforts contribute. we w i l l be most satisfied. If we have achieved. though modestly. M. All three of us work at the Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources. Gerganska May 1991. and for electric vehicle applications. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) entrusted us w i t h the task of carrying out an overview of the current status and future perspectives of battery energy storage systems for applications in the power industry and in transport. even in part. Bulgaria. G. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. D. T h e Regional Office for Science and Technology for Europe (ROSSE) at the U n i t e d Nations Educational. Accumulated theoretical knowledge and practical experience o n battery energy storage systems for electric vehicle applications should now be analyzed and evaluated.
. .... .. . 2...Contents Preface .. .. .... Compressed-Air Energy Storage Systems (CAESS) ....4.. .. Power industry and i t s problems ..... . . ...3. ... . . The four basic elements of every national electric power system 1 1 3 3 . . 2... ... .. i Chapter 1 BATTERY ENERGY S T O R A G E S Y S T E M S F O R THE POWER I N D U S T R Y 1 Introduction .. 1... .. ......... .. .. .... 111 .. 2... . Energy. Quality of energy supply systems .... . .. 1.... ............ . . ... .... ... Ecological problems and the development of power industry ... ....... 1..4. . .3.1.2. ... . .... Choosing the right option for electric energy storage ......... 15 2. ... ... T h e revival of battery energy storage systems .. .. power and response t i m e . .... ....... . . .4........1. . Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Systems (PHESS) . .. ......2. Battery Energy Storage Systems (BECS) .... .. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Systems (SMESS) ............... Electric energy storage ..... ..1. .2..... .. ..... 17 . .. .. .. . .. .......................5.... 13 2.. .2.. . ...3..... ... 2........ ... . Basic principles of battery operation .. ... 1... ...........2.. .. 2 5 6 7 8 9 11 13 . ..2. .....2. 2.. ........4.. ....... . . ..1. .... .... Some advantages of battery energy storage systems 15 2... 1.......
.............. . 15 2..2.. ..... 3.... ..2.in operation and under development .............3..4.2...... 3......... Development projects for battery energy storage systems .......... .2.. ................ . ...4..... Some advantages of battery energy storage systems ..... 3. 19 3................ ..... Reactions and principles of cell design arid operation 28 3... 20 3... ....... ...4..... ........ Zinc/Chlorine batteries .4.1. . 37 39 40 ..... 19 3. Zinc/Bromine Batteries 24 28 .... . .. .... 33 37 ...... ............. .....3... Characteristics of zinc/bromirie batteries 3. .3.... Batteries for energy storage .. 3. ...... Specification and test results for battery modules and pilot plant of the Japanese “Moonlight Project” 3. ... ... .. . Choosing the right option for electric energy storage .........1.4..4. ... ...... ..........3.3.. Sodium/Sulfur Batteries .. Fundamentals of zinc/chlorine batteries 3..... 15 2.....3..1..... .... .....2...... .....3.. ... Battery system design 31 33 ... iv . 3..5. 3. ..... 17 3 . ..2......4..... . . ....... . .... Design of sodium/sulfur cells 20 23 .... 3. Battery design ........ ...... .......2.2..1... Basic principles of battery operation . Chemistry and electrochemistry of the zinc/bromine cell ...3.. . Principles of cell operation .. .. Battery characteristics .2..3....
........1............ 6......2.. .......... .. ........ System structure ...... Chino 10 hgW/40 MWh lead-acid battery energy storage systein 6..... .. 6..... 8..... ... .... System frequency response having given rise t o the construction of the BEWAG LABES plant 7.. ........... 7.. .... . . 6.... 63 Lead-acid battery energy storage systems for load levelling ...... Lead-acid b a t t e r y energy storage systems (LABESS) in operation by 1990 throughout the world .5............ 6 .... . Equipment energy losses .....5........... Johnson Controls 300 1<W/600 1ïWh LABES Facility ....2...............2...... ... .. Economics of Chino LABES Plant ....... ......... ..5/17MW Lead-Acid B a t t e r y Energy Storage Plant ..... . ... .....2.......2......2.. .. . ..... 67 67 68 68 69 76 78 78 79 6.... ... ........ ..1...6..... ...2.... T h e b a t t e r y ...... L A B E S S for instantaneous (spinning) reserve and frequency control applications ..... ....... ........1.......... .... .... . 6... . ..........2............. ..... ... ..........2...3... 7. ... T h e BEWAG 8.. . Island networks .... Facility monitoring and control system ... .... 6............. ........ ..1.....2.... 86 86 8...... ........ What i s peak shaving? .... 8 ....2. Lead-acid battery energy storage systems in t h e railway transport network .1. 6.. .. ......... .. ........ Power conditioning system ............... 91 V ..... . System design and characteristics 80 80 81 ..2.... 82 Lead-acid battery energy storage systems for peak shaving ... .....3...... ... 7....2.. .... ........... ..4.. .... 81 ... . ...... ....... Plant layout 7 ........ 88 8... ...2.....
.. .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. ..12 6. .. . 5. . .. . . . . ... . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . M o t o r vehicles and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l l u t i o n .. . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . S t r a t e g i c advantages of BES systems References .. ... . . . .. . . ... . .. .. 103 2.. . . .. .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . 106 C h a r g e a n d capacity o f b a t t e r i e s f o r e l e c t r i c vehicles .. . . .. . Valve-regulated lead-acid b a t t e r i e s f o r b a t t e r y e n e r g y storage systems . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. 98 Chapter 2 ENERGY S T O R A G E S Y S T E M S F O R ELECTRIC VEHICLES 1.. .. 1. .9. 122 T y p e s o f cycles o f e l e c t r i c vehicle b a t t e r i e s 3. . . . . .. ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. Specification of e n e r g y storage systems f o r e l e c t r i c vehicles . 128 R e q u i r e m e n t s t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a n u f a c t u r i n g t e c h n o l o g y o f b a t t e r i e s f o r EV e n e r g y storage systems . ... ... . 96 10. . .. . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . 139 Specification o f o p e r a t i n g e n e r g y storage systems f o r e l e c t r i c vehicles .. . . . .. . .. L y r i c a l epilogue References vi . .. . . . . .. . 94 . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 144 145 . .. . 4.....
electric power plants: thermal power plants fired by coal or nuclear fuel. and people in their day-to-day life. etc. The consumers’ demand for electric power varies cyclically during day and night. transmission trunk lines and distribution lines t o every customer. These are users in industrial. It is organized in an electric power system comprising three basic elements: a) Electric power and energy generating utilities.or gas-fired combustion turbines. PAVLOV 1. oil. as well as w i t h i n t h e week and the seasons. T h e four basic elements o f every national electric power system Production of electric energy is the basic pillar for n o r m a l functioning of every modern social community and a guarantee for i t s progress.e. transport. Introduction 1. administrative buildings.1.Chapter 1 BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE S Y S T E M S FOR THE POWER INDUSTRY D. agricultural and telecommunication contexts. T h e electric power produced by the generating utilities is delivered through t h e transmission/distribution system t o the consumers for utilization. gasfired steam plants. i. etc. c) Consumers of electric power and energy. b) Electric power distributing systems including transformer facilities. hydroelectric plants. .
I 3 5 ' 7 ' 9 ' 1 1 ' i 3 ' 1 ' ' 1 7 ' 1 9 21 Hour of day mGas steam 23 DCoal @Gas turbine Bottery Fig. as well as for increased household needs. . . The daytime demand is significantly higher than the baseload level. the demand decreases t o about 15-30% below t h e baseload level. Peak power is generated by gas-fired turbines utilizing relatively expensive fuel. baseload generating units should operate at a minimum capacity of 500-1000 MW and under constant load. measured in kW (kilowatts) integrated over a specific time interval (15 min) [l]. . T h i s is the rate at which electric energy is delivered t o t h e consumer. Figure 1 shows an example of a daily customer demand profile. There are two peaks in the daytime demand profile related t o the increased energy consumption for the transportation of people from home t o the working place and back. Example of customer energy demand curve for a working day [il.Demand. They burn natural gas or o i l which are more expensive fuels than coal. D u r i n g the night (hours O t o 6). 1. A baseload level o f demand is introduced. I t is served by gas-fired steam plants. I I . The power capacity for meeting this demand level is generated and maintairied by thermal power plants fired by low-cost fuels such as coal or nuclear fuel. . and also by hydroelectric 2 . To be economically effective.
and is delivered t o meet peak-hour demands during the day. 1. undergoes cyclic fluctuations. thermal. T h e electrical power is determined f r o m the product of voltage and current. The introduction of this f o u r t h element in the electric power system makes i t s operation more efficient. gravitational.2. power and response time I t has been established t h a t the different forms o f m o t i o n (mechanical . Power i n d u s t r y and i t s problems 1.power plants. chemical. T h e customers’ demand. T h e r a t i o of actual t o peak power demand over a given period is called load factor. generated electric energy is stored in appropriate facilities. 3 . T h i s n o t o n l y brings about considerable savings of expensive fuels such as gas and oil. o n the other hand. low-cost fuel power plants work at maximum load during the night and store the generated energy t o sell it at increased cost during peak demand periods. Thus. electromagnetic . T h i s leads t o inefficient utilization of t h e generating capacities. T h e work done per unit t i m e is called power. A possible sol u t i o n t o this problem is the involvement of a new element in the energy system.) are converted i n t o one another following definite quantitative ratios. when energy demand is low.1. Electric energy storage. etc. T h e electrical energy is determined f r o m the product of the voltage and the quantity of charge that passes through an electrical device (load). At night. the term energy has been introduced. Energy.2. T o b e efficient. T o allow measuring of the various forms of m o t i o n by a unified measuring unit. There is an intrinsic contradiction in each power supply system between producers and consumers of electricity. power plants should operate at constant load. but also improves t h e load factor of the power generating facilities.
this energy transformation path is much shorter. the chemical energy accumulated in coal. Power curve showing t h e change of power from level A t o level B.In thermal power stations. In this case. high-pressure steam). whereby the thermal energy is transformed i n t o mechanical. 2 ) . On rotation. T h e turbine shaft is connected t o the shaft of an electric generator. the chemical energy is directly transformed i n t o electrical power. / ition time i _J Time Fig. 4 . several processes of energy conversion have t o occur. a battery in particular. t o obtain elect r i c a l energy f r o m coal. In an electrochemical power source. It is evident that. through electrochemical reactions o f oxidation and reduction proceeding o n the surface of t h e t w o electrodes. Conversion o f one type of energy i n t o another requires a certain t i m e period. this common shaft drives the r o t o r of the generator as a result of which the mechanical energy is converted i n t o electrical energy. 2. crude o i l or natural gas is transformed by burning (oxidat i o n o f t h e hydrocarbons) i n t o heat (high-temperature. T h e time needed for an energy-generating system t o change i t s power f r o m a value (A) t o another value (B) is called response (transition) time (Fig. which sets in m o t i o n a turbine.
2. it should dispose of a system of power plants with various response times ranging f r o m milliseconds t o hours. For a n energy utility t o meet a l l load fluctuations. Figure 3 illustrates the distribution of the electric-system capacity expressed by a typical weekly load curve of an electric utility. Quality of energy supply systems T h e quality o f an electric power supply is determined by the available reserve capacity at the energy utility. I f there is n o or insufficient reserve capacity and the load level exceeds the power generation level. 100 2. the response time is of the order of millionths of a second. Generation for load í No storage) Baseload Mon Tue Wed! Thul Fri 1 Sat Sun 1 I IReserve Generation for load íWHh storage) Mon I Tue I Wed I Thu I Fri I Sat I Sun I I Baseiood energy to S i O M g t Peaking energy from storage Fig. 5 . while for a battery.2. 1. T y p i c a l w e e k l y load c u r v e for an electric utility [il. 3. T h e energy system should have 15-20% of reserve power available t o b e able t o meet any customer demand.A thermal power plant needs tens of minutes t o change f r o m one power level t o another.
T h i s hunger for electricity is very often a l i m i t i n g factor for the economical and social development o f a country. Unfortunately. however. is based o n the combustion of coal. 1. etc. regional and global nature. o n l y r i c h and advanced modern countries possess such high-grade energy systems. o i l and gas. Operation of these facilities. transport. SO2 and others. industry.a decline in voltage at the consumer side w i l l appear which would upset the n o r m a l operation of the users’ machines and electrical devices or even cause them t o fail. T h e accumulated CO2 in the air might b r i n g about considerable climatic changes b o t h o n a regional and global scale (the so-called “greenhouse effect”). Thus the rapid development of power industry has added comfort t o society and i t s individuals. however. various organi6 . For this reason it is essential for t h e n o r m a l functioning and development of each social community t o have reliable national and local electric power systems w i t h capacities exceeding the actual energy demand by at least 15%. increase every year. Previously.3. and in some cases are simply inadequate. T h e power systems of most countries in the world have capacities t h a t only j u s t meet their energy demands. but it has posed very serious ecological problems of a national. Ecological problems and the development of power indus t r y T h e electric energy needs of the population. which i s accompanied by harmful gas emissions of COZ.2. agriculture. these needs were met by expanding the capacities of all types of electric power generating facilities. In response t o these processes. and the claims for high-quality electric power become ever more demanding in relation t o the i n creasing automation and computerization of the national economy. T h e increased content of SO2 in the atmosphere has led t o the format i o n of acid rains causing enormous damage t o the agricultural crops and the forests.
in reducing SO2 emissions by building up special facilities at electric power plants for purification of exhaust gases. T h i s method has an undoubtedly beneficial effect o n the environmental aspect of electric energy production. a l l technological processes of m a j o r energy consumers have been revised w i t h regard t o power consumption. especially those of SO:! and COL. in t h c sphere of electric power consumption. T h e basic principles of some of these options. Many countries have started programs aimed at development of energy storage technologies. The efforts of these movements. com- bined w i t h the wisdom of a number o f state governments. The basic problems and the development trends o f energy storage w i l l be discussed in the chapters t o follow.zations and social movements are being founded whose activities of environmental control and protest actions begin t o have a significant impact o n the policy of state governments and of companies engaged in electric power production. w i l l be outlined below. Solutions are being sought in several directions: First. and the most energy-consuming procedures replaced by new technologies w i t h lower power demands. 7 . Second. but it involves rather expensive. in building up a system of energy storage plants which haw a considerable impact o n the efficiency of energy utilities as well as significant cost benefits. that have found successful application. have led t o the adoption o f dead-line terms for decreasing the harmful gm contents in the atmosphere. in order t o restrict possible environmental damage. 2. complicated and n o t fully efficient procedures leading t o increase in energy and power costs. several options for electric energy storage have been devised. Electric energy storage During the last few decades. Third.
P u m p e d Hydroelectric Energy Storage Systems
Figure 4 presents the schematic of such a system.
Fig. 4. Schematic of a Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage System.
These energy storage units require two large water reservoirs located at different heights, so that water fall is possible. D u r i n g periods of low demand, t h e excess power is utilized t o pump water f r o m the lower reservoir and transfer it t o t h e upper one. At peak demand periods, the pumped storage plant acts as a hydroelectric power plant thus adding capacity t o the energy system. T h i s storing option is cost-effective i f used only 5 t o 8 hours in the peaking range. I t s response t i m e is of the order of 5 t o 10 minutes. T h e above energy storage technology has been in use for over 50 years now. At present, there are about 35 pumped storage plants in operation a l l over the world w i t h a t o t a l capacity of 25,000 MW. T h i s energy storage option i s most appropriate for countries w i t h mountainous relief. Construction of these plants requires f r o m 8 t o 10 years and is often associated w i t h considerable environmental im-
pact. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage systems are cost-effective i f they are designed for power units of over 1000 MW. In Italy, for example, pumped storage plants supply 14% of the net power capacity. In Japan, they amount t o about 10% o f t h e national net capacity, while for France, Germany and the UK, this figure is 6%, and 3% for the USA. At the moment, more than 200 pumped storage plants are under construction worldwide. Consequently, by the beginning o f the next century, this energy storage o p t i o n w i l l become an i m p o r t a n t element of many national electric power systems.
2.2.Compressed-Air Energy Storage Systems (CAESS)
A compressed-air storage plant uses inexpensive off-peak energy
t o drive the motor of a compressor for compressing air that is stored
in a salt cavern located deep underground or in large hard r o c k caverns. D u r i n g peak demand periods, gradual release of pressure i s performed and the air coming up t o the surface i s heated by burn-
i n g o i l or gas, and is then expanded through expansion turbines that drive the r o t o r of an electric current generator. Compressor m o t o r and generator are combined in one machine. During air compression, t h e rnotor/generator i s connected t o the compressor and decoupled f r o m the turbine. During electric current generation, the motor/generator is disconnected f r o m the compressor and coupled t o the turbine. Compressed-air storage units burn only one third of the fuel used by conventional combustion turbines t o produce the same amount o f electricity. T h i s leads t o a two-third reduction in the environmental pollution caused by the combustion process of turbines which are usually located in urban areas. Ways have been sought for optimization of the system operation, such as return of the heat released during air compression back t o the energy system. T h i s energy storage option is cost-effective i f operated at a power above 25 MW.
For every hour of electric current generation, 1.7 k i of air compression
are needed. The response t i m e is about 10 minutes. Efficiency of air
compression is 65-75%. T h e starting period is 20 t o 30 minutes. As rcgards the security aspects, measures should b e provided against leakage of compressed air. T h e service life o f air-compressed storage plants is about 30 years.
A block diagram of such a system is presented in Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Block diagram of a Compressed-Air Energy Storage System .
Compressed-air storage technology was first devised in Germany, and since 1978 a 290 MW, four-hour capacity unit has been in operation in Huntorf. The plant uses two salt caverns, and storage efficiency of over 80% is reported. T h e cost of unit power is about 425 $ kW-’. A 30-year operational life of the plant is expected. Commercial operation of the German CAES plant has shown that this type of energy storage option i s sufficiently reliable.
w i t h o u t converting it i n t o other forms.3. W h e n direct current is fed i n t o an electric circuit o f superconductors.e. Because of the conductor's electrical resistance at anibient temperature. T h i s is possible owing t o the ability of some substances t o become superconducting at extremely low temperatures. several demonstration compressed-air energy storage plants are being built: in the USA. 10-hour capacity.Compressed-air storage plants have a negligible environmental impact.arted construction of modular mini-units of 25 and 50 MW. T h i s technology can find application only in countries w i t h n a t u r a l deep underground. t h e requested electrical power can be drawn f r o m t h a t closed ring. At present. 26-hour capacity). p a r t of the electrical energy is lost in t h e f o r m o f heat emission (joule losses). thrce-unit plant w i t h salt. in Israel (300 h'lW. cavern storage).h o u r capacity. h a r d rock or salt caverns. threeunit plant). and can be built w i t h i n 2 t o 5 years. in the USSR (1050 MW. i. These losses can be compensated by adding new quantities of electricity t o the power supply network. the current w i l l circulate endlessly along the closed r i n g w i t h o u t energy losses. some alloys and ceramic materials achieve superconducting properties. arid 10-hour capacity. At extremely low temperatures. W h e n an energy demand appears. they lose t h e i r electrical resistance. l o . T h e Italian conipany ENEL has st. Large-scale investigations are presently being performed aimed at devising a technology for the production of superconducting magnetic 11 .ted w i t h modified combustion turbines of routine production. 2. They arc: fit. Alabama (110 MW. using aquifer storage. etc. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage System (SMESS) There i s a theoretical and a technical option t o store electrical energy as such.
6. Schematic of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage System . converter and refrigerator is monitored and controlled by a controller. 6. energy storage plants. the temperature of liquid helium) and the coil-wire used i s made of NbTi and NbSn alloys. T h e latter operates o n direct current. T h e response time of this type of storage system for switching between charging and discharging is about 20 milliseconds. Operation of the electromagnetic coil.Fig. Such an energy storage plant should be sited near a substation where the transformer converts the high voltage energy f r o m the utility network t o appropriate low voltage power. Charging o f the electromagnetic coil w i t h electricity f r o m the ac generating utility is accomplished via a two-way converter. The ac-ac efficiency is 90% or more. T h e heart of this storage system is the electromagnetic superconducting coil. A block diagram of such a plant is presented in Fig. A refrigeration system maintains the temperature of the electromagnetic coil at a very low fixed value. T h e experimental SMES systems so far set up operate at extremely low temperatures -269°C (4 K). 12 .
B a t t e r y Energy Storage Systems ( B E S S ) 2. energy density is 12 Wh kg-’.4. T h e system w i l l be used for daily and weekly energy storage. T h e refrigeration system is based o n liquid helium. storage utilization rate approx. The revival of battery energy storage systems At t h e beginning o f this century. T h i s w i l l change substantially the existing classical electric power system. t h e expenses for construction and maintena. In Japan. Underground bed rocks are required for construction of this system. 2. The power of the Japanese superconducting magnetic storage system is 1000 MW. electric power supply for industrial and domestic needs was provided by dc generators arid battery facilities operating under floating charge conditions. two-hour capacity SMESC pilot plant has been developed in the USA. because antimagnetic measures are needed for environmental protection. Location possibilities are restrictcd.1. Since the technology for liquid nitrogen production is well advanced and cost-effective. 75%. The current density in superconductive wires m a y reach extremely high values as t h e conductor exerts n o electrical resistance leading t o joule losses. D u r i n g this pe13 . it can be expected that superconducting magnetic storage plants w i l l be constructed that are capable of operating at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196°C).nce o f the refrigeration system will b e reduced significantly. Protect i o n against superconductive material degradation is also necessary. A 10 MW. T h i s allows the wire cross-section t o be decreased more than five times w i t h respect t o copper wires used at ambient temperature.4.With the discovery of ceramic high-temperature semiconductors. an energy storage project is being developed k n o w n as the “Moonlight Project”. storage efficiency SO-SO’%.
very soon. To enhance the operational efficiency of electric power utilities. I t started operation in July 1981. BEWAG-AG decided t o install the B a t t e r y Storage Facility in West Berlin under a test program in order t o collect the necessary operational and technical information. batteries proved t o be a diverse and flexible means of solving the load factor problem. A t t h e end of the 1970s. at Chino. the dc battery system was abandoned and hence also t h e storage of energy as an element of t h e power system. a 1 MW/4 MWh load-levelling battery plant started operation in 1986 in Tatsumi. management and control technologies. At first. During the 1930s. In July 1988. California. 14 . the old lead-acid battery storage systems were revived. transmission and distribution applications was noted and. many technologically advanced countries throughout tlie w o r l d have started large-scale research and test programs aimed at the introduction of battery energy storage systems in their national ccoiioinies and public services. Since then. t h e largest battery plant for load-levelling (10 MW/ 40 MWh) was set in operation in the USA. Japan. pumped hydroelectric energy storage plants were used for t h a t purpose. and later. Nuclear power plants were equipped w i t h large stand-by lead-acid battery storage facilities ensuring their reliability by supplying reserve power and energy. energy storage units were introduced. N e w and innovative elect r i c power applications in industry and every-day life brought about radical changes in the profile of the daily. In the 1960s. Within the “Moonlight” energy storage project. a powerful reliable and cost-effective static rectifier was devised. an expansion of ac technologies for electric power generation. weekly and seasonal de- m a n d ciirves.riod. T h e y were based o n t o t a l l y new conversion. for the first time.
parallel t o the reversible processes of charge and discharge. the battery is charged f r o m the electric power utility via a converter. electrical energy is converted to chemical and an electromotive force is created between the two electrodes.4. 2. certain low rate irreversible processes also take place that limit batt.2. Operation o f t h e converter arid the battery are monitored and controlled by a controller. This process is called charging of t h e electrochemical power source or t h e battery. During discharge. However. The latter converts the alternating current i n t o dc. When the electrodes are interconnected v i a a load. 15 . under the action of this electromotive force.o alternating current and the latter i s delivered through the tramfornier t o the utility for meeting energy demands. As a result of these reactions.ery cycle life.cid batteries were widely used. which allowed t h e latter to exhibit a number of useful advantages leading to significant cost beneíits. the direct current generated in the battery is transformed by t h e converter iiit.4. lead-a. D u r i n g off-peak periods. T h e battery can endure thousands of charge-discharge cycles.3. Some advantages of battery energy storage systems In t h e process of developnient of the new generation of BEC systems. The following ecoiioniical features of lead-acid battery storage systems were demonstrated. electrochemical reactions proceed o n the electrode surfaces during which inactive substances are transformed i n t o electrochemically active ones. Basic principles of battery operation When t w o appropriately chosen electrodes are immersed in the respective electrolyte and a direct electric current f r o m a n external source flows between them. electrocheniical reactions proceed o n the electrode surfaces in an opposite direction t o the reactions during charge. T h i s process of current generation is called discharge.2.
in parallel and/or in series. T h e y are quiet and can be located near. i. To b e economically effective. and even in. BES systems should meet t h e following challenging performance requirements: 30 years of service life o 75% ac-ac efficiency o Unit power cost about 400-700 $ kW-' e 5 hour discharge. many of t h e materials used for i t s manufacture can b e regenerated. and hence n o air and environmental pollution is caused. This allows BESS construction t o b e accomplished in stages according t o demand needs. c) Small environmental impact. 16 . b) Short construction terms. power or ampere-hour capacity. F r o m the above. d) H i g h level of recycling of the materials employed a the n batteries. housing c i t y areas.a) Modular design. Construction of BES plants is realized on a modular basis. At the end of a battery's service life. it follows t h a t the revival of BES systems during the 1980s i s a normal process based o n the rapid progress of electric power industry.e. various configurations could b e obtained for any desired voltage. No other materials are consumed except water. o Many projects are being implemented at present worldwide aimed at achieving the above parameters. assembling and testing of these elements in a working system. Battery energy storage systems are basically closed systems. All BESS elements are produced at the factories w i t h i n a few months only and then the actual building of t h e BES plant i s reduced t o installing. through connecting of the individual b a t t e r y cells.
