You are on page 1of 240

1

A 6

ANTICIPATE..................................................................................................6
ACCRUE ......................................................................................................9
ASSASSINATE ..............................................................................................11
AMENITY ...................................................................................................12
ALTHOUGH .................................................................................................13
AFFINITY...................................................................................................13
ARTICULATE................................................................................................16
ASSERTION ................................................................................................18
ABIDE .....................................................................................................18
ABODE......................................................................................................19
ALTHOUGH..................................................................................................20

B 20

BREACH.....................................................................................................20
BIAS .......................................................................................................23
BARN ....................................................................................................24
BREED......................................................................................................25

C 26

COMPLIANCE................................................................................................26
CONSTITUTION.............................................................................................28
CONTINGENT...............................................................................................29
COLLEATE...................................................................................................31
CESSATION ................................................................................................33
CEASE.......................................................................................................34
CONVEYANCE ..............................................................................................36
CHAOS .....................................................................................................37
COMMERCE .................................................................................................38
CONCILIATE ...............................................................................................40
COMMENCE..................................................................................................41
CONFISCATE ...............................................................................................43
CONCEIVE ..................................................................................................43
COMMODITY ...............................................................................................44
CONSEQUENCE..............................................................................................45
CONJURE ...................................................................................................46
CONSCIOUS.................................................................................................46
CHERISH....................................................................................................48
2

CONSORTIUM...............................................................................................48
CONVERGE .................................................................................................49
COMPETE...................................................................................................50
CRUMPLE ...................................................................................................50

D 51

DISCLAIMER ...............................................................................................51
DUBIOUS ..................................................................................................52
DOMINANT .................................................................................................53
DREAD .....................................................................................................54
DERELICT ..................................................................................................55
DEPRIVE ...................................................................................................56
DAUNT......................................................................................................57
DEMARCATE ...............................................................................................58
DISPARATE ................................................................................................58
DIPLOMATIC................................................................................................59
DISRUPTION ...............................................................................................60
DOMICILE...................................................................................................61
DEFERMENT ................................................................................................64
DISBURSE..................................................................................................64
DISSEMINATE...............................................................................................66
DORMANT ..................................................................................................67
DISPENSE...................................................................................................68
DISPENSE ..................................................................................................70

E 72

EXASPERATION ............................................................................................72
EVÁCUATE .................................................................................................74
ELEGAGNT..................................................................................................76
ENDOW ....................................................................................................77
ELIDE.......................................................................................................77
ELUSIVE....................................................................................................78
ELUDE.......................................................................................................79
EXPATRIATE................................................................................................79

F 81

FROZEN.....................................................................................................81
FOCAL ......................................................................................................89
FINICTY.....................................................................................................90
3

FRAGILE ...................................................................................................90
FAMINE ....................................................................................................91

G 92

GROAN .....................................................................................................92

H 93

HYPOTHESIS ...............................................................................................93
HETEROGENEOUS...........................................................................................94
HOUSEHOLD................................................................................................95

J 95

I 95

INHABIT ...................................................................................................95
INCEPTION .................................................................................................97
IMPOSE ....................................................................................................98
INTERCEPT .................................................................................................99
INCITE....................................................................................................100
IMPEDIMENT ............................................................................................101
INVADE ..................................................................................................102
INCERTITUDE.............................................................................................103
IMPAIR...................................................................................................103
INTERVENTION...........................................................................................107
INBORN ..................................................................................................108
IMPREST .................................................................................................109
IMPEDE ..................................................................................................111

K 112

L 112

LIABILITY.................................................................................................112
LIEN......................................................................................................113
LIBERATE ................................................................................................118
LEVERAGE.................................................................................................119
LANDSCAPE ..............................................................................................121
LOOM.....................................................................................................124
LEGISLATIVE..............................................................................................124
4

M 125

MOAN ....................................................................................................125
MITIGATE ................................................................................................127
MORTGAGE: .............................................................................................130

N 131

NOVICE ..................................................................................................131
NOTORIOUS..............................................................................................131

O 132

OBLIGES .................................................................................................132
OBSCURE ................................................................................................133
OFFEND ..................................................................................................134
OBTRUSIVE...............................................................................................136

P 137

PRECEDE .................................................................................................. 137


PREDATE .................................................................................................139
PROVOKE.................................................................................................140
PERPETUAL ..............................................................................................142
PRESUME ................................................................................................143
PROBE....................................................................................................144
POLLEN ..................................................................................................146
PURSUIT .................................................................................................147
PROTRUDE ...............................................................................................148
PICTURESQUE ............................................................................................149
PARADISE ................................................................................................150
PROJECTION .............................................................................................151
POKE......................................................................................................153
PURGE....................................................................................................155
PROVISION...............................................................................................157
PURSUE ..................................................................................................159
PARLANCE ...............................................................................................161
PRETERMIT ..............................................................................................162
PROCURE ................................................................................................163
PERCEPTION .............................................................................................164
PERCIEVE.................................................................................................165
5

Q 166

R 166

RETENTION...............................................................................................166
RETORFIT.................................................................................................167
REPUTATION .............................................................................................170
RECONCILE...............................................................................................171
RECONCILIATION ......................................................................................173
REPUTATION .............................................................................................173
REMAND .................................................................................................175
RESILIENT ...............................................................................................176
REPLICATE ...............................................................................................177
RETRACT..................................................................................................178

S 179

SCRIBE....................................................................................................179
SALUTATION .............................................................................................180
SEVERE ..................................................................................................181
SEVERITY ................................................................................................183
SUSTAIN..................................................................................................184
SUBSIDIARY .............................................................................................187
SPARROW ................................................................................................188

T 189

TENOR....................................................................................................189
STRIPE ...................................................................................................192
SEVERE ..................................................................................................194
STRIVE ...................................................................................................196
SHRINK ..................................................................................................197
SWIRL ...................................................................................................199
SORELY ..................................................................................................200
STRIP1 ...............................................................................................200
SQUEEZE .................................................................................................204
SLATE1 ..................................................................................................207
SKEPTICAL ...............................................................................................208
SELDOM .................................................................................................211
SUBSTANTIAL ............................................................................................211
SPRINKLE.................................................................................................212
SLUM .....................................................................................................213
6

SUBSTANDARD ...........................................................................................214
SCHISM ..................................................................................................214

T 215

TWEAK....................................................................................................215
TACT......................................................................................................216
TANGLE ..................................................................................................216

U 218

UPFRONT.................................................................................................218
UPLIFT....................................................................................................219
UNWIELDY ...............................................................................................219

V 221

VOLATILE ................................................................................................221

W 222

WAIVE.....................................................................................................222

X 224

Y 224

Z 224

Anticipate

an·tic·i·pate Audio Help /ænˈtɪsəˌpeɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[an-tis-uh-peyt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb
(used with object), -pat·ed, -pat·ing.
1. to realize beforehand; foretaste or foresee: to anticipate pleasure.
2. to expect; look forward to; be sure of: to anticipate a favorable decision.
7

3. to perform (an action) before another has had time to act.


4. to answer (a question), obey (a command), or satisfy (a request) before it
is made: He anticipated each of my orders.
5. to nullify, prevent, or forestall by taking countermeasures in advance: to
anticipate a military attack.
6. to consider or mention before the proper time: to anticipate more difficult
questions.
7. to be before (another) in doing, thinking, achieving, etc.: Many modern
inventions were anticipated by Leonardo da Vinci.
8. Finance.
a. to expend (funds) before they are legitimately available for use.
b. to discharge (an obligation) before it is due.
–verb (used without object)
9. to think, speak, act, or feel an emotional response in advance.
[Origin: 1525–35; < L anticipātus taken before, anticipated (ptp. of anticipāre),
equiv. to anti- (var. of ante- ante-) + -cip- (comb. form of capere to take) +
-ātus -ate1]

—Related forms
an·tic·i·pat·a·ble, adjective
an·tic·i·pa·tor, noun

—Synonyms 1. See expect. 5. preclude, obviate.


—Usage note Despite claims that anticipate should only be used to mean “to
perform (an action) or respond to (a question, etc.) in advance” or “to forestall,”
it has been used widely since the 18th century as a synonym for expect, often
with an implication of pleasure: We anticipate a large turnout at the next
meeting. This use is standard in all types of speech and writing.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
an·tic·i·pate Audio Help (ān-tĭs'ə-pāt') Pronunciation Key
v. an·tic·i·pat·ed, an·tic·i·pat·ing, an·tic·i·pates

v. tr.

1. To feel or realize beforehand; foresee: hadn't anticipated the crowds at the


zoo.
2. To look forward to, especially with pleasure; expect: anticipated a pleasant
hike in the country.
3. To deal with beforehand; act so as to mitigate, nullify, or prevent:
anticipated the storm by boarding up the windows. See Synonyms at expect.
4. To cause to happen in advance; accelerate.
8

5. To use in advance, as income not yet available.


6. To pay (a debt) before it is due.

v. intr.
To think, speak, or write about a matter in advance.

[Latin anticipāre, anticipāt-, to take before : ante-, ante- + capere, to take; see
kap- in Indo-European roots.]

an·tic'i·pat'a·ble adj., an·tic'i·pa'tor n., an·tic'i·pa·to'ry (-pə-tôr'ē, -tōr'ē) adj.

Usage Note: Some people hold that anticipate is improperly used as a simple
synonym for expect; they would restrict its use to situations in which advance
action is taken either to forestall (anticipate her opponent's next move) or to
fulfill (anticipate my desires). In earlier surveys, however, a majority of the Usage
Panel accepted the use of anticipate to mean "to feel or to realize beforehand"
and "to look forward to." The word unanticipated, however, is not established as a
synonym for unexpected. Thus 77 percent of the Usage Panel rejected the
sentence They always set aside a little extra food for unanticipated guests,
inasmuch as guests for whom advance provision has been made cannot be said
to be unanticipated, though they may very well be unexpected.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
anticipate
1534, "accelerate," from L. anticipatus, pp. of anticipare "take (care of) ahead of
time," from ante "before" (see ante) + capere "to take" (see capable). Used in
the sense of "expect, look forward to" since 1749, but anticipate has an element
of "prepare for, forestall" that should prevent its being used as a synonym for
expect.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
anticipate

verb
1. regard something as probable or likely; "The meteorologists are expecting
rain for tomorrow" [syn: expect]
9

2. act in advance of; deal with ahead of time


3. realize beforehand
4. make a prediction about; tell in advance; "Call the outcome of an election"
[syn: predict]
5. be excited or anxious about
6. be a forerunner of or occur earlier than; "This composition anticipates
Impressionism"

Accrue

ac·crue /əˈkru/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[uh-kroo]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used without object), -crued, -cru·ing. 1. to happen or result as a natural
growth, addition, etc.
2. to be added as a matter of periodic gain or advantage, as interest on money.
3. Law. to become a present and enforceable right or demand.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1425–75; late ME acruen, acrewen, prob. < AF accru(e), MF accreu(e),


ptp. of ac(c)reistre to increase < L accréscere grow. See ac-, crew1, accretion]

—Related forms
ac·cru·a·ble, adjective
ac·crue·ment, noun

—Synonyms 1, 2. accumulate, collect, grow, increase.


—Antonyms 1, 2. dwindle, decrease, diminish, lessen, dissipate.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This ac·crue (ə-
krōō') Pronunciation Key
v. ac·crued, ac·cru·ing, ac·crues

v. intr.

To come to one as a gain, addition, or increment: interest accruing in my savings


account.
To increase, accumulate, or come about as a result of growth: common sense
that accrues with experience.
To come into existence as a claim that is legally enforceable.
10

v. tr.
To accumulate over time: I have accrued 15 days of sick leave.

[Middle English acreuen, from Old French acreu, past participle of acroistre, to
increase, add, from Latin accrēscere, to grow : ad-, ad- + crēscere, to arise; see
ker-2 in Indo-European roots.]

ac·cru'a·ble adj., ac·crue'ment n.

(Download Now or Buy the Book) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
accrue

1440, from O.Fr. acreue "growth, increase," from acreu, pp. of acreistre "to
increase," from L. accrescere (see accretion).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This accrue

verb
1. grow by addition; "The interest accrues"
2. come into the possession of; "The house accrued to the oldest son"

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This
Main Entry: ac·crue
Pronunciation: &-'krü
Function: verb
Inflected Forms: ac·crued; ac·cru·ing
Etymology: Middle French accreue increase, addition to a property, from feminine
of accreu, past participle of acreistre to increase
intransitive verb 1 : to come into existence as an enforceable claim : vest as a
right <action…does not accrue until the plaintiff knew or reasonably should have
known that he may have suffered injury —National Law Journal>
NOTE: Statutes of limitations begin to run when a cause of action accrues.
2 : to come by way of increase or addition : arise as a growth or result —usually
used with to or from <advantages accruing to society from the freedom of the
press> <interest accrues to the seller as a result of the delay>
11

3 : to be periodically accumulated in the process of time whether as an increase


or a decrease <the accruing of taxes> <allowing the receivable interest to
accrue> transitive verb 1 : to accumulate or have due after a period of time
<authorized by law to accrue leave…in the maximum amount of 120 days —U.S.
Code>
2 : to enter in the books as an accrual

Assassinate

as·sas·si·nate /əˈsæsəˌneɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[uh-sas-uh-neyt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -nat·ed, -nat·ing.
1. to kill suddenly or secretively, esp. a politically prominent person; murder
premeditatedly and treacherously.
2. to destroy or harm treacherously and viciously: to assassinate a person's
character.
[Origin: 1590–1600; assassin + -ate1]

—Related forms
as·sas·si·na·tion, noun
as·sas·si·na·tive, adjective
as·sas·si·na·tor, noun

—Synonyms 1. slay.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
as·sas·si·nate (ə-sās'ə-nāt') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. as·sas·si·nat·ed, as·sas·si·nat·ing, as·sas·si·nates

1. To murder (a prominent person) by surprise attack, as for political reasons.


2. To destroy or injure treacherously: assassinate a rival's character.

as·sas'si·na'tion n., as·sas'si·na'tive adj., as·sas'si·na'tor n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
assassinate
12

verb
1. murder; especially of socially prominent persons; "Anwar Sadat was
assassinated because many people did not like his peace politics with Israel"
2. destroy or damage seriously, as of someone's reputation; "He assassinated
his enemy's character"

Amenity

a·men·i·ty /əˈmɛnɪti, əˈminɪ-/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[uh-men-i-tee, uh-mee-ni-] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation
–noun, plural -ties.
1. an agreeable way or manner; courtesy; civility: the graceful amenities of
society.
2. any feature that provides comfort, convenience, or pleasure: The house has
a swimming pool, two fireplaces, and other amenities.
3. the quality of being pleasing or agreeable in situation, prospect, disposition,
etc.; pleasantness: the amenity of the Caribbean climate.
4. amenities, lavatory; bathroom: used as a euphemism.
[Origin: 1400–50; late ME amenite < AF < L amoenitās, equiv. to amoen(us)
pleasing + -itās -ity]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
a·men·i·ty (ə-měn'ĭ-tē, ə-mē'nĭ-) Pronunciation Key
n. pl. a·men·i·ties

1. The quality of being pleasant or attractive; agreeableness.


2. Something that contributes to physical or material comfort.
3. A feature that increases attractiveness or value, especially of a piece of real
estate or a geographic location.
4. amenities Social courtesies.

[Middle English amenite, from Old French, from Latin amoenitās, from amoenus,
pleasant.]

Synonyms: These nouns denote something that increases physical ease or


facilitates work: an apartment with amenities like air conditioning; a suite with all
the comforts of home; a kitchen with every convenience; a school with excellent
facilities.
13

Although

al·though /ɔlˈðoʊ/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[awl-thoh]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–conjunction
in spite of the fact that; even though; though.
[Origin: 1275–1325; ME al thogh all (adv.) even + though]

—Synonyms notwithstanding (that), even if, albeit (that).


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
al·though (ôl-thō') Pronunciation Key
conj. Regardless of the fact that; even though.

[Middle English : al, all; see all + though, though; see though.]

Usage Note: As conjunctions, although and though are generally


interchangeable: Although (or though) she smiled, she was angry. Although is
usually placed at the beginning of its clause (as in the preceding example),
whereas though may occur elsewhere and is the more common term when used
to link words or phrases, as in wiser though poorer. In certain constructions, only
though is acceptable: Fond though (not although) I am of sports, I'd rather not
sit through another basketball game.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
although
c.1325, althagh, compound of O.E. eall "all" + þeah "though," showing once-
common emphatic use of all.

Affinity

af·fin·i·ty /əˈfɪnɪti/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[uh-fin-i-


tee] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation noun, plural -ties., adjective
14

–noun
1. a natural liking for or attraction to a person, thing, idea, etc.
2. a person, thing, idea, etc., for which such a natural liking or attraction is
felt.
3. relationship by marriage or by ties other than those of blood (distinguished
from consanguinity).
4. inherent likeness or agreement; close resemblance or connection.
5. Biology. the phylogenetic relationship between two organisms or groups of
organisms resulting in a resemblance in general plan or structure, or in the
essential structural parts.
6. Chemistry. the force by which atoms are held together in chemical
compounds.
–adjective
7. of or pertaining to persons who share the same interests: to arrange
charter flights for opera lovers and other affinity groups.
[Origin: 1275–1325; ME affinite < MF < L affīnitās connection by marriage. See
affine, -ity]

—Synonyms 1. partiality, fondness; sympathy, leaning, bent. 4. similarity,


compatibility.
—Antonyms 1. dislike, aversion. 4. dissimilarity, disparity.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
af·fin·i·ty (ə-fĭn'ĭ-tē) Pronunciation Key
n. pl. af·fin·i·ties

1. A natural attraction, liking, or feeling of kinship.


2. Relationship by marriage.
3. An inherent similarity between persons or things. See Synonyms at likeness.
4. Biology A relationship or resemblance in structure between species that
suggests a common origin.
5. Immunology The attraction between an antigen and an antibody.
6. Chemistry An attraction or force between particles that causes them to
combine.

[Middle English affinite, from Old French afinite, from Latin affīnitās, from affīnis,
related by marriage; see affined.]

Usage Note: In the sense of "attraction," affinity may be followed by of,


between, or with. Thus one may speak of the close affinity of James and Samuel,
15

or of the affinity between James and Samuel, or of James's affinity with Samuel.
In its chemical use affinity is generally followed by for: a dye with an affinity for
synthetic fabrics. · One might want to avoid using affinity as a simple synonym
for liking since 62 percent of the Usage Panel rejects the example Her affinity for
living in California led her to reject a chance to return to New York. Nevertheless,
the more sophisticated tone inherent in this use of the word can lend an archness
to certain contexts, as when Barbara Tuchman writes of Kaiser Wilhelm's "affinity
for coarse physical jokes practiced upon his courtiers." This may be why 65
percent of the Usage Panel approved of this quotation when it was presented as
an example.

affinity
1303, "relation by mariage" (as opposed to consanguinity), from O.Fr. afinité,
from L. affinitatem (nom. affinitas) "neighborhood, relationship by marriage,"
from affinis "adjacent," also "kin by marriage," lit. "bordering on," from ad- "to"
+ finis "a border, an end." Used figuratively since c.1600 of structural
relationships in chemistry, philology, etc. Meaning "natural attraction" (as though
by family) is from 1616.

affinity

noun
1. (immunology) the attraction between an antigen and an antibody
2. (anthropology) kinship by marriage or adoption; not a blood relationship
[ant: blood kinship]
3. (biology) state of relationship between organisms or groups of organisms
resulting in resemblance in structure or structural parts; "in anatomical structure
prehistoric man shows close affinity with modern humans"
4. a close connection marked by community of interests or similarity in nature
or character; "found a natural affinity with the immigrants"; "felt a deep kinship
with the other students"; "anthropology's kinship with the humanities"
5. the force attracting atoms to each other and binding them together in a
molecule; "basic dyes have an affinity for wool and silk"
6. inherent resemblance between persons or things
7. a natural attraction or feeling of kinship; "an affinity for politics"; "the
mysterious affinity between them"; "James's affinity with Sam"

affinity (ə-fĭn'ĭ-tē) Pronunciation Key

1. A relationship or resemblance in structure between species that suggests a


common origin.
2. An attraction or force between particles that causes them to combine, as the
attraction between an antigen and an antibody.
16

af·fin·i·ty (-fn-t)
n.

