Need And Importance Of Irrigation 1.

Most of the plain areas of Pakistan have been built by alluvial soil brought by the River Indus and its tributaries.But due to deficient rainfall ,agricultural activities cannot be performed without adopting some artificial means of irrigation.So the areas lying between the rivers have provided irrigation facilities through canals and various types of crops are grown in these areas. 2.The Rivers of our country used to take millions of gallons of water into the Arabian Sea.That water is being used for canal irrigation and a number of dry desert areas have become fertile and productive regions of our country. 3.The supply of water in our rivers remains irregular during the year.To regulate the water supply throughout the year the year the water is stored by constructing barrages,dams and weirs etc. 4.The slope of our country lies from north east towards south.This helps in the construction of canals and water can easily be distributed through canals from higher regions to lower areas. 5.All the rivers of our country come from snow-covered mountainous areas,having abundance of rainfall in summer ,in those rivers a huge amount of water comes due to heavy rainfall and the melting of snow during summer.Thus we store this surplus water in huge dams which is used for irrigation purposes in dry season. 6.The upper and lower areas of Indus plain have soft soil,where digging of canals is easier,and cheap labour is available in abundance.That reduces the cost of construction.That is why canal irrigation is preferred in our country. 7.Canal water adds to the fertility of the soil by bringing a number of organic and in-organic matters with it,while the water of tube -wells lacks all these matters,so people prefer canal irrigation. 8.Canal irrigation is the cheapest and easiest means by which vast areas can be commanded and made productive.

Means Of Irrigation In Pakistan The following means of irrigation are practiced in various areas of our country: 1.Wells or Tube-wells: This is one of the oldest methods of irrigation which is being used from ancient times in our country.Well irrigation is quite common in pledmont areas of North Eastern mountains and in the vicinity of rivers where the water-table is high.They are found all over the plain where canal water is not available and water table is high enough for their construction.Many shallow wells are dug by hand the areas where the water table is not far below the surface of the earth .The water is then lifted by "Charas" or "Persian wheels" driven by oxen or

camels. In areas where the water table is low and cheap electric power is available ,tube wells are used;due to shortage of canal irrigation water ,government is encouraging the farmers to dig more and more tube wells.

Irrigation from rivers is an ancient practice.It was being carried before the birth of christ in various areas of our country,but the modern system of large perennial canals was introduced by the Britishers.The first modern canal in Punjab was opened in 1859;it was taken out from river Ravi at madhopur (Gurdaspur district,India).After that a number of canals have been taken out from various rivers and our country has got one of the most excellent systems of irrigation in the world.The canals found in our country may be divided into the following types: (a)Perennial Canals: Those canals which supply water to their commanded areas throughout the year are known as perennial canals.To regulate the supply dams and barrages have been built.Most of the canals of our country are of this type. (b)Non Perennial Canals: Such canals runs only during the summer and the rainy season .They are closed down during winter months when there is not enough water in the rivers.Some of the canals from Sutlej ,the Sidhnal canals from Ravi and Haveli canals from Chenab are of this type.Only one crop can be harvested in the commanded areas of such types of canals. (c) Inundation or Flood Canals: These canals work only during the rainy season,when the rivers have a plenty of water .Because no dam or barrage is built at their head ,their construction cost being low,they also help in reducing the flood water and save the area from many dangers.Many old canals from the Indus and Chenab are of this type. (d)Karez: In Baluchistan short underground canals called Karez have been built to carry the water which soaks into the ground at the foot of the mountains to the fields and villages .As the canals are underground no water is wasted by evaporation.In Queta and Pashindistricts this system is very popular and a large area of this region is irrigated by the Karez system. Canal Systems The irrigated area is served by more than 40 major canal commands.Main canals start from a barrage or dam or weir on a river.A barrage feeds one or more main or link canals.A number of minor tributaries feed out of the main canal and these in turn,serve a number of outlets to the farmers water-courses each of which irrigates between 60 and 240 hectares. There are three major groups of canal system : (i) Canals on upper Indus Tributaries