T h e y can also function as intermediate load power systerns. Second in importance are battery energy storage systems. According t o a n EPRI investigation. and hence this country. which suggests dominating importance of off-peak energy storage through compressed-air storage plants. together w i t h Japan. 17 . pumped hydroelectric energy storage systems have proved t o be most costeffective. EPRI in the USA have carried o u t an analysis of the economics of the various options for energy storage.2. In Italy. and pumped hydroelectric storage facilities come third. the following considerations should be taken i n t o account: o profile o f t h e 24-hour o available budget 0 demand cyclogram and i t s possibilities national topographical peculiarities o environmental aspects and limitations. occupy t h e leading positions in the construction of this type of storage plant o n a worldwide basis. An analysis of the results indicates that battery storage systems and superconducting magnetic storage systems are more appropriate for use when there are peak demands w i t h a duration of 2 t o 3 hours. T h e results of these evaluations are summarized in Table 1. owing t o i t s pronounced mountainous relief. P u m p e d hydroelectric storage plants and compressed-air storage systems may cover efficiently peak power demand needs of up to 10 hours. Choosing t h e right option for electric energy storage W h e n deciding o n the type of off-peak energy storage system t o adopt.5. there are a great number of hard rock caverns in the USA.
18 . Estimated costs for energy storage technologies  ~ ~ Technology Power Energy Hours of Total related related storage cost $ k W . vary for the various countries. o f course. owing t o the large capital costs for construction of the facilities.Table 1. depending o n their specific economic and technological conditions and requirements.' $kWh-' $ kW-' Small module (25-50 M W ) Large module (110-220 MW) Conventional (500-1500 M W ) Underground (2000 M W ) Lead-acid (10 M W ) Advanced (10 M W ) Compressed-air 575 415 1000 5 1 10 10 625 425 1100 Pumped hydro electric 10 45 170 1 O0 10 10 1040 125 125 150 1490 635 425 975 Battery 3 3 3 Supereconducting (Target) magnetic (1000 MW) 275 T h e unit power costs are highest for pumped hydroelectric plants. T h e above rating of the various energy storage options will. Total costs ($ kW-') for compressed-air and battery storage units show similar values. With regard t o the unit energy storage costs. this type of storage option is considerably cost-effective.
3 . zinc/chloride. T h e Electric Power Research Institute in t h e USA lias beeii carrying out research and developirieiit activities within the Energy Storage Program since 1972. new electrochemical power sources aie being investigated and developed. one o f which is the Advanced B a t t e r y Electric Power Storage Systeni. Batteries for energy storage t i o n and under development ~ in opera- 3. b o t h f r o m a constructional arid technological p o i n t o f view. T h e nanie “nioonlight” was selected t o imply the analogy between the nioon that does n o t sliine with i t s o w n light but reflects the sun’s light. First. zinc/broniide and redox/Aow batteries.1. this 100-year o l d battery t o t h e requirements o f energy storage. R&D activities are aiming at adapting. arid the energy storage batteries that do n o t “generate” their o w n energy but dispatch the stored electric power produced by another source. Development projects for battery energy storage systems T h e “Moonlight Project” is the nickname of an RSrD prograin for energy storage in Japan. such as: sodium/sulfur. Japan’s project i s targeted at devising a demonstrational model of a battery energy storage system with t h e following parameters: o power o u t p u t o charge t i m e o 1 MW 8h discharge t i m e 8 h ~ - ~ 19 . T h e “Moonlight Project” includes six progranis. Second. Both programs are haced o n almost t h e sanie electrochemical systems. the lead-acid battery has been chosen as a basic chemical power source commercially available. Sonie o f the basic functions o f this system will b e discussed below. T h e profirani incliirlcs dcvclopIricrit o f leadacid and advanced batteries.
not electrons or sulfur ions. Several demonstration and testing battery storage facilities using lead-acid batteries have been built and are in operation in other countries in the world. but A block diagram of a sodium/sulfur cell is given in Fig.3i5) . Analogous specifications have been adopted by the American 10 MW demonstration battery storage plant.2. T h e testing results of these units will be discussed later. T h r o u g h this membrarie. only sodium ions can pass. Sodium/Sulfur b a t t e r i e s 3. 3 . The basic properties and characteristics o f the socalled advanced batteries w i l l be described first. Principles of cell operation The sodium/sulfur cell consists of a negative electrode (cathode) of molten sodium (Na) and a positive electrode (anode) of molten sulfur separatkd by a beta-alumina (P-Al20. 20 . Sodium Ij-oiumino Sodium polysulfide NO S. 2 . 70% (at ac input/output) min.) ceramic ion-conductive membrane.NOS. Block diagram of a sodium/siilfur celi .1. 7. 7.o overall energy efficiency o service life ~ min. 10years (2000 cycles) - Batteries should conform t o all environmental standards . Fig. (X.
as a function o f the composition of sodium polysulfide. For the battery t o operate. through t h e external circuit. metallic sodium of the negative electrode is ion- ized t o positive sodium ions (Nat) and electrons are released. There i s a voltage of 2 V between the sodium and the sulfur electrodes. As a result.ion of this electromotive force. 21 . The electrons released o n the negative electrode flow through an external circuit. they are bonded t o the sulfur atoms and f o r m sulfur ions (S2-). During charge.). In this way. and reach t h e sulfur electrode. the sulfur ions of the polysulfide molecule (Y) are transformed i n t o sulfur atoms. There. pass through a load whereby certain useful electric work i s done. a temperature o f about 350°C should be maintained. w i t h the sodium ions giving sodium polysulfide (NazS. b o t h sodium and sulfur are kept in the liquid state and the resistance of the beta-alumina membrane is very low. and the released Na+ ions pass through the beta-alumina membrane and are bonded t o the electrons forming sodium atoms. Figure 8 shows the voltage curves during charge and discharge of the battery. Under the act. reverse processes take place. Under the action of an external \-oltage applied t o the cell. electrons f r o m t h e polysulfide electrode move back.The reactions that proceed in the c e l l can be expressed by the following ecpiation: Discharge 2Na+2S + Charge Na& ( x = 3-5) D u r i n g discharge. electric energy shoiild he introduced i n t o the cell t o enable proceeding of the reverse processcs. the above reactions procecd and electrons move f r o m the sodium t o the sulfur electrode doing some work. These react. The sodium ions pass through the beta-alumina membrane and reach the positive sulfur electrode. t o the sodium electrode. In this case.
O/. Figure 9 illiistra2tc:s tlic changcs in the open circuit voltage as a function of anodc coinpositioii. Cell voltage us. Open circuit voltage as a f i i n r t i o i i of molar r a t i o of s i i l f u r iiis o d i u m polysulfide .90 Anode composition (mole ratio of sulfur) 0.95 1 Fig.80 0.75 0.C 390'C 0.65 0.0 i O 2 0 3 0 0 4 0 5 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 S Discharge composition. 8.85 0. Na253 Fig. sodium polysulfide composition during charge and discharge .60 0. T h e voltage characteristics depend on the temperatiire and t h e composition of sodium polysulfide. 9. 300'C A 0 330T 360.70 0. 22 .
T h e state of charge can be easily monitored by measuring the amounts o f electricity (Ah) charged and discharged.7. Sodium is filled inside this tube. and sulfur and sodium 23 .2. 10. the cell voltage begins t o decline. 10. graphite (el t ) Solid electrolyte tube (cilumino ceramics) -Colhode ( sod ium . l i Insulolion ring (olumina ceramics) Anode cose í iron 1 Anode (sulfur. A r ss * N . metollic liber) L C o t h o d e tube (copper) 1 Fig. There are n o side reactions during charging and discharging.2. T h e sodium/sulfur battery i s hermetically sealed and completely maintenance-free. Design of sodium/sulfur cells Schematic of a sodium/sulfur cell is given in Fig.W h e n the molar r a t i o of sulfur t o polysulfide falls below 0. 3. I t is free o f self-discharge. Principal design of sodiurn/sulfur unit cell  T h e beta-alumina membrane is a cylindrical t u b e w i t h a b o t t o m at one end.
a stainless steel fibcr is placed t o conduct the current. T h e technical results f r o m testing o f various configurations of the above battery t y p e are summarized in Table 2. the cathode and the metallic case are connected arid welded t.2. Specification and test results for battery modules and p i l o t plant o f t h e Japanese “Moonlight Project” A 50 k W / 4 0 0 kWh sodium/sulfiir battery module has been produced by the YUASA company in Japan.ogct. 3. 24 . Further heating by the heaters is barely needed since the h t t e r y gciierates r c x t i o n heat. Before operation. the batt. Na/S cells are arranged in a tlierrnoinsulatcd c a e with a iiiaiiitained constant temperature o f 350°C. o u t p u t current 1011 A dc. thus having an iinportant safety role. T l i e nieta1 case surface i s plated with chroniiuni t o prevent corrosion i i i i d c r tlie action o f sulfur and sodium polysulfide. At the upper opening o f the beta-alumina tube. T h i s fiber retains sodium and is also i i i k n d e d t o prevent release o f sodium in the everit of brcakagc of the betaalumina tube.ery is pre-heated gradually t o 350°C. the anodc. T h e sodium/sulfur bat.tery plant is located at the Tatsumi substation 77 close to t h e Tatsiimi lead-acid battery energy storage test plant. T h e o u t p u t capacity of the plant is 8000 kW1i (1000 kWh x 8 hours).3. arid only after that does tlie normal operation of charging and discharging start.r with insiilat- ing ceramics in between. By the end o f 1990.lic. the 1 M W / 8 MWh sodium/sulfur pil o t plant was half completed and operation of 500 1iW o u t p u t was started in November 1990. A graphite niat is i n s e r k d in t l i c anodic space aimed at improving sulfur and polysulfide clcctric conductiw ity. whilst in the cathodic space.polysulfide in a metal cylindrical case outside t l i c tiihc. Output voltage i s 1000 V dc.
Ltd.5 m Length = 2.per weight Starting time Stopping t i m e Response t o load change Discharge 6 h overall eff.4 kWh m-2 26.S% 73.2 ins-' 76.8 t 76.on charging on discharging Energy consumption in standing hot standing . Voltage variation . 10 kW class p i l o t modules  Energy density .2% 19.6% 11.4% day-' 0%: day-' 50 kW class battery modules [SI Voltage Current output Capacity Current density Electrode area Module composition External dimensions Energy efficiency ac-ac Energy density per weight .5 m. Technical results from testing of a sodium/sulfur battery produced by YUASA Battery Co.5 1tWh mP3 48.6% 31.8% 4.3 m Height = 2.8 kWh m-3 42.per -per footprint volume .4 an-' 495 cm2 (7s x lop) x 1Gs = 1120 cells Width = 2.1 Wli kg-' 17.Table 2.per volume .cold standing ~ ~ ~ ~ 52. 4 h overall efT.per footprint ~ 200 v 250 A 50 kW 400 kW11 50.6 Wh kg-' 1s 1s 10% 1.5 kWh in-' 25 .8 m Weight = 12.
The power conditioning system was manufactured by Toshiba Corporation.Table 2.0 kV dc 1 kA self-commutated 1200 kVA up t o 96% ac reactor 240 kVA 26. 76% The batteries for this project were made by YUACA Battery Co. The batteries are compact w i t h high storage energy density. Individual Na/C batteries subjected t o testing have undergone 1500 cycles already. in collaboration w i t h NGK Spark P l u g Co. Sodium/sulfur batteries have high charge and discharge efficiencies w i t h no loss of energy during storage. Figure 11 shows a bird’s-eye view of a 1 MW sodium/sulfur pilot plant consisting of twenty 50 kW battery modules. 87% 86% approx. L t d .880 cells 800 m2 (total for 2 floors) approx.5 R c m at 350°C 8 m > 200 MPa > 300 Ah 8 MWh (1 MW . power consumption) ac-ac efficiency 68 mm 450 mm 3.6 kg < 4. L t d .6 kW dc 1. 26 . (Continued) 1 M W class pilot plant  Beta-alumina tubes: outer diameter length weight beta-alumina doped w i t h Li20 specific resistivity tube resistivity fracture strength Capacity of the cell Battery output capacity Output voltage Current ac-dc converter Conversion efficiency Output transformer Number of cells Building area Charge/discharge efficiencies dc-dc efficiency (including aux.8 h) ac 6.
These are all questions that await answers in the near future. and easy and inexpensive operation and maintenance of the battery. Bird’s-eye view of 1 MW sodium/sulfur pilot. 11. plant . Whether or not this type of battery w i l l h o l d an i m p o r t a n t posit i o n in the energy storage system.Environmental proieciion equiprneni Machinery room Fig. Basic trends in the design of Na/S batteries are targeted at optimization of specific energy and efficiency. o n the competitive power of i t s price t o that of the lead-acid battery. and at preventing reactant leakage f r o m t h e cells. 27 . Safety is the key t o practical use of these batteries and o f course t o extending their life. o n t h e simplicity and cost-effectiveness of i t s production technology yielding reliability of the end product. too. w i l l depend on i t s service life.
liquid bromine complexing agents and the use o f low-cost conductive plastic electrodes. o n testing. France was a pioneer in the discovery and development of new electrochemical power sources.-L 2e- 2e- + 2Br- - external circuit 28 .3.3. Zito. ER&E combined the ideas of circulating electrolytes. At first. interest in electrochemical power sources increased greatly worldwide. zinc/bromine batteries were also developed for load-levelling applications. I t should be recalled that the lead-acid battery was also devised by a Frenchman. and t h e question of devising new advanced battery systems gained momentum.1.3. Early zinc/bromine batteries had probably proved inefficient in performance and maintenance. French balloonists flying over the Prussian lines illuminated their maps by means of strange primi t i v e static batteries containing zinc and bromine. 20 t o 60 kWh batteries for e!ectric vehicles were manufactured and. whereby the performance of b o t h the zinc and the bromine electrodes was enhanced. and were therefore forgotten until the 1970s. these showed encouraging performance parameters. Zinc/Bromine batteries 3. Magnetti-Marelli and E x ~ o rResearch and Engineering (ER&E) were attracted by the i high electromotive force provided by Zn/Br batteries and started design and development work o n this t y p e of battery. MagnettiMarelli developed an electrolyte circulating battery design. Operation of Zn/Br systems is based o n the following reactions: ne Brz+ Zn2++ T. T h i s i s the first k n o w n historical evidence of the invention and practical use of a zinc/halogen battery. Reactions and principles of cell design and operation D u r i n g the Franco-Prussian war. As a result of the A r a b o i l embargo. Later on. I t would b e fair t o say that during the last century.
and energy efficiency 60-65% . no decomposition of water is observed during charge. T h i s system faced a serious problem related t o t h e rapid selfdischarge caused by t h e p r o p e r t y of bromine to dissolve readily in zinc bromide electrolytes and to diffuse t o t h e zinc electrode osidizing it. becaine 29 . whilst in t h e reverse direction.W h e n the reactions proceed in t h e direction from l e f t t o right. and t o divide t h e anodic and cathodic sections of t h e cell by a separator. circulated between the electrodes and t h e storage compartment. zinc deposited on t l i e clectrode iii t h e form of non-uniform dendritic plating. b a t t e r y discharge occurs. T h e theoretical energy density i s 436 Wh kg-'. T h e theoretical electromotive force of this battery i s 1. To avoid t h i s process. that of t h e zinc electrode. namely 1. t l i e zinc deposit. A schematic of the zinc/bromine system i s 1)reseIited in Fig. charging of t h e b a t t e r y i s accomplished. it was necessary to remove b r o m i n e from t h e zinc electrode. By introducing electrolyte circulation also in t l i e zinc half-cell. d e p t h of discharge loo%. forced by a pump. Dendrites s o n i d m e s grew across to t h e bromine electrode aiid caused short circuits in t h e cells. Thus. O t h e r characteristics are: p e a k power 95 W kg-'.76 V. while t h e practical one is only 65 Wh kg-'. T h i s design principle lias l e d t o a significant decrease in b a t t e r y self-discharge. T h e zinc/bromine b a t t e r y operates at ambient temperature. T h i s t y p e of b a t t e r y construction has solved anotlicr p r o b l e m of zinc/bromine batteries as well. In the early static battery design. Although i t is an electrochemical system using aqueous electrolyte. a cell design \vas developed in which t h e bromine compartment of t h e cell was connected by nieans o f a t u b e t o a storage compartment for collecting t h e evolved bromine. 12. but lias n o t eliniiiiated it completely. but since complexing agents are involved. A t o m i c bromine formed on t h e electrode i s indicated by t h e dots in t h e figure. t h e open circuit ce11 voltage is lower. formed over the electrode surface duriiig charge. T h e electrolyte.83 V.
T h r o u g h the adoption of the bromine circulation loop and the storage compartment. In static zinc/bromine batteries. With t h e introduction of electrolyte circulation. Circulating electrolyte batteries require various auxiliaries t o cont r o l battery operation. as a rule. the reaction heat was accumulated in the cell. their efficiency will influence the power consumption for actual cell operation and hence affect overall battery efficiency. the temperature of the electrolyte becomes controllable and thermal homogeneity of the whole electrochemical system can be achieved. while i t s capacity is determined by the amount of active materials that takes part in the electrochemical processes. the quantity of this active mass com- 30 . T h e power of an electrochemical power source is. Obviously. Complete discharge is required for every charge-discharge cycle t o equalize the zinc distrib u t i o n over t h e negative electrode surface. Cathode loop Anode loop Zn deposit Fig. T h e double circulation loop battery design also proved beneficial for the thermal management of the cell. proportional t o the electrodes’ surface area. Schematic of a circulating electrolyte Zn/Br battery .more u n i f o r m and shortages were eliminated. 12.
zinc h s remained the capacity limiting active material.2. bromine evolved at t h e electrode associates w i t h the bromide ions and dissolves easily in the solution of zinc bromide: nBr2+ Br- 3 BrGn+l) (where n = 1. Batteries designed for high-power applications comprise a large number of zinc electrodes with relatively thin zinc p l a t i n g deposited o n their surface. the thickness of the Zn electrodes is increased. a Nevertheless. 3.ponent grows significantly. However. Bromine is a strong metal-corrosive agent. most o f the commercially available and relatively low-cost plastic and carbon materials meet the above requirements. T h e zinc circulation loop also increases the volume of t h e electrolyte and hence the quantity of zinc ions.2 or 3) 31 . which w i l l make t h e large-scale production of these batteries feasible and cost-effective f r o m an engineering point of view. Consequently. but it is permeable for the solution ions that carry the electric charges between the two electrode sections of the cell.3. Fortunately. W h e n high battery capacity is needed. T h e separator displays barrier properties w i t h respect t o bromine diffusion. Such separators are commercially available and are widely used in lead-acid battery manufacture. T h e cathodic half-cell is divided f r o m the anodic one by means of a microporous polyethylene separator with pore radius smaller t h a n 1 pm. improvement of the overall battery construction reliability is necessary t o eliminate a l l hazards of explosion or bromine leakage in the atmosphere. the problem of material resistance t o oxidation is of primary importance for this battery. Chemistry and electrochemistry of the zinc/bromine cell D u r i n g charge of the zinc/bromine cell.
Coulombic efficiency o f the zinc/bromine c e l l is about 80% (i. complexing agents are added t o the electrolyte. it is evolved as a separate liquid phase collected in a special bromine storage compartment. A possible electrolyte composition of a discharged zinc/bromine cell is: zinc bromide 3 M. the cell voltage drops rapidly at the end of discharge. etc. however. KC1 4 M as supporting electrolyte [g]. as a complexed form. e. n-ethyl. 20% is inefficient). T h e inefficiency is mainly due t o electrode self-discharge. In this case. then pentabromide (Br. At the other electrode. In spite of this. the valve between the Br2 complex storage department and the circulation loop is opened. a slight linear increase in cell voltage i s observed. T h e charge/discharge voItage characteristics o f the cell are shown in Fig. These react w i t h the bromine ions forming zinc bromide. These processes are accompanied by release of the electrical energy accumulated by the cell during charging. the voltage decreases very slowly at the beginning. t h a t react w i t h bromine forming a separate phase which i s collected through precipitation in the storage reservoir. n-methyl-morpholinium bromide oil. and as a result of complete exhaustion of the zinc resources. quaternary ammonium bromide 1 M. zinc is oxidized t o zinc ions. bromine concentration in the solution remains relatively h i g h and hence considerable self-discharge proceeds. i. quaternary ammonium ions. When the concentration of bromine rises significantly. D u r i n g discharge. D u r i n g discharge of the zinc/bromine cell. Various complexing agents have been used. Other sources o f inefficiency are the energy losses for driving the 32 .) and eventually heptabromide (Br.e. Brz complex is mixed w i t h the solution in the circulation stream and i s p u m p e d t o the bromine electrode where i t is reduced t o bromine ions.g. A second nieans of bromine storage has also been applied. 13. During charge.e.).Trihromitle ions (Br:) are formed first.