1. An attraction or force between particles that causes them to combine.


2. The attraction between an antigen and an antibody.
3. A relationship or resemblance in structure between species that suggests a
common origin.
4. The selective staining of a tissue by a dye. The selective uptake of a dye,
chemical, or other substance by a tissue.

Company.

Main Entry: af·fin·i·ty


Pronunciation: &-'fin-&t-E
Function: noun
Inflected Form: plural -ties
1 : an attractive force between substances or particles that causes them to enter
into and remain in chemical combination
2 : a relation between biological groups involving resemblance in structural plan
and indicating a common origin

Articulate
ar·tic·u·late /adj., n. ɑrˈtɪkyəlɪt; v. ɑrˈtɪkyəˌleɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[adj., n. ahr-tik-yuh-lit; v. ahr-tik-yuh-leyt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation adjective, verb, -lat·ed, -lat·ing, noun
–adjective
1. uttered clearly in distinct syllables.
2. capable of speech; not speechless.
3. using language easily and fluently; having facility with words: an articulate speaker.
4. expressed, formulated, or presented with clarity and effectiveness: an articulate thought.
5. made clear, distinct, and precise in relation to other parts: an articulate form; an articulate
shape; an articulate area.
6. (of ideas, form, etc.) having a meaningful relation to other parts: an articulate image.
7. having parts or distinct areas organized into a coherent or meaningful whole; unified: an
articulate system of philosophy.
8. Zoology. having joints or articulations; composed of segments.
–verb (used with object)
9. to utter clearly and distinctly; pronounce with clarity.
10. Phonetics. to make the movements and adjustments of the speech organs necessary to utter
(a speech sound).
11. to give clarity or distinction to: to articulate a shape; to articulate an idea.
12. Dentistry. to subject to articulation.
13. to unite by a joint or joints.
14. to reveal or make distinct: an injection to articulate arteries so that obstructions can be
observed by x-ray.
17

–verb (used without object)


15. to pronounce clearly each of a succession of speech sounds, syllables, or words; enunciate:
to articulate with excessive precision.
16. Phonetics. to articulate a speech sound.
17. Anatomy, Zoology. to form a joint.
18. Obsolete. to make terms of agreement.
–noun
19. a segmented invertebrate.
[Origin: 1545–55; < L articulātus, ptp. of articulāre to divide into distinct parts. See article,
-ate1]

—Related forms
ar·tic·u·la·ble /ɑrˈtɪkyələbəl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[ahr-tik-yuh-luh-
buhl] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation, adjective
ar·tic·u·late·ly, adverb
ar·tic·u·late·ness, ar·tic·u·la·cy /ɑrˈtɪkyələsi/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[ahr-tik-yuh-luh-see] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation, noun
ar·tic·u·la·tive /ɑrˈtɪkyəˌleɪtɪv, -lətɪv/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[ahr-tik-
yuh-ley-tiv, -luh-tiv] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation, adjective

—Synonyms 4. expressive. See eloquent. 9. enunciate.


—Antonyms 4. inarticulate, unintelligible. 9. mumble.
ar·tic·u·late (är-tĭk'yə-lĭt) Pronunciation Key
adj.

1. Endowed with the power of speech.


2. Composed of distinct, meaningful syllables or words, as human speech.
3. Expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language: an articulate speaker.
4. Characterized by the use of clear, expressive language: an articulate essay.
5. Anatomy Consisting of sections united by joints; jointed.

v. (-lāt') ar·tic·u·lat·ed, ar·tic·u·lat·ing, ar·tic·u·lates

v. tr.

1. To pronounce distinctly and carefully; enunciate.


2. To utter (a speech sound) by making the necessary movements of the speech organs.
3. To express in coherent verbal form; give words to: couldn't articulate my fears.
4. To fit together into a coherent whole; unify: a plan to articulate nursing programs throughout
the state.
5. Anatomy To unite by forming a joint or joints.
6. Architecture To give visible or concrete expression to (the composition of structural
elements): a spare design in which windows and doors are barely articulated.

v. intr.
1. To speak clearly and distinctly.
2. To utter a speech sound.
3. Anatomy To form a joint; be jointed: The thighbone articulates with the bones of the hip.

[Latin articulātus, past participle of articulāre, to divide into joints, utter distinctly, from articulus,
small joint; see article.]
18

ar·tic'u·late·ly adv., ar·tic'u·late·ness, ar·tic'u·la·cy (-lə-sē) n.


articulate
adjective
1. expressing yourself easily or characterized by clear expressive language; "articulate speech";
"an articulate orator"; "articulate beings" [ant: inarticulate]
2. consisting of segments held together by joints [syn: articulated] [ant: unarticulated]

verb
1. provide with a joint; "the carpenter jointed two pieces of wood" [syn: joint]
2. put into words or an expression; "He formulated his concerns to the board of trustees" [syn:
give voice]
3. speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way; "She pronounces French words in a funny way";
"I cannot say 'zip wire'"; "Can the child sound out this complicated word?" [syn: pronounce]
4. unite by forming a joint or joints; "the ankle bone articulates with the leg bones to form the
ankle bones"
5. express or state clearly

Assertion
as·ser·tion /əˈsɜrʃən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[uh-sur-shuhn]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. a positive statement or declaration, often without support or reason: a mere assertion; an
unwarranted assertion.
2. an act of asserting.
[Origin: 1375–1425; late ME assercion < L assertiōn- (s. of assertiō). See assert, -ion]

—Related forms
as·ser·tion·al, adjective

—Synonyms 1. claim, contention, allegation.


as·ser·tion (ə-sûr'shən) Pronunciation Key
n.
1. The act of asserting.
2. Something declared or stated positively, often with no support or attempt at proof.

as·ser'tion·al adj.
assertion
1424, from O.Fr. assertion (14c.), from L.L. assertionem (nom. assertio), noun of action from L.
asserere "claim rights over something, state, maintain, affirm," from ad- "to" + serere "join" (see
series). By "joining oneself" to a particular view, one "claimed" or "maintained" it. Assertiveness
"tendency toward self-assertion" is from 1881.

assertion
noun
1. a declaration that is made emphatically (as if no supporting evidence were necessary)
2. the act of affirming or asserting or stating something [syn: affirmation]

Abide
19

a·bide /əˈbaɪd/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[uh-bahyd] Pronunciation Key -


Show IPA Pronunciation verb, a·bode or a·bid·ed, a·bid·ing.
–verb (used without object)
1. to remain; continue; stay: Abide with me.
2. to have one's abode; dwell; reside: to abide in a small Scottish village.
3. to continue in a particular condition, attitude, relationship, etc.; last.
–verb (used with object)
4. to put up with; tolerate; stand: I can't abide dishonesty!
5. to endure, sustain, or withstand without yielding or submitting: to abide a vigorous onslaught.
6. to wait for; await: to abide the coming of the Lord.
7. to accept without opposition or question: to abide the verdict of the judges.
8. to pay the price or penalty of; suffer for.
—Verb phrase
9. abide by,
a. to act in accord with.
b. to submit to; agree to: to abide by the court's decision.
c. to remain steadfast or faithful to; keep: If you make a promise, abide by it.
[Origin: bef. 1000; ME abiden, OE ābīdan; c. OHG irbītan await, Goth usbeisns expectation,
patience. See a-3, bide]

—Related forms
a·bid·er, noun

—Synonyms 1. tarry. 2. live. 3. persevere, endure. 4. bear, endure, brook; support.


a·bide (ə-bīd') Pronunciation Key
v. a·bode (ə-bōd') or a·bid·ed, a·bid·ing, a·bides
v. tr.

1. To put up with; tolerate: can't abide such incompetence. See Synonyms at bear1.
2. To wait patiently for: "I will abide the coming of my lord" (Tennyson).
3. To withstand: a thermoplastic that will abide rough use and great heat.
v. intr.

1. To remain in a place.
2. To continue to be sure or firm; endure. See Synonyms at stay1.
3. To dwell or sojourn.

Abode
noun
1. any address at which you dwell more than temporarily; "a person can have several
residences" [syn: residence]
2. housing that someone is living in; "he built a modest dwelling near the pond"; "they raise
money to provide homes for the homeless" [syn: dwelling]

Main Entry: abode


past and past participle of ABIDE
Main Entry: abide
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Forms: abode or abid·ed; abid·ing
: to accept without objection—abide by : to act or behave in accordance with or in obedience to
20

Although
al·though /ɔlˈðoʊ / - [awl-thoh]
–conjunction
in spite of the fact that; even though; though.
[Origin: 1275–1325; ME al thogh all (adv.) even + though]

—Synonyms notwithstanding (that), even if, albeit (that).


al·though (ôl-thō')
conj. Regardless of the fact that; even though.

[Middle English : al, all; see all + though, though; see though.]

Usage Note: As conjunctions, although and though are generally interchangeable: Although (or
though) she smiled, she was angry. Although is usually placed at the beginning of its clause (as in
the preceding example), whereas though may occur elsewhere and is the more common term
when used to link words or phrases, as in wiser though poorer. In certain constructions, only
though is acceptable: Fond though (not although) I am of sports, I'd rather not sit through
another basketball game.

Breach

breach Audio Help /britʃ/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[breech] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. the act or a result of breaking; break or rupture.
2. an infraction or violation, as of a law, trust, faith, or promise.
3. a gap made in a wall, fortification, line of soldiers, etc.; rift; fissure.
4. a severance of friendly relations.
5. the leap of a whale above the surface of the water.
6. Archaic. the breaking of waves; the dashing of surf.
7. Obsolete. wound1.
–verb (used with object)
8. to make a breach or opening in.
9. to break or act contrary to (a law, promise, etc.).
–verb (used without object)
10. (of a whale) to leap partly or completely out of the water, head first, and
land on the back or belly with a resounding splash.
[Origin: bef. 1000; ME breche, OE bræc breaking; see break]

—Related forms
breacher, noun

—Synonyms 1. fracture. 2. Breach, infraction, violation, transgression all denote


in some way the breaking of a rule or law or the upsetting of a normal and
21

desired state. Breach is used infrequently in reference to laws or rules, more


often in connection with desirable conditions or states of affairs: a breach of the
peace, of good manners, of courtesy. Infraction most often refers to clearly
formulated rules or laws: an infraction of the criminal code, of university
regulations, of a labor contract. Violation, a stronger term than either of the
preceding two, often suggests intentional, even forceful or aggressive, refusal to
obey the law or to respect the rights of others: repeated violations of parking
regulations; a human rights violation. Transgression, with its root sense of “a
stepping across (of a boundary of some sort),” applies to any behavior that
exceeds the limits imposed by a law, especially a moral law, a commandment, or
an order; it often implies sinful behavior: a serious transgression of social
customs, of God's commandments. 3. crack, rent, opening. 4. alienation, split,
rift, schism, separation; dissension.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
breach Audio Help (brēch) Pronunciation Key
n.

1.
1. An opening, a tear, or a rupture.
2. A gap or rift, especially in or as if in a solid structure such as a dike or
fortification.
2. A violation or infraction, as of a law, a legal obligation, or a promise.
3. A breaking up or disruption of friendly relations; an estrangement.
4. A leap of a whale from the water.
5. The breaking of waves or surf.

v. breached, breach·ing, breach·es

v. tr.

1. To make a hole or gap in; break through.


2. To break or violate (an agreement, for example).

v. intr.
To leap from the water: waiting for the whale to breach.

[Middle English breche, from Old English brēc; see bhreg- in Indo-European
roots.]
22

Synonyms: These nouns denote an act or instance of breaking a law or


regulation or failing to fulfill a duty, obligation, or promise. Breach and infraction
are the least specific: Revealing the secret would be a breach of trust. Infractions
of the rules will not be tolerated.
A violation is committed willfully and with complete lack of regard for legal,
moral, or ethical considerations: In violation of her contract, she failed to appear.
Transgression most often applies to divine or moral law: "The children shall not
be punished for the father's transgression" (Daniel Defoe).
Trespass implies willful intrusion on another's rights, possessions, or person:
"In the limited and confined sense [trespass] signifies no more than an entry on
another man's ground without a lawful authority" (William Blackstone).
Infringement is most frequently used to denote encroachment on another's
rights: "Necessity is the plea for every infringement of human freedom" (William
Pitt the Younger).

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
breach
O.E. bræc "a breaking," from brecan (see break), infl. by O.Fr. breche, from
Frankish; both from P.Gmc. *brecho, *bræko "broken," from PIE base *bhreg-.
Fig. sense of "a breaking of rules, etc." was in O.E. The verb is first recorded
1573.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
breach

noun
1. a failure to perform some promised act or obligation
2. an opening (especially a gap in a dike or fortification)
3. a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions); "they hoped
to avoid a break in relations" [syn: rupture]

verb
1. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises; "offend all laws of
humanity"; "violate the basic laws or human civilization"; "break a law"; "break a
promise" [syn: transgress] [ant: keep]
2. make an opening or gap in [syn: gap]
23

Bias

bi·as /ˈbaɪəs/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[bahy-uhs]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation noun, adjective, adverb, verb,
bi·ased, bi·as·ing or (especially British) bi·assed, bi·as·sing.
–noun
1. an oblique or diagonal line of direction, esp. across a woven fabric.
2. a particular tendency or inclination, esp. one that prevents unprejudiced
consideration of a question; prejudice.
3. Statistics. a systematic as opposed to a random distortion of a statistic as a
result of sampling procedure.
4. Lawn Bowling.
a. a slight bulge or greater weight on one side of the ball or bowl.
b. the curved course made by such a ball when rolled.
5. Electronics. the application of a steady voltage or current to an active
device, as a diode or transistor, to produce a desired mode of operation.
6. a high-frequency alternating current applied to the recording head of a tape
recorder during recording in order to reduce distortion.
–adjective
7. cut, set, folded, etc., diagonally: This material requires a bias cut.
–adverb
8. in a diagonal manner; obliquely; slantingly: to cut material bias.
–verb (used with object)
9. to cause partiality or favoritism in (a person); influence, esp. unfairly: a
tearful plea designed to bias the jury.
10. Electronics. to apply a steady voltage or current to (the input of an active
device).
—Idiom
11. on the bias,
a. in the diagonal direction of the cloth.
b. out of line; slanting.
[Origin: 1520–30; < MF biais oblique < OPr, prob. < VL *(e)bigassius < Gk
epikársios oblique, equiv. to epi- epi- + -karsios oblique]

—Synonyms 2. predisposition, preconception, predilection, partiality, proclivity;


bent, leaning. Bias, prejudice mean a strong inclination of the mind or a
preconceived opinion about something or someone. A bias may be favorable or
unfavorable: bias in favor of or against an idea. Prejudice implies a preformed
judgment even more unreasoning than bias, and usually implies an unfavorable
opinion: prejudice against a race. 9. predispose, bend, incline, dispose.
—Antonyms 2. impartiality.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
24

Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This


Bi·as /ˈbaɪəs/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[bahy-uhs]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
fl. 570 b.c., Greek philosopher, born in Ionia.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
bi·as (bī'əs) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. A line going diagonally across the grain of fabric: Cut the cloth on the bias.
2.
1. A preference or an inclination, especially one that inhibits impartial
judgment.
2. An unfair act or policy stemming from prejudice.
3. A weight or irregularity in a ball that causes it to swerve, as in lawn
bowling.
4. The tendency of such a ball to swerve.
3. A statistical sampling or testing error caused by systematically favoring
some outcomes over others.
4. Sports
1. A weight or irregularity in a ball that causes it to swerve, as in lawn
bowling.
2. The tendency of such a ball to swerve.
5. The fixed voltage applied to an electrode.

adj. Slanting or diagonal; oblique: a bias fold.

tr.v. bi·ased or bi·assed, bi·as·ing or bi·as·sing, bi·as·es or bi·as·ses

1. To influence in a particular, typically unfair direction; prejudice.


2. To apply a small voltage to (a grid).

Barn
barn1 - [bahrn] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. a building for storing hay, grain, etc., and often for housing livestock.
2. a very large garage for buses, trucks, etc.; carbarn.
–verb (used with object)
3. to store (hay, grain, etc.) in a barn.
25

—Related forms
barnlike, adjective
barn2 - [bahrn] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun Physics.
a unit of nuclear cross section, equal to 10−24 square centimeter. Abbreviation: b
barn (bärn) n. 1. A large farm building used for storing farm products and sheltering
livestock.2. A large shed for the housing of vehicles, such as railroad cars.3. A particularly large,
typically bare building: lived in a barn of a country house.4. Abbr. b Physics A unit of area equal
to 10-24 square centimeters, used to measure cross sections in nuclear physics.[Middle English
bern, from Old English berærn : bere, barley; see bhares- in Indo-European roots + ærn, house.]

barn
O.E. bereærn "barn," lit. "barley house," from bere "barley" (see barley) + aern "house,"
metathesized from *rann, *rasn (cf. O.N. rann, Goth. razn "house," O.E. rest "resting place").
Barnstorming first applied 1815 to a theatrical troupe's performances in upstate N.Y. barns
(usually featuring short action pieces to suit vulgar tastes); extended 1896 to electioneering,
1928 to itinerant airplane pilots who performed stunts at fairs and races. Barn door figurative for
"broad target" and "great size" since 1547.

barn
noun
1. an outlying farm building for storing grain or animal feed and housing farm animals
2. (physics) a unit of nuclear cross section; the effective circular area that one particle presents
to another as a target for an encounter

Breed
breed - [breed] - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, bred, breed·ing, noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to produce (offspring); procreate; engender.
2. to produce by mating; propagate sexually; reproduce: Ten mice were bred in the laboratory.
3. Horticulture. a. to cause to reproduce by controlled pollination.
b. to improve by controlled pollination and selection.

4. to raise (cattle, sheep, etc.): He breeds longhorns on the ranch.