(ii) Systems on the Indus (iii) Systems west of the Indus. (i) Systems On Upper-Indus Tributaries The principal canal systems are:from the Jhelum, (a) Upper Jhelum canal,which starts from Mangla,joins the Chenab at Khanki to give its surplus water to the lower Chenab canal,and (b) the Lower Jhelum canal which starts from Rasul:from the Chenab (a) the upper Chenab canal starting from marala and joining the Ravi near Ballokin to supplement the water supply of the Lower Bari Doab canal, (b) the lower Chenab canal from Khanki,and (c) the Haveli system of canals from the Trimu weir below the junction of the Chenab and the Jhelum;from the Ravi, (a) the upper Bari Doab canal,which begins in Madhopur (India),irrigating mainly the Indian Punjab,with only its Lahore branch reaching Pakistan, (b)the Lower Bari Doab canal from Balakot and (c) the Sidhanaj Canals from the left bank of the Ravi at Sidhnal ;from the Sutlej,the Sutlej valley project,in which canals depart from the river Gandas in Ghwala,Sulaimanke,Islam and below the juction of the Sutlej with the Chenab at Panjnad. The upper Jhelum,the upper Chenab,and the lower Bari Doab canals together form The Triple Project ,which was designed to carry surplus water from the Jhelum to the Chenab ,and from the Chenab to the Ravi. (ii) Systems On The Indus The largest dam on the Indus has been built at Tarbela.Other barrages,in descending order along the river,are Jinnah barrage near Kalabagh,part of the Thal project;Taunsa Barrage 290 km.further downstream,which has 100,000 kw power station in addition to diversion works;Guddu Barrage,150 km.upstream from Sukkar;Sukkur or Liodyd Barrage,the oldest barrage on the river,and Ghulam Mohammad Barrage,near Kotri. (iii) Systems West of The Indus These include (a) the Swat Canals departing from the river at Malakand (upper Swat canal) and Abazal (Lower Swat Canal); (b) the warsak Multipupose Project on the Kabul River 30 kms.north west of Peshawar which includes a 160,000 KW power plant;and

(c) the kurram Garhi Project on the kurram and barren rivers in Bannu tehsil. In addition to these major projects.Some smaller dams have also been built by the Water and power Development Authority (WAPDA).These include reil Dam,Gomal Dam MultiPurpose Project Khanpur Dam,and Hab Dam.The Agricultural Development Corporation has set up the small Dam Organization to construct dams of localized utility storing the flood water of hill stream.A number of such dams have been constructed in the dry sub-mountain areas of the north west.

Mangla And Tarbella Dam The Mangla Dam Under the Indus Basin Treaty,this is the second largest multi-purpose project designed to control and conserve the flood water of the Jhelum for use mainly as replacement irrigation supplies for the area which was served by the three eastern rivers.On the Jhelum river near the village of the Mangla,about two miles upstream from the regulator of the upper Jhelum Canal and about 20 miles from Jhelum town,a dam of the embankment type has been built.The dam has crest length of about 11,000 feet and its height is 380 feet.The reservoir created by the dam is about 40 miles long,having a storage capacity of 5.5 million acre feet.It is the second largest earth filled dam of our country.The project is providing 400,000 kilowatts of electricity and 88 lakh acre feet water for irrigation purposes.The design of the dam has a provision for future extension.Its height can also be increased about 99 feet and storage capacity can also be increased upto 9.6 million acre feet and electricity generated can also be increased from the present 400,000 k.w. to one million k.w. The Mangla lake has been developed as a fishing centre and a health and tourist resort.This project was completed in 1967.

The Tarbela Dam This is one of the largest earth and rock filled dam in the world.This dam has been built on the river Indus at Tarbela,15 miles from maripur and 30 miles from Attock.This is also a multipurpose project .The dam has a gross storage capacity of 11.1 million acre feet.It is 9,000 feet long and 485 feet high.A 50 mile long lake has been built behind it.It will provide 21 lakh kilowatts of electricity and 93 lakh acre feet of water for irrigation when completed .It construction started in 1968 under the Indus Basin Treaty,and the dam was completed in 1974.The installation of 10 units of electricity has been completed in 1985.There is proposal of or the tarbela project that 2 large off-channel reservoirs will have to be built to increase storage and lengthen the life of the generating facilities,since silting is expected to reduce the life of main dam.Water from Tarbela will be used in the Haro and Soan Basins and for replacement the supplies will be diverted to the Chashma Jhelum link canal and thence to the Trimmu-Sidhnaj-Mailsi-Bahawal link system.This project will help other barrages to retain the supply of water.

According to Indus Basin Treaty five barrages have been built and various link canals have been taken out from these barages. 1.Chashma Barrage A barrage has been built on River Indus at Chashma .A link Canal has been taken out from the right bank of Chashma providing water to canals of jhelum and Chenab.The work of Chashma wast Bank is under progress.It is hoped that after completion,this canal will irrigate large area of barren land in Dera ismail Khan and dera Ghazi Khan districts. The other Barrages from where the following link canals have been taken out are: 1. Rasul at Jhelum 2. Near Qadirabad on Chenab 3. Near Sighnaj on Ravi 4. Near Mailsi below the existing Islam headworks on the Sutlej. All these Barrages have a total length of nearly 3 1/2 miles.These barrages are providing about 100,000 cusecs of water to their link canals.