3. w i t h monopolar and w i t h bipolar electrodes. 14.electrolyte pumps. These two battery designs are shown in Fig. 3. 13.3. as well as for supplying power t o t h e b a t t e r y cont r o l and management system and t o i t s microprocessor. 14. Charge/discharge curves for a zinc/broniine c e l l .l ) E . Bipolar orrongement Electrolyte t - Monopolor orrangements Manifold Eledrdyte O E 2E3E4ESE t t t t t t EMF olong m n i f o I d = ( n . where n = No. Discharge L O 60 120 Tlme. min I80 U0 Fig. Battery system design ZincJbromine batteries have been designed in two niodifications. Bipolar and monopolar stack designs for Zn/Br systems [lo] 33 . of cells ond E = call voltogc EMF olong monifoid O os all electrodes of the some polarity ore connecled Fig.
high battery power and low voltage are achieved. there are separate positive and negative electrodes. and all monopolar electrodes are connected in parallel.In t h e monopolar version. Cell-to-cell current flows f r o m the entire electrode surface and is carried through i t s thickness. Interesting and useful testing results are expected. T h e o u t p u t is h i g h voltage and low current. only the end electrodes being monopolar. These batteries were developed by Meidensha Electric Manufacturing Co. in Japan within the framework of the “Moonlight Project”. Ltd. Operation tests started in December 1990 and will continue till M a r c h 1992. a definite number of cells with bipolar electrodes are arranged in series. Ii i t h i s way. Characteristics of zinc/bromine batteries Table 3 presents the specifications of a 10 ltW/SO 1tWh battery used for testing.4. These strings are connected in parallel forming a module w i t h the desired voltage. I t was constructed f r o m November 1989 through September 1990. These bipolar electrodes are connected in series. 3. T h i s i s the largest Zn/Br battery in the world. T h e 1 MW battery energy storage plant is installed o n the premises of the Imajuku Substation in the Western part o f Fukuoka City. T h i s is a reduced-size model of the 50 k W / 4 0 0 kWh battery module for the 1 MW p i l o t plant wliose parameters and testing results are also given in the table.3. 34 . In energy storage batteries. capacity and power. T h e bipolar battery design uses electrodes which have one zinc and one bromine side.
Table 3. R esul t s from testing of Zn/Br battery modules produced by M e i densha Electric Manufacturing Co., Ltd, Japan. T h e t e s t s were performed
at t h e Government Industrial Research I n s t i t u t e ,
10 kW battery 
Open c i r c u i t voltage
Maximum charging voltage
Charging power Discharging power
footprint per volume - p e r weight Dimensions - width - depth - height Starting time 1 s Self-discharge rate 7.4% 1 s Stopping t i m e Change time charge-discharge 1 s Change t i m e discharge-charge 1 s Response to load change 10% 0.9 m s Discharge - 6 h capable eff. 68.3% - 4 h capable eff. 66.5% Voltage variation - on charging 19.9% - on discharge 15.5% 0% Energy consumption in standing Test cycle life appr. 550 cycles End of battery life was due t o carbon plastic electrode degradation
(24 cells in series x 3 series in parallel) x 4 in parallel = 360 1600 cm2 x 13 mA cm-' 1.67 V x 166 Ah18 h 43.8 V 50.0 V 12.7 kW 10.0 kW 33.6 kWh m-' 14.9 kWh m-3 29.1 Wh kg-' 1.37 m 1.59 m 1.67 m
Table 3. (Continued)
50 kW class battery module 
Current Output power
Energy efficiency ac-ac Energy density - per footprint per volume - p e r weight
500 h 50 kW 400 kWh (30 cells in series x 24 series in parallel) x 2 in series = 1440 cells 3.9 m 1.6 m 3.1 m 16 tons 73.2% 63.1 kWh m-2 20.7 kWh mP3 25.0 Wh kg-'
I m a j u k u Energy Storage Test Z n / B r Plant
Output capacity Output voltage
ac-dc converter Output transformer Number of batteries Number of ceils
4.4 MWh ( 1 M W 4 h) 6.6 kV; dc 1.1k V dc 1 k A self-commutated 1000 kVA self-cooling 1200 kVA 24 submodules (series) 30 cells (scrics) x 24 stacks (parallel) x 24 submodules (series) = 17,280 cells 23 kW 8 tons 1630 mm 1520 mm 3150 mm 735 m2
- width - depth - height
3.4. Ziric/Chlorine batteries 3.4.1. Fundamentals of zinc/chlorine batteries
T h e electrochemical reactions o n which operation of this t y p e of battery is based are as follows:
Z n e Zn2++ T-L
D u r i n g battery discharge, the above reactions proceed f r o m left t o right, and in the opposite direction during charge. T h e theoretical voltage o f the Zn/Cl- cell is 2.12 V. It is higher than that of the Zn/Br cell. Since n o complexing agents are used, the open circuit voltage of the Zn/ClL cell has a value equal t o the theoretical one. T h e theoretical energy density is 465 Wh kg-' against 60 t o 80 Wh kg-' in the practical circuit depending o n cell design. T h e d e p t h of discharge i s 96% . Zn/C12 batt,eries are similar t o Zn/Br ones. However, bromine and chlorine differ in chemical and physical properties. At ambient temperature, chlorine is gaseous, while bromine is a reddish-brown liquid. Consequently, different methods for storage of the t w o halogens in the cell reservoirs should be used. T h i s leads t o substantial differences in design of the t w o types of zinc/halogen cells. Chlorine is slightly soluble in zinc chloride solutions. For this reason, during charge, chlorine is evolved in the f o r m o f bubbles that leave the electrolyte forming a gaseous phase. T h i s gas should b e collected and stored in an appropriate manner, t o b e fed back i n t o the solution and reduced t o chlorine ions at the electrode, when elect r i c current is delivered by the battery. So far, there have been t w o methods for chlorine storage in use. In the first method, chlorine is compressed until liquefication and is stored as liquid chlorine at pressures of 70-80 psig. W h e n electric current is to be generated by the
4 2.? 40 cm-2 FUII 1 1.4 T h e cell is charged at a voltage of 2. because part of the energy is utilized for supplying power t o the auxiliaries: gas and electrolyte pumps. capacity losses being due primarily t o the self-discharge caused by chlorine diffusion towards t h e zinc electrode.2.75v cut aff voltoge pwer coulûmblc Usable I l . Coulombic efficiency is about 87%.. Voltage losses are primarily due t o poor electrolyte conductivity between the electrodes. The n e t electrochemical efficiency is decreased. Voltaic efficiency is about 88%..-1. the hydrogen recombination system and the cooling system 38 .7\ -.18 v 5 40--.- 2.25 V.~ ~ L c E 2 .2 k --cl8 % 20 Charge ( 1 1 1 1 coubmk+ Discharge I l I I I . the inert rejection system.N 'u E .0 .6 u -1.~ jg 2010( 1 7 . n o separator is used in this type of battery. As a rule.0. During discharge. the cell voltage is kept at the 1.9 V level for a long period of time.75 V. T h e discharge is carried down t o a cut-off voltage of 1.
In the hydrate reservoir. To allow formation of chlorine hydrate. Using tubes and pumps. 16. an ice-lile slurry o f chlorine hydrate is stored.2. Chlorine evolved o n the anode is removed f r o m the stack and pumped i n t o the hydrate storage reservoir. B a t t e r y design EDA’s (Energy Development Association. e I heat exchanger Fig. and zinc loading between 90-300 mAh crnv2. Schematic of t l i e c i r c u l a t i n g zinc/chlorine b a t t e r y . 39 . T h e battery is composed of an electrochemical module (electrode stack) and electrolyte of zinc chloride solution w i t h added potass i u m chloride ( t o improve electrolyte conductivity). the current density should be in t h e range f r o m 20 t o 45 mA crnp2.. A schematic of E D A ’ s Zn/C11 battery is shown in Fig. USA) Zn/Clp battery design  is based o n the use of graphite electrodes.4. a single chlorine circulating loop and cooling of the electrolyte and t h e gaseous phase t o f o r m C12(H20). prior t o mixing with chlorine the electrolyte is cooled by a refrigeration system. For a uniform plating t o be formed.3. 16. an electrolyte circulation loop is formed. Zinc is deposited o n the cathode.
Zinc/chlorine battery design is usually based o n bipolar electrode stacks. This hydrogen should be bonded t o chlorine. Self-discharge of the zinc/chlorine battery i s caused 1)y t h e react i o n between zinc and chlorine. 10 and 40 . whereby chlorine is transformed t o chloride ions ( “flow-through electrode”). In this way. T h e chlorine-containing solution passes through the pores of t h e graphite electrode. Zinc/chlorine batteries tend t o release hydrogen.4. Zinc corrodes in acidic electrolytes evolving hydrogen.3. the cooled hydrate slurry froiri t l i e storc is passed through a heat exchanger. (In t l i e zinc/bromine cell. Electrolyte circulatioii aims at faster removal of chlorine f r o m the electrode st. zinc is osidized t o zinc ions that react w i t h chloride ions giving zinc cliloride.e. where chlorine liydrntc i s tlcconiposed.acli and hencc rcdiiciiig the self-discharge. the bromine electrode i s of the “flow-by” type. In the course of these processesi the electrical energy stored during charge i s liberated. On the negative electrode.D u r i n g battery discharge. T h i s company has developed 1. v i a ultraviolet irradiation. doing work. i. for example. T h e chlorine electrode i s made of a porous graphite material. because they operate w i t h acidic solutions. Ltd. I t s surface is activated. B a t t e r y characteristics Design and development of a zinc/chlorine battery associated with the Energy Storage Project in Japan was carried o u t by the Furukawa Electric Co. potential hazards of explosions in the chlorine storage reservoir are avoided.) T h e rate of the chlorine-rich electrolyte stream deterniines the rate of battery discharge. T h e chlorine-rich stream is then pumped t o the anode wliere chlorine is reduced to chloride. 3.
The test results for 1 kW and 10 kW b a t t e r y modules. 1 kW battery Configuration 30 cells in series x Unit c e l l . A f t e r a critical analysis of the technological.0 V 1.50 kW battery configurations. Ltd.0 v O p e n c i r c u i t voltage Charging p o w e r D i s c h a r g i n g p o w e r (8 h rate) C o u l o m b i c efficiency V o l t a i c efficiency E n e r g y efficiency Self-discharge r a t e ~ 75 Ah16 h r a t e 63. Osaka . T h i s t y p e of b a t t e r y poses serious environmental hazards since chlorine is a toxic gas.7% 3.5-76% 71.0% 70.41 kW 1. T a b l e 4. T h e tests were p e r f o r m e d at t h e G o v e r n m e n t I n d u s t r i a l Research I n s t i t u t e .capacity 2 series in p a r a l l e l 2.01 kW 84. Some results f r o m testing o f 1 kW and 10 kW Zn/Clz b a t t e r y m o d u l e s p r o d u c e d by Furukawa E l e c t r i c Co.1% 68. before completion of t h e cycle life tests.4% 67.after f o u r weeks self-discharge r a t e 41 .5% initial energy efficiency a f t e r t w o weeks self-discharge r a t e .0% 83. further development of zinc/chlorine batteries was interrupted. performance and economical parameters of the above b a t t e r y modules. are presented in Table 4.9% 4.voltage .
hot standing .voltage efficiency .6 kWh m-2 14.9 kWh m-3 29.p e r volume .2% 93.95 V x 495 Ah18 h 50.cold standing (24 cells in series x 2 series in parallel) x 2 in parallel = 96 2800 cm2 x 22 mA 1.9 kW 11. . (Continued) 10 kW battery Module Unit ceiis Open circuit voltage Maximum charging voltage Charging power Discharging power (8 h) Energy efficiency .Table 4.9 V 60.5% 2 min 1 s 2 min 77 min 10% 0.4% 33.6 kW 65.4 h capable eff.6% 7.5% 60.5% 24.per weight Self-discharge rate Starting t i m e Stopping time Change time charge-discharge Change time discharge-charge Response t o load change Discharge .overall efficiency .7% 0% 42 .o n charging .per footprint .o n discharging Energy consumption on standing .5% 0.aux.6h capable eff. power efficiency Energy density .9 ms-' 60.coulombic efficiency .0 V 14.5% 90.1 Wh kg-' 4. Voltage variation .7% 86.
T h e y were used as a stand-by source of energy and power.1. In most towns in Germany.4. production and usage of leadacid b a t k r i c s as energy storage facilities gained increasing popularity t o reach. over 400 m i l l i o n cars worldwide have engines driven by high-power lead-acid batteries. D u r i n g t h e period 1880--1900. Hamburg. large lead-acid battery storage facilities were in operation.ry and of dc-electroenergetics. a number of lead-acid battery energy storage facilities in various countries worldwide are under construction or in the demonstration and/or actual operation stage. large-scale commercialization. T h i s report was the birth certificate o f the lead-acid storage battery. With the development of ac technologies for electric power generation and distribution in t h e 1930s. T h e largest battery storage unit was in Berlin.500 1iWh a. T h e c i t y of Chicago was supplied w i t h electricity by dc generators and large leacl-acid batteries owned by the Common Wealth Edison Company. t o b e revived again during the 1980s. Some history In 1860. It h a d a capacity of 66. in 1930. With the progress of indust. lead-acid batteries found their first practical application in the early power stations. Lead-acid batteries 4.what wisdom and foresight shown by Plante so many years ago! Today. Stuttgard and Bremen. the dc battery system was abandoned. ‘(D’une grande puissance” . Leipzig. Munich. At present. Gaston Plante presented t o the French Academy o f Sciences a 9-cell battery (composed of lead and lead dioxide electrodes immersed in H2S04 solution and separated by rubber tapes) and a rep o r t entitled “Nouvelle pile secondaire d ’une grande puissance”. such as Berlin. W e w i l l discuss the technical and economical aspects of lead-acid battery energy storage 43 .nd was capable of delivering 186 MW of electric power w i t h i n 30 minutes.
DISCHARGE e- .external circuit Pb+H. A scheme of t h e charge and discharge reactions proceeding in t h e lead-acid cell and t h e corresponding voltage transients. experience and information obtained so far. Electrochemistry of the lead-acid battery T h e basic reactions that proceed in the lead-acid battery and determine i t s electromotive force (emf) are: + - PbOz + 2H+ + HzS04 + 2e. 4.technologies in the n e x t sections o n the basis of knowledge. h 20 Fig. 17. 17.m O io Time.. PbS04+2Ht+2e- These reactions together w i t h the corresponding charge/discharge curves of the cell are presented in Fig.+PbS04 + 2 H z 0 T P L +. 44 .SO.2 A 2. h 20 io Time.' + j CHARGE + Z Recti1ier Positive plate Negalive plate 7 I= 3. f.2.
T h e positive and ncga2tive plates are separated by microporous separators that arc iori-permeable and chemically resistant t o H2S04. T h e cells are mounted in a plastic container fitted with a cover. all processes occur. Lead and lead dioxide active materials are b o t h porous. eiicrgy i s accumulated and electric ciirreiit i s generated during discharge. Water is added through t h e outlet.blocks with terniinal posts protriidirig f r o m the cell. an equivalent amount of water m u s t be added periodically t o the cell iii order t o maintain the required electrolyte conccritratjioii. decomposition of water takes place and H 2 and 0 2 gases are evolved. Below t l i e active block. or pass through the cell partitions ( “through-the-wall’’ arrangement). T h e cell i s provided with a valve as an outlet for these gases. 0 2 and HL. another free space is available where t h e shedded active niass is collected t o avoid short-circuits between t h e plates.on. T h e positive aiitl iiegative plates are interconnected in s e m i . T h e cell iises approximately 36% H2S04 solution as electrolyte. T h e tlieoretical specific energy of the cell is 170.040 V. there is a space containing a certain amoiiiit of HLSO4 soliition (upper reservoir).Calciilatcd tlicrrriod~namically. Since gas evolution i s associated with water consurnption. T h e plates of the lead and the lead dioxitle seini-bloclis together with the separators and the electrolyte hetween thein f o r m the active block. several design requirements must b e rnet. Part o f the active mass acts as a conductive sl<elet. voltage between t h e lead sulthe fate and t l i e lead dioxide electrodes in the cell i s 2. but the open circuit voltage i s iisually taken as 2. and another part (30 t o 55%) participates in the reactions leading t o generation and acciiiiiiilatioii of cncrgy. Ahove the active block. To transf o r m the lead-acid cell i n t o a practical power source. In it. T h e active materials are fixed in lead-based grids that are chemically resistant t o H2SOS solution. At t l i e end o f charging. T h e cells are joined in series with lead connectors that may b e situated over t h e cover.2 Wh kg-’.0 V (rated voltage). 45 .
Figure 19 presents a set of discharge voltage curves for a 12 V/100 Ah battery at 25°C for various discharge currents. Since deep discharges have an adverse effect u p o n battery performance. and o n cell temperature. final or cut-off voltage). 46 . U.T h e construction of a coiiventional present-day SLI l m t t c r y i s shown in Fig. When the time of discharge is between 1 and 20 hours. after which t h e voltage begins t o decrease rapidly. U. 4. Exploded drawing of a pasted-plate lead-acid battery. t h e close circuit voltage depends o n b o t h the direction and magnitude o f the current. = 1.75 V. a limit is set for t h e endof-discharge voltage (U. 18. When electric current flows through the cell. T h i s value is used for the calculation of battery ~ energy and power. Discharge proceeds w i t h i n a given period of time. Terminai posts Iniercell Post stmp comedor Fig. For shorter discharges. = 1 V. The mean discharge voltage (Ud) i s shown w i t h a dotted line. Electrical characteristics of lead-acid batteries Discharge curves. 18.3.
min a 12 V/100 Fig. while K depends on the temperature. t h e HzS04 concentration and t h e design of the battery. Under n o r m a l operating conditions. T h e relationship between capacity and discharge current i s expressed by the empirical equation formulated by Peukert in 1898 and widely accepted: where K and n are constants. the battery should n o t be discharged beyond 80% of the rated capacity.75 V at 20°C after 20 or 5 h (C20 or CS). = 1. 19. International and domestic standards require the capacity t o be determined by a discharge w i t h a current at which t h e battery reaches U. According t o Peukert. T h e capacity ( C d ) of a b a t t e r y is determined by the quantity o f electricity that can be delivered during discharge at constant current until the final discharge voltage is reached. 47 . T h e t i m e ( t ) needed for reaching the final discharge voltage i s marked o n the abscissa and is known as the rate of discharge. T h i s capacity is k n o w n as the rated capacity. Discharge voltage curves for battery .4lo A 528A 1 2 4 6 8 1 12 14 16 1 20 22 24 26 28 30 0 8 Time. T h i s capacity is k n o w n as working capacity.30. Ah (22 h rate) s t a r t e r Capacity. n = 1.
e. Therefore. As the capacity decreases w i t h increase of current. i. batteries are designed t o be discharged at heavy currents. the energy delivered by the battery is decreased. current dependence. T h e value per unit weight or volume is k n o w n as specific power of the battery. 20. in battery energy storage plants. discharge c u r r e n t ( I ) discharge r a t e (t) of a or 12 V/100 Ah s t a r t e r b a t t e r y . T h e delivered energy under routine operation is usually 80% of the rated value. Power. 3-10 h discharge rate.12V11OOAh SLI battery I I I I I I I I l I I h 20minlOrnin 5 min lmin I 1 O ~ l O O 2 O O 300 400 6001. Figure 22 presents the power us. power is also augmented. T h e energy (Ed) delivered by the battery during discharge under constant current conditions is equal t o the product of the mean voltage of the battery multiplied by i t s capacity. When the discharge current increases. T h e relationship between capacity and current is shown in Fig. Therefore. 48 . W h e n the current increases.A Rate oí discharge (1) or current (I1 Fig. Figure 21 presents the dependence of energy and mean voltage o n discharge current. C a p a c i t y 'us. discharge of batteries should be carried o u t w i t h moderate currents. Energy. 20. in order t o deliver h i g h power. T h e power of a battery is the energy delivered per unit time. the discharge time will decrease rapidly.
discharge c u r r e n t . discharge c u r r e n t for a 12 V/100 Ah b a t t e r y . discharge c u r r e n t of a 12 V/100 Ah s t a r t e r b a t t e r y . 21. A Fig. (b) energy vs. 100 200 300 400 Kx) c O Current. 49 . (a) Average discharge voltage vs. 22. A Fig.1 2 V I Kx) Ah SLI battery @ 20h 20minX)min Smin I I I I I Imin I t Current. P o w e r vs.
T h e service life o f a battery is the number of charge/discharge cycles obtained during laboratory bench tests. Current test procedures are aimed at maximum simulation of real operating conditions. T h e data show that almost the entire amount o f charging elect r i c i t y is used for the transformation of PbS04 t o Pb and PbOz until a 60~75% state-of-charge is reached. . g 20 5 0 o 20 40 60 Charge Rated capacity . T h e remaining current is consumed for water decomposition. i t s state-of-charge at 30°C . Charging characteristics That p a r t of the current utilized for the formation o f lead and lead dioxide during battery charge i s called charge acceptance. 80 loo120 Fig. Figure 23 shows the charge acceptance of a battery vs. Charge acceptance of a t r a c t i o n b a t t e r y ws. Cycle life. 23. T h e battery must attain a given number of cycles before i t s capacity is reduced t o 80% of the rated value. the battery is subjected t o other life-limiting factors that are n o t taken i n t o consideration in the laboratory tests. i t s state-of-charge. T h e real life o f a battery may be longer or shorter t h a n that experienced under laboratory conditions. During practical use.4. At this stage o f battery charg- 50 . 4.
These stages can be clearly identified by galvanostatically charg- ing a b a t t e r y which has previously been subjected t o three different depths of discharge (50. Figure 24 shows the changes in cell voltage during charge. f o l l o w i n g three discharge runs t o different depths . 24. A).1 A per Ah.40 V per cell). T h e gas evolution voltage is 2. The battery is overcharged.35-2. o Charging current during the efficient charge stage (0. During the next charging stage.7 V per cell).8 .35 t o 2.3 t o 0. water decomposition and self-discharge are t h e m a i n processes that take place. t h e efficient charge stage acquires three different durations.ing with a current of 0.35 V and gas evolution starts. 75 and 100% DOD). T h e following parameters are used t o define charging regimes: o I n i t i a l and final charging voltage (2.50 V.40 V per cell at 75% state-ofcharge. 51 .1 A Ah-' or I c h = 30-10% C.50 per cent 75 per cent 20 dischorqed Time Fig. After that. After these discharges. T h e charge acceptance is gradually and continuously reduced.1 A per Ah. the cell voltage reaches 2.1 t o 2. o I n i t i a l gas evolution voltage (2.35 t o 2. 2. Changes in celi voltage d u r i n g charge. Cell voltage is increased f r o m 2. T h e charging current was 0.4-2. T h e cell is completely charged. water decomposition proceeds simultaneously w i t h the charging reactions.