5. to cause or be the source of; engender; give rise to: Dirt breeds disease. Stagnant water
breeds mosquitoes.
6. to develop by training or education; bring up; rear: He was born and bred a gentleman.
7. Energy. to produce more fissile nuclear fuel than is consumed in a reactor.
8. to impregnate; mate: Breed a strong mare with a fast stallion and hope for a Derby winner.
–verb (used without object)
9. to produce offspring: Many animals breed in the spring.
10. to be engendered or produced; grow; develop: Bacteria will not breed in alcohol.
11. to cause the birth of young, as in raising stock.
12. to be pregnant.
–noun
13. Genetics. a relatively homogenous group of animals within a species, developed and
maintained by humans.
14. lineage; stock; strain: She comes from a fine breed of people.
15. sort; kind; group: Scholars are a quiet breed.
16. Offensive. HALF-BREED (def. 2).
26

[Origin: bef. 1000; ME breden, OE brédan to nourish (c. OHG bruotan, G brüten); n. use from
16th century ]

—Related forms
breed·a·ble, adjective

—Synonyms 1, 2. beget, bear, generate. 5. promote, occasion, foster, produce, induce, develop.
14. family, pedigree, line.
breed (brēd) v. bred (brěd), breed·ing, breeds v. tr. 1. To produce (offspring); give
birth to or hatch.2. To bring about; engender: "Admission of guilt tends to breed public
sympathy" (Jonathan Alter).3. a. To cause to reproduce, especially by controlled mating and
selection: breed cattle.b. To develop new or improved strains in (organisms), chiefly through
controlled mating and selection of offspring for desirable traits.c. To inseminate or impregnate;
mate with.4. To rear or train; bring up: a writer who was bred in a seafaring culture.5. To be the
place of origin of: Austria breeds great skiers.6. To produce (fissionable material) in a breeder
reactor.v. intr. 1. To produce offspring.2. To copulate; mate.3. To originate and develop:
Mischief breeds in bored minds.n. 1. A group of organisms having common ancestors and
certain distinguishable characteristics, especially a group within a species developed by artificial
selection and maintained by controlled propagation.2. A kind; a sort: a new breed of politician; a
new breed of computer.3. Offensive A person of mixed racial descent; a half-breed.[Middle
English breden, from Old English brēdan; see bhreu- in Indo-European roots.]
breed
O.E. bredan "bring young to birth, carry," also "cherish, keep warm," from W.Gmc. *brodjan (cf.
O.H.G. bruoten, Ger. brüten "to brood, hatch"), from *brod- "fetus, hatchling," from PIE *bhre-
"burn, heat" (see brood). Original notion of the word was incubation, warming to hatch. Breeding
"good manners" is from 1596. Breeder scornful homosexual term for "heterosexual person,"
attested from 1986.

breed
noun
1. a special variety of domesticated animals within a species; "he experimented on a particular
breed of white rats"; "he created a new strain of sheep"
2. a special type; "Google represents a new breed of entrepreneurs"
verb
1. call forth [syn: engender]
2. copulate with a female, used especially of horses; "The horse covers the mare"
3. cause to procreate (animals); "She breeds dogs"
4. have young (animals) or reproduce (organisms); "pandas rarely breed in captivity"; "These
bacteria reproduce"

Compliance

com·pli·ance Audio Help /kəmˈplaɪəns/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[kuhm-plahy-uhns] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. the act of conforming, acquiescing, or yielding.
2. a tendency to yield readily to others, esp. in a weak and subservient way.
3. conformity; accordance: in compliance with orders.
27

4. cooperation or obedience: Compliance with the law is expected of all.


5. Physics.
a. the strain of an elastic body expressed as a function of the force producing
the strain.
b. a coefficient expressing the responsiveness of a mechanical system to a
periodic force.
[Origin: 1635–45; comply + -ance]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
compliance

To learn more about compliance visit Britannica.com

© 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
com·pli·ance Audio Help (kəm-plī'əns) Pronunciation Key
n.

1.
1. The act of complying with a wish, request, or demand; acquiescence.
2. Medicine Willingness to follow a prescribed course of treatment.
3. Extension or displacement of a loaded structure per unit load.
4. Flexibility.
2. A disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others.
3.
1. Extension or displacement of a loaded structure per unit load.
2. Flexibility.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
compliance

noun
1. acting according to certain accepted standards; "their financial statements
are in conformity with generally accepted accounting practices" [syn: conformity]
[ant: disobedience, nonconformance]
2. a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others [syn: complaisance]
28

3. the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another [syn:


submission]

Constitution

con·sti·tu·tion /ˌkɒnstɪˈtuʃən, -ˈtyu-/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[kon-sti-too-shuhn, -tyoo-] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation
–noun
1. the way in which a thing is composed or made up; makeup; composition:
the chemical constitution of the cleanser.
2. the physical character of the body as to strength, health, etc.: He has a
strong constitution.
3. Medicine/Medical, Psychology. the aggregate of a person's physical and
psychological characteristics.
4. the act or process of constituting; establishment.
5. the state of being constituted; formation.
6. any established arrangement or custom.
7. (initial capital letter) Constitution of the United States.
8. the system of fundamental principles according to which a nation, state,
corporation, or the like, is governed.
9. the document embodying these principles.
10. Archaic. character or condition of mind; disposition; temperament.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME constitucion edict, ordinance < AF < L constitūtiōn- (s.
of constitūtiō). See constitute, -ion]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
con·sti·tu·tion (kŏn'stĭ-tōō'shən, -tyōō'-) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. The act or process of composing, setting up, or establishing.


2.
1. The composition or structure of something; makeup.
2. The physical makeup of a person: Having a strong constitution, she had
no trouble climbing the mountain.
3. The system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the
nature, functions, and limits of a government or another institution.
4. The document in which such a system is recorded.
5. Constitution The fundamental law of the United States, framed in 1787,
ratified in 1789, and variously amended since then.
3.
29

1. The system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the


nature, functions, and limits of a government or another institution.
2. The document in which such a system is recorded.
3. Constitution The fundamental law of the United States, framed in 1787,
ratified in 1789, and variously amended since then.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
constitution

noun
1. law determining the fundamental political principles of a government [syn:
fundamental law]
2. the act of forming or establishing something; "the constitution of a PTA
group last year"; "it was the establishment of his reputation"; "he still remembers
the organization of the club"
3. the constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in
1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states [syn: United States
Constitution]
4. the way in which someone or something is composed
5. a United States 44-gun frigate that was one of the first three naval ships
built by the United States; it won brilliant victories over British frigates during the
War of 1812 and is without doubt the most famous ship in the history of the
United States Navy; it has been rebuilt and is anchored in the Charlestown Navy
Yard in Boston

Contingent

con·tin·gent /kənˈtɪndʒənt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[kuhn-tin-juhnt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. dependent for existence, occurrence, character, etc., on something not yet
certain; conditional (often fol. by on or upon): Our plans are contingent on the
weather.
2. liable to happen or not; uncertain; possible: They had to plan for
contingent expenses.
3. happening by chance or without known cause; fortuitous; accidental:
contingent occurrences.
4. Logic. (of a proposition) neither logically necessary nor logically impossible,
so that its truth or falsity can be established only by sensory observation.
30

–noun
5. a quota of troops furnished.
6. any one of the representative groups composing an assemblage: the New
York contingent at a national convention.
7. the proportion that falls to one as a share to be contributed or furnished.
8. something contingent; contingency.
[Origin: 1350–1400; late ME (prp.) (< MF) < L contingent- (s. of contingéns, prp.
of contingere), equiv. to con- con- + ting-, var. s. of tangere to touch + -ent-
-ent]

—Related forms
con·tin·gent·ly, adverb
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
con·tin·gent (kən-tĭn'jənt) Pronunciation Key
adj.

1. Liable to occur but not with certainty; possible: "All salaries are reckoned on
contingent as well as on actual services" (Ralph Waldo Emerson).
2. Dependent on conditions or occurrences not yet established; conditional:
arms sales contingent on the approval of Congress. See Synonyms at dependent.
3. Happening by chance or accident; fortuitous. See Synonyms at accidental.
4. Logic True only under certain conditions; not necessarily or universally true:
a contingent proposition.

n.

1. An event or condition that is likely but not inevitable.


2. A share or quota, as of troops, contributed to a general effort.
3. A representative group forming part of an assemblage.

[Middle English, from Latin contingēns, contingent-, present participle of


contingere, to touch; see contact.]

con·tin'gent·ly adv.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
31

Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This


contingent
c.1385, from L. contingentem (nom. contingens) "happening, touching," prp. of
contingere "to touch" (see contact). Contingency "uncertain incident" is from
c.1626.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
contingent

adjective
1. possible but not certain to occur; "they had to plan for contingent
expenses"
2. determined by conditions or circumstances that follow; "arms sales
contingent on the approval of congress"
3. uncertain because of uncontrollable circumstances; "the results of
confession were not contingent, they were certain"- George Eliot

noun
1. a gathering of persons representative of some larger group; "each nation
sent a contingent of athletes to the Olympics"
2. a temporary military unit; "the peacekeeping force includes one British
contingent"

Colleate

col·late /kəˈleɪt, koʊ-, kɒ-, ˈkoʊleɪt, ˈkɒleɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[kuh-leyt, koh-, ko-, koh-leyt, kol-eyt] Pronunciation Key - Show
IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -lat·ed, -lat·ing.
1. to gather or arrange in their proper sequence (the pages of a report, the
sheets of a book, the pages of several sets of copies, etc.).
2. Bookbinding. to verify the arrangement of (the gathered sheets of a book),
usually by inspecting the signature at the foot of the first page of each sheet or
the mark printed on the back of each sheet or on the spine of each signature.
3. to compare (texts, statements, etc.) in order to note points of agreement
or disagreement.
4. Bibliography. to verify the number and order of the sheets of (a volume) as
a means of determining its completeness.
5. Computers. to merge (sequenced data from two or more data sets or files)
to produce a new sequenced data set or file.
6. Ecclesiastical. to present by collation, as to a benefice.
32

[Origin: 1550–60; < L collātus (ptp. of conferre to bring together), equiv. to col-
col-1 + lā- (suppletive s. of ferre) + -tus ptp. ending]

—Related forms
col·lat·a·ble, adjective
col·la·tor, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
col·late (kə-lāt', kŏl'āt', kō'lāt') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. col·lat·ed, col·lat·ing, col·lates

1. To examine and compare carefully in order to note points of disagreement.


2. To assemble in proper numerical or logical sequence.
3. Printing
1. To examine (gathered sheets) in order to arrange them in proper
sequence before binding.
2. To verify the order and completeness of (the pages of a volume).
4. Ecclesiastical To admit (a cleric) to a benefice.

[From Latin collātus, past participle of cōnferre, to bring together : com-, com- +
lātus, brought; see telə- in Indo-European roots.]

col·la'tor n.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
collate
1612, from L. collatus, pp. of conferre "to bring together," from com- "together"
+ ferre "to bear" (see infer). Collation, with many meanings over the centuries, is
attested from c.1374. As the title of a popular 5c. religious work by John Cassian,
"Collation" was sometimes translated into O.E. as þurhtogenes.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
collate

verb
1. compare critically; of texts
33

2. to assemble in proper sequence; "collate the papers"

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: col·late


Pronunciation: k&-'lAt, kä-, kO-; 'kä-"lAt, 'kO-
Function: verb
Inflected Forms: -lat·ed; -lat·ing
Etymology: back-formation from collation, from Latin collatio (bonorum) bringing
together (of property) for distribution to heirs
transitive verb in the civil law of Louisiana : to return to an estate for equal
division <children or grandchildren, coming to the succession of their fathers,
mothers or other ascendants, must collate what they have received —Louisiana
Civil Code> intransitive verb in the civil law of Louisiana : to return property or
legacies to an estate for division <shall then be obliged to collate up to the sum
necessary —Louisiana Civil Code>

Cessation

ces·sa·tion /sɛˈseɪʃən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[se-


sey-shuhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
a temporary or complete stopping; discontinuance: a cessation of hostilities.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME cessacio(u)n < L cessātiōn- (s. of cessātiō) delay,
inactivity, stoppage, equiv. to cessāt(us) ptp. of cessāre to delay, stop (cess(us)
yielded, ceded (ced- cede + -tus ptp. suffix) + -ātus -ate1) + -iōn- -ion]

—Synonyms stop, halt, end, suspension, stay, recess.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
ces·sa·tion (sě-sā'shən) Pronunciation Key
n. A bringing or coming to an end; a ceasing: a cessation of hostilities.

[Middle English cessacioun, from Old French cessation, from Latin cessātiō,
cessātiōn-, from cessātus, past participle of cessāre, to stop; see cease.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
34

Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This


cessation
1447, from O.Fr. cessation, from L. cessationem (nom. cessatio) "a delaying,
ceasing," from cessare "delay" (see cease).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
cessation

noun
a stopping; "a cessation of the thunder"

Cease

cease /sis/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[sees]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, ceased, ceas·ing, noun
–verb (used without object)
1. to stop; discontinue: Not all medieval beliefs have ceased to exist.
2. to come to an end: At last the war has ceased.
3. Obsolete. to pass away; die out.
–verb (used with object)
4. to put a stop or end to; discontinue: He begged them to cease their
quarreling.
–noun
5. cessation: The noise of the drilling went on for hours without cease.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME ces(s)en < OF cesser < L cessāre to leave off, equiv. to
cess(us) (ptp. of cédere to withdraw, go; ced- go + -tus ptp. suffix) + -ā-
thematic vowel + -re inf. ending; see cede]

—Synonyms 2. terminate, end, culminate.


—Antonyms 1, 2. begin.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
cease (sēs) Pronunciation Key
v. ceased, ceas·ing, ceas·es

v. tr.
To put an end to; discontinue: The factory ceased production. See Synonyms at
stop.

v. intr.
35

1. To come to an end; stop: a process that never ceases.


2. To stop performing an activity or action; desist: "fold our wings,/And cease
from wanderings" (Tennyson).

n. Cessation; pause: We worked without cease to get the project finished on


time.

[Middle English cesen, from Old French cesser, from Latin cessāre, to stop,
frequentative of cēdere, to yield; see ked- in Indo-European roots.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
cease
c.1300, from O.Fr. cesser, from L. cessare "to cease, go slow," frequentative of
cedere "go away, withdraw, yield" (see cede). Replaced O.E. geswican, and
blinnan. Cease-fire "armistice" is from 1918.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
cease

noun
1. ('cease' is a noun only in the phrase 'without cease') end

verb
1. put an end to a state or an activity; "Quit teasing your little brother" [syn:
discontinue] [ant: bear on]
2. have an end, in a temporal, spatial, or quantitative sense; either spatial or
metaphorical; "the bronchioles terminate in a capillary bed"; "Your rights stop
where you infringe upon the rights of other"; "My property ends by the bushes";
"The symphony ends in a pianissimo" [syn: end] [ant: begin]

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms - Cite This Source - Share This

cease

In addition to the idiom beginning with cease, also see wonders will never cease.
36

Conveyance

con·vey·ance /kənˈveɪəns/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[kuhn-vey-uhns] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun 1. the act of conveying; transmission; communication.
2. a means of transporting, esp. a vehicle, as a bus, airplane, or automobile.
3. Law. a. the transfer of property from one person to another.
b. the instrument or document by which this is effected.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1495–1505; convey + -ance]


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This con·vey·ance
(kən-vā'əns) Pronunciation Key
n.
The act of conveying.
A means of conveying, especially a vehicle for transportation.
Law
Transfer of title to property from one person to another.
The document by which a property transfer is effected.
Pledges: vow, oath, promise, assurance, guarantee, undertaking, word of honor,

con·fer /kənˈfɜr/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[kuhn-fur] Pronunciation Key


- Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -ferred, -fer·ring.
–verb (used without object) 1. to consult together; compare opinions; carry on a discussion or
deliberation.
–verb (used with object) 2. to bestow upon as a gift, favor, honor, etc.: to confer a degree on a
graduate.
3. Obsolete. to compare.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1400–50 for earlier sense “to summon”; 1520–30 for current senses; late ME conferen <
L conferre to bring together, compare, consult with, equiv. to con- con- + ferre to carry, bear1]

—Related forms
con·fer·ment, noun
con·fer·ra·ble, adjective
con·fer·rer, noun

—Synonyms 1. See consult. 2. See give.


37

Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)


Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This con·fer (kən-fûr') Pronunciation
Key
v. con·ferred, con·fer·ring, con·fers

v. tr.

To bestow (an honor, for example): conferred a medal on the hero; conferred an honorary degree
on her.
To invest with (a characteristic, for example): a carefully worded statement that conferred an
aura of credibility.

v. intr.
To meet in order to deliberate together or compare views; consult: conferred with her attorney.

Chaos

cha·os /ˈkeɪɒs/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[key-os]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. a state of utter confusion or disorder; a total lack of organization or order.
2. any confused, disorderly mass: a chaos of meaningless phrases.
3. the infinity of space or formless matter supposed to have preceded the
existence of the ordered universe.
4. (initial capital letter) the personification of this in any of several ancient
Greek myths.
5. Obsolete. a chasm or abyss.
[Origin: 1400–50; late ME < L < Gk; akin to chasm, yawn, gape]

—Synonyms 1. disarray, jumble, turmoil, tumult.


—Antonyms 1. order, peace, calm.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
cha·os (kā'ŏs') Pronunciation Key
n.

1. A condition or place of great disorder or confusion.


2. A disorderly mass; a jumble: The desk was a chaos of papers and unopened
letters.
3. often Chaos The disordered state of unformed matter and infinite space
supposed in some cosmogonic views to have existed before the ordered universe.
38

4. Mathematics A dynamical system that has a sensitive dependence on its


initial conditions.
5. Obsolete An abyss; a chasm.

[Middle English, formless primordial space, from Latin, from Greek khaos.]

cha·ot'ic (-ŏt'ĭk) adj., cha·ot'i·cal·ly adv.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
chaos
c.1440, "gaping void," from L. chaos, from Gk. khaos "abyss, that which gapes
wide open, is vast and empty," from *khnwos, from PIE base *gheu-, *gh(e)i- "to
gape" (cf. Gk khaino "I yawn," O.E. ginian, O.N. ginnunga-gap; see yawn).
Meaning "utter confusion" (1606) is extended from theological use of chaos for
"the void at the beginning of creation" in Vulgate version of Genesis. The Gk. for
"disorder" was tarakhe, however the use of chaos here was rooted in Hesiod
("Theogony"), who describes khaos as the primeval emptiness of the Universe,
begetter of Erebus and Nyx ("Night"), and in Ovid ("Metamorphoses"), who
opposes Khaos to Kosmos, "the ordered Universe." Chaotic is from 1713.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
chaos

noun
1. a state of extreme confusion and disorder
2. the formless and disordered state of matter before the creation of the
cosmos
3. (Greek mythology) the most ancient of gods; the personification of the
infinity of space preceding creation of the universe
4. (physics) a dynamical system that is extremely sensitive to its initial
conditions

Commerce

com·merce /ˈkɒmərs/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[kom-


ers] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. an interchange of goods or commodities, esp. on a large scale between
different countries (foreign commerce) or between different parts of the same
country (domestic commerce); trade; business.
39

2. social relations, esp. the exchange of views, attitudes, etc.


3. sexual intercourse.
4. intellectual or spiritual interchange; communion.
5. (initial capital letter) Also called Commerce Department. Informal. the
Department of Commerce.
[Origin: 1530–40; < MF < L commercium, equiv. to commerc(ārī) to trade
together (com- com- + mercārī to buy, deal, deriv. of merc-, s. of merx goods) +
-ium -ium]

—Synonyms 1. See trade.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
Com·merce /ˈkɒmərs/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[kom-
ers] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
a town in SW California. 10,509.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
com·merce (kŏm'ərs) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. The buying and selling of goods, especially on a large scale, as between


cities or nations. See Synonyms at business.
2. Intellectual exchange or social interaction.
3. Sexual intercourse.

[French, from Old French, from Latin commercium : com-, com- + merx, merc-,
merchandise.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
commerce
1537, from M.Fr. commerce, from L. commercium "trade, trafficking," from com-
"together" + merx (gen. mercis) "merchandise" (see market). Commercial is
40

1687 as an adj.; as a noun meaning "advertising broadcast on radio or TV" it is


first recorded 1935.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
commerce

noun
1. transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying
commodities (goods and services)
2. the United States federal department that promotes and administers
domestic and foreign trade (including management of the census and the patent
office); created in 1913 [syn: Department of Commerce]
3. social exchange, especially of opinions, attitudes, etc.