Link Canals
1.The Rasul-Qadirabad : A 30 miles long canal has been built linking Rasul with Qadirabad and 19,000 cusecs water has been brought from Jhelum to Chenab. 2.Qadirabad-Balloki: Qadirabad-Baloki link canal is supplying 18,600 cusec combine water of Jhelum and Chenab to Ravi at baloki.It is about miles long. 3.The Balloki Sulemanki Link: This link canal is providing 6,500 cusec water of Ravi to the Sutlej canals ,e.g.Pakpattan and Depalpur canals. 4.The Chashma-Jhelum Link Canal: This link canal is 63 miles long and it is supplying 21,700 cusecs water of Indus from Chashma to Jhelum so that the supply of water at Trimmu head works can be maintained. 5.Trmmu-Sidhnal Link Canal: Trmmu-Sidhnal link canal is providing 11,000 cusec combined water of Indus ,Jhelum and

chenab at Sidhnal on Ravi 6.The Sidhnal-Mailsi-Bahawal Link: It is a sixty miles long canal,which is carrying the Indus,Jhelum and Chenab waters to the Islam headwrks canals from the Sutlej. 7.The Taunsa-Punjnad Link Canal: This link canal is 38 miles long .It is carrying the Indus water for use at the Panjnad headworks.The link canals have a total length of 388 miles with a total capacity of about 100,000 cusec,but the present supply of water from the canal is insufficient for our requirements and a large amount of water is obtained from tube wells and other means.

Irrigation In the early 1990s, irrigation from the Indus River and its tributaries constituted the world's largest contiguous irrigation system, capable of watering over 16 million hectares. The system includes three major storage reservoirs and numerous barrages, headworks, canals, and distribution channels. The total length of the canal system exceeds 58,000 kilometers; there are an additional 1.6 million kilometers of farm and field ditches. Partition placed portions of the Indus River and its tributaries under India's control, leading to prolonged disputes between India and Pakistan over the use of Indus waters. After nine years of negotiations and technical studies, the issue was resolved by the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960. After a ten-year transitional period, the treaty awarded India use of the waters of the main eastern tributaries in its territory--the Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers. Pakistan received use of the waters of the Indus River and its western tributaries, the Jhelum and Chenab rivers. After the treaty was signed, Pakistan began an extensive and rapid irrigation construction program, partly financed by the Indus Basin Development Fund of US$800 million contributed by various nations, including the United States, and administered by the World Bank. Several immense link canals were built to transfer water from western rivers to eastern Punjab to replace flows in eastern tributaries that India began to divert in accordance with the terms of the treaty. The Mangla Dam, on the Jhelum River, was completed in 1967. The dam provided the first significant water storage for the Indus irrigation system. The dam also contributes to flood control, to regulation of flows for some of the link canals, and to the country's energy

supply. At the same time, additional construction was undertaken on barrages and canals. A second phase of irrigation expansion began in 1968, when a US$1.2 billion fund, also administered by the World Bank, was established. The key to this phase was the Tarbela Dam on the Indus River, which is the world's largest earth-filled dam. The dam, completed in the 1970s, reduced the destruction of periodic floods and in 1994 was a major hydroelectric generating source. Most important for agriculture, the dam increases water availability, particularly during low water, which usually comes at critical growing periods. Despite massive expansion in the irrigation system, many problems remain. The Indus irrigation system was designed to fit the availability of water in the rivers, to supply the largest area with minimum water needs, and to achieve these objectives at low operating costs with limited technical staff. This system design has resulted in low yields and low cropping intensity in the Indus River plain, averaging about one crop a year, whereas the climate and soils could reasonably permit an average of almost 1.5 crops a year if a more sophisticated irrigation network were in place. The urgent need in the 1960s and 1970s to increase crop production for domestic and export markets led to water flows well above designed capacities. Completion of the Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs, as well as improvements in other parts of the system, made larger water flows possible. In addition, the government began installing public tube wells that usually discharge into upper levels of the system to add to the available water. The higher water flows in parts of the system considerably exceed design capacities, creating stresses and risks of breaches. Nonetheless, many farmers, particularly those with smallholdings and those toward the end of watercourses, suffer because the supply of water is unreliable. The irrigation system represents a significant engineering achievement and provides water to the fields that account for 90 percent of agricultural production. Nonetheless, serious problems in the design of the irrigation system prevent achieving the highest potential agricultural output. Water management is based largely on objectives and operational procedures dating back many decades and is often inflexible and unresponsive to current needs for greater water use efficiency and high crop yields. Charges for water use do not meet operational and maintenance costs, even though rates more than doubled in the 1970s and were again increased in the 1980s. Partly because of its low cost, water is often wasted by farmers. Good water management is not practiced by government officials, who often assume that investments in physical aspects of the system will automatically yield higher crop