01-0.03 A Ah-' or = 1-3% A). thus ensuring long service life of the battery. T h e duration o f charge must be short.o Current at the beginning of gas evolution (I:h 0. In the above studies this reached 0. b) tapered charging method. the concentration of the acid in the cell decreases.02. Effect o f electrolyte stratification During discharge. and during charge it increases. The difference between t h e acid concentration at the t o p and the b o t t o n i of the active block was used as a measure for the extent of stratification.07 A Ah-' = I!h or c 5 I h 7% C A). Figure 25 shows the concentration changes during four consecutive cycles at a charge/discharge r a t i o of 1. Concentration gradients are formed in the cell between the solution above the active block and that between the plates. the energy and power efficiencies must attain maximum values. Stratification of the acid is enhanced as the number of cycles is increased.5. o Upper charge temperature limit (45-50'C). T h e formation of concentration gradients in the active block of a 400 Ah battery was studied during cycling w i t h 169 mA Ah-' at 100% DOD until a cut-off voltage of 1. and c) pulsed charging m e t h o d .15 sg.7 V/cell was reached . This indicates that the concentration changes accumulate during cycling. 52 . = 5 o Final charging current (ICh = 0. 4. There are several charging regimes in use for energy storage plant batteries which meet the above requirements: a) controlled currentvoltage charging method. the irreversible processes in the active masses and the grids must n o t be enhanced. T h e specific charging method for each battery is usually prescribed by the battery manufacturer. .
however. As HzS04 is an active material. and w i l l increase the corrosion of the positive grids. on the one hand. h Fig. w i l l lead t o greater water consumption and hence heavier battery maintenance. stratification w i l l affect c e l l capacity. It has been established that the capacity decreases by l% for each 0. the battery should be subjected t o 15% overcharge. T h i s capacity loss depends on the DOD and the charge/discharge ratio. With increase in overcharge. These are usu- ally small air-lift pumps t h a t let an air flow i n t o the cell to stir the electrolyte throughout the charge cycle. To eliminate fully t h e capacity losses due t o strat'ification. o n the other hand. Intensified gas evolution. 53 .Charge time. Since the active block is a compact assembly. thus enhancing t h e equalization of the acid concentration. E l e c t r o l y t e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n measured during b a t t e r y charging t o 2% overcharge and a f t e r 100% DOD . during overcharge the evolved gas will exert a pumping action which w i l l transfer the dense acid at the lower half of the active block t o the top.01 sg unit of stratification. t h e extent of stratification (and hence the capacity loss) i s diminished. That is w h y the use o f devices for forced electrolyte circulation is recommended. 25.
S Dependence of t h e cell p o t e n t i a l o n t h e state-of-charge or discharge . Besides. If the latter is eliminated. however. a stratification of the electrolyte occurs also leading t o battery capacity drop. To improve the energy efficiency. T h e highest energy losses are related t o battery overcharge. I l Charge or discharge F i g . 26.6. the difference AE. this area AE. 54 . Since the charge and discharge were conducted at the same current. should be made as small as possible.4. T h i s can be achieved by reducing t h e polarization o f the positive and negative battery plates and decreasing the ohmic drop in the electrolyte (separator) during charge and discharge as well as by decreasing the duration of overcharge. between the areas situated below the charge and discharge curves gives the energy losses. Charge-discharge energy efficiency Figure 26 presents a typical charge-discharge curve for a lead-acid cell. t h e process of conversion of lead sulfate t o lead and lead dioxide w i l l n o t proceed fully and the battery will b e gradually sulfated. T h e quantity o f electricity consumed for charging i s about 15% greater than that o f the discharge.
Electrolyte agitator  In this device. an equalizing charge w i t h 25% overcharge should be performed after every 30 cycles t o prevent coarsening of the lead sulfate crystals accumulated in the plates. second. 27. through the gap between the inner and outer tubes. Air II Fig. air i s introduced by a blower i n t o the inner t u b e of a double-wall cylinder f r o m the top. battery charge w i t h o u t overcharge is possible whereby no plate sulfatization proceeds when the electrolyte is stirred thoroughly t o prevent stratification. while ascending as bubbles.Investigations have been conducted w i t h cells whose electrolyte hac been agitated using a special device for admitting air t o stir the electrolyte. 55 . 27. T h e obtained results have shown that: first. T h i s device is shown in Fig. T h e electrolyte is sucked f r o m a hole at the lower part of the outer tube and ejected f r o m a hole at the upper part o f the same tube. T h i s air l i f t s t h e electrolyte.
As can be seen from the figure. 120% charge w i t h o u t external agitation but w i t h intense gas evolution stirring the electrolyte. Under the above conditions. and finally w i t h outer electrolyte agitation and equalizing overcharges conducted after every 30 cycles. and equalizing charges are carried out periodically. when lead-acid batteries are subjected t o charge-discharge cycling w i t h 100% state-of-charge and electrolyte stirring t o prevent stratification. but i t s charge-discharge energy efficiency is improved as well. Influence of overcharge and electrolyte s t i r r i n g o n cycle l i f e . corrosion of the grids and softening of the active materials can be strongly suppressed and life performance markedly improved. n o t only is the life of the battery extended. 28.Figure 18 presents the capacity/cycle number dependences for a 200 Ah battery subjected t o 100% charge w i t h o u t electrolyte stirring. 56 . U < LO- agitation) Cycies Fig.
T h i s system i s used for fill up of conventional batteries w i t h excess electrolyte above the active block. i. 57 . m a j o r challenges in battery servicing are t o find a way t o reduce water losses and t o replace manual refill methods. post offices. In these batteries. Water is lost f r o m lead-acid batteries through the following processes: e Electrolysis of water during overcharge o f t h e battery o Self-discharge under open-circuit conditions o Evaporation of water Manual filling up o f the cells t o a constant electrolyte level is very laborious and time-consuming. cultural and commercial centers using stand-by lead-acid batteries. Operating experience of batteries w i t h the above r e f i l l system in various modifications has shown that it is n o t always sufficiently reliable and safe.7.4. flooded batteries. A common p o i n t r e f i l l system is utilized in many battery energy storage plants. Methods for reducing water losses Maintenance o f lead-acid batteries consists primarily in periodical refilling the cells w i t h water. Finally. the design should avoid electrical shorting between the cells through the common filling system. These systems have found wide application in stand-by energy facilities for power plants. a device for escape of evolved oxygen and hydrogen gases f r o m the ce ll t o eliminate explosion hazards.e. a water addition system is fitted t h a t can automatically adjust the electrolyte level in each cell o f the battery. especially in a b a t t e r y energy storage plant. This watering system comprises: devices t o monitor the level of the electrolyte in the cells and t o stop the flow of water when t h e electrolyte reaches a previously adjusted level. T h e following methods have been proposed: a) Single-point (common point) watering. Therefore.
Carbon. which h s rea stricted large-scale application of the method. hydrogen is oxidized t o hydrogen ions (Fig. hydrogen and oxygen are often evolved in nonstoichiometric amounts. Instead of a cell valve. T h e latter causes the cell temperature t o rise as a result of which the reaction rate is increased. 29b). T o ensure the right potential for the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen oxidation. a catalytic plug i s included that enables the following reactions t o proceed: 2H2 + O2 + 2H2OVapOUr H~Ovapour+ HZOiiquià +114 kcal +9. c) Closed oxygen and hydrogen cycles. Designed t o recombine hydrogen and oxygen t o water that is brought back i n t o the cell. this could lead t o an explosion. On one auxiliary electrode.b) Catalytic plug recombination of hydrogen and oxygen.7 kcal T h e first reaction requires a stoichiometric ratio between the evolved H and 0 2 .ions proceeds. the hydrogen electrode is connected through a proper electronic device (diode and resistor) to 58 . On the other catalytic electrode. the oxygen electrode is connected through an appropriate diode t o the lead electrode of the cell (Fig. For this purpose. alumina or asbestos wool are usually used as catalyst carriers. Various designs of catalytic plugs have been used t o avoid this hazard. T h e y are presented in Figure 29. Metals f r o m the platinum group are used as catalysts for the recombination. T h e m a j o r disadvantage o f this water recycling m e t h o d is the high price o f the catalyst materials. If left uncontrolled. and is accompanied by the release of a great 2 amount o f heat. A method has been proposed suggesting that t w o auxiliary catalytic electrodes are fitted in the cells. That is w h y the efficiency of the catalytic plug i s reduced. During charge-discharge operation. 29a). the reaction of oxygen reduction t o OH.
+Pb + H2S04 2H+ + 2eH 2 PbS04 HzO - - . Schematic o f cells with auxiliary electrodes [is]. the lead dioxide electrode of the cell. charge. T h e reactions proceeding at the t w o auxiliary electrodes are catalyzed by metals f r o m the platinum group.O2 + 2H+ + 2ePbS04 + 2H+ + 2e.I I L J p 2 m Pb Pb02 Pb Fig. Consequently. 29. d) Valve-regulated recombinant lead-acid batteries. the following reactions take place in the cell: positive plates negative plates During + 2H20 +PbO2 + 2H+ + H2S04 + 2e. interest in this method has increased of late. It has recently been found that tungsten carbide displays similar catalytic properties t o those o f platinum w i t h respect t o hydrogen and oxygen reactions . T h i s makes the m e t h o d very expensive and hence i t s applicat i o n is strongly restricted.
is brought t o the negative plate. the negative plate is kept discharged and hence evolution of hydrogen is prevented. T h e negative plate is charged w i t h 100% charge acceptance until about 95% state-of-charge. T h i s was achieved by: 60 .6 2. A solution was found in immobilizing the H2S04 electrolyte between the plates. T h i s difference in the behaviour of the H and 0 2 reactions has 2 been exploited in the oxygen cycle. a reaction o f oxygen evolution starts and i t s rate is increased w i t h time. on t h e one hand. T h i s leads t o an equivalent decrease in positive plate charge acceptance. u. C h a r g e acceptance of p o s i t i v e and negative p l a t e s at 40°C v s t i m e [2O]. After t h a t . 20 2. 30. h Fig.Figure 30 shows the relationship between the charge acceptance o f positive and negative plates and the time of charge.o O 1 2 3 Chorge tlrne. Oxygen evolved first. When the positive plate reaches a 60--70% state-of-charge. T h e basic problem w i t h this t y p e of oxygen cycle battery was t o prevent oxygen f r o m being lost f r o m the active block. hydrogen evolution starts. and o n the other hand.4 2 c I 22 2 . Thus. where it oxidizes the lead in the grid. oxygen itself reacts in the cell.
but even so.o Using gelled electrolyte. ccrtain amounts of hydrogen are evolved at a l o w rate. and then further developed for large stationary batteries .25] and I’UASA in Japan  were the first t o employ this technology in small batteries. lias enhanced this S technology [22. T h e U company .Johnson Controls Inc. which accumulate above the electrode stacks in the cells. T h e electrolyte in t h i s case i s absorbed by the glass fibre mat that has t h e property o f absorbing H2S04and water. a valve is fitted t h a t lets the gas out and controls the pressure in the cell. and adsorbing oxygen. and for energy storage systems as well. o Using absorptive glass m a t separators. N o w these batteries are under large-scale tests for energy storage applications. T h i s technology was devised by the German company Sonnenschein for small lead-acid batteries (several Ah). 61 . The problem of oxygen retention between the plates lias found an adequate technical solution. Gates in the USA [24. while H2S04and water participate in the reactions in the cell. T h e cracks formed in t h e gel act as channels for the transport of oxygen. and later in stationary batteries. Oxygen is retained in the glass mat separator and flows f r o m the positive t o the negative plate. T o avoid explosion.23] and is now manufacturing gelled-electrolyte batteries for b o t h traction and stationary applications. These batteries are maintenance-free and are called valve-regulated batteries. over time.
Analysis of the testing results of these demonstration BES plants shows that battery energy storage systems can improve the operational efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the electric power system by providing the following functions. T h e lead-acid battery. a) Load-levelling: off-peak battery charging and on-peak discharging. the first batteries t o be used for that purpose were flooded lead-acid batteries of the traction/industrial type. T h i s method of energy storage allows electric utilities t o save capital investments for 62 . daytime peak demand hours. electric power is concentrated in the battery.5 . operational and maintenance costs of the system. Technical. and t o test feasibility of BES systems w i t h power utilities. Lead-acid batteries in the battery energy storage system ( B E S S ) Functions of lead-acid battery energy storage systems After the revival of interest in energy storage systems. investment .1. owing t o i t s low internal resistance and very short response time. and second t o reduction of energy costs by storing cheap energy at night and selling it at higher cost during the 5. T h i s power can be delivered through high-current discharge of the battery (Fig. b) Peak-shaving: Often m a j o r utility customers need instantaneous delivery of peak electric power for meeting technological needs. t o establish BESS applications w i t h higher efficiency. t o demonstrate operational and economic benefits. 23) when a high peak demand appears. technological and economical information has been gathered over 2-3 years. i s capable of dispatching considerable power w i t h i n several milliseconds. which leads first t o improvement o f the load factor of baseload generating units. Through charging of the battery f r o m the energy utility. Early battery storage plants were installed for demonstration purposes t o validate the feasibility of design.
31. thus enhancing the stability of the power supply. the voltage o f the system begins t o decline. c) Load-following: When the energy demand exceeds the local electric system power level. Schematic of a customer-owned LABESS [il.--- Battery dixhorgi ng (on p k ) -. offers utility customers the cost benefit of reducing their expenses for peak demand charges. 63 . T h e battery storage unit takes over part of the load by discharging electricity. d) Frequency control and spinning reserve: To ensure n o r m a l operation of the customers' electrical devices and machines. Storage batteries may play the role of spinning reserve and. compensate for such frequency distortions and thus maintain the frequency of the local power system w i t h i n the desired limits.expansion of the generating facilities and. ' Utility lines charging (off p e a k ) r--. through discharging. on the other hand. Overloading of the electric power system may cause the frequency of the supplied current t o fluctuate. stable ac frequency should be provided.1 Fig.
Table 5. 400 kW 400 kWh 500 kW 7 MWh 500 kW 500 kWh 1980 load-levelling peak-shaving load-levelling peak-shaving load-levelling peak-shaving 1986 1987 300 kW 600 kWh 4 MW 1987 peak-shaving 1989 peak-shaving emergency power 7 MWh 300 kW 600 kWh 1989 H u m b o l d t Foundry M i l w a u k e e . Division of General M o t o r s M u n c i e . U S A D e l c o Remy. U S A 10 MW 40 MWh 1988 Customer operated Elektrizitätswerk Hammermiihle Selters. NC. CA. WI. South Africa Johnson Controls. FRG Kansai E l e c t r i c Power Co. USA Vaal Reefs Exploration and M i n i n g Co.Some of the operational LABES systems are listed in Table 5. Berlin. FRG Crescent El ect r i c Membership C o r p o r a t i o n Statesville. L A B E S systems in operation by 1990 t h r o u g h o u t t h e world . I n c . Ltd Tatsumi. spinning reserve demonstration multi-purpose t e s t program demonstration multi-purpose test program 1 MW 4 MWh S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a E d i s o n Co. FRG H a g e n Battcric AG Socst. USA peak-shaving load-levelling 64 . Company Utility operated Size In service Application B e r l i n e r Kraft und L i c h t (BEWAG). Japan 1 7 MW 14 MWh 1986 1986 frequency regul. Chino. IN.
foundries. T h e use of lead-acid battery storage plants by electric power generating utilities is aimed n o t only at levelling the electric loads. LABESP capacity should be properly rated t o meet the local peak power demand. All thcse applications bring immediate financial profits t o the customers. etc. it would be more cost-effective and associated w i t h smaller power losses t o install the LABEC facility o n the customer side of t h e meter. T h e storage unit should be installed close t o the substation at i t s low-voltage stage. T h e power of lead-acid b a t t c r y storage facilities (LABESF) at the customer side is of the order of 300 t o 500 kW. For m a j o r energy consumers having high peak power demands. T h u s sufficient stability of the technological processes i s guaranteed. siting LABES plants o n the utility side of the meter is advisable. 65 . but also at improving the quality of t h e energy delivered by the utilities t o the customers.g.before or after the meter? I f the power demand is n o t very h i g h and a number of customers could be grouped o n a territorial principle.T h e table shows that when battery storage plants (LABESP) are installed at the side of the electric power generating utilities. Customer operated lead-acid battery storage facilities are utilized primarily for peak-shaving and load-levelling. large administrative or commercial centers. e. they have a power of over 1 MW. provide instantaneous fast power reserve. and make theni less dependent o n the power supply utilities in peak deniand periods. W h i c h option t o choose for BEC plant location . commuter railroads and stations. LABES systems can function a spinning reserves. ? . regulate frequency. but also for emergency power supply. T h e only exception is the L A B E S facility in South A f r i c a which n o t only serves for peak-shaving purposes. metropolitan t r a i n or subway systems. voltage damp-out. subsynchronous oscillations and other system instabilities..
In b o t h cases.3 0. as well as steel and alloys production using electric furnaces.53 0. applied before or after the meter.7 0. customer LABEC plant construction is economically effective. E c o n o m i c analysis of selected cases of LABESS a p p l i c a t i o n o n t h e customer side [il.56 0.8 3. converters at 130 $ kW-'.Battery charging could be accomplished at any off-peak intervals during the day and the night. T h e investment pay back periods have also been estimated. T a b l e 6.32 period years Commuter railroad Steel m a n u f a c t u r e C o p p e r alloys plant T r u c k part plant Chemical manufacture ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ 16. Spindler [ l ] has performed a cost analysis o f the utilization of LABEC plants by m a j o r electric power consumers in the USA.88 13. o p e r a t i n g 250 days yr-l.5 3.' Customer / Application D e m a n d Converter B a t t e r y size size charge MW/ac $ kW-' MWh/ac Capital Payback cost $M 2.5 2.82 9.5 0.2 Based o n a b a t t e r y cost o f 260 $ kWh-'.5 0.48 1.7 0.50 13.24 11.2 3. T h e obtained results are summarized in Table 6.87 5.6 2. and balance of plant.9 0.46 0. 140 $ kWh-I. It can be seen that with commuter and metropolitan railroads. battery energy storage brings significant profits t o the electric utility company.5 4.4 5. 66 .3 6.
6 . Schematic of electric utility b a t t e r y energy storage s y s t e m [il. direct current is generated which passes through a dc-ac converter and is then delivered t o the customers to meet their demand. or after increasing i t s voltage in a transformer. is fed back i n t o the utility distribution line. T h r o u g h a dc switchgear. transformer. During battery discharge. . Figure 32 gives a schematic o f a lead-acid battery energy storage system. T h e electric energy i s supplied by a utility distribution network t h r o u g h an ac switchgear t o the high-to-low-voltage transformer. T h e n an ac-dc converter follows. Lead-acid battery energy storage systems for load-levelling 6. dc and ac switchgear) o ac/dc power conversion system o facility monitoring and control system. 32. 67 . System structure T h i s consists o f the following basic components: 0 lead-acid battery (converter. Operation of all these LABES plant components is managed by a monitoring and control system. the current is fed i n t o the battery t o charge it.1. Facility monitoring dc -I- 1 1- oc Charge Discharge F i g .
6. California. properties and parameters can be best described if based o n a real operating energy storage system. L e t us take for example the world’s largest. The system design.1. Demineralized Fig. Chino 10 M W / 4 0 MWh lead-acid battery energy storage system 6. 33.2. General arrangement of LABES plant at Southern California Edison Chino Substation . Plant layout Figure 33 presents a floor plan of t h e battery energy storage plant.2. 68 . ‘This is the case of LABES plant before the meter. lead-acid battery energy storage system in Chino. after the transformer. T h e basic components of the system are discussed below.T h e battery energy storage plant is located near a substation o f t h e power supply system. U S A . up t o now. and serves the substation local area.
In the immediate proximity. 69 . T h e plant consists of two large parallel buildings housing the batteries. Argonne National Laboratory has tested these batteries and found that they could endure more t h a n 4000 cycles . Turn-around battery dc-to-dc energy efficiency is 78%. specially designed for deep-discharge capability. in the vicinity of the Chino 220 kV Substation of the Southern California Edison Company.2.2. enough t o meet t h e needs of 5000 customers. or eight years before battery replacement becomes necessary. 6. followed by a constant voltage period and finally by the third step overcharge rate of 1000 A.5 MW power for 5 h during daily discharge at 80% DOD.T h e Chino LABES plant is sited 50 miles east of Los Angcles. Six t o 10 hours nightly recharge is performed. The Electric Power Research I n s t i t u t e (EPRI) and the International Lead-Zinc Research Organization I n c . generated by strings of 1032 cells connected in series. and 40 MWh at 10 MW power for 4 h at 80% DOD. (ILZRO) are project participants. T h e system supplies 10 MW of power in four hours or 40 MWh of energy. Between them is the common converter/control building and related facilities. The nominal daily voltage cut-off is 1800 V based o n 1. The battery T h e Exide Corporation has supplied the b a t t e r y which comprises 8256 individual cells. T h e battery delivers 50 MWh eriergy at a maximum 10. During charge and discharge. the battery and the strings change their voltage in the range f r o m 1750 t o 2800 V. Exide has warranted the life of the cells for a minimum of 2000 cycles.75 V per cell. T h e battery unit operates at nominal voltage o f 2000 V. The charge rate’s first step is usually 4000 A. there is a 12 kV ac switch rack.
yielding a high active mass utilization coefficient.8 52.77 0. 70 .power (MW) .5 5.energy o u t p u t (MWh) . Figure 34 shows the changes in cell voltage during battery discharge with various discharge currents. ~ R a t e d discharge requirement .75 V (h) N o m i n a l voltage O p e r a t i n g range N o r m a l daily c u t .5 6.ceii dc t o dc -battery O p e r a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e range S t i b i n e & arsine gas emissions: ASH^ 2x104 1.T h e specified battery characteristics are presented in Table 7.t i m e t o 1.0 2000 v f r o m 1750 t o 2800 V 1800 V 8 years = 2000 cycles 6-10 h 78% 75% 32-1 17°F SbH3 5~10-~ 3~10-~ 34 19 Daily recharge O v e r a l l energy efficiency .o f f voltage B a t t e r y has 1032 cells in series s t r i n g B a t t e r y l i f e (80% DOD) 100% DOD 80% DOD 65. T a b l e 7.5 10.1 10-~ x P e a k flow Daily (8 h) T o t a l p e r day T o t a l annual SCFM SCFM g lb 0. T h e positive active material has a low density and contains anti-shedding additives.42 T h e cell is an Exide special design hybrid construction w i t h PbSbAs positive grids and PbCa negative ones. T h e negative active mass contains a long-life expander composition and h s h i g h density.7 10. a T h e cell design features are presented in Table 8. C h i n o L A B E S plant B a t t e r y specification requirements . Three cut-off voltages are given in the figure.
500 2000A M O A I I 1.3” non-woven glass p e r f o r a t e d PVC niicroporous r u b b e r 1.retainer .m 1.3” x 13.2 kWh 17 Pb-Sb 18 Pb-Ca PVC SAN 1.21’’) grid a l l o y C e l l cover m a t e r i a l Cell jar material Sediment space Separator s y s t e m ( o n positives) .60 v 520A 650 A I \ 220A 380 A I I I I I I .absorber mat .separator A c i d specific g r a v i t y (top-of-charge) Terminal posts .75 V) Energy output P o s i t i v e plates (17.7” x 0. 34. R a t e d capacity (I= 650 A.T a b l e 8.7” x 0. . h 1 6 Is 20 2 2 : Fig.67 V 1.3” x 13. C e l l design features .33”) grid a l l o y Negative plates (17.29 l e a d p l a t e d copper slide-lockTM s t r u c t u r a l adhesive 1. 5 h t o 1. I . O 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 14 lime.75 V l.design: l o w t o r q u e maintenance Post-to-cover seal Cover-to-jar seal 3250 Ah 6.28-1.600 1. I n i t i a l celi voltage transients at discharge .
the slope of curves P. 35. 4000 - 8 7 6 ti0 I . T h e internal ohmic resistance of the battery has been determined (using the A V / A I method) t o be 0.0 i l I ' l l l l l ' l l 2 4 6 I 8 10 12 14 16 18 2 0 î .On the basis of these curves the dependences of mean voltage. 2800 I 1 4 6 75590 390 Fig. T h i s has allowed successful employment of the b a t t e r y for 4-hour discharge applications. . Ah 4400 - 795590 390 1. capacity. 1. A 5 8 1 12 1 16 18 20 t . Up t o the sixth hour. E and C is roughly constant and it changes after that.025 ohms during the 10 MW 72 . P. M e a n voltage.jkW1 ?IS. the average voltage i s only slightly changed until the 4-hour rate of discharge. 35. Increasing the discharge current. energy and power o n the rate of discharge were plotted. and decreases rapidly thereafter. energy and power t h e r a t e of discharge. h 0 4 3600 3200 - . h C. ( .A 210 E. T h e y are presented in Fig. capacity.