Conciliate

con·cil·i·ate /kənˈsɪliˌeɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[kuhn-sil-ee-eyt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb,
-at·ed, -at·ing.
–verb (used with object)
1. to overcome the distrust or hostility of; placate; win over: to conciliate an
angry competitor.
2. to win or gain (goodwill, regard, or favor).
3. to make compatible; reconcile.
–verb (used without object)
4. to become agreeable or reconciled: Efforts to conciliate in the dispute
proved fruitless.
[Origin: 1540–50; < L conciliātus (ptp. of conciliāre to bring together, unite,
equiv. to concili(um) council + -ātus -ate1]

—Related forms
con·cil·i·a·ble /kənˈsɪliəbəl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[kuhn-sil-ee-uh-buhl] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation,
adjective
con·cil·i·at·ing·ly, adverb
con·cil·i·a·tion, noun

—Synonyms 1. See appease.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
con·cil·i·ate (kən-sĭl'ē-āt') Pronunciation Key
41

v. con·cil·i·at·ed, con·cil·i·at·ing, con·cil·i·ates

v. tr.

1. To overcome the distrust or animosity of; appease.


2. To regain or try to regain (friendship or goodwill) by pleasant behavior.
3. To make or attempt to make compatible; reconcile.

v. intr.
To gain or try to gain someone's friendship or goodwill. See Synonyms at pacify.

[Latin conciliāre, conciliāt-, from concilium, meeting; see kelə-2 in Indo-


European roots.]

con·cil'i·a·ble (-ə-bəl) adj., con·cil'i·a'tion n., con·cil'i·a'tor n., con·cil'i·a·to'ry (-ə-


tôr'ē, -tōr'ē) adj.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
conciliation

noun
1. the state of manifesting goodwill and cooperation after being reconciled;
"there was a brief period of conciliation but the fighting soon resumed"
2. any of various forms of mediation whereby disputes may be settled short of
arbitration
3. the act of placating and overcoming distrust and animosity [syn: placation]

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: con·cil·i·a·tion


Pronunciation: k&n-"si-lE-'A-sh&n
Function: noun
: the settlement of a dispute by mutual and friendly agreement with a view to
avoiding litigation —con·cil·i·a·tor /k&n-'si-lE-"A-t&r/ noun

commence

com·mence /kəˈmɛns/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[kuh-


mens] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
42

–verb (used without object), verb (used with object), -menced, -menc·ing.
to begin; start.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME commencen < AF, MF comencer < VL *cominitiāre,
equiv. to L com- com- + initiāre to begin; see initiate]

—Related forms
com·mence·a·ble, adjective
com·menc·er, noun

—Synonyms originate, inaugurate. See begin.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
com·mence (kə-měns') Pronunciation Key
v. com·menced, com·menc·ing, com·menc·es

v. tr.
To begin; start.

v. intr.
To enter upon or have a beginning; start. See Synonyms at begin.

[Middle English commencen, from Old French comencier, from Vulgar Latin
*cominitiāre : Latin com-, intensive pref.; see com- + Late Latin initiāre, to begin
(from Latin initium, beginning; see ei- in Indo-European roots).]

com·menc'er n.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
commence
1314, from O.Fr. comencier, from V.L. *cominitiare, orig. "to initiate as priest,
consecrate," from L. com- "together" + initiare "to initiate." The academic sense
of commencement "action of taking a full degree," is in M.E.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
commence

verb
43

1. take the first step or steps in carrying out an action; "We began working at
dawn"; "Who will start?"; "Get working as soon as the sun rises!"; "The first
tourists began to arrive in Cambodia"; "He began early in the day"; "Let's get
down to work now" [syn: get down] [ant: end]
2. set in motion, cause to start; "The U.S. started a war in the Middle East";
"The Iraqis began hostilities"; "begin a new chapter in your life" [syn: begin]
[ant: end]
3. get off the ground; "Who started this company?"; "We embarked on an
exciting enterprise"; "I start my day with a good breakfast"; "We began the new
semester"; "The afternoon session begins at 4 PM"; "The blood shed started
when the partisans launched a surprise attack" [syn: start]

Confiscate
con·fis·cate - [kon-fuh-skeyt, kuh n-fis-keyt] - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -cat·ed,
-cat·ing, adjective
–verb (used with object)
1. to seize as forfeited to the public domain; appropriate, by way of penalty, for public use.
2. to seize by or as if by authority; appropriate summarily: The border guards confiscated our
movie cameras.
–adjective
3. seized.
[Origin: 1525–35; < L confiscātus (ptp. of confiscāre to seize for the public treasury), equiv. to
con- CON- + fisc(us) basket, moneybag, public treasury (see FISCAL) + -ātus -ATE1 ]

—Related forms
con·fis·cat·a·ble, adjective
con·fis·ca·tion, noun
con·fis·ca·tor, noun
con·fis·cate (kŏn'fĭ-skāt') tr.v. con·fis·cat·ed, con·fis·cat·ing, con·fis·cates 1. To seize
(private property) for the public treasury.2. To seize by or as if by authority. See Synonyms at
appropriate.adj. (kŏn'fĭ-skāt', kən-fĭs'kət) 1. Seized by a government; appropriated.2. Having
lost property through confiscation.

Conceive
con·ceive - [kuh n-seev] - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -ceived, -ceiv·ing.
–verb (used with object)
1. to form (a notion, opinion, purpose, etc.): He conceived the project while he was on vacation.
2. to form a notion or idea of; imagine.
3. to hold as an opinion; think; believe: I can't conceive that it would be of any use.
4. to experience or form (a feeling): to conceive a great love for music.
5. to express, as in words.
6. to become pregnant with.
7. to beget.
8. to begin, originate, or found (something) in a particular way (usually used in the passive): a
new nation conceived in liberty.
9. Archaic. to understand; comprehend.
–verb (used without object)
44

10. to form an idea; think (usually fol. by of).


11. to become pregnant.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME < AF, OF conceivre < L concipere to take fully, take in, equiv. to con-
CON- + -cipere, comb. form of capere to take ]

—Related forms
con·ceiv·er, noun

—Synonyms 2, 8. See IMAGINE.


con·ceive (kən-sēv') v. con·ceived, con·ceiv·ing, con·ceives v. tr. 1. To become
pregnant with (offspring).2. To form or develop in the mind; devise: conceive a plan to increase
profits.3. To apprehend mentally; understand: couldn't conceive the meaning of that sentence.4.
To be of the opinion that; think: didn't conceive such a tragedy could occur.5. To begin or
originate in a specific way: a political movement conceived in the ferment of the 1960s.v. intr. 1.
To form or hold an idea: Ancient peoples conceived of the earth as flat.2. To become
pregnant.[Middle English conceiven, from Old French concevoir, conceiv-, from Latin concipere :
com-, intensive pref.; see com- + capere, to take; see kap- in Indo-European roots.]
con·ceiv'a·bil'i·ty, con·ceiv'a·ble·ness n., con·ceiv'a·ble adj., con·ceiv'a·bly adv., con·ceiv'er n.
conceive
c.1280, from stem of O.Fr. conceveir, from L. concipere (pp. conceptus) "to take in and hold,"
from com- intensive prefix + comb. form of capere "to take," from PIE *kap- "to grasp" (see
capable). Originally "take (seed) into the womb, become pregnant," sense of "take into the mind"
is from c.1340.

conceive
verb
1. have the idea for; "He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients"; "This library
was well conceived" [syn: gestate]
2. judge or regard; look upon; judge; "I think he is very smart"; "I believe her to be very
smart"; "I think that he is her boyfriend"; "The racist conceives such people to be inferior" [syn:
think]
3. become pregnant; undergo conception; "She cannot conceive"; "My daughter was conceived
in Christmas Day"

Commodity
com·mod·i·ty - [kuh-mod-i-tee] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun, plural -ties.
1. an article of trade or commerce, esp. a product as distinguished from a service.
2. something of use, advantage, or value.
3. Stock Exchange. any unprocessed or partially processed good, as grain, fruits, and vegetables,
or precious metals.
4. Obsolete. a quantity of goods.
[Origin: 1375–1425; late ME commodite < AF < L commoditās timeliness, convenience, equiv. to
commod(us) (see COMMODE) + -itās -ITY ]
com·mod·i·ty (kə-mŏd'ĭ-tē) n. pl. com·mod·i·ties 1. Something useful that can be turned
to commercial or other advantage: "Left-handed, power-hitting third basemen are a rare
commodity in the big leagues" (Steve Guiremand).2. An article of trade or commerce, especially
an agricultural or mining product that can be processed and resold.3. Advantage; benefit.4.
Obsolete A quantity of goods.[Middle English commodite, from Old French, convenience, from
Latin commoditās, from commodus, convenient; see commodious.]
commodity
45

1410, from M.Fr. commodité "benefit, profit," from L. commoditatem (nom. commoditas) "fitness,
adaptation," from commodus (see commode). Commodification first attested 1975, in reference
to art theory.

commodity
noun
articles of commerce

Coarse-grained
coarse-grained [kawrs-greynd, kohrs-]
–adjective
1. having a coarse texture or grain.
2. indelicate; crude; vulgar; gross: a coarse-grained person with vulgar manners.

—Related forms
coarse-grainedness, noun
coarse-grained (kôrs'grānd', kōrs'-) adj. 1. Having a rough, coarse texture.2. Not refined;
indelicate and crude.
coarse-grained
adjective
1. composed of or covered with particles resembling meal in texture or consistency; "granular
sugar"; "the photographs were grainy and indistinct"; "it left a mealy residue" [syn: farinaceous]
2. not having a fine texture; "coarse-grained wood"; "large-grained sand"

Consequence
con·se·quence [kon-si-kwens, -kwuh ns]
–noun
1. the effect, result, or outcome of something occurring earlier: The accident was the
consequence of reckless driving.
2. an act or instance of following something as an effect, result, or outcome.
3. the conclusion reached by a line of reasoning; inference.
4. importance or significance: a matter of no consequence.
5. importance in rank or position; distinction: a man of great consequence in art.
—Idioms
6. in consequence, consequently; as a result; hence: He withdrew from the world, and in
consequence was forgotten.
7. in consequence of, as a result of; on account of: A trial was held in consequence of the
investigation.

[Origin: 1350–1400; ME (< AF) < L consequentia. See CONSEQUENT, -ENCE ]

—Synonyms 1. outcome, issue, upshot, sequel. See EFFECT. 4. moment, weight. See
IMPORTANCE.
—Antonyms 1. cause.

con·se·quence (kŏn'sĭ-kwěns', -kwəns) n. 1. Something that logically or naturally follows


from an action or condition. See Synonyms at effect.2. The relation of a result to its cause.3. A
logical conclusion or inference.4. Importance in rank or position: scientists of consequence.5.
Significance; importance: an issue of consequence. See Synonyms at importance.
consequence
46

c.1380, from O.Fr. consequence "result," from L. consequentia, from consequentem (nom.
consequens), prp. of consequi "to follow after," from com- "with" + sequi "to follow" (see sequel).
Sense of "importance" (1602) is from notion of being "pregnant with consequences."

consequence
noun
1. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon; "the magnetic
effect was greater when the rod was lengthwise"; "his decision had depressing consequences for
business"; "he acted very wise after the event"
2. the outcome of an event especially as relative to an individual
3. having important effec
ts or influence; "decisions of great consequence are made by the president himself"; "virtue is of
more moment than security"; "that result is of no consequence" [ant: inconsequence]

Conjure
con·jure (kŏn'jər, kən-jŏŏr') v. con·jured, con·jur·ing, con·jures v. tr. 1. a. To summon
(a devil or spirit) by magical or supernatural power.b. To influence or effect by or as if by magic:
tried to conjure away the doubts that beset her.c. To call or bring to mind; evoke: "Arizona
conjures up an image of stark deserts for most Americans" (American Demographics).d. To
imagine; picture: "a sight to store away, then conjure up someday when they were no longer
together" (Nelson DeMille).2. a. To call or bring to mind; evoke: "Arizona conjures up an image
of stark deserts for most Americans" (American Demographics).b. To imagine; picture: "a sight
to store away, then conjure up someday when they were no longer together" (Nelson DeMille).3.
Archaic To call on or entreat solemnly, especially by an oath.v. intr. 1. To perform magic tricks,
especially by sleight of hand.2. a. To summon a devil by magic or supernatural power.b. To
practice black magic.n. Chiefly Southern U.S. (kŏn'jər) See hoodoo. adj. Chiefly Southern U.S.
Of or practicing folk magic: a conjure woman. [Middle English conjuren, from Old French conjurer,
to use a spell, from Late Latin coniūrāre, to pray by something holy, from Latin, to swear together
: com-, com- + iūrāre, to swear; see yewes- in Indo-European roots.]
hoo·doo (hōō'dōō) n. pl. hoo·doos 1. a. Magic healing and control, especially in African-
based folk medicine in the United States and the Caribbean. Also called conjure.b. A practitioner
of hoodoo.c. Bad luck.d. One that brings bad luck.2. Voodoo.3. a. Bad luck.b. One that brings
bad luck.4. Geology A column of eccentrically shaped rock, produced by differential
weathering.tr.v. hoo·dooed, hoo·doo·ing, hoo·doos 1. To practice hoodoo on; affect with a
charm or curse.2. To bring bad luck to.[Of West African origin, possibly from voodoo.]
hoo'doo·ism n.
conjure
c.1280, from O.Fr. conjurer, from L. conjurare "to swear together, conspire," from com- "together"
+ jurare "to swear." Magical sense is c.1300, for "constraining by spell" a demon to do one's
bidding.

conjure
verb
1. summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic; "raise the specter of
unemployment"; "he conjured wild birds in the air"; "call down the spirits from the mountain"
2. ask for or request earnestly; "The prophet bid all people to become good persons" [syn: bid]
3. engage in plotting or enter into a conspiracy, swear together; "They conspired to overthrow
the government" [syn: conspire]

Conscious
47

con·scious /ˈkɒnʃəs/ - [kon-shuhs]


–adjective
1. aware of one's own existence, sensations, thoughts, surroundings, etc.
2. fully aware of or sensitive to something (often fol. by of): conscious of one's own faults; He
wasn't conscious of the gossip about his past.
3. having the mental faculties fully active: He was conscious during the operation.
4. known to oneself; felt: conscious guilt.
5. aware of what one is doing: a conscious liar.
6. aware of oneself; self-conscious.
7. deliberate; intentional: a conscious insult; a conscious effort.
8. acutely aware of or concerned about: money-conscious; a diet-conscious society.
9. Obsolete. inwardly sensible of wrongdoing.
–noun
10. the conscious, Psychoanalysis. the part of the mind comprising psychic material of which the
individual is aware.
[Origin: 1625–35; < L conscius sharing knowledge with, equiv. to con- con- + sci- (s. of scīre to
know; see science) + -us -ous; cf. nice]

—Related forms
con·scious·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 2. knowing, percipient. Conscious, aware, cognizant refer to an individual sense of


recognition of something within or without oneself. Conscious implies to be awake or awakened to
an inner realization of a fact, a truth, a condition, etc.: to be conscious of an extreme weariness.
Aware lays the emphasis on sense perceptions insofar as they are the object of conscious
recognition: He was aware of the odor of tobacco. Cognizant lays the emphasis on an outer
recognition more on the level of reason and knowledge than on the sensory level alone: He was
cognizant of their drawbacks.

con·scious (kŏn'shəs)
adj.

1.
1. Having an awareness of one's environment and one's own existence, sensations, and
thoughts. See Synonyms at aware.
2. Mentally perceptive or alert; awake: The patient remained fully conscious after the local
anesthetic was administered.
2. Capable of thought, will, or perception: the development of conscious life on the planet.
3. Subjectively known or felt: conscious remorse.
4. Intentionally conceived or done; deliberate: a conscious insult; made a conscious effort to
speak more clearly.
5. Inwardly attentive or sensible; mindful: was increasingly conscious of being watched.
6. Especially aware of or preoccupied with. Often used in combination: a cost-conscious
approach to further development; a health-conscious diet.

n. In psychoanalysis, the component of waking awareness perceptible by a person at any given


instant; consciousness.

[From Latin cōnscius : com-, com- + scīre, to know; see skei- in Indo-European roots.]

con'scious·ly adv.
conscious
48

1601, from L. conscius "knowing, aware," from conscire (see conscience); probably a loan-
translation of Gk. syneidos. A word adopted from the Latin poets and much mocked at first. Sense
of "active and awake" is from 1837.

conscious

adjective
1. intentionally conceived; "a conscious effort to speak more slowly"; "a conscious policy"
2. knowing and perceiving; having awareness of surroundings and sensations and thoughts;
"remained conscious during the operation"; "conscious of his faults"; "became conscious that he
was being followed" [ant: unconscious]
3. (followed by 'of') showing realization or recognition of something; "few voters seem conscious
of the issue's importance"; "conscious of having succeeded"; "the careful tread of one conscious
of his alcoholic load"- Thomas Hardy

Cherish
cher·ish /ˈtʃɛrɪʃ/ - [cher-ish]
–verb (used with object)
1. to hold or treat as dear; feel love for: to cherish one's native land.
2. to care for tenderly; nurture: to cherish a child.
3. to cling fondly or inveterately to: to cherish a memory.
[Origin: 1275–1325; ME cherisshen < MF cheriss- (long s. of cherir), equiv. to cher dear (< L
cārus) + -iss -ish2; akin to charity]

—Related forms
cher·ish·a·ble, adjective
cher·ish·er, noun
cher·ish·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1, 2. Cherish, foster, harbor imply giving affection, care, or shelter to something.
Cherish suggests regarding or treating something as an object of affection or as valuable: to
cherish a friendship. Foster implies sustaining and nourishing something with care, esp. in order
to promote, increase, or strengthen it: to foster a hope; to foster enmity. Harbor suggests giving
shelter to or entertaining something undesirable, esp. evil thoughts or intentions: to harbor
malice or a grudge. 2. nurse, nourish, sustain.
—Antonyms 2. neglect. 3. relinquish.
cher·ish (chěr'ĭsh)
tr.v. cher·ished, cher·ish·ing, cher·ish·es

1. To treat with affection and tenderness; hold dear: cherish one's family; fine rugs that are
cherished by their owners.
2. To keep fondly in mind; entertain: cherish a memory. See Synonyms at appreciate.

Consortium
con·sor·ti·um /kənˈsɔrʃiəm, -ti-/ - [kuhn-sawr-shee-uhm, -tee-]
–noun, plural -ti·a /-ʃiə, -tiə/ - [-shee-uh, -tee-uh] .
1. a combination of financial institutions, capitalists, etc., for carrying into effect some financial
operation requiring large resources of capital.
2. any association, partnership, or union.
49

3. Law. the legal right of husband and wife to companionship and conjugal intercourse with each
other: In a wrongful death action the surviving spouse commonly seeks damages for loss of
consortium.
[Origin: 1820–30; < L: partnership, equiv. to consort- consort + -ium -ium]

—Related forms
con·sor·ti·al, adjective
con·sor·ti·um (kən-sôr'tē-əm, -shē-əm)
n. pl. con·sor·ti·a (-tē-ə, -shē-ə)

1.
1. An association or a combination, as of businesses, financial institutions, or investors, for the
purpose of engaging in a joint venture.
2. A cooperative arrangement among groups or institutions: a library consortium.
2. An association or society.
3. Law The right of a spouse to the company of, help of, affection of, and sexual relations with
his or her mate.