production. Government management of the system does not extend beyond the main distribution channels. After passing through these channels, water is directed onto the fields of individual farmers whose water rights are based on long-established social and legal codes. Groups of farmers voluntarily manage the watercourses between main distribution channels and their fields. In effect, the efficiency and effectiveness of water management relies on the way farmers use the system. The exact amounts of water wasted have not been determined, but studies suggest that losses are considerable and perhaps amount to one-half of the water entering the system. Part of the waste results from seepages in the delivery system. Even greater amounts are probably lost because farmers use water whenever their turn comes even if the water application is detrimental to their crops. The attitude among almost all farmers is that they should use water when available because it may not be available at the next scheduled turn. Moreover, farmers have little understanding of the most productive applications of water during crop-growing cycles because of the lack of research and extension services. As a result, improvements in the irrigation system have not raised yields and output as expected. Some experts believe that drastic changes are needed in government policies and the legal and institutional framework of water management if water use is to improve and that effective changes can result in very large gains in agricultural output.

Irrigation Problems in Pakistan
A densely populated agrarian country with one of the best irrigation system but still has backward agricultural milieu, is Pakistan. More than 65% of the population is living on the attachments with agribased fields or industries. Punjab is the most populated province of Pakistan. Irrigation system of Punjab is not very developed. The present irrigation system is almost hundred year old.The management of current irrigation system is a big challenge with increasing population. Burden on limited irrigation system is also going heavy and situation is becoming more and more serious. The problems with management of Pakistan’ irrigation system includes social as well as technical ones. A loss in agriculture production is enormous due to mismanagement of irrigation system. The second best irrigation system after Egypt is not free of weaklings. Following are some major curtailing of Pak irrigation system. Water Wastage

Pakistan is experiencing large water wastage. The old methods of irrigation with flood water are still being used by the farmer who wastes about 50 to 60 percent of water. The recent flood which is biggest of this century bestowed Pakistan a gig resource of water, but the lack of water reservoirs have wasted it carelessly. A new irrigation system called drip irrigation system has been introduced in many parts of the world. This not only saves water but also gives proper quantity of water according to the needs of plants. But Pakistan is not familiar with it yet. Water logging and salinity Water logging and salinity is expanding with every passing day. Government of Pakistan has not taken any step to resolve this issue. With the decreasing storage capacity of dams due to silt accumulation the farmers, therefore, are installing more and more tube wells to irrigate their crops. This is another reason behind salinity is spreading in the major areas of Punjab and Sindh. Water Scarcity due to India’ Expedition The Pakistan’s enemy since ever, India has made a number of dams violating the Indus Water Treaty of 1960. This act of India has dried the rivers of Pakistan. The average annual flow has been decreased to an alarming level. While the designed cropping intensity of Pakistan’s irrigation system was low in from 60 to 70%, but today cropping intensity has crossed the level of 120% indicating increased water demand. On the other hand Conflicts among provinces over Kalabagh Dam (KBD). The delay in building new water reservoirs in Pakistan has played vicious role in complicating the irrigation problems Had Pakistan built Kalabagh dam, all the irrigation issues would have been resolved. No province except Punjab, ready to go forward with KBD project. Lack of Funds In Pakistan, the water management is handled by the provincial governments. Although a reasonable slice of the total budget is cut away for irrigation and canal system but this allocation of funds is not sufficient to address all the problems regarding irrigation. The difference between the required and the allocated amount is estimated to be more than 24%. This situation has resulted in the deterioration of the canal system. Lack of dams Pakistan needs more dams Indus, Jehlum and Chenab rivers. This will enhance not only the storage capacity of water but also will minimize the per acre cost of all the crops. This act will also lessen the salinity chances of the lands as less number of tube well water would be used to irrigate the lands which are expected to be saline.

A paradigm shifts are needed in government policies and the legal and institutional framework of water management if water use is to improve and those effective changes can fruit very big gains in agriculture output. Because of serious threats to irrigation system, the wise use of available water resources has become essential. Planning, design, and operation of land reclamation projects and irrigation system, therefore, have to take into account the new issues. At a time efficient organization and planning of irrigation and drainage system, is one of the most critical goals to achieve the widely accepted approach of integrated water Resources Management.