Four rows separated by foot aisles f o r m a string. which means that t h e internal resistance o f the cells is 194 micrq-ohms . Over 4 years. 73 . 36. the cells have undergone more than 2300 cycles at 80% DOD and are s t i l l “in good health”. 36. The battery has 8 strings and 1376 modules or 8256 cells housed in t w o battery rooms .Hold &un b r k î Fig. A schematic of this module is given in Fig. 44 modules (264 cells) form a row. Average resistance of the string has been measured as 0. Drawing of a battery module .20 ohms at full state-of-charge. .discharge. A certain number of cells have been subjected t o tests o f 2 cycles per day at 40 f 5°C. T h e cells are organized in a battery as follows: 6 cells are assembled in a 12 V module with an energy of 36 kWh.
4. over a large number of cycles. Table 9 lists the accessories of each cell. W i t h o u t equal sharing of current. a difference of about 12% was found between the individual strings. T h i s could lead t o “reversal” of the cells during discharge and early cell failure. I n t e r m o d u l e cables 9. Depending o n the ohmic resistance of each string.The large number of cells in the battery create non-homogeneous conditions in the parallel strings. Lugs o n cables 410 l o n g b a r r e l compression t y p e 2000 V r a t i n g 74 . the state-of-charge of the cells in some of the strings may become considerably lower t h a n that of the other cells. H i g h voltage protectors 8. the difference in state-of-charge o f the cells must be monitored and controlled. T a b l e 9. Load-levelling b a t t e r y accessories . Duringthe initial operation of the Chino BES system. while after 350 cycles this difference diminished t o about 4% . 5. Air lift pump Electrolyte withdrawal tube Thermocouple well A c i d level i n d i c a t o r I n t e r c e l l connectors each cell each cell 0. To prevent such processes. 6. A u t o m a t i c w a t e r i n g valve s t i b i n e l a n i n e trap flame arrester each c e l l 2.5% of cells each cell l e a d p l a t e d copper t w o per post expanded p l a s t i c t u b e a r o u n d each t w o i n t e r c e l l connectors minimum 2 each 4/0 2000 V 7. different currents will flow through the different strings. Location 1. 3.
1. they should be retained in the cell. trays 8. Water purity is controlled t o a specific resistivity n o t less than 2 x Each cell is fitted with an acid level indicator. t o avoid explosion.T h e positive plate grid alloy contains As and Sb.285 sg) 6.704 139. These ions are then deposited o n the negative plates.600 6. Bolts. PVC. Table 10. T h e latter comprises activated chemically treated carbon and absorbs 98% of the stibine and arsine emissions f r o m the cell for 2-3 years of service life. T h e grids corrode. As and Sb f o r m AsH3 (arsine) and SbH3 (stibine) gases. T h e trap can be replaced after that. T h i s is accomplished by means o f an arsine and stibine trap.acid (1. Cable (4/0) tons metric tons metric tons m e t r i c tons metric tons EA EA FT metric 1560 30 153 90 480 280. respectively. Lead 2. Since these gases are toxic. intercells. racks. Table 10 presents a summary of the materials needed for battery manufact ure. and when the potential becomes more negative than a certain value. and As and S are oxidized and dissolved in the HzS04 elecb trolyte. PP) 5. Since oxygen and hydrogen are accumulated above the active block in t h e cell. Steel (racks and trays) 4. Plastic (SAN. sized for a maximum overcharge current of 200 A per cell . Materials for 10 MW/40 MWh Chino LABESP . a ceramic flame arrestor i s used. l o 6 o h m cm. A l i m i t e d number of battery modules are watered simultaneously when the battery is o n open circuit after the full charge.048 75 . Sulfuric. Microporous separator 7. Copper (intercells and parts) 3.
T h e converter is a seifcommutated. cell cleaning and performance monitoring. Gate-Turn-off voltage source. By means of an infrared camera. D a i l y monitoring of the voltage. 6.2. For watering of the cells. It is the interface between the Edison grid and the battery.5 man-weeks and i s done every six months. stepped-wave design w i t h a response time of 16 milliseconds. current and capacity o n a string-by-string basis is performed f r o m the control room. T h e converter can function independently as a synchronous generator to maintain unity power factor. T h e power conditioning system converts the 12 kV/60 Hz ac f r o m the grid t o 2000 V direct current required for battery charge and vice versa when the battery discharges electricity t o the Edison grid. approximately 6500 gallons of demineralized water are needed every 30 cycles. Figure 37 shows a block diagram of the power conditioning system and associated equipment.3.Maintenance and monitoring of the battery is the most labourconsuming i t e m o f the LABESP operation and maintenance. Cell cleaning takes about 4. the battery system has displayed stable and reliable performance parameters close t o the rated values . T h e m a j o r time-consuming procedures are watering of the battery. During i t s operation for over t w o years now. It consists of three sixpulse three-phase converter bridges connected in series o n the ac side 76 . The electrolyte temperature is determined o n the basis of a number of selected cells. Power conditioning system T h e power conditioning system has been designed by EPRI and nanufactured by the General Electric Company. T w o full-time battery electricians w i t h part-time support personnel areneeded t o provide proper maintenance of t h e battery. w a r m cells are detected during the end of discharge that denote possible weak cells. T h e most i m p o r t a n t performance parameter is the end-of-discharge voltage of each cell.
leading/lagging 97% one way 3% total.max . Major power conditioning system characteristics . 1. charge/discharge 10 MVA.112 VdC 2.nominal ~ 10 MW. I -3 Inverter control 5 battery strings I I Table 11.860 Vdc 1.5% R M S voltage 16 ms 2.X utility BrE!!w ~ 411 fOrmW GTC I n T T GTC Breaker? I LI I 1 1 Fllter cap 1 -&k* .5% any single frequency 1.750 V d c .real reactive Efficiency Harmonic voltage Ripple voltage dc t o battery Response Voltage input range .min 77 . Power .
single-phase transformers. Auxiliary power consumption accounts for the remaining 27% (4 MWh per 78 . T h e inefficiency of the Power Conditioning System accounts for 12% (2 MWh per cycle). 6. T h e control system o f the converter is a microprocessorbased interface w i t h pre-programmed algorithms for charging and discharging operations.2. dc no-load break battery string connectors. surge arresters and ac protect i o n relays. but can be modified readily t o allow for different discharge patterns.5. Reactive power output is also programmed i n t o the system.4. fuses. It is pre-programmed w i t h a typical load curve for automatic control of the battery discharge rate. filter capacitors. Analog inputs are scanned at one-second intervals and stored in the data acquisition system in predefined intervals of one.T h e dc entrance equipment consists of t w o 3000 A. Facility m o n i t o r i n g and control system The microprocessor-based control system provides complete facility supervisory control and data acquisition. Equipment energy losses T h e distribution of plant losses f r o m all sources for an average cycle is presented in Fig. T h e data acquisition system records data o n facility operations t o allow analysis of the performance and economics of the system.2. ten or sixty seconds. 3000 V dc high-speed breakers. and disconnect switches. three-phase neutral transformer. T h e control system communicates w i t h the facility monitoring and facility control system [32-341. The ac entrance equipment includes 12 kV vacuum switchgear. 6. 38. A microcomputer is also connected t o the data highway access f r o m a remote computer located at the Edison m a i n office [32-341. The energy losses in the battery represent about 10 MWh per cycle or 61% of the t o t a l losses.
356 79 .000 or 1. Distribution of equipment losses in Chino plant  cycle).1 MWh o n average.560. and contingency 600 190 325 52 76 103 Total: 1. Item Cost. 6. Table 12. o n a daily basis. T h e t o t a l energy input.SMWh 1 Fig. is 58.6.2. Chino LABES s y s t e m costs . T h e distribution of these costs in various items i s presented in Table 12. escalation.6 MWh and the useful energy o u t p u t i s 42. Economics of Chino LABES Plant The t o t a l cost of the Chino LABES Plant i s about $ 13. etc. rate of discharge.Total Losses L16. B a t t e r y systeni efficiency is a function of operating parameters such as overcharge.350 $ kW-'. 38. $ kW-' 10 MW lead-acid battery Power conditioning s y s t e m Balance of plant Plant site and tie-ins Engineering and management Tax. .
That is why an island network must maintain a significant amount of reserve power which can b e activated at h i g h speed for load-frequency control. also called island networks. LABESP for instantaneous (spinning) reserve and frequency control applications 7. Island networks Small energy supply systems. as a large active store of energy. 2 Hz. 5 0 f 0 . Later on. Hence the quality of the delivered electric energy is determined by the frequency deviations. other applications o f the system. 2 Hz. have serious problems w i t h the quality of the delivered energy and i t s cost. Chino battery energy storage system is operating at 75% overall efficiency (ac-ac). T h i s storage system has been designed for demonstration purposes and has been initially intended for load-levelling applications. A sudden outage o f such a big generating unit. have also been tested and demonstrated. 7 . the cost per unit kW generated by subsequent plants of that kind will fall t o $ 600-700. T h e latter should n o t exceed f 0 . That is w h y it has been designed for a h i g h Ah capacity. however. when a large industrial consumer switches o n or off his load (which might comprise for example 5% of the current system load). Energy generating facilities willing t o reduce t h e price of the electric energy must use large generator plants. Besides. this would induce considerable frequency deviations in the whole power supply system. For Europe. 80 . requiring higher power. Why frequency control? When a debalance occurs between the generated power level and the load. the system frequency is changed. 40150 MWh at a power of 10 MW.1.I t is expected that w i t h mature technologies. would cause great problems t o the energy network operator.
which was a typical example of an island network. S y s t e m frequency response after unit outages in different grid systems . At a n outage of 146 MW. System frequency response having given rise t o t h e construction of the BEWAG LABES plant Figure 39 represents the system frequency response of a West European grid system w i t h a load of about 150. T h e generated power is increased and the frequency is brought back w i t h i n t h e required limits. In case of outage of the 1200 MW or 2500 MW units. the system frequency decreases. and the system immediately activates i t s spinning reserve. s 25 Fig. That was n o t the case w i t h the West Berlin power supply system. i t was 81 .2. In order t o h o l d the energy system frequency within the range of 5 0 f 0 .7. In the latter case.2. The BEWAG 8.000 MW. 2 Hz.1.2 Hz appears. 39. frequency deviations reached up to IM H z . -Outage of o 1200 MW unit Outage 01 2500 M w P F BEWAG island system O 5 1 0 K t.5/17 M W lead-acid battery energy storage plant 7. a frequency deviation of more than -0.
5 MW against f 7 . That meant that t h e power system should comprise generating units with a response t i m e of the order of milliseconds.2. 7. With t h e purpose of improving the spinning reserve and frequency control of i t s energy network. BESP power gradient (minimum 5 MW s-l) was much higher than that of the turbo-generator (which could reach maximiim 4. six-pulse converter bridges 82 . but they also had t o respond very quickly t o the demand changes. the Berliner Kraft und Licht Company (BEWAG) built up a battery energy storage plant based o n highpower lead-acid batteries. T h i s could b e achieved if the power gradient o f the generating systems was higher t h a n 5-10 MW s-'. T h i s BES plant was first intended for demonstration purposes.5 MW each. BEWAG decided in 1984 t o install a full-scale 8. 40. T h e plant has two identical six-pulse inverters w i t h 8.5 MW s-l). and after a 3-year test period during which encouraging positive results were obtained.2. T h e BES plant was used t o replace a turbo-generator set. 5 MW o f the turbogenerator. In 1981 it started operation as a 24 kW test facility. However. Power of the BES plant was 3 3 .5/17 MW demonstration plant in the power station Steglitz in West Berlin.n o t enough t o have considerable reserve power generators available. and provides additionally an instant reserve of a t o t a l of 17 MW power . T h e battery energy storage system is connected t o a 30 kV electrical network. and in 1986 actual operation started. Construction of the plant was completed for 18 months. The second inverter path operates as reserve for the first in the frequency control function. Lead-acid batteries display such a response time. In order t o obtain a construction easy t o handle and maintain. System design and characteristics A block diagram of the BEWAG BES plant is given in Fig.
40. The battery i s designed t o exhibit a very l o w internal resistance and a short response time. Block diagram of BEWAG 8. 83 . T h i s design meets the safety regulations well . under the worst operating conditions. i t s maximum power of 8.B 8 Central dispatching room Fig.5 MW and a rated dc voltage of 1200 V.5/17 MW lead-acid battery energy storage system .3 0 k V Steglitz Gr. t o be able t o serve as instant power reserve. I t must deliver. are used w i t h o n l y one thyristor per string. Thyristors have maximum power (12-pulse unit) of 8.5 MW for a period of at least 30 minutes.
To improve the negative grid conductivity. h F i g .T h e battery consists of 12 parallel strings of 590 cells each or a t o t a l number of 7080 cells. T y p i c a l o p e r a t i o n o f test facility. T h e battery comprises 1416 modules of 5 cells each housed in a common polypropylene container . Air lift pumps are provided in each cell t o stir the electrolyte and prevent it f r o m starving during operation. it i s made of expanded lead-plated copper mesh after Hagen’s technology. there are thermometers and specific density probes. Refilling of the battery is accomplished automatically by a common watering system. each cell is equipped w i t h a heat exchanger which is accessible through the central cell vent. T h e container and t h e polypropylene lid are heat sealed in place. Since high currents flow through the cells and a considerable amount of heat is released. Figure 41 presents a two-day load-frequency response curve of the BEWAG LABES plant. Low-antimony tubular positive plates are used. 84 . c o m p r i s i n g t w o days o f loadfrequency-control o p e r a t i o n w i t h a subsequent constant-current constantp o t e n t i a l charge [il. In order t o reduce the resistance o f the connectors. 41. the cells are connected in series in the monoblock through the cell partitions. In some of the cells. O 5 x) 15 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 Time.monoblock module. Each cell is provided w i t h a water-filling valve.
but nevertheless there i s t h e tendency t o b a t t e r y overheating in warm weather w h i c h necessitates restriction of t h e battery inaximum power . T h e battery i s r a t e d in such a way that load fluctuations would not cause i t s state-of-charge to fall below 50% of t h e noniinal capacity. T h e battery has also been used as an instantaneous reserve in reference t o a steam storage system. A comparison of results has shown clearly t h e superiority of t h e LABES system. ‘ T h e fluctuations in charge and discharge currents are given in t h e figure. On calculating t h e quantity of electricity passing through t h e cells during t h e intermittent charge-discharge cycles. T h e frequency control function of t l i e b a t t e r y is accomplished in a severe operating mode. t h e b a t t e r y discharges power t o t h e systeni. previous frequency deviations of more than f 0 . 41a. and vice versa. These changes affect t h e state-of-charge of t h e battery w h i c h is presented in Fig.T h e battery i s permanently connected t o the system and monitors load fluctuations. 85 . With t h e introduction of t h e BEWAG LABES plant. T h e LABES plant operates unmanned under remote ~ 0 x 1 trol from the power station control room. t h e battery charges. B a t t e r y maintenance comprises automatic fill 1 1 of tlie cells 1’ weekly. W h e n t h e frequency begins t o decrease.. when t h e frequency exceeds t h e upper limit. the b a t t e r y operates at 70% state-of-charge. Normally. it tiirns out that t h e capacity turnover for a 24-hour period i s as high as three times t h e battery capacity . T h e energy efficiency of t h e battery is about ô7%. 2 Hz have been halved owing t o t h e excellent dynamic response of the lead-acid b a t t e r y energy storage system.
1. the customer must pay for the claimed peak power demand. Despite the short duration of peak load periods. T h e battery of this system. T h i s creates an extremely high peak power demand. w i t h energy needs fluctuating w i t h i n their normal l i m i t s during the rest of the time. a lead-acid battery energy storage system can b e installed t o take over the supply of peak power. charged with electricity from the utility. accumulates electric power which w i l l then be used for shaving of peak loads. because the latter is related t o the size and t h e power of the generating plant. are associated w i t h the amount of capital invested. t h e above h i g h energy demand usually appears only two or three times a day. for their part. Lead-acid battery energy storage systems for peak-shaving 8. T h e electric utility customer pays t o the power supply company two basic types of energy rates: o for claimed peak demand o for actually consumed energy. LABES facilities respond instantaneously t o load fluctuations. in alloy production plants employing electric furnaces t o melt t h e alloy components. That is why they are most appropriate for 86 . there are usually one or t w o short intervals during t h e day when several trains depart simultaneously. Since alloy production is performed in batch mode.8 . These. high power needs may also occur for short periods of time. and the capacity of the transniission and distribution lines. Furthermore. There are indeed many manufacturing technologies displaying similar power demand curves w i t h several daily or weekly peaks. and hence the customer w i l l claim only his baseload power needs t o the energy utility company. W h a t i s peak-shaving? At railway stations. In this case. Often peak demand charges are close t o the charges paid for actually consumed energy.
Peak-shaving profile f o r a c o m m u t e r railroad substation.20c Charge .tliesc purposcs. LABES systems are used increasingly for peak-shaving applications throughout the world. The test results of LABES facilities are so encouraging.coo I I L I O 0 I 1 12 16 Clock lime. Besidcs. and t h e interest in t h e m so great. when installed in immediate p r o x i m i t y t o the consunicr. 87 . that commercial production o f such facilities can b e expected t o begin in the near future. 42. T h e LABES facility manages the peak loads occurring when trains pass along the railroad segment served by the substation] and is then charged t o replenish t h e amount of energy w i t h d r a w n irrespective of the t i m e of day. 1 N Fig. As clearly shown by the data in Table 5. hours . Figure 32 shows t h e peak-shaving profile for a commuter railroad substation w i t h integrated LABES system 6OC Commuter rai Iroad peaking &OC 200 z C O 6 a . power losses are minimized.
Fifteen inoiiobloclts are connected in parallel t o give 6 V/2700 Ah modules. Lead-coated copper busbars are used t o connect the lead-coated copper cell terminals. T h e battery consists of 6 V/180 Ah building blocks. T h e design and layout of the facility are presented in Fig. Each niodule is fitted w i t h an internal air manifold t o provide cooling or . T h e company h s designed and const.2. aL disconnect 22 feet Fig. 43.ructed a 300 kW LABES facility based o n a valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells used for the first t i m e in this application.8. Schematic of LABES facility . T h e system was intended for peak-shaving and installed at their Humboldt brass foundry for purely demonstration purposes. T h i s results in low battery resistance. (USA) is a large producer of industrial energy management and lead-acid battery systems. Johnson Controls 300 kW/SOO kWh LABES facility Johnson Controls I n c . 43.
T a b l e 13. The system has a noniinal 384 V dc bus voltage and a 480 V ac three-phase inpiit. 391. It operates in a constant-power mode under the management of the control systcni. During peak-shaving (battery discharge). Table 13 gives a summary o f the basic characteristics of the battery. T h e static power converter i s housed in one cabinet w i t h talie bridge and firing circuitry. The entire LABES facility is under the coilt r o l of a JCI DCC 8500 energy management systcni.age mode is applied for final charging. and a constant-volt. T h e battery i s assembled f r o m 64 modules ensuring 384 V and 2700 Ah at &hour discharge [38.5 HP T h e power conditioning systcm is of a diial-bridge six-pulse l i n e commutated design.39]. because i t operates fully automatically . An energy management system monitors and controls the state of each module. 89 .heating. VRLA b a t t e r y at Johnson C o n t r o l s H u m b o l d t brass f o u n d r y [38. power factor correction capacitors and the harmonic indicator. Only monthly inspections of t h e system are needed. B a t t e r y rating Depth-of-discharge Discharge range 2 h at 300 kW End o f charge GC6-1500D gel cells M o d u l e s (64) F o r c e d air cooling 60% 360 t o 320 V 460 V 192 G V. the power converter operates in a controlled-power mode under direction of the control system . 1500 Ah 4 x 1. I n i t i a l battery charge is performed at constant power.
In- 90 . The good peak-shaving capabilities of the LABES system are obvious. At alloy melting. h Fig. Daily power consumption of t h e foundry without (a) and with (b) t h e LABES facility . Normal foundry baseload is 1100 kW. 4-5 discrete power peaks occur of about 1600 kW.Figure 44 presents the daily power profile with and without t h e LABES facility. 200 O I O 6 12 Real time. The power utility rate structure includes a monthly peak power demand charge. 44. h I I I I I I 18 I I 2 Wiih IABES iocility 12 I8 24 R e a l lime.
I t w i l l operate in a 2-hour discharge mode at 80% DOD and w i l l have a capacity of 1620 Ah (8 h rate). T h e latter w i l l be installed o n the customer side of the meter at the 600 V rectifier interface . the rate is 10 $ kW-'). T h e battery is produced using Aat positive plates w i t h low-antimony grids. Figure 45 presents a typical train current-velocity-time diagram of a subway car. I t has been established t h a t the attractiveness of a PTS is affected by two m a j o r system characteristics: travelling t i m e and frequency of trains run- ning . (In most industrial regions in the USA. the assessment of the economical benefits o f t h i s system can be performed based o n the peak power rates which differ for the different countries and regions of the world. 8. T h e utility demand charge is about 8 $ kW-'. I f these prove good enough. Lead-acid battery energy storage systems in the railway transport network In San Diego (USA). A considerable part of this kinetic energy can be recuperated. B o t h are acsociated w i t h high power demands. During acceleration periods. Of course. The running train represents a storage system for kinetic energy. the remaining railway substations w i l l also be equipped w i t h similar LABES facilities.3. T h i s facility i s designed for purely demonstration purposes: t o determine technical parameters and economical benefits. an Exide 200 kW traction type gelledelectrolyte battery i s under construction in a light r a i l transit system t o meet peak power demand during morning and evening commuter r u s h hours.stalling the LABES facility. the m o n t h l y peak demand was reduced by 300 kW. A few years of service o n l y are enough for the facility to become profitable . T h e public transportation system (PTS) in a given c i t y is always in competition w i t h individual transportation. 91 . a h i g h power rate is needed.
much of the braking energy has t o be damped in braking resistors. 45. BVG has been using t w i n cars w i t h onboard power converters t o transform the dc current t o ac energy and feed three-phase asynchronous motors. T h e B e r l i n subway system (100 km) has a t o t a l power demand of about 60 MW. which could then be utilized for meeting p a r t of the accelerating energy needs . 92 . German experts recommend that storage should be as close as possible t o the energy source . It has been established that one rail car only regenerates about 50% of the acceleration energy. For o p t i m u m energy recuperation.0. they can store about 20% of the braking energy. the ac energy is converted i n t o dc one and is fed back t o the network again. To avoid this.O F . Since there are many rail cars o n the line. I f however BES facilities are installed at the substations. which niay create very high voltage in the conductors. Since 1982. On braking of the r a i l cars. Current-velocity-time diagram .50 energy Fig. A model block diagram of such a substation is presented in Fig. at a certain moment they may regenerate such a great aniount of braking energy. 46.