Converge
con·verge /kənˈvɜrdʒ/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[kuhn-vurj]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -verged, -verg·ing.
–verb (used without object)
1. to tend to meet in a point or line; incline toward each other, as lines that are not parallel.
2. to tend to a common result, conclusion, etc.
3. Mathematics.
a. (of a sequence) to have values eventually arbitrarily close to some number; to have a finite
limit.
b. (of an infinite series) to have a finite sum; to have a sequence of partial sums that converges.
c. (of an improper integral) to have a finite value.
d. (of a net) to be residually in every neighborhood of some point.
–verb (used with object)
4. to cause to converge.
[Origin: 1685–95; < LL convergere to incline together. See con-, verge2]

—Synonyms 1. approach, focus, come together.


con·verge (kən-vûrj') Pronunciation Key
v. con·verged, con·verg·ing, con·verg·es
v. intr.

1.
1. To tend toward or approach an intersecting point: lines that converge.
2. To come together from different directions; meet: The avenues converge at a central
square.
2. To tend toward or achieve union or a common conclusion or result: In time, our views and
our efforts converged.
3. Mathematics To approach a limit.
v. tr.
To cause to converge.

[Late Latin convergere, to incline together : Latin com-, com- + Latin vergere, to incline; see
wer-2 in Indo-European roots.]
50

converge
1691, from L.L. convergere "to incline together" from com- "together" + vergere "to bend" (see
verge (v.)).

converge

verb
1. be adjacent or come together; "The lines converge at this point" [ant: diverge]
2. approach a limit as the number of terms increases without limit [ant: diverge]
3. move or draw together at a certain location; "The crowd converged on the movie star" [ant:
diverge]
4. come together so as to form a single product; "Social forces converged to bring the Fascists
back to power"

Compete
com·pete /kəmˈpit/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[kuhm-peet]
–verb (used without object), -pet·ed, -pet·ing.
to strive to outdo another for acknowledgment, a prize, supremacy, profit, etc.; engage in a
contest; vie: to compete in a race; to compete in business.
[Origin: 1610–20; < L competere to meet, coincide, be fitting, suffice (LL: seek, ask for), equiv.
to com- com- + petere to seek; LL and E sense influenced by competitor]

—Related forms
com·pet·er, noun
com·pet·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms struggle. Compete, contend, contest mean to strive to outdo or excel. Compete
implies having a sense of rivalry and of striving to do one's best as well as to outdo another: to
compete for a prize. Contend suggests opposition or disputing as well as rivalry: to contend with
an opponent, against obstacles. Contest suggests struggling to gain or hold something, as well as
contending or disputing: to contest a position or ground (in battle); to contest a decision.
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
com·pete (kəm-pēt') Pronunciation Key
intr.v. com·pet·ed, com·pet·ing, com·petes
To strive against another or others to attain a goal, such as an advantage or a victory. See
Synonyms at rival.

[Late Latin competere, to strive together, from Latin, to coincide, be suitable : com-, com- +
petere, to seek; see pet- in Indo-European roots.]

compete
1620, from Fr. compéter "be in rivalry with," from L.L. competere "strive in common," in L., "to
come together, agree, to be qualified," later, "strive together," from com- "together" + petere "to
strive, seek" (see petition). Rare 17c., and regarded early 19c. as a Scottish or Amer.Eng. word.
verb
compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others

Crumple
51

crum·ple Audio Help /ˈkrʌmpəl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[kruhm-puhl]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -pled, -pling, noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to press or crush into irregular folds or into a compact mass; bend out of shape; rumple;
wrinkle.
2. to cause to collapse or give way suddenly: That right hook to the midsection crumpled
him.
–verb (used without object)
3. to contract into wrinkles; shrink; shrivel.
4. to give way suddenly; collapse: The bridge crumpled under the weight of the heavy trucks.
–noun
5. an irregular fold or wrinkle produced by crumpling.
[Origin: 1400–50; late ME; var. of crimple]

—Related forms
crumply, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
crumple

To learn more about crumple visit Britannica.com

© 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
crum·ple Audio Help (krŭm'pəl) Pronunciation Key
v. crum·pled, crum·pling, crum·ples

v. tr.

1. To crush together or press into wrinkles; rumple.


2. To cause to collapse.

v. intr.

1. To become wrinkled.
2. To collapse: a regime that finally crumpled.

n. An irregular fold, crease, or wrinkle.

Disclaimer
dis·claim·er - [dis-kley-mer] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. the act of disclaiming; the renouncing, repudiating, or denying of a claim; disavowal.
2. a person who disclaims.
3. a statement, document, or assertion that disclaims responsibility, affiliation, etc.; disavowal;
denial.
52

dis·claim·er (dĭs-klā'mər) n. 1. A repudiation or denial of responsibility or connection.2.


Law A renunciation of one's right or claim.[Middle English, denial of a feudal claim, from Anglo-
Norman desclaimer, to disclaim, denial of a feudal claim; see disclaim.]
disclaimer
noun
1. (law) a voluntary repudiation of a person's legal claim to something
2. denial of any connection with or knowledge of [syn: disavowal]

Main Entry: dis·claim·er


Pronunciation: dis-'klA-m&r
Function: noun
Etymology: Anglo-French desclamer, from desclamer to disavow, deny, from Old French des-,
prefix marking reversal + clamer to claim —see CLAIM
1 : a refusal or disavowal of something that one has a right to claim; specifically : a
relinquishment or formal refusal to accept an interest or estate —see also QUALIFIED
DISCLAIMER
2 : a denial of responsibility for a thing or act: as a : a negation or limitation of the rights under a
warranty given by a seller to a buyer b : a denial of coverage by an insurance company
3 : a writing that embodies a disclaimer
.
disclaimer networking
Statement ritually appended to many Usenet postings (sometimes automatically, by the posting
software) reiterating the fact (which should be obvious, but is easily forgotten) that the article
reflects its author's opinions and not necessarily those of the organisation running the computer
through which the article entered the network.
[The Jargon File]
(1995-07-30)
disclaimer
n. [Usenet] Statement ritually appended to many Usenet postings (sometimes automatically, by
the posting software) reiterating the fact (which should be obvious, but is easily forgotten) that
the article reflects its author's opinions and not necessarily those of the organization running the
machine through which the article entered the network.

Dubious
du·bi·ous - [doo-bee-uh s, dyoo-] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. doubtful; marked by or occasioning doubt: a dubious reply.
2. of doubtful quality or propriety; questionable: a dubious compliment; a dubious transaction.
3. of uncertain outcome: in dubious battle.
4. wavering or hesitating in opinion; inclined to doubt.

—Related forms
du·bi·ous·ly, adverb
du·bi·ous·ness, noun

—Synonyms 1. equivocal, ambiguous, obscure, unclear. 4. undecided, uncertain, hesitant,


fluctuating. See DOUBTFUL.

du·bi·ous (dōō'bē-əs, dyōō'-) adj. 1. Fraught with uncertainty or doubt; undecided.2.


Arousing doubt; doubtful: a dubious distinction.3. Of questionable character: dubious
53

profits.[From Latin dubius; see dwo- in Indo-European roots.] du'bi·ous·ly adv., du'bi·ous·ness
n.

dubious
1548, from L. dubiosus "doubtful," from dubium "doubt," neuter of dubius "doubtful," from duo
"two," in the sense of "of two minds, undecided between two things." O.E. also used tweo "two"
to mean "doubt."

dubious
adjective
1. fraught with uncertainty or doubt; "they were doubtful that the cord would hold"; "it was
doubtful whether she would be admitted"; "dubious about agreeing to go" [syn: doubtful]
2. open to doubt or suspicion; "the candidate's doubtful past"; "he has a dubious record
indeed"; "what one found uncertain the other found dubious or downright false"; "it was more
than dubitable whether the friend was as influential as she thought"- Karen Horney [syn:
doubtful]
3. not convinced; "they admitted the force of my argument but remained dubious"

Dominant
dom·i·nant - [dom-uh-nuh nt] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. ruling, governing, or controlling; having or exerting authority or influence: dominant in the
chain of command.
2. occupying or being in a commanding or elevated position.
3. predominant; main; major; chief: Corn is the dominant crop of Iowa.
4. Genetics. of or pertaining to a dominant.
5. Music. pertaining to or based on the dominant: the dominant chord.
–noun
6. Genetics. a. the one of a pair of alternative alleles that masks the effect of the other when
both are present in the same cell or organism.
b. the trait or character determined by such an allele. Compare RECESSIVE (defs. 4, 5).

7. Music. the fifth tone of a diatonic scale.


8. Ecology. any of one or more types of plants, or sometimes animals, that by virtue of
abundance, size, or habits exert so important an influence on the conditions of an area as to
determine, to a great extent, what other organisms can live there.

[Origin: 1525–35; < L dominant- (s. of domināns, prp. of dominārī to DOMINATE), equiv. to
domin(us) master + -ant- -ANT ]

—Related forms
dom·i·nant·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1. prevailing, principal. Dominant, predominant, paramount, preeminent describe


something outstanding. Dominant describes something that is most influential or important: the
dominant characteristics of monkeys. Predominant describes something that is dominant over all
others, or is more widely prevalent: Curiosity is the predominant characteristic of monkeys.
Paramount applies to something that is first in rank or order: Safety is of paramount importance.
Preeminent applies to a prominence based on recognition of excellence: His work was of
preeminent quality.
54

dom·i·nant (dŏm'ə-nənt) adj. 1. Exercising the most influence or control.2. Most


prominent, as in position; ascendant.3. Genetics Of, relating to, or being an allele that produces
the same phenotypic effect whether inherited with a homozygous or heterozygous allele.4.
Ecology Of, relating to, or being a species that is most characteristic of an ecological community
and usually determines the presence, abundance, and type of other species.5. Music Relating to
or based on the fifth tone of a diatonic scale.n. 1. Genetics A dominant allele or trait.2. Ecology
A dominant species.3. Music The fifth tone of a diatonic scale.[Middle English dominaunt, from
Old French, from Latin domināns, dominant-, present participle of dominārī, to dominate; see
dominate.] dom'i·nant·ly adv. Synonyms: These adjectives mean surpassing all others in power,
influence, or position. Dominant applies to what exercises principal control or authority or is
unmistakably ascendant: For decades, the Soviet Union was the dominant nation of eastern
Europe. Predominant often implies being uppermost at a particular time or for the time being:
"Egrets, gulls and small mammals are the predominant wildlife on the island these days" (Dan
McCoubrey). Preponderant implies superiority as the result of outweighing or outnumbering all
others: "No big modern war has been won without preponderant sea power" (Samuel Eliot
Morison). Paramount means first in importance, rank, or regard: "My paramount object in this
struggle is to save the Union" (Abraham Lincoln). Preeminent suggests generally recognized
supremacy: He is the preeminent tenor of the modern era.
dominant
adjective
1. exercising influence or control; "television plays a dominant role in molding public opinion";
"the dominant partner in the marriage" [ant: low-level]
2. (of genes) producing the same phenotype whether its allele is identical or dissimilar [ant:
recessive]
3. most frequent or common; "prevailing winds" [syn: prevailing]
noun
1. (music) the fifth note of the diatonic scale
2. an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different
[syn: dominant allele]

Dread
dread - [dred] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object)
1. to fear greatly; be in extreme apprehension of: to dread death.
2. to be reluctant to do, meet, or experience: I dread going to big parties.
3. Archaic. to hold in respectful awe.
–verb (used without object)
4. to be in great fear.
–noun
5. terror or apprehension as to something in the future; great fear.
6. a person or thing dreaded.
7. dreads, Informal. DREADLOCKS.
8. Informal. a person who wears dreadlocks.
9. Archaic. deep awe or reverence.
–adjective
10. greatly feared; frightful; terrible.
11. held in awe or reverential fear.
[Origin: 1125–75; ME dreden (v.), OE drǣdan, aph. var. of adrǣdan, ondrǣdan; c. OHG intrātan
to fear ]

—Related forms
55

dread·a·ble, adjective
dreadness, noun

—Synonyms 5. See FEAR. 10. dire, dreadful, horrible.


—Antonyms 1. welcome.

dread
c.1175, from O.E. ondrædan "counsel or advise against," also "fear," from on- "against," second
element of uncertain origin; prefix wore off after 12c. Dreadlocks first recorded 1960, so called
from the dread they presumably aroused in beholders, but Rastafarian dread (1974) also has a
sense of "fear of the Lord," expressed in part as alienation from contemporary society.

dread
adjective
1. causing fear or dread or terror; "the awful war"; "an awful risk"; "dire news"; "a career or
vengeance so direful that London was shocked"; "the dread presence of the headmaster"; "polio
is no longer the dreaded disease it once was"; "a dreadful storm"; "a fearful howling";
"horrendous explosions shook the city"; "a terrible curse"
noun
1. fearful expectation or anticipation; "the student looked around the examination room with
apprehension" [syn: apprehension]
verb
1. be afraid or scared of; be frightened of; "I fear the winters in Moscow"; "We should not fear
the Communists!" [syn: fear]

Derelict
der·e·lict - [der-uh-likt] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. left or deserted, as by the owner or guardian; abandoned: a derelict ship.
2. neglectful of duty; delinquent; negligent.
–noun
3. a person abandoned by society, esp. a person without a permanent home and means of
support; vagrant; bum.
4. Nautical. a vessel abandoned in open water by its crew without any hope or intention of
returning.
5. personal property abandoned or thrown away by the owner.
6. one guilty of neglect of duty.
7. Law. land left dry by a change of the water line.

[Origin: 1640–50; < L dérelictus forsaken (ptp. of dérelinquere), equiv. to dé- DE- + relictus ptp.
of relinquere to leave, abandon; see RELINQUISH ]

—Related forms
der·e·lict·ly, adverb
der·e·lict·ness, noun

—Synonyms 2. remiss, careless, heedless.


der·e·lict (děr'ə-lĭkt') adj. 1. Deserted by an owner or keeper; abandoned.2. Run-down;
dilapidated.3. Neglectful of duty or obligation; remiss. See Synonyms at negligent.n. 1.
Abandoned property, especially a ship abandoned at sea.2. A homeless or jobless person; a
56

vagrant.3. Law Land left dry by a permanent recession of the water line.[Latin dērelictus, past
participle of dērelinquere, to abandon : dē-, de- + relinquere, to leave behind; see relinquish.]

derelict (adj.)
1649, from L. derelictus, pp. of dereliquere "abandon," from de- "entirely" + relinquere "leave
behind" (see relinquish). Originally especially of vessels abandoned at sea or stranded on shore.
Dereliction "failure in duty" is from 1830.

derelict
adjective
1. worn and broken down by hard use; "a creaky shack"; "a decrepit bus...its seats held
together with friction tape"; "a flea-bitten sofa"; "a run-down neighborhood"; "a woebegone old
shack" [syn: creaky]
2. forsaken by owner or inhabitants ; "weed-grown yard of an abandoned farmhouse" [syn:
abandoned]
3. failing in what duty requires; "derelict (or delinquent) in his duty"; "neglectful of his duties";
"remiss of you not to pay your bills"
4. in deplorable condition; "a street of bedraggled tenements"; "a broken-down fence"; "a
ramshackle old pier"; "a tumble-down shack" [syn: bedraggled]
noun
1. a person without a home, job, or property
2. a ship abandoned on the high seas [syn: abandoned ship]

Deprive
de·prive - [di-prahyv] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -prived, -priv·ing.
1. to remove or withhold something from the enjoyment or possession of (a person or persons):
to deprive a man of life; to deprive a baby of candy.
2. to remove from ecclesiastical office.

[Origin: 1275–1325; ME depriven < AF, OF depriver < ML déprīvāre, equiv. to L dé- DE- + prīvāre
to deprive (prīv(us) PRIVATE + -āre inf. suffix) ]

—Related forms
de·priv·a·ble, adjective
de·priv·al, noun
de·priv·a·tive - [di-priv-uh-tiv] - Show IPA Pronunciation, adjective
de·priv·er, noun

—Synonyms 1. See STRIP.


de·prive (dĭ-prīv') tr.v. de·prived, de·priv·ing, de·prives 1. To take something away from:
The court ruling deprived us of any share in the inheritance.2. To keep from possessing or
enjoying; deny: They were deprived of a normal childhood by the war.3. To remove from
office.[Middle English depriven, from Old French depriver, from Medieval Latin dēprīvāre : Latin
dē-, de- + Latin prīvāre, to rob (from prīvus, alone, without; see per1 in Indo-European roots).]
de·priv'a·ble adj.
deprive
c.1325, from M.L. deprivare, from L. de- "entirely" + privare "release from." Replaced O.E.
bedælan.
deprive
verb
57

1. take away possessions from someone; "The Nazis stripped the Jews of all their assets"
2. keep from having, keeping, or obtaining
3. take away [ant: enrich]
Devastate
dev·as·tate - [dev-uh-steyt]
–verb (used with object), -tat·ed, -tat·ing.
1. to lay waste; render desolate: The invaders devastated the city.
2. to overwhelm.

[Origin: 1625–35; < L dévastātus laid waste (ptp. of dévastāre), equiv. to dé- DE- + vast(āre) to
lay waste (akin to vastus empty) + -ātus -ATE1 ]

—Related forms
dev·as·ta·tive, adjective
dev·as·ta·tor, noun

—Synonyms 1. destroy, sack, despoil. See RAVAGE.


dev·as·tate (děv'ə-stāt') tr.v. dev·as·tat·ed, dev·as·tat·ing, dev·as·tates 1. To lay waste;
destroy.2. To overwhelm; confound; stun: was devastated by the rude remark.[Latin dēvāstāre,
dēvāstāt- : dē-, de- + vāstāre, to lay waste (from vāstus, empty, desolate; see euə- in Indo-
European roots).] dev'as·tat'ing·ly adv., dev'as·ta'tion n., dev'as·ta'tor n.
devastate
verb
1. cause extensive destruction or ruin utterly; "The enemy lay waste to the countryside after the
invasion" [syn: lay waste to]
2. overwhelm or overpower; "He was devastated by his grief when his son died"

Daunt
daunt /dɔnt, dɑnt/ - [dawnt, dahnt]
–verb (used with object)
1. to overcome with fear; intimidate: to daunt one's adversaries.
2. to lessen the courage of; dishearten: Don't be daunted by the amount of work still to be done.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME da(u)nten < AF da(u)nter, OF danter, alter. of donter (prob. by influence
of dangier power, authority; see danger) < L domitāre to tame, deriv. of domitus, ptp. of domāre
to tame]

—Related forms
daunt·ing·ly, adverb
daunt·ing·ness, noun

—Synonyms 1. overawe, subdue, dismay, frighten. 2. discourage, dispirit.


—Antonyms 2. encourage.
daunt (dônt, dänt)
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.

[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin domitāre, frequentative of domāre,
to tame; see demə- in Indo-European roots.]

daunt'er n., daunt'ing·ly adv.