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Agriculture Problems in Pakistan And Their Solutions
Economy of every state depends on three sectors i.e agriculture, industry and commerce. These three are interrelated with each other as the progress or retrogress of one sector effects the other two. Pakistan is an agricultural state thus agriculture gains are of much importance than any other sector. Importance of this sector is manifold as it feeds people, provides raw material for industry and is a base for foreign trade. Foreign exchange earned from merchandise exports is 45% of total exports of Pakistan. It contributes 26% of GDP and 52% of the total populace is getting its livelihood from it. 67.5% people are living in the rural ares of Pakistan and are directly involved in it. There are two crops in Pakistan ie Rabi & Kharif. Crop | Kharif Rabi | Sowing season | April – June | Oct – Dec | Harvesting season Oct – Dec | April – May

Major crops of Pakistan are wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugar cane. These major crops contributed 7.7% last year against the set target of 4.5%. Minor crops are canola, onions, mangoes and pulses which contributed 3.6% as there was no virus attack last year. Fishery and Forestry contributes 16.6% and 8.8%

respectively. Though the agricultural sector is facing problems in Pakistan yet the major chunk of money comes from this sector. Following are the major causes of agricultural problems in Pakistan which disturb the agricultural growth or development in Pakistan.

Firstly,No mechanism has been adopted to eradicate the soil erosion and even after harvesting nothing is done to improve or restore the soil energy. Therefore, the fertility of soil is decreasing day by day. The thickness of fertile layer of soil in Pakistan is more than 6 inches but the average yield is lower than other countries where layer of fertile soil is only 4 inches. Secondly, water wastage is very high in our country. The archaic method of flood irrigation is still in practice in whole of the country which wastes almost 50 to 60 percent of water. A new irrigation system called drip irrigation system has been introduced in many parts of the world. This not only saves water but also gives proper quantity of water according to the needs of plants. Thirdly,owing old methods of cultivation and harvesting, Pakistan has low yield per acre that means the average crop in Pakistan is just 1/4th of that of advance states. Where as Nepal, India and Bangladesh are using modern scientific methods to increase their yield per acre. For this purpose, these states are

using modern machines to improve their yield. Fourthly, the small farmers are increasing in our country as the lands are dividing generation by generation. So, there are large number of farmers who own only 4 acres of land. These small farmers do not get credit facilities to purchase seeds, pesticides, fertilizers etc. Additionally, a large area of land is owned by feudals and the farmers who work on their lands, are just tenants. This uncertain situation of

occupancy neither creates incentive of work nor does attract capital investment. Fifthly,water logging and salinity is increasing day by day. No effective measures have been taken to curb it. As the storage capacity of the dams is decreasing so the water availability per acre is also decreasing. Therefore, the farmers are installing more and more tube wells to irrigate their crops. This is why salinity is becoming the major issue in most parts of Punjab and Sindh. Sixthly,focusing more on land, crops and yield problems the man behind the plough is always ignored. While formulating the 5 or 10 years plan, no emphasize has been laid on the importance of solving the problems of farmers. Most of the farmers are illiterate, poor and ignorant. In this wake the loans issued by ADBP or other banks are used by them in other fields like repayment of debts, marriage of daughters etc, in spite of its befitting use in agricultural sector. Lastly, The only mean of communication in rural areas is T.V or radio so it is urgently needed on the part of these mass communication resources to air the programmes related to the new agricultural techniques and allied sciences. But these programmes should be telecast in regional or local languages. Because lack of guidance is the main reason of farmers backwardness. The communication gap between well qualified experts and simple farmers have not been bridged. Availability of these experts is not ensured in rural areas as they are reluctant to go there. Pakistan is rich in fertile land yet the land is being wasted in different ways. 79.6% million hectors of land is culturable where as only 20.43% million hectors is cultivated. The reason can be described in two

points. 1. A major area is owned by feudals. It is difficult to manage such a huge area so only that part is cultivated which is easy to manage, the rest is left ignored. 2. The rise of industrialization has given threat to this sector. People are migrating to cities and cities are expanding, thus new towns and colonies are constructed on fertile lands. The irrigation system of Pakistan needs improvement as about 67% of the land is irrigated with canals. Apart form these issues the monopoly of Foreign Big Wigs and false policies of government cannot be ignored. Monopoly Of Foreign Companies:The pesticides companies are sorting partnership with “World Bank”. These companies are selling adulterated but expensive pesticides to a poor farmer thus leaving him helpless. These pesticides are not only hazardous for health but also a filling the pockets of companies. By moving according to world bank these companies are gaining their own aims. Moreover there is a conflict of interests. It is not ensured that either the company conducting agreement is basically trying to get access to international market or just working according to their aims. 91% of genetically engineered (GE) seeds is made and owned by one US Company called Monsanto. The vast majority of consumers around the world are against GE foods and crop as GE has been