Fig. sophisticated management and control i s necessary t o guarantee reliable operation of t h e battery for this specific electric transport application.O. Secondly. 93 . A m o d e l of t h e BES facility at t h e subway s u b s t a t i o n . T h e b a t t e r y i s connected in parallel t o t h e rectifier and acts as a voltage buffer. t h e dispersed LABES systems on t h e dc busbar lines provide emergency power and trains can leave t h e t u n n e l and stop at t h e n e x t subway station. 46. T h e use of braking energy recuperation may lead first' to reduction of t h e unit size of t h e rectifier stations since t h e acceleration power can partially b e supplied by battery storage systems. BES facilities serve also as emergency power sources. T h e share of current provided by t h e b a t t e r y depends on t h e ratio between t h e internal resistances of t h e rectifier and t h e battery. Since battery resistance varies depending on t h e stateof-charge and t h e cycle life. T h i s can b e achieved i f bat. In t h e case of failure of t h e public supply network.tery storage facilities are dispersed to a great number of stops and are connected t o t h e d c busbar line.
a nonhomogeneous and uncontrolled concentration distribution of electrolyte w i t h i n the active block. and an equalizing long charge is carried o u t at the end of each week. a special charging mode has been introduced. and impede the dissipation o f heat during high-power battery operation. On the other hand. Since H2S04 is an active material.9. they w i l l consolidate the positions of lead-acid batteries in this business field as compared t o other electrochemical power sources. which makes them especially suitable for battery energy storage. In order t o reduce or totally eliminate this adverse effect. in their 300 k W / 6 0 0 kWh BES facility. . and n o forced circulation is possible. even though slowly. T h i s stimulated the wider application of these batteries. Since convection o f the electrolyte in VRLA batteries is strongly inhibited. At present. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for b a t t e r y energy storage systems Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries (VRLA) are maintenancefree. batteries w i t h gelled electrolyte and those w i t h adsorbed glass mat. two m a j o r problems arise during battery operation which are inter-related: a) Electrolyte immobilization creates. T h e y w i l l reduce significantly operation and maintenance costs of BES systems. The first VRLA batteries were employed by Johnson Controls I n c . two types of VRLA batteries are under test. b) T h e non-uniform reaction rate distribution and the immobilization of the electrolyte in the active block b r i n g about a thermal non-homogeneity in the cells. T h i s affects battery capacity and cycle life. and thus improve their competitiveness w i t h other energy storage options. These batteries used gelled electrolyte and displayed very good performance during their three years of service. a non-uniform distribution of reaction rates in this block occurs.
YUASA describes i t s 3000 Ah VRLA battery for stationary service. At the Plasma Physics Laboratory in Princeton. Sonnenschein has requested the introduction of i t s VRLA batteries in traction service. which saves floor space and facilitates battery thermal management blowing air i n t o the cells. Highperformance Hagen VRLA batteries are in stand-by service. but even at this stage. another process also occurs in VRLA batteries. Smaller size and height o f the cells are recommended for high-current operating modes. In addition t o the irreversible processes typical for flooded lead- acid cells (grid corrosion. 95 . this process can proceed first. d r y i n g o u t of the cell. VRLA batteries are preferred by a number of energy producers and consumers. All these problems are in the process of being solved. sulfatization. a 15 MW/5 MWh LABES plant is t o use VRLA batteries. Assembling of VRLA cells in a battery i s often accomplished by vertical stacking. T h i s would allow construction of unmanned maintenance-free BES facilities managed by remote control systems. and limit battery life. etc. Special requirements are claimed t o the charging mode and the thermal management of the battery. active mass shedding.). Rand and Baldsing  have reported encouraging performance results o f gelled-electrolyte cells employed for remote-area power suppiy duties. In San Diego. What is more. shortcircuits. an Exide traction type gelled electrolyte battery has been installed in a light rail transit system. An ever-more pronounced tendency is observed in the w o r l d battery industry for utilization of VRLA batteries for deep cycling in BES systems. The Japanese Storage B a t t e r y Company is also very active in this field. especially on valve failure or excessive over-charge.Possible solutions t o the above defects are sought in cell construction modifications.
T h i s is due t o the high operating flexibility and very short response t i m e provided by lead-acid battery plants. dust. All these functions provide dynamic power benefits resulting in improved quality of the energy delivered. T h e i r importance is becoming increasingly evident . LABES plants provide pronounced environmental benefits as compared t o combustion turbine peak plants. harmful emissions f r o m these power plants w i l l cause considerable environmental pollution of the neighboring towns. I t is economically effective t o build peak power plants w i t h oil/gas-fired combustion turbines w i t h i n the boundaries of populated centers.10. The o n l y environmental impacts of these plants are related t o the baseload generating units that supply the charging power. LABES plants themselves are clean and quiet. Some o f these advantages w i l l be discussed below. and can be used for peak-shavirig as well. Strategic advantages o f B E S systems T h e implementation of BES systems in the power industry offers the following m a j o r benefits and advantages: Load-levelling (energy storage). efficiency of power transmission and distribution networks. 96 . and economy as a whole. emitted as a result o f the combustion process reach the populated areas in strongly reduced concentrations. In this case. CO1. Strategic advantages. It is general practice t o locate baseload power plants burning coal or nuclear fuel away f r o m populated centers. however. In this way the pollutants. D y n a m i c power response. These are more general in nature and have their impact o n environmental protection. Considerable cost-effective benefits are provided by utilizing low-cost energy f r o m the baseload generating utilities for meeting expensive peak energy demands. These benefits cannot be directly measured but can be estimated by mathematical calculation and modelling. CO? and NO. These plants are capable of supplying electric power for frequency control and instantaneous power reserve.
When combustion turbines are replaced by BES plants this instability of energy costs i s strongly reduced or eliminated. these losses will be reduced. and the transmission system is heavily loaded . 97 . power stability in t h e transition and distribution network is improved considerably owing t o the short response time o f BEC plants. economical and other factors. which i s a strong financial benefit. So far. In general. T h e costs of o i l and gas fuels used by peak power generation plants depend o n political. As is known. T h e full range of benefits provided by BEC systems in the energetics have n o t yet been completely studied. a n d are very unstable. BES systems have shown promising performance and w i l l obviously become an important element of the modern power supply system. Another iniportant cost benefit is provided by the modular design of BES plants. by shaving t h e peak load transmitted. only a small number of BES systems have been constructed throughout the world and these are mostly in the demonstration stage. the difference between the on-peak and off-peak loads is high. BESP allow deferral of capital costs for the construction o f new transmission and distribution capacities. energy losses are proportional t o the current squared. Additionally. But even at this i n i t i a l stage of demonstration tests and experimental operation.W h e n BES plants are installed at t h e utility distribution substation. B a t t e r y units are comprised of small modules allowing any load increase t o be met quickly and fully by installing additional modules w i t h i n a very short time. charging generators are more distant f o r m t h e load than BES plants. BES plants or facilities are m u c h easier t o site at any p o i n t in the populated centers than combustion turbine facilities. transmission and distribution losses are significantly reduced and the stability of the network is improved. or BES facilities are located in the vicinity o f the consumer. greater benefits will be achieved if BES plants are located close t o the loads. and hence by decreasing and equalizing the current. Finally.
Tanaka.C. “Batteries for Utility Energy Storage”. Takahashi from the Government Industrial Research Institute in Osaka. Y. 5. Nakayama. T. New Port Beach. Furune. California. Sakamoto. References 1. EPRI 1989. Nakayama. T. consultant t o ILZRO. E. 1989. USA. Conf. Japan Industrial Technology Association. T. S. veloping Brochure. 1989. Tada. H. The Moonlight Project DeNew Technologies for Energy Conservation. Sera. Outline of the New Facilities of Tatsumi Electric Energy Storage System Test Plant. International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) Project LE-363. Sakamoto. Yamamoto. T. Brochure. California. W. Tada. 2. “Batteries for Utility Energy Storage”. Spindler. Y. T. M. and Dr. New Port Beach. 1989. 98 . 2nd Int. 2nd Int. Conf. 1989. W. 4. T. in providing the necessary literature.Acknowledgements T h e author would like t o acknowledge the kind assistance o f Dr. Oota. T. 3. Spindler. Monitor and Control System to the New Facilities of Tats u m i Electric Energy Storage System Test Plant. M. Tanaka.C. Sera. Why Lead-Acid Batteries for Energy Storage. ~ Energy Storage: How t h e New Options Stack up. and also for helpful discussions o n the problems of battery energy storage systems. Japan.
Barak. Pitman. Montalenti. p. Conf. eds.L.9. Power Sources 8 (J.).J. 99 . Osaka. Satoh. Development of t h e Zinc/Chlorine Battery for Utility Applications.A. p. “Batteries for Utility Energy Storage” NEDO. Bellows. 8. 15. 3rd Int. McNicol. eds. 14. D. Sudworth.A.J. p. P. EPRI EM-1051 (Project 226-3). BEWAG. 2nd Ed. p. 11. Japan. Elsevier. Elsevier.A.D. in Power Sources for Electric Vehicles (B. 1991. T h e Sodium Sulfur Battery (J.D. D. 1964.. 721. 7. Satoh. P. T.R. London. 1984. Chapman and Hall. 13. W. Peter Peregrinius. 251.).6. Rand. EPHI. B. Pavlov. 252. Grimes. 16. Symons. Zinc/Halogen Battery. Sudworth. Storage Batteries. McNicol. 12. 1980. 1984. Overview of Performances of Candidate Battery Systems. p.W. in Power Sources for E l e c t r i c Vehicles (B. P. Nakayama.D.). Proc. 1979. 10.G. K. Amsterdam. in Power Sources 9 (J. 601. G. S.L.A. Rand.Hiramatsu. Sunu. 1981. p. D. Burrows. 621. Warde. Kobe. Thomson. Tiller. ed. R e p o r t NEDO-OS-8801. 9. Itoh. 1984.G.J.). A. Government Industrial Research Institute. T. Amsterdam.). eds. Japan. D. Electrochemical Power Sources. Rand.J. Report 6. p. N. J. Smith. R&D Evaluation on Energy Storage Batteries for Power Systems in Japan. Amsterdam. in Power Sources for Electric Vehicles (B. Thomson. D. P. 111. 1982. ed. Academic Press. Fucuta. p. Hirabayaski. Rand. McNicol. Stevenage. H. 49. Carr. T. eds. 1985. S.). C. M.J. Elsevier. R.Takahashi. Part 1-4. London.
cells”. BEWAG. K. Ruetchi. Design of a 10 MW/50 MWh Lead-Acid Load-Levelling Battery. 84-14. Oxford. Nelson. Pavlov. US Patent 4. Electrochem. Progress in Batteries and Solar Cells. 4th Int. 3rd Int.L. 25. 1977. Takahashi.C. K. CA. B. W. A. March issue.B. Petrov. Conf. 28. Durant.M. 1968. p. I . W. Tarantino. 187. T. Peters. Power Sources.Collins.R. p. 18. Papazov. in Rechargeable Batteries in Japan (Y. Chreitzberg. G. G. A.L. EPRI.F.17. . H. K. Ockermann. 1991.I. Technol. p. eds. D.C. Shiomi. San Francisco. 26. 1977. K. eds. Funato. Kozawa. vol. 27.. R. 746 (1989). Nikolova. ed. USA. 451. JEC Press Inc. Tsubota. Nikolov. Conf. Proc. 22. Pergamon Press. Tuphorn in Advances in Lead-Acid Ba tte ri e s (K. 20. M. G. 291. I<. “Energy Denver.H. J. 441. 1. “Batteries for Utility Energy Storage”. ibid. p. I. Spindler.H. USA. Int.Pavlov. Harrison. Brilmyer. Kobe.. Proc.IC Mahato.). 33 (1991) 145. 1990.R. p. F. Cook. Technical Leaflet 20 M3/77. EPRI Journal. 19. 31. Wierschem. Soc. T . Mahato. p. K. T h e Electrochem. Japan. 24. G.. M. P. Power Sources 2 (D. Bullock. D. Pennington. USA. V. Berlin. Morris.). 4 (1966) 383. B. Gates Energy Products. J. 1988. 1987. ILZRO Lead-Acid Battery Seminar. 925. 23. Okada. 1984. 29. NJ.H. Miyake and A.K. p. Baeringen. Bullock. Bullock and D.R. Inc. 6 (1987) 136.M. 1. 21. “Batteries for Utility Energy Storage” NEDO. Vitanov.).
3rd Int. LEA. T h e BEWAG 8. Proc. CA. W. 1990. 1989. Rodriguez. S. Int. 1990. H. Operating t h e World’s Largest Lead-Acid Battery Energy Storage System. 1989. 101 . Corif. G. K.S.S. Eckroad. Japan. Brilmyer.C. Anaheim. 35. CA. 37. Orlando. ~ 33. Kramer.. 4th ABC CSU Conf. Batteries International. 269. Edison Embarks on Another F i r s t : The Chino 10 MW Battery Energy Storage Project. 16 (3) (1987) 1.D. Berlin. Scarvaci. 31. D. R.30. W. Berger. 1 (4) (1990) 36. R.5/17 MW Battery Energy Storage Demonstration Plant. P. Florida. Kramer. D. Dominik. 1988. R. Abstract 16.. K. Kobe. Paris. Brilmyer. G. Spindler. G. W. Proc. Spindler. ILZRO Lead-Acid Battery Seminar. Carr. Lead Battery Power for the 90s Conf. 34. H. Voigt. W. Spindler. EPRI. Abstract 14. Conf. 1987 (BEWAG-EPRI-NEDO). Operating t h e World’s Largest LeadLong Beach Acid Battery Energy Storage System. BEWAG Plan Berlin’s New System.C. G. San Francisco. Batteries International.Saupe.C.G. 4th Int. p. l(4) (1990) 32. ILZRO Lead-Acid Battery Seminar. Rodriguez. BEWAG. 36. “Batteries for Utility Energy Storage”.. Industrial Applications of Large Lead-Acid Batteries for Emergency and Peak Power Demand. USA.D. Rodriguez.G. 39. 38. Hamann.. World Lead-Zinc-Tin Syniposium ’90.D. 1991. Research Newsletter.Naser. Carr. G. Lead-Acid Battery in U S E l e c t r i c a l Load-Levelling Applications. Batteries for Utility Energy Storage NEDO. 32. B. 1988. Paris. Lead Battery Power for t h e 90s Conf. Applications and Economics of Battery Energy Storage Systems. 38.
3rd Int. 1991. W. Hinrichs. 42.J. D. 1 (4) (1990) 18. T. Conf. EPRI.J. Baldsing. Kobe.B. B. 23 (1988) 233. Japan. 1991.Conf. Power Sources. 519. Shainker. Batteries International. Rand. 43.G. 3rd 1nt.Voight.G.A. B. R. Proc. Japan. Mierke. Proc. Kramer. K. Kobe. Batteries for Utility Energy Storage NEDO. 44. Voight. J. BEWAG.A. “Batteries for Utility Energy Storage” (BEWAG-EPRI-NEDO). H. 102 .41. 519. p. p.
82 13.0032 4. m a n k i n d is now faced w i t h a crucial problem whose solution w i l l determine i t s future.5 A number of modern internal combustion engined (ICE) vehicles use appropriate catalytic cartridges that improve fuel combustion.Chapter 2 ENERGY STORAGE S Y S T E M S FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES G. CO NO2 Pb so2 dust 1.96 0.7 1. T h i s problem is the environmental p o l l u t i o n caused by human activities.003 1. tons % 56 44 68 52 98.5 95.1 0.0062 4.5 0.06 0.022 4..4 0. E r i c h Sauer [il illustrates the impact of industry and transport on the environment in terms of harmful gas emissions measured in Germany in 1980 (Table 1). tons CH . Table 1.56 0.5 Transport min. Harmful gas emissions in Germany Type of pollutant Industry min.04 0. or 103 . PAPAZOV 1.00 2. M o t o r vehicles and environmental pollution O w i n g t o the continuous development of h u m a n society and rapid technological progress.3 1.478 0.02 5. taons [il % 44 56 32 48 1.5 Total mln.8 7.
e.042 Despite the ten-fold decrease in the quantity o f some pollutants. l ) .039 0. T h e data presented in Table 2 are average values for the various gas emissions. T h e exhaust gas emission depends also o n the travel speed o f the ICE vehicle and this relationship is illustrated in Fig. for shopping.010 0.999 3. 2 [ l ] . M o s t of t h e t i m e a car is used in urban conditions: for driving t o w o r k and b x k home. temperature increase. Specific gas emissions of ICE vehicles ~ [il.253 22. T a b l e 2. during leisure time. being largest during the day w h e n urban traffic is most intense [l]. i. T h e above tables d o not include data o n carbon dioxide which i s t h e end-product o f fuel conibiistion. b o t h daytime and nighttime (Fig. With catalyst g km-' Type of p o l l u t a n t W i t h o u t catalyst g km-' CnHm CO NOz Pb 2.2 0. T h i s COL is accumulated in t h e atmosphere contributing t o the so-called "greenhouse effect".66 0. These emissions differ in magnitude at different hours.264 0.28 2.035 0. etc. Table 2 presents quantitative comparative data on t h e adverse emissions released p e r kilometer both with and without catalysts [l]. Evolution of harmful gases (except for KOz) is reduced increasing t h e travel speed.employ lead-free petrol fuels.0 so2 dust 0. City driving means travelling at a low speed with frequent halts 104 . the amount of harmful exhaust gas emissions f r o m cars o n a worldwide basis i s measured in millions of tons.039 0.
according t o t h e above-mentioned data. 2. In other words. I t is greatest in areas with considerable con- 105 . 1. Fig. which.ribution of gas emissions [l].Fig. is associated w i t h a several-fold increase of the harmful gas emissions in populated regions. environmental pollution caused by the transport i s n o t uniformly distributed over the earth’s surface. 24-hour dist. Dependence of gas emission o n vehicle speed [l] and starts and low operational engine speed.
and driven by the energy generated by an electrochemical power source.centrations of human masses.000 ICE automobiles are replaced by electric vehicles. given in averaged values. 2. a battery-driven car reached the then unthinkable speed of 106 km h-l. A record r u n n i n g speed of 63. 6000 electric vehicles were built in the USA in 1912. large-scale introduction of electric vehicles i s one of the basic ways of reducing the environmental impact of noxious gases and noise. Specification o f energy storage systems for electric vehicles T h e t e r m electric vehicle indicates any rail-less. the ecological problem related t o the noxious gas emission f r o m transport vehicles is n o t so much a problem of the environment. range between battery charges 50-80 km. autonomous vehicle. the amount of toxic gas emissions w i l l be reduced by 20-30%.5%. independent of external systems. speed 106 . We can regard as ancestor of the modern electric vehicle the transp o r t vehicle devised by the Americans Devenpator and Page in 1837 . and the noise level in the cities w i l l decline significantly .000. Thus. a number of electric-driven taxi cabs were o n the road in London.3 km h-' was achieved by an electric car in 1898. and only a year later. p e t r o l consumption w i l l decrease by about 3. t h i s problem acquires crucial importance and i t s solution becomes a question of the survival of our civilization. I f 7. T h e basic characteristics. of the battery-driven cars produced in 1923 are as follows: payload 200-250 kg. In 1897. At the present moment. Literature data evidence the invention of another electric vehicle by Robert Davidson f r o m Scotland in the same year . in France. Bearing in mind that motor vehicles release millions of tons of harmful gases daily. T h e first Russian elect r i c vehicle appeared also in 1899. but rather a problem of people's health and of the genetic stock of mankind.
average distance the run by a motor car varies w i t h mission. all above-mentioned 107 . interest in electric driven transport vehicles was revived. owing t o the Oil Crisis. the electric car exhibited i t s basic disadvantages associated niairily w i t h the chemical power source used for energy generation. 94. After the 1920s.5% of the yearly distance run is comprised of such short-range travels. water and nuclear power stations cannot be used directly for automobile propulsion. except for the holiday journeys. What are motor vehicles utilized for o n a worldwide basis. it turns o u t that 90% of al1 travels are at a distance below 25 km. however. electric vehicles began t o lose their positions in the competition w i t h ICE automobiles. the average range of a single travel is less than 20 km. T h e longrange journey (650 km) for holidays accounts for o n l y 5. and electric energy generated by thermal. the attent i o n of automobile users and producers towards the electric-driven car marked a certain rise again.5% o f the t o t a l travelling distance during the year.20-35 kin h-’. Accounting for the fact that o i l resources are finite. battery energy 10-18 kWh at a b a t t e r y weight of about 750-780 kg . and how? According t o E. By t h e end of the decade. it becomes evident that the future belongs t o electric vehicles driven by electrochemical power sources. In the mid-60s. environmental pollution is largely caused by the exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines. Sauer’s investigations [il. T h e data show that. In the course of t h e numerous development and demonstration progranis that followed. On the other hand. T h i s is illustrated in Table 3 which gives d a t a (measured for 1975) about the diverse-task range distribution of automobiles. however. K n o w i n g the frequency of the various range travels. and a number of developnient and improvement projects in this field t o be interrupted. T h e reduced petrol costs at the beginning of the 1980s once again caused interest in the electric vehicles t o decline.
3 31.2 15.4 km or 12.200 krn per year.9 3. T h e above data refer t o Germany.7 685. km % of t h e y e a r l y distance range 23.7 18.7 km each and an average speed of up t o 60 km h-l. T h e da. T h e energy consumption of a V W .1 13.0 5. other types of electric vehicles. i. but these deviations f r o m the above average values are unlikely t o be so significant as t o impose substantial changes o n the overall picture.0 7. at a limited speed of up t o 60 km h-'. [il.9 11. T h e first question is which type of power source is capable of supplying this energy? A summary of the basic performance characteristics of various electrochemical power sources i s presented in Table 6. which may be considered as o p t i m u m utilization of the vehicle What is the energy needed t o ensure this optimal usage of the automobile? Table 4 presents data o n the basic power characteristics o f some types o f motor cars [1.5]. there might be some specific features in the utilization of motor vehicles. It can thus be assumed that a car performs t w o trips daily at an average distance of 16. For other countries.G o l f CitySTROMers electric vehicle for a range of 100 km is presented in Table 5 [l].4 trips. w i t h the exception of the holiday journey.5 11. the energy demand For varies f r o m 30 t o 50 k W h / 1 0 0 km [3. are accomplished in urban conditions. 108 . Single t r a v e l range. T r a v e l mission and range d i s t r i b u t i o n Travel mission professional educational business shopping leisure time holidays [il.e.ily distance run is 33.4 24.T a b l e 3.6].
km h-' Energy.5 20 - 1200 ~ 250 - [lo1 181 11 9 [71 11 11 208 500 109 .0 T a b l e 6. E n e r g y c o n s u m p t i o n p e r 100 km of t r a v e l l i n g range.0 24. kWh/100 km 50 21.3 37.0 12.0 T a b l e 5.6 c i t y driving 30. B a s i c performance characteristics of various types o f batteries. kW Automobile type C i t r o e n C15 VW-Golf 18. Characteristics Peugeot 205 Maximum power. Electrochemical p o w e r source Specific energy Wh kg-' Specific power W kg-' Cycle life References Improved Pb/acid Gelled P b / a c i d Golf t r a c t i o n P b / a c i d Tubular P b / a c i d 37 26 30 34.5 70 27.T a b l e 4. kW R a t e d power.7 23. Power characteristics o f several a u t o m o b i l e types. Speed.5 12.7 55 70 40 55 52 106 72 175 60 105 95 96 108 176 318 323 161 161 161 161 161 I61 161 161 171 EV-5T HED-88 Ni/Zn Ni/Zn Ni/Fe Ni/Fe 112 218 ~ > 850 > 100 195 - 163 - > 650 ~ Ni/Cd Allair Zn/Br Na/S Li/MoSz 200 6.0 16.