58

daunt
c.1300, from O.Fr. danter, var. of donter, from L. domitare, freq. of domare "to tame" (see tame).
Originally "to vanquish;" sense of "to intimidate" is from c.1475.

daunt
verb
cause to lose courage; "dashed by the refusal"

Demarcate
de·mar·cate /dɪˈmɑrkeɪt, ˈdimɑrˌkeɪt/ - [di-mahr-keyt, dee-mahr-keyt]
–verb (used with object), -cat·ed, -cat·ing.
1. to determine or mark off the boundaries or limits of: to demarcate a piece of property.
2. to separate distinctly: to demarcate the lots with fences.
[Origin: 1810–20; back formation from demarcation]

—Related forms
de·mar·ca·tor, noun
de·mar·cate (dĭ-mär'kāt', dē'mär-kāt')
tr.v. de·mar·cat·ed, de·mar·cat·ing, de·mar·cates

1. To set the boundaries of; delimit.


2. To separate clearly as if by boundaries; distinguish: demarcate categories.

de·mar'ca'tor n.

demarcate
verb
1. separate clearly, as if by boundaries
2. set, mark, or draw the boundaries of something

Main Entry: de·mar·cate


Pronunciation: di-'mär-"kAt, 'dE-"
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Forms: -cat·ed; -cat·ing
1 : to mark or determine the limits of
2 : to set apart clearly or distinctly as if by definite limits or boundaries —de·mar·ca·tion also
de·mar·ka·tion /"dE-"mär-'kA-sh&n/ noun

Disparate
dis·pa·rate /ˈdɪspərɪt, dɪˈspær-/ - [dis-per-it, di-spar-]
–adjective
distinct in kind; essentially different; dissimilar: disparate ideas.
[Origin: 1580–90; < L disparātus separated (ptp. of disparāre), equiv. to dis- dis-1 + par(āre) to
prepare (see pare) + -ātus -ate1]

—Related forms
dis·pa·rate·ly, adverb
dis·pa·rate·ness, noun
59

—Synonyms separate, divergent, incommensurable, unlike.


dis·pa·rate (dĭs'pər-ĭt, dĭ-spār'ĭt)
adj.

1. Fundamentally distinct or different in kind; entirely dissimilar: "This mixture of apparently


disparate materials—scandal and spiritualism, current events and eternal recurrences—is not
promising on the face of it" (Gary Wills).
2. Containing or composed of dissimilar or opposing elements: a disparate group of people who
represented a cross section of the city.

[Latin disparātus, past participle of disparāre, to separate : dis-, apart; see dis- + parāre, to
prepare; see perə-1 in Indo-European roots.]

dis'pa·rate·ly adv., dis'pa·rate·ness n.


disparate
1608, "unlike in kind," from L. disparatus, pp. of disparare "divide, separate," from dis- "apart" +
parare "get ready, prepare" (see pare); meaning infl. by L. dispar "unequal, unlike."

disparate
adjective
1. fundamentally different or distinct in quality or kind; "such disparate attractions as grand
opera and game fishing"; "disparate ideas"
2. including markedly dissimilar elements; "a disparate aggregate of creeds and songs and
prayers"

Main Entry: dis·pa·rate


Pronunciation: dis-'par-&t, 'dis-p(&-)r&t
Function: adjective
: indicating or stimulating dissimilar points on the retina of each eye

Diplomatic
dip·lo·mat·ic /ˌdɪpləˈmætɪk/ - [dip-luh-mat-ik]
–adjective
1. of, pertaining to, or engaged in diplomacy: diplomatic officials.
2. skilled in dealing with sensitive matters or people; tactful.
3. of or pertaining to diplomatics.
[Origin: 1705–15; < F diplomatique < NL diplōmaticus, equiv. to L diplōmat- (s. of diplōma)
diploma + -icus -ic]

—Related forms
dip·lo·mat·i·cal·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 2. Diplomatic, politic, tactful imply ability to avoid offending others or hurting their
feelings, esp. in situations where this ability is important. Diplomatic suggests a smoothness and
skill in handling others, usually in such a way as to attain one's own ends and yet avoid any
unpleasantness or opposition: By diplomatic conduct he avoided antagonizing anyone. Politic
emphasizes expediency or prudence in looking out for one's own interests, thus knowing how to
treat people of different types and on different occasions: a truth which it is not politic to insist
on. Tactful suggests a nice touch in the handling of delicate matters or situations, and, unlike the
other two, often suggests a sincere desire not to hurt the feelings of others: a tactful way of
correcting someone.
60

—Antonyms 2. blunt, blundering, tactless.


dip·lo·mat·ic (dĭp'lə-māt'ĭk)
adj.

1. Of, relating to, or involving diplomacy or diplomats.


2. Using or marked by tact and sensitivity in dealing with others.
3.
1. Of or relating to diplomatics.
2. Being an exact copy of the original: a diplomatic edition.

[French diplomatique, from New Latin diplōmaticus, from Latin diplōma, diplōmat-, letter of
introduction; see diploma.]

dip'lo·mat'i·cal·ly adv.
diplomatic
adjective
1. relating to or characteristic of diplomacy; "diplomatic immunity"
2. using or marked by tact in dealing with sensitive matters or people; "the hostess averted a
confrontation with a diplomatic chenage of subject" [ant: undiplomatic]

Disruption
dis·rup·tion /dɪsˈrʌpʃən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[dis-ruhp-shuhn]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. forcible separation or division into parts.
2. a disrupted condition: The state was in disruption.
[Origin: 1640–50; < L disruptiōn- (s. of disruptiō), equiv. to disrupt- (see disrupt) + -iōn- -ion]
dis·rupt (dĭs-rŭpt') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. dis·rupt·ed, dis·rupt·ing, dis·rupts

1. To throw into confusion or disorder: Protesters disrupted the candidate's speech.


2. To interrupt or impede the progress, movement, or procedure of: Our efforts in the garden
were disrupted by an early frost.
3. To break or burst; rupture.

[Latin disrumpere, disrupt-, to break apart : dis-, dis- + rumpere, to break apart; see reup- in
Indo-European roots.]
dis·rupt'er, dis·rup'tor n., dis·rup'tion n.
disruption
1646, from L. disruptionem, from stem of disrumpere "break apart, split," from dis- "apart" +
rumpere "to break."

disruption
noun
1. an act of delaying or interrupting the continuity; "it was presented without commercial
breaks"; "there was a gap in his account" [syn: break]
2. a disorderly outburst or tumult; "they were amazed by the furious disturbance they had
caused" [syn: disturbance]
3. an event that results in a displacement or discontinuity [syn: dislocation]
4. the act of causing disorder
61

Main Entry: dis·rup·tion


Pronunciation: dis-'r&p-sh&n
Function: noun
: the act or process of breaking apart or rupturing <bandaged her leg tightly to prevent disruption
of the partly healed wound> —dis·rupt /dis-'r&pt/ transitive verb
Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, © 2002 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
On-line Medical Dictionary - Cite This Source
disruption
disruption: in CancerWEB's On-line Medical Dictionary

Domicile

dom·i·cile Audio Help /ˈdɒməˌsaɪl, -səl, ˈdoʊmə-/ Pronunciation Key - Show


Spelled Pronunciation[dom-uh-sahyl, -suhl, doh-muh-] Pronunciation Key - Show
IPA Pronunciation noun, verb, -ciled, -cil·ing.
–noun
1. a place of residence; abode; house or home.
2. Law. a permanent legal residence.
–verb (used with object)
3. to establish in a domicile.
Also, dom·i·cil.

[Origin: 1470–80; < MF < L domicilium, perh. equiv. to *domicol(a) (domi-,


comb. form of domus house + -cola dweller; see colonus) + -ium -ium]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
dom·i·cile Audio Help (dŏm'ĭ-sīl', -səl, dō'mĭ-) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. A residence; a home.
2. One's legal residence.

v. dom·i·ciled, dom·i·cil·ing, dom·i·ciles

v. tr.

1. To establish (oneself or another person) in a residence.


2. To provide with often temporary lodging.

v. intr.
To reside; dwell.
62

[Middle English domicilie, from Old French domicile, from Latin domicilium, from
domus, house; see dem- in Indo-European roots.]

dom'i·cil'i·ar'y (-sĭl'ē-ěr'ē) adj.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
domicile
1442, from M.Fr. domicile (14c.), from L. domicilium, probably from domus
"house" (see domestic) + colere "to dwell" (see colony). As a verb, it is first
attested 1809.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
domicile

noun
1. (law) the residence where you have your permanent home or principal
establishment and to where, whenever you are absent, you intend to return;
every person is compelled to have one and only one domicile at a time; "what's
his legal residence?"
2. housing that someone is living in; "he built a modest dwelling near the
pond"; "they raise money to provide homes for the homeless" [syn: dwelling]

verb
1. make one's home in a particular place or community; "may parents reside
in Florida" [syn: reside]

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


Investopedia - Cite This Source - Share This

Domicile

The location where an individual, partnership, or corporation establishes


permanent residence as per legal obligations.

Investopedia Commentary

In order to file taxes, collect insurance, or create a company, firms and


individuals must have a recognized place of residence under law.
63

See also: Corporation


Investopedia.com. Copyright © 1999-2005 - All rights reserved. Owned and
Operated by Investopedia Inc.
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: do·mi·cile


Pronunciation: 'dä-m&-"sIl, 'dO-
Function: noun
Etymology: Latin domicilium dwelling place, home
1 : the place where an individual has a fixed and permanent home for legal
purposes called also legal residence
2 : the place where an organization (as a corporation) is chartered or that is the
organization's principal place of business —compare CITIZENSHIP, RESIDENCE
NOTE: The domicile of an individual or organization determines the proper
jurisdiction and venue for legal process. The courts of a person's domicile have
personal jurisdiction. For persons lacking capacity (as minors), domicile is often
statutorily determined as the domicile of the guardian.
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law, © 1996 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: domicile


Function: transitive verb
Inflected Forms: -ciled; -cil·ing
: to establish in or provide with a domicile <an alien admitted to the United
States for permanent residence shall be deemed a citizen of the State in which
such alien is domiciled —U.S. Code> <any state in which a corporation is
domiciled —L. H. Tribe>
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law, © 1996 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Domicile
Dom"i*cile\, n. [L. domicilium; domus house + (prob.) root of celare to conceal:
cf. F. domicile. See Dome, and Conceal.]

1. An abode or mansion; a place of permanent residence, either of an individual


or a family.

2. (Law) A residence at a particular place accompanied with an intention to


remain there for an unlimited time; a residence accepted as a final abode. --
Wharton.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
64

Domicile
Dom"i*cile\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Domiciled; p. pr. & vb. n. Domiciling.] [Cf. F.
domicilier. Cf. Domiciliate.] To establish in a fixed residence, or a residence that
constitutes habitancy; to domiciliate. --Kent.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Domicile
Dom`i*cil"i*ate\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Domiciliated; p. pr. & vb. n. Domiciliating.]
[See Domicile.]

1. To establish in a permanent residence; to domicile.

2. To domesticate. --Pownall.

Deferment

de·fer·ment Audio Help /dɪˈfɜrmənt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[di-fur-muhnt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. the act of deferring or putting off; postponement.
2. a temporary exemption from induction into military service.
[Origin: 1605–15; defer1 + -ment]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
de·fer·ment Audio Help (dĭ-fûr'mənt) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. The act or an instance of delaying or putting off.


2. Officially sanctioned postponement of compulsory military service.

Disburse

dis·burse Audio Help /dɪsˈbɜrs/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[dis-burs] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -bursed, -burs·ing.
1. to pay out (money), esp. for expenses; expend.
2. to distribute or scatter: Our troops were disbursed over a wide area. She
disbursed the flowers to the children.
[Origin: 1520–30; < MF desbourser, OF desborser, equiv. to des- dis-1 + -borser,
deriv. of borse purse < LL bursa bag]
65

—Related forms
dis·burs·a·ble, adjective
dis·burs·er, noun

—Synonyms 1. lay out. See spend.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
dis·burse Audio Help (dĭs-bûrs') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. dis·bursed, dis·burs·ing, dis·burs·es
To pay out, as from a fund; expend. See Synonyms at spend.

[Obsolete French desbourser, from Old French desborser : des-, dis- + borse,
purse (from Late Latin bursa; see bursa).]

dis·burs'a·ble adj., dis·burs'er n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
disburse
1530, from O.Fr. desbourser (13c.), from des- "dis-" + bourse "purse" (see
bursar).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
disburse

verb
expend, as from a fund

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Disburse
Dis*burse"\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Disbursed; p. pr. & vb. n. Disbursing.] [OF.
desbourser, F. d['e]bourser; pref. des- (L. dis-) + bourse purse. See Burse, and
cf. Dispurse.] To pay out; to expend; -- usually from a public fund or treasury.

The duty of collecting and disbursing his revenues. --Macaulay.


66

Disseminate

dis·sem·i·nate /dɪˈsɛməˌneɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[di-sem-uh-neyt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -nat·ed, -nat·ing.
to scatter or spread widely, as though sowing seed; promulgate extensively;
broadcast; disperse: to disseminate information about preventive medicine.
[Origin: 1595–1605; < L disséminātus (ptp. of dissémināre; dis- dis-1 +
sémināre to sow), equiv. to dis- + sémin- (s. of sémen seed) + -ātus -ate1]

—Related forms
dis·sem·i·na·tion, noun
dis·sem·i·na·tive, adjective
dis·sem·i·na·tor, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
dis·sem·i·nate (dĭ-sěm'ə-nāt') Pronunciation Key
v. dis·sem·i·nat·ed, dis·sem·i·nat·ing, dis·sem·i·nates

v. tr.

1. To scatter widely, as in sowing seed.


2. To spread abroad; promulgate: disseminate information.

v. intr.
To become diffused; spread.

[Latin dissēmināre, dissēmināt- : dis-, dis- + sēmināre, to sow (from sēmen,


sēmin-, seed; see sē- in Indo-European roots).]

dis·sem'i·na'tion n., dis·sem'i·na'tor n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
dissemination

noun
1. the opening of a subject to widespread discussion and debate
67

2. the property of being diffused or dispersed


3. the act of dispersing or diffusing something; "the dispersion of the troops";
"the diffusion of knowledge" [syn: dispersion]

Dormant

dor·mant /ˈdɔrmənt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[dawr-


muhnt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive, as in sleep; torpid: The lecturer's
sudden shout woke the dormant audience.
2. in a state of rest or inactivity; inoperative; in abeyance: The project is
dormant for the time being.
3. Biology. in a state of minimal metabolic activity with cessation of growth,
either as a reaction to adverse conditions or as part of an organism's normal
annual rhythm.
4. undisclosed; unasserted: dormant musical talent.
5. (of a volcano) not erupting.
6. Botany. temporarily inactive: dormant buds; dormant seeds.
7. (of a pesticide) applied to a plant during a period of dormancy: a dormant
spray.
8. Heraldry. (of an animal) represented as lying with its head on its forepaws,
as if asleep.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME dorma(u)nt < AF, prp. of dormir < L dormīre to sleep;
see -ant]

—Synonyms 1, 2. quiescent. See inactive. 4. latent.


—Antonyms 1. awake, active.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
dor·mant (dôr'mənt) Pronunciation Key
adj.

1. Lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive.


2. Latent but capable of being activated: "a harrowing experience which . . . lay
dormant but still menacing" (Charles Jackson).
3. Temporarily quiescent: a dormant volcano. See Synonyms at inactive, latent.
4. In a condition of biological rest or inactivity characterized by cessation of
growth or development and the suspension of many metabolic processes.
68

[Middle English, from Old French, from present participle of dormir, to sleep, from
Latin dormīre.]

dor'man·cy n.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
dormant
c.1386, from O.Fr. dormant, prp. of dormir "to sleep," from L. dormire "to sleep,"
from I.E. base *dre- "to sleep" (cf. O.C.S. dremati "to sleep, doze," Gk. edrathon
"I slept," Skt. drati "sleeps").

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
dormant

adjective
1. in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation; "dormant buds";
"a hibernating bear"; "torpid frogs"
2. (of e.g. volcanos) not erupting and not extinct ; "a dormant volcano" [ant:
active]
3. lying with head on paws as if sleeping
4. inactive but capable of becoming active; "her feelings of affection are
dormant but easily awakened" [syn: abeyant]

Dispense

dis·pense /dɪˈspɛns/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[di-


spens] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -pensed, -pens·ing,
noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to deal out; distribute: to dispense wisdom.
2. to administer: to dispense the law without bias.
3. Pharmacology. to make up and distribute (medicine), esp. on prescription.
4. Roman Catholic Church. to grant dispensation.
–verb (used without object)
5. to grant dispensation.
–noun
6. Obsolete. expenditure.
—Verb phrase
7. dispense with,
a. to do without; forgo: to dispense with preliminaries.
69

b. to do away with; rid of.


c. to grant exemption from a law or promise.
[Origin: 1275–1325; ME dispensen < ML dispénsāre to pardon, exempt, L: to pay
out, distribute, equiv. to dis- dis-1 + pénsāre, freq. of pendere to weigh]

—Synonyms 1. apportion, allot, dole. See distribute.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
dis·pense (dĭ-spěns') Pronunciation Key
v. dis·pensed, dis·pens·ing, dis·pens·es

v. tr.

1. To deal out in parts or portions; distribute. See Synonyms at distribute.


2. To prepare and give out (medicines).
3. To administer (laws, for example).
4. To exempt or release, as from a duty or religious obligation.

v. intr.
To grant a dispensation or exemption.

Phrasal Verb(s):
dispense with

1. To manage without; forgo: Let's dispense with the formalities.


2. To get rid of; do away with: a country that has dispensed with tariff barriers.

[Middle English dispensen, from Old French dispenser, from Latin dispēnsāre, to
distribute, frequentative of dispendere, to weigh out : dis-, out; see dis- +
pendere, to weigh; see (s)pen- in Indo-European roots.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
dispense
c.1320, from O.Fr. dispenser "give out," from L. dispensare "disburse, administer,
distribute (by weight)," freq. of dispendere "pay out," from dis- "out" + pendere
"to pay, weigh" (see pendant). In M.L., dispendere was used in the ecclesiastical
70

sense of "grant license to do what is forbidden or omit what is required" (a power


of popes, bishops, etc.), and thus acquired a sense of "grant remission from
punishment or exemption from law," which led to the Mod.Eng. meaning. Older
sense is preserved in dispensary (1699) "place for weighing out medicines,"
Theological sense is from being used to translate Gk. oikonomoia "office, method
of administration." Dispensation is from c.1374.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
dispense

verb
1. administer or bestow, as in small portions; "administer critical remarks to
everyone present"; "dole out some money"; "shell out pocket money for the
children"; "deal a blow to someone"; "the machine dispenses soft drinks"
2. grant a dispensation; grant an exemption; "I was dispensed from this
terrible task"
3. give or apply (medications) [syn: administer]

Dispense

dis·pense /dɪˈspɛns/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[di-


spens] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -pensed, -pens·ing,
noun
–verb (used with object) 1. to deal out; distribute: to dispense wisdom.
2. to administer: to dispense the law without bias.
3. Pharmacology. to make up and distribute (medicine), esp. on prescription.
4. Roman Catholic Church. to grant dispensation.
–verb (used without object) 5. to grant dispensation.
–noun 6. Obsolete. expenditure.
—Verb phrase7. dispense with, a. to do without; forgo: to dispense with
preliminaries.
b. to do away with; rid of.
c. to grant exemption from a law or promise.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1275–1325; ME dispensen < ML dispénsāre to pardon, exempt, L: to pay


out, distribute, equiv. to dis- dis-1 + pénsāre, freq. of pendere to weigh]

—Synonyms 1. apportion, allot, dole. See distribute.