associated with health risks, loss of biodiversity, increased use of toxic weed killers and other environmental problems. 85% of GE crops are concentrated in just 3 countries i-e United States, Argentina and Canada. Globally G.E crops cover less than one percent of arable land. Farmer around the world have experienced problems with Monsanto’s BT cotton. Researchers from Cornell University reported that Chinese GM cotton farmers are losing money due to secondary pests. After seven years, populations of other insects such as mi rids, have increased so much that farmers are now having to spray their crops up to 20 times per season to control them, according to the study of 481 Chinese farmers in five major cotton producing provinces. This cotton seed does not show any resistance against virus attacks and needs 8 months to give yield thus no other crop can be cultivated on that land. This seed of cotton needs more water. Therefore, Pakistan has asked Monsanto to provide seeds which consume less water as Pakistan is moving towards the abyss of water shortage. It is a notorious organization that took the farmers to courts many times as it did not give ownership right to farmers to preserve seed. Even the seed of harvested crop cannot be used again for cultivation. Monopoly of Monsanto is clear when it is selling seed at RS 1700 per kg to Pakistan and RS 700 per kg to India. Glaringly, the Indian ministry of health asking to ban B.T cotton seed whereas in Kerala & Orrisa it is already banned. Not to ignore the gloomy side of this organization is that in the Vietnam where it provided “Agent Orange” dioxin bomb to U.S that is responsible for sever skin and genetic diseases. Non-comprehensice Policies Of Pakistan:18 billion in budget was allocated for agricultural sector of Pakistan but the withdrawal of subsidy on pesticides and electricity on the conditions of IMF has done serious damage to this sector. Whereas America and European Union are giving a huge amount of subsidy to their farmers and that is a greatest hurdle in the implementation of W.T.O rules. Additionally, price policy is very weak. In Punjab sugar cane is sold 200 Rs. per 40 kilograms. It was purchased and later on stocked by Industrialist in their stores. When Brazil bought sugarcane from International Market and prices become high, the Pakistan sugar mills owners projected demand of selling sugar at high prices, thus Pakistan faced sugar crisis. Then Pakistan had to import Sugar at high prices therefore, the prices of sugar went high in local markets.

Solutions For Agricultural Problems In Pakistan: 1. Feudalism should be abolished and lands should be allotted to poor farmers. This will enhance the productivity and per acre yield of all the crops in Pakistan. Taxes should be levied on Agricultural income but not without devising limit of land holding. Other wise it would directly effect poor farmers. 2. Federal Seed Certification and Federal Seed Registration is approved but it should taken responsible steps in approving seeds as it has already approved 36 new kinds of seeds. Specially, those seeds should be banned which can create pest problem in near future. These seeds are of cotton mainly. International seed makers are providing those seeds which are not successful in our country as these seeds are not tested on our soil. 3. A new Agricultural policy must be framed in which following steps should be focussed on. - Small farmer must be focused. The major problems of small farmers should be solved first. - Consumer friendly policy must be projected. - Productivity enhancement programme must be constituted to adjust and support prices. - Different Agricultural zones should be introduced. As Multan in famous for its Mangoes and citrus fruits so it must be made Mango, citrus zone by which Perishable products should be exported. This would enhance agro based industry and increase foreign reserves. Pakistan Agricultural storage & Services Corporation needs to take steps in this regard. - Corporate farming like giving lands to Mitehels, Nestle and Multinational companies is also a good idea that will also help those who own a large area of fertile land but can’t manage it. - Surplus vegetables and fruits must be exported. A Rs 39 million scheme has been approved for the current fiscal year for establishment of agro export processing zone for fruits, vegetables and flowers. This will also help in commercializing agriculture - Latest mechinery should be provided to the farmers to increase the per acre yield. This provision should be on easy installments so that the farmers can avoid the burden of loans. If possible subsidy should be given by the government of modern machinery.Modern techniques

of irrigation can solve the problems of irrigation in Pakistan. This includes drip irrigation and sprinkle irrigation methods. By using this technique the farmers can save a huge some of money which he pays for irrigation through tubewells and tracktors.- More dams should be constructed on Indus, Jehlum and Chenab rivers. This will enhance the storage capacity of water and reduce the per acre cost of all the crops. This step will also reduce the salinity chances of the lands as less tubewell water will be flooded to the lands which cause salinity..