W kg-' Fig. 1 0 1 0 20 3 0 4 0 5 0 7 0 i o o Specific pciwer. 3. As t o the latter. T h e energy needed for electric vehicle propulsion depends o n the car weight and the travelling range.Figure 3 illustrates the basic power and energy parameters of some o f t h e above-mentioned electrochemical power sources . Power and energy characteristics of several t y p e s of batteries. it is evident that alkaline nickel cells have better energy capacity than lead-acid storage batteries. I t can be seen that non-aqueous-electrolyte batteries ( l i t h i u m and sodium/sulfur cells) show considerably higher energy performances than aqueous-electrolyte power sources. and it can be determined from the following equation: 110 .
the maximum power of an electric vehicle is about 17-19 W kg-'. and L i s the distance range in km. Thus. for a 1600 kg electric vehicle t o cover a distance of 100 km.95).600 Wh kg-' . i t can be pointed o u t that the energy needed for covering t h e same travelling range of 100 krn could be supplied by aboiit 3 k g of gasoline w i t h specific energy of 11. I s is evident f r o m the d a t a in the table. The results obtained are summarized in Table 7. t h e value of K i s estimated at 0. etc. When all side factors of travelling. 24 kWh of energy will b e required supplied by an electrochemical power source. t h a t battery weight cornprises a considerable p a r t (25 t o 50%) of the t o t a l car weight. K i s the specific energy needed for transportation of 1 kg o f weight at a distance of 1 km measured in Wh kg-' km-'. and the average power at constant speed i s about 12-13 W kg-' . additional power i s also needed t o compensate for the energy losses during conversion o f the electrical t o mechanical energy (efficiency ca. and also during transmission of this mechanical energy t o the car wheels (efficiency ca.120. and for overcoming friction and aerodynamic drag. Using the data presented in Table 6 we could calculate t h e weight of t h e various batteries that could supply t h e power needed for this 100 kni range of the vehicle. 0.(1 ) E=KGL where E is the energy delivered by the power source measured in Wh. e d friction. For comparison. are taken i n t o consideration.15 Wh kg-' km-' . 111 . 0.. Let us assume that a 4-seat electric car needs an average power of 20 kW and an energy of 30 kWh for covering a road distance o f 100 km. G is the weight of the vehicle in kg. aerodynamic drag. W h e n operated in urban driving conditions.7). Besides. The t o t a l power delivered by the storage b a t t e r y is utilized for vehicle acceleration.
the range of the electric vehicle w i t h o u t charging of the battery can be determined f r o m eyn (2): L. Calculated battery weight.- WM KG T h e range is directly proportional t o the specific energy and the weight of the battery. depends o n the energy capacity of the power source. and the car weight.Table 7. K n o w i n g that the energy of the power source can be expressed by the specific energy W (Wh kg-') and the battery weight M (kg). and inversely dependent o n the car weight. according t o eqn (l). A graphic representation of this dependence for a 1200 kg electric vehicle (excluding battery weight and including 320 kg payload) using 112 . needed for 100 km travelling range. T y p e of power source Battery weight kg Improved Pb/acid Gelled Pb/acid Golf traction Pb/acid Tubular Pb/acid 810 1154 1000 875 796 545 750 577 283 417 500 EV-5T HED-88 Ni/Zn Ni/Fe Ni/Cd Al/air Zn/Br Li/MoSz T h e range of the electric vehicle.
that increasing the t o t a l car weight leads t o reducing the relative share of the payload transported by the vehicle. the t o t a l car weight is also increased.lead-acid batteries (W = 30 Wh kg-') of various b a t t e r y weight. here. 4. except . T h e obtained values for the maximum theoretical range for various types of electrochemical power sources w i t h K = 0. Using this formula. 3oom 700 900 il00 Battery weight. As evident f r o m the table. however.i. That is. according t o eqn (2). 4. is twice 113 . the longer the range between battery charges.for the Al/air and Na/C batteries which provide for longer ranges. the distance covered by the vehicle when M = G. the m a x i m u m theoretical range of an electric vehicle driven by various types of power sources varies w i t h i n the l i m i t s 200-400 km. It i s evident that t h e greater the battery weight.e. w i l l shorten the travelling range. when only the battery i s being transported. the remaining car weight being negligible. With increasing the weight of t h e battery. kg Fig. we can determine the maximum theoretical range of a b a t t e r y driven electric vehicle.15 Wh kg-' km-' are presented in Table 8. Dependence of electric vehicle r a n g e on b a t t e r y weight. The actual range. which. I t should also be noted. of course. is given in Fig.
Table 8. Calculated maximum range for various types of batteries. Type of power source Specific energy Maximum range
Improved Pb/acid Gelled Pblacid
Golf traction Pb/acid
Tubular Pb/acid EV-5T
37 26 30 34.3 37.7 55 70
247 173 200 229 251 367 467 267 367 347 707 480 1167
Ni/Zn Ni/Zn Ni/Fe
Zn/Br Na/S Li/MoSz
t o four times smaller than t h e theoretical one, because the vehicle h s a a considerable gross weight, o n the one hand, and should transport maximum payload, o n the other hand. Hence, the problem of the o p t i m u m ratio between the battery and vehicle weight arises. I f this relation is determined o n the basis of the existing operational electric vehicles, it w i l l show t h a t the power source weight accounts for 25-
40% of the gross car weight. In this case, the actual travelling range of the vehicle is respectively 25 t o 40% o f the theoretical one. When discussing the energy performance of electric vehicles, the
problem of o p t i m u m energy utilization should also be given consideration. Thus, for example, the efficiency of internal combustion en-
gines is about 25--30'% [ 3 ] . wliich means that from t l i c 11,600 Wli kg-' specific energy of gasoline only about 3500 Wli kg-' arc u t i l i z e d for vehicle propulsion. T h e operating efficiency of electric trwctiori systems is much higher rcaching up t,o 85% [ 3 ] . Beside tlicw iicgligiblc energy losses, electric traction systems allow easy and snioot,li regulation and control of t h e travelling speed. Sonic dynamic parameters of the electric vehicles are also w o r t h discussing hcrc, c.g. maximum speed and acceleration rate (Table 9), that are determined by the energy characteristics of the battery.
T a b l e 9. Some d y n a m i c parameters of electric vehicles. Electric vehicle Peugeot 205 Citroen C15 VW-Golf ErAZ-3732 VA Z -2801 M a x . speed T i m e for accclcrating
f r o m O t o 50 km lip', c
100 80 100 60 -
11.6 11.6 13.0
Pl I1 1
* (0-60 km h-I)
By their dynamic parameters, electric vehicles are considerably
inferior t o ICEVs. On the other hand, being designed for predominant c i t y driving, electric vehicles show adequate speed and acceleration performances t h a t meet the requirements set by the conditions of operation. These facts are of utmost importance in assessing the prospects for future EV development. T h e second crucial problem t h a t needs adequate solution i s the problem of battery charging. The fuel in the tank of an ICE vehicle supplies useful power for a travelling range o f about 500-600 krn and refuelling at t h e petrol station takes only a couple of minutes.
Charging of the electric vehicle battery usually requires several hours, and t l i c duration of charging is often twice or three times longer than t h e discharge period, i.e. the t i n i e of utilization o f the car. T h i s results in a cyclic profile of operation o f the electric vehicle, the time of rcst being much longcr than the driving time. It has been suggested that, similar to petrol stations, battery charging stations should be
built along the motor roads, where discharged electric vehicle batteries would be l r f t for charging and replaced by ready-for-use charged ones. This idea is hardly feasible, because, o n the one hand, it presupposes unification of all EV power sources used, i.e. employment of t h e same type of battery by all electric vehicles, and, o n the other
liaiid, the nuniber of batteries needed w i l l be at least three times the iiumber of electric vehicles o n the road.
On the basis of the &ta given in Table 3, the average daily
range [l], the distance covered without battery charge, and the cyclic mode of EV utilization, it can be concluded that electric vehicles can meet all travelling requirements, except the long range of the holiday travel. The elcctric vehicle is used for the purposes outlined in Table 3 usually during the day, so charging of i t s battery could be performed at night, when the car i s at rest. As regards l o n g distance trips, public transport such as trains, buses or airplanes, could be used in these cases. T h e problem of the restricted freedom and m o b i l i t y asso-
ciated w i t h the use of public transport could be easily solved first by
employing petrol-engined automobiles for long-distance travel, and
later by combining the use o f public transport for long-range trips
and rent-a-car electric vehicles for local transportation.
T h e third problem w i t h electric vehicle efficiency is related t o the life of the battery used for propulsion. I f the day-night cycle mode of the electric vehicle is assumed, then the b a t t e r y should endure
365 cycles per year. T h e data f r o m Table 6 show that only Ni/Cd,
in other words t. T h e second aspect of t h e bat tcry cost proi>leiii i s rclatcd to t. of t l i c battery.lic> cricrgy cost 1)cr 1Wh or per 1 lim. T a b l e 10.263* 1.366 [ill * Data calculated for energy c o n s i i m p t i o i i of 0.4g/zi1 battery has a liigli specific energy (120 Wh kg-') ensuring a travelling range of 300 krri. giving the costs per 1 kWh of energy arid 1 kni of range for severai types of electrochemical powcr sources. T h u s for example.220* 0. i s excluded f r o m t h e list of candida. There are two aspects of this problem. 11s $ per 1 kW1i per 1 lai Rcfcrciicrs Pb/acid Ni/Cd Molicel 0. while t l i c vehicle's price without battery would be about 10.tes for EV powcr sources. in spite of i t s liigli energy perforrriaiice. Unfortunately.Ni/Fe and tubular Pb/acid batteries can ensure 2-3 years of vehicle operation without battery change.000 roubles .079 0. And last but not least in importance i s t h e problem of battery cost. Specific energy costs for sornc t y p e s of b a t t e r i e s .387' 0. T h e first refers t o t h e cost of t h e battery as related t o t h e cost of t h e electric vehicle without battery. llÏ . On t h e other hand.30 k W 1 i km-'. Type of battery c o s t . prices of coiiiiiiercially available batteries vary coiisiderahly for thc various coiiiitrics. but i t s price would b e about 100. t h e . That is the I(~asoii why t h e Ag/Zn battery. it i s \-cry difficult to nialie a precise energy cost assessment since a great part of t l i c elcctroclieniical p o w e r sources are still in t h e prototype phase of devclopmciit a i i c i have no specified market price.116 Pl [SI 0.lic total lifetime energy cost. T h i s i s well illustrated by t l i c data presentccl in Talilcs 10 and 11 bc~low.000 roubles.
0 In spite of t h e incomplete and sometimes contradictory data available.4 0.0 1.30 N i /Zi i Ni/Hi Pb02/Hz Zn/Br Na/S 2. N i / F e batteries need improvement of cell cooling (by electrolyte circulation. fuel-cells employing platiiiuni metals as catalysts are characterized by high weight and large volume. Ni/Zn batteries have very short cycle life. Specific energy costs of some R u s s i a n batteries. t h e most appropriate battery t y p e for electric vehicle application has not been found yet.2 0. 02-0.2-0.0 5.02-0.0 0.04-0.06 0. 1550. for example). 1 o. short cycle life and complicated operation. it i s generally accepted that lead-acid and t o some extent Ni/Fe batteries are m o s t cost-effective for electric vehicle propulsion. Despite t h e numerous design improvements. alkaline batteries are ratlier expensive. roubles Versus P b / a c i d cost Pb/acid Ni/Cd Ni/Fe O.1-0.04 o. 1 5. Though there is a certain bias for one or t h e other t y p e of power source among experts in the field. Zn/Br cells require a coniplex system for operation monitoring and control. and morcovcr bromine is toxic and hence special safety measures .T h e costs (in roubles) per 1 kWh of energy delivered by batteries produced in t h e USSR are given in Table 11 .o 10.04 1. there are a number of unsolved design and technological problenis with high-temperature cells (Na/S). Type C o s t p e r 1 kWh. T a b l e 11. lead-acid batteries s t i l l remain heavy systems with ratlier low energy performance.o 5.0 0.
The technical requirements of the battery were as follows: o max. There is one comm o n feature uniting all research centers. weight o max. the basic target o f R&D activities in Germany and England are Na/S batteries. etc. life 0 0 700 kg 600 1 55 1iW 21 1 h . high-temperature batteries. Japanese researchers pay greater attention t o Na/S and Zn/Br. if n o t the ideal. flow and metal/air.are needed. T h e assessment was based o n designed power packs for an Improved Dual~ Shaft Electric Propulsion (IDSEP) Van. however. power min. Research activities are being carried o u t with increasing intensity. A l / a i r and Na/S batteries. for example. system voltage o min. Ni/Zn and Ni/Fe cells. Thus. suitable power source for electric vehicle propulsion. Consultants f r o m the US Department of Energy  have evaluated 24 types of batteries lead-acid. volume min. and that i s t h a t all of t h e m show a marked preference t o t h e lead-acid battery as their favourite electrochemical power source or as a reference stan- dard. investigations in France are concentrated o n Ni/Cd. etc. lithium batteries are the basic subject o f investigations in Canada. ambient-temperature Li. every research team having i t s own favourite t y p e o f battery. China  and I n d i a  have also initiated programs for the development o f lead-acid battery driven electric vehicles. R&D efforts in the USA are devoted m a i n l y t o fuel cells. the exotic metal/hydrogen batteries face t h e problems of self-discharge and safety . T h i s short overview o f deficiencies of the various types of electrochemical power sources does n o t mean that investigators have given up the idea o f finding at least t h e best. alkaline. energy o min. W 120 V 500 cycles 119 .
. Examples are the Ni/Fc batteries produced by Eagle-Picher Inc. 5 showing the suitability/techiiical risk relationship for 12 battery types applicable t o the IDSEP van . and Electrofuel M a n ufacturing Co. frequency. Chloride Silent Power Limited). but s t i l l lacki20 . T h e group of "medium-risk" technologies include Zn/Br and flowthrough lead-acid batteries developed by Johnson Controls Inc. singlecell failure. Concorde) and Na/S batteries (BBC/Powerplex Technologies Inc. T h e highest technical r i s k i s associated w i t h prototype batteries developed at universities and/or national laboratories. 0 DOD cycle life ~ o safety effects of normal and abnormal battery operation on passengers and public safety o abuse resistance effects of overcharge. Fe/air of Westinghouse Electric Corporation.. operat i o n and control o use of critical resources .use of i m p o r t makerials 0 user issues .energy vus. and Na/metal chloride systems developed j o i n t l y by Beta K&D Ltd. shock and vibration o dc-dc efficiency ~ 0 environmental impact . and complexity of routine maint eriance The results f r o m the performed analysis are illustrated in Fig.issues in battery manufacture. power 'us. power. Li/FeS technology pursued by G o u l d I n c . and Harwcll Laboratorics. overdischarge..type. sealed leadacid batteries (Electrosource Inc..T h e criteria for battery evaluation included: O cost o performance . As suitable "low-risk? battery types are assessed technologically mature power sources in iarge-scale production..
Lorv risk I Medium risk I High risk Technical risk Fig. t h e issue of energy (fuel) economy. T h e general conclusion from this assessment is that there is n o ideal battery technology for electric vehicle applications. and the bipolar lead-acid batteries designed by Ensi Inc. Risk/suitahiiity relationship for battery technologies [i-i]. i. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory’s Zn/air project. 5.e. and further research activities should be directed mainly at iniprovernent o f the above-mentioned battery types. Examples of such battery technologies are the Li/FeSz battery developed by the Argonne National Laboratory. Other problems concerning electric vehicle utilization are general issues relevant for all types o f automobiles. T h e simple conversion of a petrol-driven car t o an electric vehicle using the same basic construction would give a transport vehicle 121 . T h e problem of ICE t o electric vehicle conversion should also b e mentioned here. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. which can be reduced to considerable decrease in car weight and improvement of i t s aerodynamic shape. i n g a mature manufacturing technology.
w i t h poor user performance. for example. W h e n high-rate charge is performed (50 A). the battery does n o t reach i t s maximum capacity and has a short cycle life owing t o sulfatization of the plates. equal state-of-charge of all battery cells or modules. T h e results obtained are presented in Fig. At the battery Technology Center of the M e l l o n I n stitute. C h a r g e and capacity o f batteries for elect r i c vehicles Charging of batteries is accomplished by l e t t i n g electric current f r o m an external power source flow t o each battery cell. their cycle life is shortened. a 4 t o 5 seat car w i t h high speed and practically u n l i m i t e d range would be converted i n t o a two-seat electric vehicle w i t h l i m i t e d driving speed and l i m i t e d range. 6. This. but the service life of these batteries is t h e shortest. It is well k n o w n that i f lead-acid batteries are charged at a h i g h rate ( w i t h a high charge current). 3. however. The end of battery cycle life in this case is determined by corrosion of the positive battery plates. It turned o u t that t h e o p t i m u m charging current ensuring maximum cycle life of the battery is the current corresponding t o the 5-hour 122 . T h e charge current is the most i m p o r t a n t parameter in the process o f battery charging. It has been suggested  t h a t the design o f new constructions for electric vehicles is imperative. the effect o f charging current o n the performance parameters o f the Golf-car batteries has been investigated. Thus. would slow down and complicate the process of transition f r o m ICE t o battery driven vehicles. USA . battery capacity increases rapidly during the first 20 cycles. T h e charge current should guarantee complete charging of the individual battery plates. and adequate gas evolution at the end of charge ensuring proper stirring of the electrolyte. At very low charge currents (12 A).
O M loo 150 Life. avoiding unacceptable temperature rise and minimizing gas evolution. charging is carried o u t under constant-current conditions during the efficient stage. In this case. In this method. followed by a cross-over t o constant-voltage conditions when a defined voltage is reached (Fig. Battery charge should be performed at maximum charge acceptance. 123 . 7). cycles 200 n o Fig. Dependence of cycle life on c h a r g i n g r a t e (151 charge cycle. 6. A p p l y i n g constant-current charging modes does n o t seem t o be the most appropriate method for charging of batteries. the following t w o charging modes are recommended : a) Controlled I / V charging method. particularly. For electric vehicle applications. shedding o f the positive active mass is the life limiting factor.
A linear relationship is used provided t h e following conditions are satisfied: (a) the charging unit must be able t o provide the maximum current at a c e l l voltage 2.6 V per cell at the end of charge. t h e current must n o t exceed 8.5 V. and to reduce this t o a defined value on reaching 2. Batteries for electric vehicle propulsion consist of a large number of battery cells or modules connected in series. and n o damage w i l l be caused t o the battery.$:rq-J Current a e o o 1 2 3 Hours 4 5 u 2. Each cell or mod- ule has i t s o w n internal impedance different f r o m that of other cells 124 .2 2. and (b) at a voltage of 2. In this method.1 V.4 = 2. B a t te r y charge u n d e r controlled I / V c o n d i t i o n s  The value of the cell voltage i s selected t o give slight gas evolution and t o enable the battery t o be charged w i t h i n a short time period.01 O I 1 I I 2 3 Hours 4 I 5 I Fig. the ma'timum charging current is l i m i t e d by the cell voltage (Fig. 7 .33% Cg. the rate of gas evolution w i l l n o t surpass the permissible limit. b) Tapered charging method. Under these conditions. 8).
7. but near t h e end of charge. which determines the nori-uriifurm distribution of the charge voltage among the cells. t i m e [A].he water decomposition voltage more quickly and hence gas evolution will start in them.: -15 -10 z x u $ f 8 : s s -5 2 . while the process of charging will continue in the remaining cells.o O I I I I I 0 5 7 4 6 Hours 8 1 0 1 7 Fig.0 o k 5 1 0 I Chorger oulpul 2. and modules. Scientists at the University of Alabama at Huntsville  have devised an average voltage based control system. a sniall increase in voltage will cause a considerable increase in gassing and. (b) Cell voltage and charging current 71s. t h e energy consumption will grow significantly.0 Amperes per 1OOAh CCIpOC¡ly -20. This i s of n o importance at the beginning of charge. In this case. accordingly. 8. A microprocessor measures the voltage differences between the individual cells (modules) and controls t h e charge current so as to prevent reaching the gas evolution voltage in any of 125 . some of the cells will reach t. (a) híaximum current at the output of t h e taper charger us. c e l l voltage.
a quick high-current charging pulse is passed t o the battery of the electric driven bus. In this case. T h i s voltage control allows reduction o f the energy consumption and this in turn reduces the cost per km distance range of the electric vehicle.the cells. According t o the test results obtained. In the West German M a n n B u s program . T h i s battery charger is n o t t o o heavy. T h i s is especially important for maintenance-free batteries. which would allow recharging of the battery at any point of i t s route. is used as the source of electrical energy for a rapid charge of the vehicle battery. 126 . the batteries of the electric bus have performed well even after a hundred thousand bibberonnage charging cycles. 25530% more energy is needed than for the normal fast battery charge. The charger should possibly be i n stalled in the electric vehicle itself. a stationary battery pack. T h e effect o f these strong current pulses o n battery life has n o t yet been fully elucidated. In this way a better balance of charge is achieved between the cells and hence better performance characteristics of the battery are yielded. which has been previously recharged at a l o w rate. F r o m the above. In this way. provided there is power supply available. and i t s distance range is extended. W h i l e waiting at the bus stop for passengers t o get on. Charging takes about 20 min when the source battery has a voltage 20% higher than the rated value. about 20 kg against 1600 kg vehicle weight [l]. i t becomes clear that charging of batteries for electric vehicles cannot be carried o u t w i t h ordinary charging devices. M o d e r n chargers should be programmable. the so-called bibberonnage charging cycles have been demonstrated. partial charging of the battery is achieved. One way of shortening the charging t i m e may be the so-called fast battery-to-battery charge . For this type of fast battery-tobattery charge. w i t h built-in m i c r o p r e cessors and various sensors t o allow o p t i m u m charging depending o n the instant state o f the battery. would n o t degrade i t s performance and parameters.
9._ c U . Energy and power delivered by a lead-acid battery during pulseand constant-current discharge . It is considered t h a t charging methods. 9). 201. i t i s generally accepted however that bat- . though short-term. do not have such an impact o n battery cycle life [is]. peak power loads it is subjected to during high acceleration driving (on starting and overtaking). etc. 127 There are contradictory data about the effect of temperature on battery cycle life [19. It was found that pulsed discharge l i m i t s the energy provided by the battery at l o w specific power. Ï i r m 40 I L Ha . Analyses of the performance of lead-acid batteries as energy source for electric vehicles have shown that the primary factor responsible for t h e decline of battery parameters and for t h e end of b a t t e r y service life are the heavy.Bozek et al. duration of rest periods. Wh kg-’ Fig._ rl) 5 20 IO specific e n e r g y ..  have determined the effect of pulsed discharge o n the specific energy and power of a battery (Fig.