71

Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)


Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dispenser
Dispensing Perfection - Accurate Reliable, Download Free Brochure
www.watson-marlow.com
Sponsored Links

Dispensing
State-of-the-art high-tech products in Dispensing Technology
www.ricmar.com
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This dis·pense (dĭ-
spěns') Pronunciation Key
v. dis·pensed, dis·pens·ing, dis·pens·es

v. tr.

To deal out in parts or portions; distribute. See Synonyms at distribute.


To prepare and give out (medicines).
To administer (laws, for example).
To exempt or release, as from a duty or religious obligation.

v. intr.
To grant a dispensation or exemption.

Phrasal Verb(s):
dispense with

To manage without; forgo: Let's dispense with the formalities.


To get rid of; do away with: a country that has dispensed with tariff barriers.

[Middle English dispensen, from Old French dispenser, from Latin dispēnsāre, to
distribute, frequentative of dispendere, to weigh out : dis-, out; see dis- +
pendere, to weigh; see (s)pen- in Indo-European roots.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
SPEC Dispensing Systems
Fluid Dispensers -Ink, Paint, & Dye High Accuracy Powder Dispensers
www.spec-inc.com
Sponsored Link
72

Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This


dispense

c.1320, from O.Fr. dispenser "give out," from L. dispensare "disburse, administer,
distribute (by weight)," freq. of dispendere "pay out," from dis- "out" + pendere
"to pay, weigh" (see pendant). In M.L., dispendere was used in the ecclesiastical
sense of "grant license to do what is forbidden or omit what is required" (a power
of popes, bishops, etc.), and thus acquired a sense of "grant remission from
punishment or exemption from law," which led to the Mod.Eng. meaning. Older
sense is preserved in dispensary (1699) "place for weighing out medicines,"
Theological sense is from being used to translate Gk. oikonomoia "office, method
of administration." Dispensation is from c.1374.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This dispense

verb
1. administer or bestow, as in small portions; "administer critical remarks to
everyone present"; "dole out some money"; "shell out pocket money for the
children"; "deal a blow to someone"; "the machine dispenses soft drinks"
2. grant a dispensation; grant an exemption; "I was dispensed from this terrible
task"
3. give or apply (medications) [syn: administer]

Exasperation

ex·as·per·a·tion /ɪgˌzæspəˈreɪʃən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[ig-zas-puh-rey-shuhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. an act or instance of exasperating; provocation.
2. the state of being exasperated; irritation; extreme annoyance: Her
exasperation at being interrupted was understandable.
[Origin: 1540–50; < L exasperātiōn- (s. of exasperātiō) roughness, bitterness.
See exasperate, -ion]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
ex·as·per·a·tion (ĭg-zās'pə-rā'shən) Pronunciation Key
n.
73

1. The act or an instance of exasperating.


2. The state of being exasperated; frustrated annoyance.

ex·as·per·ate /v. ɪgˈzæspəˌreɪt; adj. ɪgˈzæspərɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show


Spelled Pronunciation[v. ig-zas-puh-reyt; adj. ig-zas-per-it] Pronunciation Key -
Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -at·ed, -at·ing, adjective
–verb (used with object)
1. to irritate or provoke to a high degree; annoy extremely: He was
exasperated by the senseless delays.
2. Archaic. to increase the intensity or violence of (disease, pain, feelings,
etc.).
–adjective
3. Botany. rough; covered with hard, projecting points, as a leaf.
[Origin: 1525–35; < L exasperātus (ptp. of exasperāre to make rough, provoke),
equiv. to ex- ex-1 + asper harsh, rough + -ātus -ate1]

—Related forms
ex·as·per·at·ed·ly, adverb
ex·as·per·at·er, noun
ex·as·per·at·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1. incense, anger, vex, inflame, infuriate. See irritate. 2. exacerbate.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
ex·as·per·ate (ĭg-zās'pə-rāt') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. ex·as·per·at·ed, ex·as·per·at·ing, ex·as·per·ates

1. To make very angry or impatient; annoy greatly.


2. To increase the gravity or intensity of: "a scene . . . that exasperates his
rose fever and makes him sneeze" (Samuel Beckett).

[Latin exasperāre, exasperāt- : ex-, intensive pref.; see ex- + asperāre, to make
rough (from asper, rough).]

ex·as'per·at'ed·ly adv., ex·as'per·at'er n., ex·as'per·at'ing·ly adv.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
74

Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This


exasperate
1534, from L. exasperatus, pp. of exasperare "roughen, irritate," from ex-
"thoroughly" + asper "rough."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
exasperate

verb
1. exasperate or irritate [syn: exacerbate]
2. make furious [syn: infuriate]
3. make worse; "This drug aggravates the pain" [syn: worsen] [ant:
ameliorate]

Evácuate

e·vac·u·ate /ɪˈvækyuˌeɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[i-


vak-yoo-eyt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -at·ed, -at·ing.
–verb (used with object)
1. to leave empty; vacate.
2. to remove (persons or things) from a place, as a dangerous place or
disaster area, for reasons of safety or protection: to evacuate the inhabitants of
towns in the path of a flood.
3. to remove persons from (a city, town, building, area, etc.) for reasons of
safety: to evacuate the embassy after a bomb threat.
4. Military.
a. to remove (troops, wounded soldiers, civilians, etc.) from a war zone,
combat area, etc.
b. to withdraw from or quit (a town, fort, etc., that has been occupied).
5. Physiology. to discharge or eject as through the excretory passages, esp.
from the bowels.
6. to deprive: Fear evacuated their minds of reason.
7. to produce a vacuum in.
–verb (used without object)
8. to leave a place because of military or other threats.
9. to void; defecate.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME < L évacuātus (ptp. of évacuāre to empty out, equiv. to
é- e- + vacuāre to empty); see vacuum, -ate1]

—Synonyms 1. empty, void, drain.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
75

American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This


e·vac·u·ate (ĭ-vāk'yōō-āt') Pronunciation Key
v. e·vac·u·at·ed, e·vac·u·at·ing, e·vac·u·ates

v. tr.

1.
1. To empty or remove the contents of.
2. To create a vacuum in.
3. To relinquish military possession or occupation of (a town, for example).
4. To withdraw or send away (troops or inhabitants) from a threatened
area.
2. To excrete or discharge waste matter from (the bowel, for example).
3.
1. To relinquish military possession or occupation of (a town, for example).
2. To withdraw or send away (troops or inhabitants) from a threatened
area.
4. To withdraw or depart from; vacate.

v. intr.

1. To withdraw from or vacate a place or area, especially as a protective


measure.
2. To excrete waste matter from the body.

[Middle English evacuaten, from Latin ēvacuāre, ēvacuāt-, to empty out : ē-, ex-,
ex- + vacuus, empty (from vacāre, to be empty; see euə- in Indo-European
roots).]

e·vac'u·a'tive adj., e·vac'u·a'tor n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
evacuate
c.1400 (implied in evacuation), from L. evacuatus, pp. of evacuare "empty," used
by Pliny in reference to the bowels, used figuratively in L.L. for "clear out," from
ex- "out" + vacuus "empty." Earliest sense in Eng. is medical. Meaning "remove
inhabitants to safer ground" is from 1934.
76

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
evacuate

verb
1. move out of an unsafe location into safety; "After the earthquake, residents
were evacuated"
2. empty completely; "evacuate the bottle"
3. move people from their homes or country
4. create a vacuum in (a bulb, flask, reaction vessel)
5. excrete or discharge from the body

Elegagnt
el·e·gant /ˈɛlɪgənt/ - [el-i-guhnt]
–adjective
1. tastefully fine or luxurious in dress, style, design, etc.: elegant furnishings.
2. gracefully refined and dignified, as in tastes, habits, or literary style: an elegant young
gentleman; an elegant prosodist.
3. graceful in form or movement: an elegant wave of the hand.
4. appropriate to refined taste: a man devoted to elegant pursuits.
5. excellent; fine; superior: an absolutely elegant wine.
6. (of scientific, technical, or mathematical theories, solutions, etc.) gracefully concise and simple;
admirably succinct.
[Origin: 1400–50; late ME (< MF) < L élegant- (s. of élegāns) tasteful, choice, equiv. to éleg-
(akin to élig- select; see elect) + -ant- -ant; orig. prp. of lost v.]

—Related forms
el·e·gant·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1. See fine. 2. polished, courtly.


el·e·gant (ěl'ĭ-gənt)
adj. Characterized by or exhibiting refined, tasteful beauty of manner, form, or style. See
Synonyms at delicate.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin ēlegāns, ēlegant-, present participle of *ēlegāre,
variant of ēligere, to select; see elect.]

el'e·gant·ly adv.
elegantly

adverb
1. with elegance; in a tastefully elegant manner; "the room was elegantly decorated" [ant:
inelegantly]
2. in a gracefully elegant manner; "the members of these groups do not express themselves as
accurately or as elegantly as their critics do"
77

Endow
en·dow /ɛnˈdaʊ / - [en-dou]
–verb (used with object)
1. to provide with a permanent fund or source of income: to endow a college.
2. to furnish, as with some talent, faculty, or quality; equip: Nature has endowed her with great
ability.
3. Obsolete. to provide with a dower.
–verb (used without object)
4. (of a life-insurance policy) to become payable; yield its conditions.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME endowen < OF endouer, equiv. to en- en-1 + douer < L dōtāre to dower,
equiv. to dōt- (s. of dōs) dowry + -āre inf. suffix]

—Related forms
en·dow·er, noun

—Synonyms 2. invest, clothe, endue.


en·dow (ěn-dou')
tr.v. en·dowed, en·dow·ing, en·dows

1. To provide with property, income, or a source of income.


2.
1. To equip or supply with a talent or quality: Nature endowed you with a beautiful singing
voice.
2. To imagine as having a usually favorable trait or quality: endowed the family pet with human
intelligence.
3. Obsolete To provide with a dower.

[Middle English endowen, from Anglo-Norman endouer : Old French en-, intensive pref.; see en-1
+ Old French douer, to provide with a dowry (from Latin dōtāre, from dōs, dōt-, dowry; see dō- in
Indo-European roots).]

endow
1375, from Anglo-Fr. endover, from en- "in" + O.Fr. douer "endow," from L. dotare "bestow" (see
dowry).

endow

verb
1. give qualities or abilities to
2. furnish with an endowment; "When she got married, she got dowered"
e·lide /ɪˈlaɪd/ - [i-lahyd]
–verb (used with object), e·lid·ed, e·lid·ing.
1. to omit (a vowel, consonant, or syllable) in pronunciation.
2. to suppress; omit; ignore; pass over.
3. Law. to annul or quash.
[Origin: 1585–95; < L élīdere to strike out, equiv. to é- e- + -līdere, comb. form of laedere to
wound]

Elide
78

e·lide (ĭ-līd')
tr.v. e·lid·ed, e·lid·ing, e·lides

1.
1. To omit or slur over (a syllable, for example) in pronunciation.
2. To strike out (something written).
3. To eliminate or leave out of consideration.
4. To cut short; abridge.
2.
1. To eliminate or leave out of consideration.
2. To cut short; abridge.

[Latin ēlīdere, to strike out : ē-, ex-, ex- + laedere, to strike.]

elide
1593, a legal term, "to annul, do away with," from M.Fr. elider, from L. elidere "strike out," from
ex- "out" + -lidere, comb. form of laedere "to strike." Phonological sense is first recorded 1796.

elide
verb
leave or strike out; "This vowel is usually elided before a single consonant"

Elusive
e·lu·sive /ɪˈlusɪv/ - [i-loo-siv]
–adjective
1. eluding clear perception or complete mental grasp; hard to express or define: an elusive
concept.
2. cleverly or skillfully evasive: a fish too elusive to catch.
Also, e·lu·so·ry /ɪˈlusəri, -zə-/ - [i-loo-suh-ree, -zuh-] .

[Origin: 1710–20; elus(ion) + -ive]

—Related forms
e·lu·sive·ly, adverb
e·lu·sive·ness, noun

—Synonyms 2. tricky, slippery, shifty; puzzling, baffling.


e·lu·sive (ĭ-lōō'sĭv, -zĭv)
adj.

1. Tending to elude capture, perception, comprehension, or memory: "an invisible cabal of


conspirators, each more elusive than the archterrorist [himself]" (David Kline).
2. Difficult to define or describe: "Failures are more finely etched in our minds than triumphs,
and success is an elusive, if not mythic, goal in our demanding society" (Hugh Drummond).

[From Latin ēlūsus, past participle of ēlūdere, to elude; see elude.]


e·lu'sive·ly adv., e·lu'sive·ness n.
elusive
adjective
1. difficult to describe; "a haunting elusive odor"
79

2. skillful at eluding capture; "a cabal of conspirators, each more elusive than the archterrorist"-
David Kline
3. difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze; "his whole attitude had undergone a subtle
change"; "a subtle difference"; "that elusive thing the soul"
4. making great mental demands; hard to comprehend or solve or believe; "a baffling problem";
"I faced the knotty problem of what to have for breakfast"; "a problematic situation at home"
[syn: baffling]

Elude
e·lude /ɪˈlud/ - [i-lood]
–verb (used with object), e·lud·ed, e·lud·ing.
1. to avoid or escape by speed, cleverness, trickery, etc.; evade: to elude capture.
2. to escape the understanding, perception, or appreciation of: The answer eludes me.
[Origin: 1530–40; < L élūdere to deceive, evade, equiv. to é- e- + lūdere to play, deceive]

—Related forms
e·lud·er, noun

—Synonyms 1. shun, dodge. See escape.


e·lude (ĭ-lōōd')
tr.v. e·lud·ed, e·lud·ing, e·ludes

1. To evade or escape from, as by daring, cleverness, or skill: The suspect continues to elude
the police.
2. To escape the understanding or grasp of: a name that has always eluded me; a metaphor
that eluded them. See Synonyms at escape.

[Latin ēlūdere : ē-, ex-, ex- + lūdere, to play (from lūdus, play; see leid- in Indo-European
roots).]

elude
1538, "delude, make a fool of," from L. eludere "escape from, make a fool of, win from at play,"
from ex- "out, away" + ludere "to play" (see ludicrous). Sense of "evade" is first recorded 1612.
Elusive first attested 1725.

elude
verb
1. escape, either physically or mentally; "The thief eluded the police"; "This difficult idea seems
to evade her"; "The event evades explanation"
2. be incomprehensible to; escape understanding by; "What you are seeing in him eludes me"
3. avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues); "He
dodged the issue"; "she skirted the problem"; "They tend to evade their responsibilities"; "he
evaded the questions skillfully"

Expatriate

ex·pa·tri·ate /v. ɛksˈpeɪtriˌeɪt or, especially Brit., -ˈpætri-; adj., n. ɛksˈpeɪtriɪt, -


ˌeɪt or, especially Brit., -ˈpætri-/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[v. eks-pey-tree-eyt or, especially Brit., -pa-tree-; adj., n. eks-pey-
80

tree-it, -eyt or, especially Brit., -pa-tree-] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation verb, -at·ed, -at·ing, adjective, noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to banish (a person) from his or her native country.
2. to withdraw (oneself) from residence in one's native country.
3. to withdraw (oneself) from allegiance to one's country.
–verb (used without object)
4. to become an expatriate: He expatriated from his homeland.
–adjective
5. expatriated; exiled.
–noun
6. an expatriated person: Many American writers were living as expatriates in
Paris.
[Origin: 1760–70; < ML expatriātus (ptp. of expatriāre to banish), equiv. to ex-
ex-1 + patri(a) native land + -ātus -ate1]

—Related forms
ex·pa·tri·a·tion, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
ex·pa·tri·ate (ěk-spā'trē-āt') Pronunciation Key
v. ex·pa·tri·at·ed, ex·pa·tri·at·ing, ex·pa·tri·ates

v. tr.

1. To send into exile. See Synonyms at banish.


2. To remove (oneself) from residence in one's native land.

v. intr.

1. To give up residence in one's homeland.


2. To renounce allegiance to one's homeland.

n. (-ĭt, -āt')

1. One who has taken up residence in a foreign country.


2. One who has renounced one's native land.

adj. (-ĭt, -āt')


81

Residing in a foreign country; expatriated: "She delighted in the bohemian


freedom enjoyed by the expatriate artists, writers, and performers living in
Rome" (Janet H. Murray).

[Medieval Latin expatriāre, expatriāt- : Latin ex-, ex- + Latin patria, native land
(from patrius, paternal, from pater, father; see pəter- in Indo-European roots).]

ex·pa'tri·a'tion n.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
expatriate (v.)
1768, from Fr. expatrier "banish," from ex- "out of" + patrie "native land," from
L. patria "one's native country," from pater (gen. patris) "father." Modern noun
sense of "one who moves abroad" is 1818.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
expatriate

noun
1. a person who is voluntarily absent from home or country; "American
expatriates" [syn: exile]

verb
1. expel from a country; "The poet was exiled because he signed a letter
protesting the government's actions" [ant: repatriate]
2. move away from one's native country and adopt a new residence abroad

F
Frozen

fro·zen Audio Help /ˈfroʊzən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[froh-zuhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb
1. pp. of freeze.
–adjective
2. congealed by cold; turned into ice.
3. covered with ice, as a stream.
82

4. frigid; very cold.


5. injured or killed by frost or cold.
6. obstructed by ice, as pipes.
7. chilly or cold in manner; unfeeling: a frozen stare.
8. rigid; immobilized: The child was frozen with fear.
9. quick-frozen: frozen foods.
10. (of food) chilled or refrigerated.
11. (esp. of a drink) mixed with ice and frappéed in an electric blender.
12. in a form that is not readily convertible into cash; not liquid: frozen assets.
13. not permitted to be changed or incapable of being altered; fixed: frozen
rents; frozen salaries.
14. Canasta. (of the discard pile) unable to be picked up by a player unless the
player's hand contains a natural pair to match the top card of the pile. Compare
freeze (def. 26).
—Related forms
fro·zen·ly, adverb
fro·zen·ness, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
freeze Audio Help /friz/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[freez]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, froze, fro·zen, freez·ing, noun
–verb (used without object)
1. to become hardened into ice or into a solid body; change from the liquid to
the solid state by loss of heat.
2. to become hard or stiffened because of loss of heat, as objects containing
moisture: Meat will freeze in a few hours.
3. to suffer the effects of intense cold; have the sensation of extreme cold:
We sat there freezing until the heat came on.
4. to be of the degree of cold at which water freezes: It may freeze tonight.
5. to lose warmth of feeling; be stunned or chilled with fear, shock, etc.: My
heart froze when she told me the news.
6. to become immobilized through fear, shock, etc.: When he got in front of
the audience he froze.
7. to stop suddenly and remain motionless; halt: I froze in my tracks.
8. to become obstructed by the formation of ice, as pipes: Our basement
water pipes often freeze in winter.
9. to die or be injured because of frost or cold.
10. (of a screw, nail, or the like) to become rigidly fixed in place, as from rust
or dirt.
11. to become fixed to something by or as if by the action of frost.
12. to become unfriendly, secretive, or aloof (often fol. by up): He froze at such
a personal question.
83

13. to become temporarily inoperable; cease to function (often fol. by up): The
new software made my computer freeze.
–verb (used with object)
14. to harden into ice; change from a fluid to a solid form by loss of heat;
congeal.
15. to form ice on the surface of (a river, pond, etc.).
16. to harden or stiffen (an object containing moisture) by cold.
17. to quick-freeze.
18. to subject to freezing temperature; place in a freezer or in the freezing
compartment of a refrigerator.
19. to cause to suffer the effects of intense cold; produce the sensation of
extreme cold in.
20. to cause to lose warmth as if by cold; chill with fear; dampen the
enthusiasm of.
21. to cause (a person or animal) to become fixed through fright, alarm, shock,
etc.: Terror froze him to the steering wheel.
22. to kill by frost or cold: A late snow froze the buds.
23. to fix fast with ice: a sled frozen to a sidewalk.
24. to obstruct or close (a pipe or the like) by the formation of ice: The storm
had frozen the hydrant.
25. to fix (rents, prices, etc.) at a specific amount, usually by government
order.
26. to stop or limit production, use, or development of: an agreement to freeze
nuclear weapons.
27. Finance. to render impossible of liquidation or collection: Bank loans are
frozen in business depressions.
28. Surgery. to render part of the body insensitive to pain or slower in its
function by artificial means.
29. Cards.
a. Canasta. to play a wild card on (the discard pile) so as to make it frozen.
b. Poker. to eliminate (other players) in a game of freezeout.
30. to photograph (a moving subject) at a shutter speed fast enough to
produce an unblurred, seemingly motionless image.
31. Movies. to stop by means of a freeze-frame mechanism: You can freeze the
action at any point.
32. Sports. to maintain possession of (a ball or puck) for as long as possible,
usually without trying to score, thereby reducing the opponent's opportunities for
scoring.
33. Ice Hockey. to hold (a puck) against the boards with the skates or stick,
causing play to stop and forcing a face-off.
–noun
34. the act of freezing; state of being frozen.
84

35. Also called ice-up. Meteorology. a widespread occurrence of temperatures


below 32°F (0°C) persisting for at least several days: A freeze is expected in the
coastal areas.
36. a frost.
37. a legislative action, esp. in time of national emergency, to control prices,
rents, production, etc.: The government put a freeze on new construction.
38. a decision by one or more nations to stop or limit production or
development of weapons, esp. nuclear weapons.
—Verb phrases
39. freeze on or onto, Informal. to adhere closely to; hold on; seize.
40. freeze out, to exclude or compel (somebody) to withdraw from
membership, acceptance, a position of influence or advantage, etc., by cold
treatment or severe competition.
41. freeze over, to coat or become coated with ice: The lake freezes over for
several months each year.
[Origin: bef. 1000; (v.) ME fresen, OE fréosan; c. MLG vrésen, ON frjōsa, OHG
friosan (G frieren); (n.) late ME frese, deriv. of the v.]