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Filed Under: Countries • Issues And Crises Tags: Agriculture in Pakistan • How to improve agricultural growth in Pakistan • Steps for agricultural development in Pakistan

Economy of Pakistan In 2010, Economic Growth, Issues And Solutions
Economy of Pakistan. Pakistan economic growth faced a serious set back in fiscal year 2009 because of the depressed consumer credit market, slow progress of public sector programres, inflation, reduction in subsidies, security threat, instability in the state and energy crisis. Additionally, no attention was given to the agriculture sector. The exports declined by six percent and imports by 10 percent. The only thing that became a silver linning was the increment in remittances by 22%. Apart from ignorance, agriculture sector has shown credible results because of good weather. Major crops, wheat, rice and maize recorded impressive growth i.e 7.7% against the target of 4.5%. Live stock and poultry also add to GDP as there was no viral disease this year. Shortages of energy and power donot let the boom entered into the industrial sector. In addition the sanction applied by IMF on different sectors creating a hurdle. This resulted in unemployment and services sector decline. Because of security crisis the graph of investment do not take any surge. The

beginning of declining in core inflation is a hopeful factor but the domestic inflation is on peak. There is a marginal improvement in health and educational sectors but the poverty in country rise Pakistan have the highest population growth. The largest population represents a large potential market for goods and services yet the condition are deplorable.

Being an agro based economy Pakistan should focus on the development of agriculture department. Financial sector should be developed. Instead in focusing to much on macro financing, micro financing must be given a chance. Trade deficits should be reduced. This can only be done by eradicating the trust deficit, which will boost our exports as well as imports. It will also bring FDI’s (Foreign Direct Investment) at home. There should be short term as well as long term policies. As Pakistan’s economy is dependent economy so it should be made strong enough to reject the foreign aid or loans on their conditions, which can directly or indirectly bring harm to the economy. Still the Government is unable to differentiate and reorganize the developed and non-developed budget. Solid fiscal policies should be made to give advantage to both, demander and supplier. This would also be beneficial for the skilled workers, who fly away from the land. Despite all these, there must be political, economic and social stability in the state. A proper accountability set up must be introduced to eradicate corruption as it leads to massive human deprecation. And the final solution of this problem is good governance.

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Foreign Policy of Pakistan 2010

Foreign Policy of Pakistan in 2010 In modern times no state can avoid its participation in International arena. Every state have to proceed with certain policies and these policies are discussed in foreign policy of the state. Pakistan, after passing 62 years, is unable to compose a perfect foreign policy. Since the inception of Pakistan, the foreign policy of the state has been revolving around the ambitions of India. Pakistan signed many pacts with U.S.A to increase her power to tackle Indian hegemony in the region. Additionally, she tasted the conditional friendship of U.S.A and made a bond with time-tested friend, China. The relations with Muslim states remained constant whereas Pakistan kept on acquiring the membership of many regional organizations.The current democratic regime of Pakistan is carrying hopes of the masses for the better future. Thus the foreign policy should not clash with the sentiments of masses. The government of Pakistan should keep it in mind that every country, great or small, is supposed to keep its national interest supreme over its international relationship. In 2010 Pakistan should ponder on following issues. 12345She should balance national interest with public sentiments. She should enhance strategic and pragmatic ties with China. A dignified peace with India should be ensured. Pakistan must adopt an external agenda especially driven out by economic interests. She should play positive role in the matters of Muslim world.

“It is impossible to make an over night change in the foreign policy as it is made on the bases of long term strategic interests by keeping in view the regional and global conditions.” Foreign Minister of Pakistan Shah Mahmood Qureshi.

The foreign policy of Pakistan is dominated by single issue of terrorism, and Pakistan has faced its grave consequences especially on domestic level. The war waged in northern areas and the pay role of Pakistan as or front line ally in U.S.A-so called Global War on Terror- does not match with public aspirations. Now the democratic government should untie this knot by paying greater emphasis on public opinion and by enhancing parliamentary input and allowing foreign policy to play its due role in decision making and implementation. Pakistan should adopt a new approach in addressing the core issues. By realizing that economy is the back bone of every state, she must focus on economic initiatives. Inspite of having dependent economy, policies should be projected for stable economy. This would broke the shackles of IMF with strict conditions that are hurdling the economic progress of the state. Moreover, Pakistan must seek to stand firmly for her demand. The dignity of any institution must not be disgraced at any cost. Less importance should be given to terrorism either efforts must be done to eradicate this effect by meeting its causes with prudent attitude and not by using military against your own people. Exercising force should be the last

resort and government must try to negotiate first. Glaringly, less emphasize on W.O.T means to devote sufficient time and energy to deal with other core areas of foreign policy. Pakistan must realize that U.S.A never proved to be a good friend off and on and kept on placing Pakistan outside from the basket of sunshine into the wintry isolation.