On the other hand. as a rule. hamper emission of t h i s heat i n t o t h e atmosphere. worsening of the contact between t h e particles of t h e negative active mass.Types o f cycles o f electric vehicle batteries T h e energy performance of an electrochemical power source depends on a number of factors among which discharge current. T h i s calls for t h e need for an adequate heating system that would provide p r e h e a t i n g of t h e battery a. temperature and riiimber of charge-discharge cycles are of primary importaiice. and impeded electrolyte diffusion are also factors causing the plate capacity to decrease. it i s assumed that t h e basic reason for t h i s is passivation of t h e plate . batteries operate under complex temperature conditions. In electric vehicle applications. Conventional b a t t e r y constructions. It i s evident f r o m t h e figure that t h e higher t h e discharge current and t h e lower t h e t.als with cycling. 4. At high temperature. Continuous refinement of t h e grain structure of t h e PbS04 cryst.t low surrounding temperatures. So b a t t e r y failure at l o w temperature operation i s due both to irreversible sulfatization of a few positive plates and t o morphological changes in t h e positive active mass.k r y failure depends on t h e temperature conditions of service. t h e failu r e i s associated with negative plate deterioration and positive grid corrosion [ X I ] .emperature. of energy delivered by t h e battery. 128 . and hence t h e temperature of t h e cells may rise t o unacceptable levels. Owing to the high discharge and charge currents. low b a t t e r y temperatures lead t o a sharp decrease in energy performance. considerable amounts o f Joule heat are released. t h e smaller t h e amount. A s t o the decline in negative plate capacity during cycling. Figure 10 shows t h e capacity curve of a lead-acid battery as a function of discharge current and temperature [il.
make 129 . As seen in t h e figure. 10. T h i s complex multi-factor dependence of b a t t e r y energy and power performance on t h e one hand. Dependence of b a t t e r y c a p a c i t y o11 discharge c u r r e n t and ternperature [il.C Fig. T h e dynamic characteristics of t h e electric vehicle are determined by t h e power performance of t h e battery used for propulsion. and t h e diverse road and c i t y driving conditions of t h e electric vehicle on t h e other hand. an abrupt decline in b a t t e r y specific power i s observed beyond 50% DOD. Figure 11 illustrates t h e dependence o f t h e battery specific power on t h e d e p t h of discharge (DOD) . and cooling of t h e cells t o prevent overheating as well as t o allow utilization o f t h e released heat (during charge and discharge) for warming of t h e car interior during winter. A fairly sophisticated syst e m of t h i s kind has been dcveloped for t h e VW-Golf CityCTROMers electric car [il. Power output depends on t h e state of discharge of t h e battery arid usually degrades rapidly near t h e end of battery cycle life.
and t h e Electric Vehicle Battery Test Cycle (EVBTC) . arid other tests attempt t o determine battery behaviour under conditions as close as possible t o real traffic.23]. the European test cycle ECE [1. I F i g . oriented t o specifying battery parameters] are similar t o traction battery test procedures and hence will n o t be discussed here. T h e former test profiles.the US standard SAE J 227a1 C [3. through velocity profile. A wide spectrum o f test profiles are in use. 130 .M1 0 O I I I 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 1 0 0 Depth of discharge. As t o the second category of test profiles. up t o the fairly complicated real-world driving profiles. 11. targeted at determining the battery behaviour during EV operation] four testing standards w i l l be described here . d e p t h of discharge characterization o f the system electric vehicle/battery extremely difficult. Specific power vs. */. Some of these test procedures are aimed at characterizing the battery as a power source. Worldwide there is n o unified standard for testing o f batteries for electric vehicle applications. from simple constant current discharge. the Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS 79) .23].
SAE J 227a. C v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e . cruise-driving at t h i s speed for a certain period of time. In 131 . decelerat- ing. 12. and standstill period. T h e above test procedure is based o n the dynamics of electric vehicle velocity including starting. at a definite rate. C (Fig. Time. SAE J 227a. accelerating up t o a definite speed. s Fig. Time. 12) and ECE (Fig. s Fig. ECE v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e [il. 13) have been developed o n the basis of the so-called velocity profile.T h e first t w o test procedures. t o zero velocity. 13.
SAE J 227a. 14. T h e ECE test standard envisages three test cycles w i t h more complex variations of speed and acceieration.s Fig. 15. These tests can be regarded as oriented t o t h e vehicle as a system in m o t i o n rather than t o the system vehicle/battery. it is very difficult t o compare various types of electrochemical power sources for EV applications. one such test cycle is adopted with acceleration rate of 0. A summary of the specific power characteristics determined v i a these tests is presented in Fig. Test procedures based o n velocity profiles are relatively simple and easy t o implement. These are resp. speed of 50 km h-'.SAE J 227a. C battery power profile  132 .~ .74 m s . C. On the basis of t h e results obtained f r o m these tests. only t h e maximum speeds of the three test cycles w i l l b e mentioned here. 32 and 50 km h-' . C. 14 for SAE J 227a. and Fig. For the sake o f simplicity. O Time. because they are reduced t o driving the vehicle at a definite speed. 15 for ECE . especially so i f the tests are performed on different cars. deceleration rate at braking 1.~and overall duration of the test cycle 80 s .23 m s .
s Fig. W h e n in operation. etc. Under these more severe conditions.g. and hence. at constant power battery discharge. the battery capacity is reduced and hence also i t s energy output. near the end of discharge when the voltage is low. temperature. e. t h e electric vehicle requires a definite power level irrespective o f the instantaneous state of the power source. number of cycles. the discharge current grows considerably. 15. battery type. these conditions are closer t o the real driving situation. However. B a t tery power can b e determined by measuring t h e current at constant battery voltage.e. the battery is subjected t o more severe operating conditions as compared t o those at constant-current discharge. 133 . current profiles cannot characterize fully the dynamic performance of the electric vehicle. for example. 15. Voltage Characteristics. especially in Fig.. depend o n a number of factors. depth of discharge. however.3 Tlme. Thus. which makes interpretation and analysis of results w i t h respect t o battery performance very difficult. It can be seen that these characteristics are rather complex. i. ECE battery power profile .
s Fig. 17. -780 2 rn ? 60 [ U 40 < 20 & O .An example of a power profile test of an electric vehicle i s the Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS 79) illustrated in Fig. lime. Overall duration of the cycle is 360 s and the distance covered i s 3100 m. SFUDS 79 velocity p r o f i l e . 134 . 16. SFUDS 79 battery power p r o f i l e .20 o 60 120 180uom360 Time.24]. Figure 17 gives the driving speed according t o SFUDS 79. 16 [23. s Fig. t h e above test profile consists of five power pulses distributed in time so as t o ensure four starts and four stops of the vehicle. In most general terms.
T h e spectrum of speed characteristics covered by the EVBTC is presented in Fig. In the above-mentioned figures. as well as driving at varying speed w i t h o u t stopping. W h e n regenerative braking is used. regenerative braking should b e excluded f r o m EV test schedules . however. since electric regeneration increases the mileage of the electric vehicle between t w o full charges of the battery w i t h 18-25% . T h i s test cycle comprises two power pulse steps w i t h o u t regenerative braking. and the utilization of t h e generated energy for charging of the battery. strict standardization o f this t y p e of charge is n o t possible. the energy used for battery charge is indicated w i t h a negative sign. because the features of regenerative braking differ considerably for the different types of vehicles. 14. then a period of constant speed cruise follows and the respective power demand is low. On the other hand. Based o n this simplified driving profile representation. For these reasons. this speed is then maintained until the next stop. It is seen that this test procedure is performed w i t h i n a fairly wide bandwidth of speeds including starting and braking. but it m a y and should be utilized in actual vehicle operation. however. when rapid acceleration should be achieved. t o b e more precise. recover part of the energy delivered by the battery. 18. 135 . Overall duration of t h e cycle i s 100 seconds. the charging pulses should be restricted t o current values that allow efficient charging w i t h o u t posing a threat t o battery life. 19. Including regenerative braking in the test cycle w i l l increase battery capacity or. 15 and 16) include the so-called regenerative braking effect consisting essentially in the ability of the electric motor t o act as a generator of electricity o n vehicle braking (movement w i t h negative acceleration).All the above outlined test procedures (Figs. presented in Fig. t h e Electric Vehicle B a t t e r y Test Cycle (EVBTC) has been developed . t h e power demand is very high. Urban driving of an electric vehicle can be characterized w i t h respect t o energy demands as follows: o n starting.
Time. s Fig. EVBTC vehicle speed characteristics . 20 and Table 12. 19. 136 . s Fig. 18. T h e results obtained are presented in Fig. T h e degree of compliance between the above test cycles and the real urban driving conditions has been examined using a CityS T R O M e r (VW-Golf) electric vehicle as a reference . EVBTC battery power p r o f i l e (231 Tim.
Specific battery power cumulative time for various test profiles in comparison t o urban driving . . C _____ ECE SFUDS --.. recorded SAE J 227a. Table 12.EVBTC O 20 40 60 Cumulative time. power W kg-' Standstill period Degree of compliance % % 100 90 85 85 95 Urban driving.1 9..5 11.8 15. 1 I Fig. C ECE SFUDS 79 EVBTC 15.est cycles 1231. Test Average power W kg-' Required max. ' / e 8s.......0 53 60 43 30 53 44 11. Urban driving (recorded) S E J n?a. 20.6 79 50 42 30 137 ..._. Characteristics of various t.
monitor gas evolution. irrespective o f the type and size of battery system used. the EVBTC test procedure reflects real EV operation in urban driving conditions w i t h a highest degree of accuracy.T h e above comparative results show that. Mis-rated and over-long electric conductors. The fairly complex and diverse conditions o f real EV operation require constant battery monitoring and control. in all characteristics. 138 . prevent overpolarization of individual cells. A m a j o r advantage of EVBTC is t h a t it yields reproducible and comparable informat i o n o n energy utilization and lifetime. Since electric vehicles operate under considerable current loads. current and temperature measurements. These complex monitoring and control functions cannot be accomplished only by voltage. A number of sensors are needed as well as a microprocessor t o collect and process the acquired information. reliability of cabling and terminal connections is of utmost importance. signal and prevent battery f r o m operation under abnormal conditions. etc. signal or interrupt vehicle operation at noted discrepancy between the specified and the measured values of the parameters under test. respectively o f discharge. indicate excessive temperature rise. ensure proper and complete battery charging. indicate near end of discharge. Such a sophisticated multifunction control system is n o t available yet. be periodically checked or included in the control system. prevent dangerous pressure rise in the cells. of the battery and about the remaining driving range until full battery discharge. These electrical contacts should. therefore. but would probably be developed when large-scale product i o n of electric vehicles commences. and poor contacts w i t h the power source and the consumer. may lead t o considerable power losses and hence impair electric vehicle performance. The latter should perform the following functions: provide information about t h e state-of-charge. compare the obtained results w i t h the normal EV operation data.
by designing a common gas vent system t o collect all gases released from the individual cells. Second. and intercell through-the-wall connectors.. These 139 . First.g. and leads t o drying of individual battery cells and hence shortening of battery cycle life. Filling up is one of the maintenance procedures most often underestimated and neglected by drivers. A s a rule. lead-acid and alkaline batteries) requires constant monitoring of the electrolyte level in each battery cell and replenishment w i t h distilled water when necessary. On.7 Wh kg-') and specific power (112 W kg-'). in the USA . T h i s battery design yields a relatively h i g h specific power out- put (30-35 Wh kg-'). an approach adopted by U n i o n Globe Co. by the introduction of maintenance-free batteries w h i c h are of special interest for electric vehicle propulsion applications. single point watering systems have been developed  for monitoring electrolyte levels and refilling w i t h water when needed.charging of aqueous electrolyte batteries. evolution of hydrogen and oxygen occurs. T h e capacity of the modular battery is 167 Ah at unit module weight of 32 kg. and l e t t h e m o u t i n t o the atmosphere. These two gases f o r m an explosive mixture which requires special safety measures t o prevent explosion of the vehicle. These modules are usually 6 V tract i o n batteries consisting of three storage cells housed in a plastic case w i t h a common cover. lead-acid batteries used for electric vehicle propulsion have a modular construction. Utilization of non-hermetic electrochemical power sources with aqueous electrolytes (e. Chloride Silent Power  has developed an advanced tubular plate lead-acid battery w i t h h i g h specific energy (37. T o prevent this.R e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e construction and m a n u f a c t u r i n g technology o f b a t t e r i e s for EV energy storage systems 5.. There are two possible solutions t o this problem. T h i s gas vent system can be combined w i t h the refill and cooling battery systems.
batteries utilize lead-calcium alloys and fumed silica gelled electrolyte or glass mat separators immobilized electrolyte. An oxygen cycle is employed w i t h these batteries t o stop the electrolysis of water and the evolution of oxygen and hydrogen. A s evidenced by a number of investigations, hydrogen gassing cannot b e completely eliminated in maintenance-free lead-acid batteries, i.e. these batteries cannot be sealed. They are usually equipped w i t h a safety valve that controls the pressure in the cells, and when the pressure rises, the valve is opened and the accumulated gases are released f r o m the cell. The use o f a restricted amount of electrolyte, however, decreases battery energy performance slightly. Thus, a gelled-electrolyte battery developed for the VW Rabbit Sedan  has a specific energy of 26 Wh kg-' and specific power of 95 W kg-'. T h e m a j o r advantages of the maintenance-free batteries are : 0 n o battery watering or checking of electrolyte level required (this saves 1 hour per 100 km for each vehicle opèrated); o greatly reduced hazard of hydrogen explosion; o reduced energy consumption because of less requirement for overcharge; a reduced maintenance of t h e battery ventilation system; o improved cold weather performance displayed by sealed batteries.
During battery operation, electrolyte density undergoes cyclic changes resulting in i t s stratification, the denser electrolyte flowing
d o w n t o the b o t t o m part of the plates and the lighter one floating over it. T h e electrochemical activity of the cells and their capacity t o accumulate energy are higher in their upper parts than in the lower ones. At the b o t t o m of the cells, where the acid concentrat i o n i s highest, full charging o f the plates is impeded, they undergo sulfatization which in turn decreases battery capacity. T h i s capacity loss i s about 1% for each 0.01 g cmP3 difference between t h e acid concentration at the t o p and at the b o t t o m o f the cell [25).
Various methods for destratification of the electrolyte have been developed. T h e simplest consists in provoking intense gassing at the end of battery charge t o stir the electrolyte. T h i s can b e achieved by applying an appropriate current or by adding high-current pulses t o the charging current. T h i s method, however, turned out t o lack efficiency. I t cannot be applied t o maintenance-free batteries. Mechanical stirring o f the electrolyte, n o t related t o the charging current, has proved t o be most effective. T h i s method has been implemented successfully by Johnson Controls Inc., in the USA, where an electrolyk circulation system has been developed . T h i s system uses a small, b l o w molded, insert pump w i t h n o moving parts, which i s designed t o maximize reliability and heat-sealed i n t o each ce11 of the battery module as part of the final assembly operation. During cycling, a low-pressure air pulse o f predetermined volume i s forced i n t o the insert pump, collecting higher density electrolyte f r o m the b o t t o m of the cell stack and dispersing it across the top of the cell. On the basis of the above electrolyte circulation system, a lightweight container and a single point watering system, an Improved State of the Art
(ISOA) lead-acid battery has been developed . The results f r o m testing of the battery are presented in Table 13.
T a b l e 13. Performance of lead-acid batteries for EV Performance parameter Specific energy (Wh kg-') P o s i t i v e active mass u t i l i z a t i o n - (Ah kg-')
Golf car b a t t e r y (1978)
23 63.9 28.5 250'
42 72.7 32.4 508'
52.4 126.7 56.5 130"
* based o n SFUDS 79 ** based on 80% DOD c y c l i n g
T h e ISOA battery showed a 46% higher specific energy and 80% longer cycle life t h a n the conventional lead-acid battery. Besides, the ISOA battery offered the advantages of reduced overcharge and water addition requirements, and improved system thermal management. In the ISOA battery, simple circulation o f the electrolyte between the plates and the separators is achieved w i t h o u t affecting the active mass. By forcing the electrolyte i n t o the electrodes, more active material sites w i l l be accessed, which w i l l result in enhanced active material utilization and improved system specific energy. Johnson Controls Inc. have developed such a battery system, called the FFLA (Forced F l o w Lead-Acid) battery [Zí']. The demonstrated performance results of this battery are given in Table 13. I t can be seen
that the specific energy and the active mass utilization of the FFLA battery are considerably higher than those of the ISOA system. From the data presented in Table 13, it is difficult t o predict the life span of these batteries. It can be expected however that their cycle life w i l l be significantly reduced through mechanical deterioration of the active mass caused by forcing the electrolyte i n t o the electrodes. T h e relative complexity of the system including battery, pumps and electrolyte circulation tubes should also be given consideration.
6 . Specification o f operating energy storage systems for electric vehicles
Classification of electric vehicles is very difficult, because on the road electric vehicles are mostly demonstration prototypes employing various power sources w i t h different design and dynamic performance parameters. T h i s is well illustrated in Table 14 presenting comparative d a t a for several EV types. Despite the fact that many of the problems facing electric vehicles are n o t solved yet, a l o t of countries are planning t o start large-scde
rn I m 2 -m Z 8 I I i W * iO l Hl I I m O 01 01 o * m m m t - I I N cu h 5 3 ci * 3 u ? d i3 e -t ?- a 4 L- I 4 143 .
driven by Chloride tubular lead-acid batteries . and our only salvation is the small.production o f these vehicles. A purpose-designed postal van has been brought up t o the production stage in Finland. y o u w i l l see a SINGLE self-satisfied or more often extremely nervous person. of all big cities in the world. Belgium. 144 . t o show that electric vehicles could be a solution for urban traffic related problems . lightweight. w i t h n o thought for i t s “tomorrow”. environmentally safe and cheap ELECTRIC VEHICLE. Fifteen electric vehicles t o o k p a r t in the demonstration “The Twelve Electric Hours of Bruges”. In the UK. two-seater. We must give up this madness of driving super-powerful cars. In Switzerland. W h a t a wasteful and irrational world we are living in! A world conscious only o f i t s present self. noiseless. Lyrical epilogue L o o k around. And this “tomorrow” is in our hands: we are obliged t o think about the future and t o safeguard it for our children and for generations t o come. a number of manufacturers and importers have capitalized o n high-profile EV races and exhibits. most often y o u w i l l see them creeping one after the other in hundreds. dear reader! You w i l l see many. and even the sidewalks. design and development o f an electric G . instead. 7. In the USA. many cars that have occupied the streets. entrapped in the next traffic jam. But. Their powerful engines of 40-60-100 and more kilowatts allow them t o whizz past at a reckless speed. Peugeot intends t o manufacture an electric car com- mercially using Ni/Cd batteries. “W and E Electric Vehicles” has developed and implemented a standard E V conversion package which can convert any internal combustion engined vehicle t o electric power.V a n is planned. If you look inside the car.
K. Suzuki. L. H. p. 4. Nakao. Henriksen. G. ibid. Pb. p. de Guilbert. Aldous. EVS88-023. Tsenter.2.Y. EVS88. Proc. 1984. Y. J.A. E.C. Liska. 11. 1988. 21 (1987) 91. Bogomazov. Ogborn.E.L.. M c N i c o l and D.P16.P. 5 6.) Elsevier. S. Warde. E. in Power Sources for Electric Vehicles (B. J.B.47. N. Rand. Burkov. EVS88-073. 145 . Toronto.) Leningrad 1987 (in Russian). ibid. Canada. EVS88-022. Okawa. U. Proc. Eds.References: 1.. B. Shtetin.S. I L Z I C Silver Jubilee Conf. EVS88-051.’ Rheinland. C. Electric Vehicle Prog. H.I. W.A. Mortowskij. Hu. Ratner. Elektromobil: Technika i Ekonomika. Peyriere. Power Sources. Strong. 1985. (V. D. Ramachandran. S. ibid. Amsterdam. M. Fitzpatrick.P. Electric Vehicle Develop. Fouchard. 7. 16. Y. ibid. 10 (1988) 3 2. Canada. Taylor. 9th Int. EVS88-001. A. ibid. Chopra. F.J. EVS88-042. Electric Vehicle Symp. W. Takagishi. 10. Schoner.Z. Anon. 14. C.K. Köln. ed. D. 8 (1989) 21 K. Proc.F.P. 9.J. Verlag TU\. Zn and Cd into t h e go’s. 9th Intl. 8.A. 13. 15.V. V. EVS88-011.T. Barber.R. Toronto. ibid. Sauer.L. Electric Vehicle Symp. A.L. New Delhi. C. 1988. 1988. Dippold. Elektroauto. Zhao. 12. L. Madery. 3..D.J. ibid. EVS88-Pl5.J.
D.. L. 1981. Lee. VDI-Verlag. Electric Vehicle PTOgT.R.. Washington. J. VARTA. Miller. . Sunu. D. M. Canada.. 11 (1989) 1.A. J. U. 22. R. 25. Electric Vehicle Anon. Toronto. Electric Vehicle Symp.). Anon. Hannover. J. Constable. Antrzebsbatterie.G.B.601. Electric Vehicle Council. Budney. PTOgT. H.G. p. ed. 24 (1988) 215. Gardner. R. J. Academic Press. W. Hill. Harris. E V 80. J. B. F.J. p. 28. 168 (1984) 395. Cataldo. 26. Christianson. Caulder.W. Peohler. 9th Int.P. M.H. Electric Vehicle Symp.L.G. Zalcman. EVS88-032. G. 1980. 12 (1990) 1. J. D. 9th Int. J. Christianson. Soc. C.J. Die. Proc.. Angelis. ibid. C'hem. in Power Sources 8 (J. Power Sources. Proc. Bozek. Driggans. 19. J. Wales. 128 (1981) 236.. Rand.C. S M. 29. Toronto. Kiehne. A. W. Canada. Expo 18. 1988. 9th Int.C. Electrochem. 23.H.C. 8014.F. C.L. Simon. 1980. ibid. Smithrick.J. C. 1988. E. EVS88-078. Spindler. 30. Toronto. Burrows.A. EVS88-009.L.C. S. Wagner. Sedgwick.A. Proc. 20. Ewashinka. J.M. Heder. EVS88-002. Report No.17. Electroanal. 1988. J. U Patent 4 221 847. Thompson. 24. Elect r i c Vehicle Symp. 21. Canada. Cole. EVS88-077. P...C.7. 27. Klein. J. Andrew. R..
TeXHLlW?cKLlfi AOKJlaA N 2: «0630p pe3yilbTaTOB M ie pC ie KT M B Hay Hb IX Mefl M 4 M HC K MX M C C J l el l AoeaHMR no npeAoTspatqeHMto M neqeHMto CnuiAAB. 1: &tate of Research and Future Trends in Energy Storage Materials: Solid State lonics and Related Devices. 4: <<Report the Advanced Seminar of on Economic and Legal Aspects of Pollution Abatement Strategies in Europe. .. 3: «Report of the Working Party on “Brain Drain Issues in Europe”. Technical Report No.. Technical Report No. Immunology and Society. Technical Report No. Technical Report No. 6: «Proceedings of the International Symposium on Virology. 5: «Conference on Clean Coal Technologies)). Technical Report No... 2: <<Aperçu résultats et des persdes pectives des recherches scientifiques et médicales en vue de la prévention et du traitement du SIDAV..ISSUED WITHIN THE SAME SERIES: Technical Report No.
Finito di stampare ne1 mese di novembre del 1991 press0 la Tipo.Venezia .Litografia Armena di San Lazzaro .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.