In the context of china, the need of Pakistan is to be pragmatic and ensure the safety of Chinese interests in Pakistan. China can give boost to Pakistani economy by investing billion of dollars in important sectors. This will also help in overcoming acute energy crisis by importing Chinese technology for energy generation. China has not been using veto power in security council for Pakistan since many years. She is also improving economic ties with India. Pakistan should sort out problems with China and enhanced Free Trade Agreement. As far as India is concerned, Pakistan should not go for any adventure. The problems should be solved by mediation and in a cordial way by understanding the need of the time. Additionally a flexible attitude must be shown by two states in solving the Kashmir dispute as it is bone of contention between the two. Moreover, economic ties should be knotted between two states by enhacing trade. CBM’s must continue in different sectors. The role of embassies is very prominent and compulsory. Embassies should enhance the cultural ties, tolerance and friendly attitude of both nations towards each other. Pakistan is having a strong geopolitical situation in the world. Because of her wrong foreign policies ,she is the only most fenced state of the world. Pakistan must enhance friendly relations with her neighbours like Afghanistan and Iran. These states have direct influence on the people of Pakistan and her economy. Pakistan can become an economic hub by joining India with Afghanistan and Iran, China with Central Asian republics and Central Asian states with the rest of the world through Gawadar port. In the end, i want to say a word about the role of media, intelligentia and NGO’s of Pakistan. These are cosidered important players in any country so they should project a positive image of Pakistan. They should not criticize for the sake of criticize but for the sake of development. Improving the depopularising image of Pakistan, is the crying need of the country.

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First Agricultural Reforms in Pakistan
First Agricultural Reforms in Pakistan were introduced by General Ayub Khan in Jan 24, 1959. According to these reforms an individual was not allowed to own 500 irrigated and 1000 of non-irrigated land in Pakistan. The remaining lands were given freely to the landless farmers. It was also narrated that no surcharge or extra money will be taken from any landless person in return for the transfer of land.

Brief History of D-8
D-8, also known as Developing-8, is an arrangement for development cooperation among the following countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan and Turkey. The establishment of D-8 was announced officially through the Istanbul Declaration of Summit of Heads of State/Government on June 15, 1997. The objectives of D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation are to improve member states’ position in the global economy, diversify and create new opportunities in trade relations, enhance participation in decision-making at international level, and improve standards of living. D-8 is a global arrangement rather than a regional one, as the composition of its members reflects. Organization for Economic Cooperation (D-8) is a forum with no adverse impact on bilateral and multi-lateral commitments of the member countries, emanating from their membership to other international or regional organizations. Dr. Dipo Alam from Indonesia is currently the rotating Secretary General of the D-8 Organization with its Secretariat based in Istanbul-Turkey. Brief History of D-8 Establishment

The idea of cooperation among major Muslim developing countries was mooted by Dr. Necmettin Erbakan, the then Prime Minister of Turkey, during a Seminar on “Cooperation in Development” which was held in Istanbul in October 1996. The group envisioned cooperation among countries stretching from South East Asia to Africa. Representatives from Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria and Pakistan attended the Seminar. This conference was the first step towards the establishment of D-8 and it was only after a series of preparatory meetings that D-8 was set up officially and began its activities with the Istanbul Declaration issued at the end of the summit of Heads of State and Government held in Istanbul on June 15, 1997 Purposes & Objectives According to the first Summit Declaration (Istanbul, 1997), the main objective of D-8 is declared to be socio-economic development in accordance with following principles: Peace instead of conflict, dialogue instead of confrontation, cooperation instead of exploitation, justice instead of double-standard, equality instead of discrimination, democracy instead of oppression. Thus D-8 objectives are to improve developing countries’ positions in the world economy, diversify and create new opportunities in trade relations, enhance participation in decisionmaking at the international level, and provide better standard of living. By the same token, D-8 is a forum with no adverse impact on bilateral and multi-lateral commitments of the member countries, emanating from their membership to other regional or international organizations. The following three phrases are quotations from the D-8 fifth Summit Declaration (Bali, 2006) which illustrates some application of the principle objectives: • “We commit ourselves to work together to solve the problem of economic disparities within our countries.” • “We reaffirm our commitment to enhance cooperation in the field of energy to develop alternative and renewable energy resources.” • “We emphasize the importance of D-8 in contributing to the economic development of its member countries and ensure that it promotes global trade.”