—Related forms
freez·a·ble, adjective
freez·a·bil·i·ty, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
freeze Audio Help (frēz) Pronunciation Key
v. froze (frōz), fro·zen (frō'zən), freez·ing, freez·es

v. intr.

1.
1. To pass from the liquid to the solid state by loss of heat.
2. To acquire a surface or coat of ice from cold: The lake froze over in
January. Bridges freeze before the adjacent roads.
3. To become fixed, stuck, or attached by or as if by frost: The lock froze
up with rust.
4. To stop functioning properly, usually temporarily: My computer screen
froze when I opened the infected program.
5. To become motionless or immobile, as from surprise or attentiveness: I
heard a sound and froze in my tracks.
6. To become unable to act or speak, as from fear: froze in front of the
audience.
2. To become clogged or jammed because of the formation of ice: The pipes
froze in the basement.
85

3. To be at that degree of temperature at which ice forms: It may freeze


tonight.
4. To be killed or harmed by cold or frost: They almost froze to death. Mulch
keeps garden plants from freezing.
5. To be or feel uncomfortably cold: Aren't you freezing without a coat?
6.
1. To become fixed, stuck, or attached by or as if by frost: The lock froze
up with rust.
2. To stop functioning properly, usually temporarily: My computer screen
froze when I opened the infected program.
3. To become motionless or immobile, as from surprise or attentiveness: I
heard a sound and froze in my tracks.
4. To become unable to act or speak, as from fear: froze in front of the
audience.
7.
1. To become motionless or immobile, as from surprise or attentiveness: I
heard a sound and froze in my tracks.
2. To become unable to act or speak, as from fear: froze in front of the
audience.
8. To become rigid and inflexible; solidify: an opinion that froze into dogma.

v. tr.

1.
1. To convert into ice.
2. To cause ice to form upon.
3. To cause to congeal or stiffen from extreme cold: winter cold that froze
the ground.
4. To fix (prices or wages, for example) at a given or current level.
5. To prohibit further manufacture or use of.
6. To prevent or restrict the exchange, withdrawal, liquidation, or granting
of by governmental action: freeze investment loans during a depression; froze
foreign assets held by U.S. banks.
7. To photograph (a subject) in mid-action so as to produce a still image.
8. To stop (a moving film) at a particular image.
2. To preserve (foods, for example) by subjecting to freezing temperatures.
3. To damage, kill, or make inoperative by cold or by the formation of ice.
4. To make very cold; chill.
5. To immobilize, as with fear or shock.
6. To chill with an icy or formal manner: froze me with one look.
7. To stop the motion or progress of: The negotiations were frozen by the
refusal of either side to compromise.
8.
86

1. To fix (prices or wages, for example) at a given or current level.


2. To prohibit further manufacture or use of.
3. To prevent or restrict the exchange, withdrawal, liquidation, or granting
of by governmental action: freeze investment loans during a depression; froze
foreign assets held by U.S. banks.
4. To photograph (a subject) in mid-action so as to produce a still image.
5. To stop (a moving film) at a particular image.
9. To capture or preserve a likeness of, as on film.
10.
1. To photograph (a subject) in mid-action so as to produce a still image.
2. To stop (a moving film) at a particular image.
11. To anesthetize by chilling.
12. Sports To keep possession of (a ball or puck) so as to deny an opponent the
opportunity to score.

n.

1.
1. The act of freezing.
2. The state of being frozen.
2. A spell of cold weather; a frost.
3. A restriction that forbids a quantity from rising above a given or current
level: a freeze on city jobs; a proposed freeze on the production of nuclear
weapons.

Phrasal Verb(s):
freeze out
To shut out or exclude, as by cold or unfriendly treatment: The others tried to
freeze me out of the conversation.

Idiom(s):
freeze (someone's) blood
To affect with terror or dread; horrify: a scream that froze my blood.

[Middle English fresen, from Old English frēosan; see preus- in Indo-European
roots.]

freez'a·ble adj.

Word History: Describing the landscape of Hell in Book II of Paradise Lost,


Milton depicts "a frozen Continent . . . beat with perpetual storms . . . the
parching Air Burns frore, and cold performs th' effect of Fire." It is evident from
87

these lines that frore has some relationship to frozen, but what exactly is it? The
Modern English paradigm for the verb freeze is freeze, froze, frozen, with a z
throughout. However, in Old English, the principal parts were frēosan, frēas,
froren. The r in the past participle froren is from a prehistoric s that became r by
Verner's Law, a sound shift that changed s in certain positions into r. (The effects
of Verner's Law can also be seen in such modern English pairs as was and were,
and lose and (love-)lorn.) During the Middle English period, a new past participle
frosen was created using the s from the first two principal parts; this survives as
frozen nowadays. The older participle, spelled froren or frore in Middle English,
lived on as a poetic word for "cold," but well before Milton's day it had become
archaic in the standard language.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
fro·zen Audio Help (frō'zən) Pronunciation Key
v. Past participle of freeze.

adj.

1. Made into, covered with, or surrounded by ice.


2. Very cold: the frozen North.
3. Preserved by freezing: frozen meat.
4.
1. Rendered immobile: frozen in their tracks with fear.
2. Immobile, as from pain or inflammation. Used of a joint: a frozen
shoulder.
3. Kept at a fixed level: frozen rents.
4. Impossible to withdraw, sell, or liquidate: frozen assets.
5. Expressive of cold unfriendliness or disdain: a frozen look on their faces.
6.
1. Kept at a fixed level: frozen rents.
2. Impossible to withdraw, sell, or liquidate: frozen assets.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
frozen
88

adjective
1. turned into ice; affected by freezing or by long and severe cold; "the frozen
North"; "frozen pipes"; "children skating on a frozen brook" [ant: unfrozen]
2. absolutely still; "frozen with horror"; "they stood rooted in astonishment"
3. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain; "a
frigid greeting"; "got a frosty reception"; "a frozen look on their faces"; "a glacial
handshake"; "icy stare"; "wintry smile" [syn: frigid]
4. not thawed
5. (used of foods) preserved by freezing sufficiently rapidly to retain flavor
and nutritional value; "frozen foods" [syn: flash-frozen]
6. not convertible to cash; "frozen assets"
7. incapable of being changed or moved or undone; e.g. "frozen prices";
"living on fixed incomes" [syn: fixed]

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: frozen


past participle of FREEZE
Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, © 2002 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: frozen


past participle of FREEZE
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law, © 1996 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: freeze


Function: transitive verb
Inflected Forms: froze; fro·zen; freez·ing
1 : to cause to become fixed, immovable, unavailable, or unalterable <freeze
interest rates>
2 : to immobilize (as by government regulation or the action of a financial
institution) the expenditure, withdrawal, or exchange of <freeze foreign assets>
3 : to restructure (the capital of a close corporation) so that the value is reflected
mostly in preferred stock rather than common stock
NOTE: Once capital is frozen, the common shares can be transferred to the heirs
of the owner without taxation while the owner continues to enjoy the income
from preferred stock dividends during his or her lifetime. —freeze noun
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law, © 1996 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Frozen
89

Freeze\, v. i. [imp. Froze; p. p. Frozen; p. pr. & vb. n. Freezing.] [OE. fresen,
freosen, AS. fre['o]san; akin to D. vriezen, OHG. iosan, G. frieren, Icel. frjsa, Sw.
frysa, Dan. fryse, Goth. frius cold, frost, and prob. to L. prurire to itch, E.
prurient, cf. L. prna a burning coal, pruina hoarfrost, Skr. prushv[=a] ice, prush
to spirt. ? 18. Cf. Frost.]

1. To become congealed by cold; to be changed from a liquid to a solid state by


the abstraction of heat; to be hardened into ice or a like solid body.

Note: Water freezes at 32[deg] above zero by Fahrenheit's thermometer;


mercury freezes at 40[deg] below zero.

2. To become chilled with cold, or as with cold; to suffer loss of animation or life
by lack of heat; as, the blood freezes in the veins.

To freeze up (Fig.), to become formal and cold in demeanor. [Colloq.]


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Frozen
Fro"zen\, a. 1. Congealed with cold; affected by freezing; as, a frozen brook.

They warmed their frozen feet. --Dryden.

2. Subject to frost, or to long and severe cold; chilly; as, the frozen north; the
frozen zones.

3. Cold-hearted; unsympathetic; unyielding. [R.]

Focal

fo·cal /ˈfoʊkəl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[foh-kuhl]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
of or pertaining to a focus.
[Origin: 1685–95; < NL focālis. See focus, -al1]

—Related forms
fo·cal·ly, adverb
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
fo·cal (fō'kəl) Pronunciation Key
90

adj.

1. Of or relating to a focus.
2. Placed at or measured from a focus.

fo'cal·ly adv.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
focal

adjective
1. having or localized centrally at a focus; "focal point"; "focal infection"
2. of or relating to a focus; "focal length"

Finicty

fin·ick·y /ˈfɪnɪki/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[fin-i-kee]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective, -ick·i·er, -ick·i·est.
excessively particular or fastidious; difficult to please; fussy.
Also, finnicky, fin·i·king /ˈfɪnɪkɪŋ/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[fin-i-king] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation.

[Origin: 1815–25; finick + -y1]

—Synonyms exacting, demanding, meticulous; choosy, picky.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
fin·ick·y (fĭn'ĭ-kē) Pronunciation Key
adj. fin·ick·i·er, fin·ick·i·est
Insisting capriciously on getting just what one wants; difficult to please;
fastidious: a finicky eater.

Fragile
frag·ile /ˈfrædʒəl; Brit. ˈfrædʒaɪl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[fraj-uhl;
Brit. fraj-ahyl] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
91

–adjective
1. easily broken, shattered, or damaged; delicate; brittle; frail: a fragile ceramic container; a
very fragile alliance.
2. vulnerably delicate, as in appearance: She has a fragile beauty.
3. lacking in substance or force; flimsy: a fragile excuse.
[Origin: 1505–15; < L fragilis, equiv. to frag- (var. s. of frangere to break) + -ilis -ile]

—Related forms
frag·ile·ly, adverb
fra·gil·i·ty /frəˈdʒɪlɪti/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[fruh-jil-i-tee]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation, frag·ile·ness, noun

—Synonyms 1. See frail1.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source
frag·ile (frāj'əl, -īl') Pronunciation Key
adj.

1. Easily broken, damaged, or destroyed; frail.


2. Lacking physical or emotional strength; delicate.
3. Lacking substance; tenuous or flimsy: a fragile claim to fame.

[French, from Old French, from Latin fragilis, from frangere, frag-, to break; see bhreg- in Indo-
European roots.]

frag'ile·ly adv., fra·gil'i·ty (frə-jĭl'ĭ-tē), frag'ile·ness n.

Synonyms: These adjectives mean easily broken or damaged. Fragile applies to objects that
are not made of strong or sturdy material and that require great care when handled: fragile
porcelain plates.
Breakable and frangible mean capable of being broken but do not necessarily imply inherent
weakness: breakable toys; frangible artifacts.
Delicate refers to what is so soft, tender, or fine as to be susceptible to injury: delicate fruit.
Brittle refers to inelasticity that makes something especially likely to fracture or snap when it is
subjected to pressure: brittle bones. See Also Synonyms at weak.

fragile

adjective
1. easily broken or damaged or destroyed; "a kite too delicate to fly safely"; "fragile porcelain
plates"; "fragile old bones"; "a frail craft" [syn: delicate]
2. vulnerably delicate; "she has the fragile beauty of youth"
3. lacking substance or significance; "slight evidence"; "a tenuous argument"; "a thin plot"; a
fragile claim to fame" [syn: flimsy]

Famine
92

fam·ine /ˈfæmɪn/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[fam-in] Pronunciation Key -


Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. extreme and general scarcity of food, as in a country or a large geographical area.
2. any extreme and general scarcity.
3. extreme hunger; starvation.
[Origin: 1325–75; ME < MF, deriv. of faim hunger (< L famés); see -ine2]
—Synonyms 2. dearth, paucity, poverty, meagerness, scantness.
fam·ine (fām'ĭn) Pronunciation Key
n.
1. A drastic, wide-reaching food shortage.
2. A drastic shortage; a dearth.
3. Severe hunger; starvation.
4. Archaic Extreme appetite.

[Middle English, from Old French, from faim, hunger, from Latin famēs.]
famine
1362, from O.Fr. famine "hunger," from L. fames "hunger," of unknown origin.
famine
noun
1. an acute insufficiency [syn: dearth]
2. a severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation
and death

Groan
groan - [grohn] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. a low, mournful sound uttered in pain or grief: the groans of dying soldiers.
2. a deep, inarticulate sound uttered in derision, disapproval, desire, etc.
3. a deep grating or creaking sound due to a sudden or continued overburdening, as with a great
weight: We heard the groan of the ropes as the crane lowered the heavy cargo into the ship's
hold.
–verb (used without object)
4. to utter a deep, mournful sound expressive of pain or grief.
5. to make a deep, inarticulate sound expressive of derision, disapproval, desire, etc.
6. to make a sound resembling a groan; resound harshly: The steps of the old house groaned
under my weight.
7. to be overburdened or overloaded.
8. to suffer greatly or lamentably: groaning under an intolerable burden.
–verb (used with object)
9. to utter or express with groans.

—Related forms
groaner, noun
groan·ing·ly, adverb
—Synonyms 1. Groan, moan refer to sounds indicating deep suffering. A groan is a brief, strong,
deep-throated sound emitted involuntarily under pressure of pain or suffering: The wounded man
groaned when they lifted him. A moan is a prolonged, more or less continuous, low, inarticulate
93

sound indicative of suffering, either physical or mental: She was moaning after the operation. She
did not weep, but moaned softly.

groan (grōn) v. groaned, groan·ing, groans v. intr. 1. To voice a deep, inarticulate


sound, as of pain, grief, or displeasure.2. To make a sound expressive of stress or strain:
floorboards groaning.v. tr. To utter or express with groans or a groan. n. The sound made in
groaning. [Middle English gronen, from Old English grānian.] groan'er n., groan'ing·ly adv.
groan
O.E. granian "to groan, murmur," from P.Gmc. *grain-, of imitative origin, or related to grin (cf.
O.N. grenja "to howl").
groan
noun
1. an utterance expressing pain or disapproval
verb
1. indicate pain, discomfort, or displeasure; "The students groaned when the professor got out
the exam booklets"; "The ancient door soughed when opened"
grav·i·tate - [grav-i-teyt] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used without object), -tat·ed, -tat·ing.
1. to move or tend to move under the influence of gravitational force.
2. to tend toward the lowest level; sink; fall.
3. to have a natural tendency or be strongly attracted (usually fol. by to or toward): Musicians
gravitate toward one another.

grav·i·tat·er, noun
—Synonyms 3. incline, tend, lean, move.
grav·i·tate (grāv'ĭ-tāt') intr.v. grav·i·tat·ed, grav·i·tat·ing, grav·i·tates 1. To move in
response to the force of gravity.2. To move downward.3. To be attracted by or as if by an
irresistible force: "My excuse must be that all Celts gravitate towards each other" (Oscar
Wilde).[New Latin gravitāre, gravitāt-, from Latin gravitās, heaviness; see gravity.] grav'i·tat'er n.

Hypothesis
hy·poth·e·sis - [hahy-poth-uh-sis, hi-] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun, plural -ses - [-seez] - Show IPA Pronunciation.
1. a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some
specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide
investigation (working hypothesis) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts.
2. a proposition assumed as a premise in an argument.
3. the antecedent of a conditional proposition.
4. a mere assumption or guess.

—Related forms
hy·poth·e·sist, noun

—Synonyms 1. See THEORY.


hy·poth·e·sis (hī-pŏth'ĭ-sĭs) n. pl. hy·poth·e·ses (-sēz') 1. A tentative explanation for an
observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.2.
Something taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation; an assumption.3. The
antecedent of a conditional statement.[Latin, subject for a speech, from Greek hupothesis,
94

proposal, supposition, from hupotithenai, hupothe-, to suppose : hupo-, hypo- + tithenai, to


place; see dhē- in Indo-European roots.]
hypothesis
1596, from M.Fr. hypothese, from L.L. hypothesis, from Gk. hypothesis "base, basis of an
argument, supposition," lit. "a placing under," from hypo- "under" + thesis "a placing,
proposition." A term in logic; narrower scientific sense is 1646; hypothetical is 1588.

hypothesis
noun
1. a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
2. a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true
would explain certain facts or phenomena; "a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental
testing becomes a scientific theory"; "he proposed a fresh theory of alkalis that later was
accepted in chemical practices"
3. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence [syn: guess]

Heterogeneous
het·er·o·ge·ne·ous /ˌhɛtərəˈdʒiniəs, -ˈdʒinyəs/ - [het-er-uh-jee-nee-uhs, -jeen-yuhs]
–adjective
1. different in kind; unlike; incongruous.
2. composed of parts of different kinds; having widely dissimilar elements or constituents: The
party was attended by a heterogeneous group of artists, politicians, and social climbers.
3. Chemistry. (of a mixture) composed of different substances or the same substance in different
phases, as solid ice and liquid water.
[Origin: 1615–25; < ML heterogeneus < Gk heterogens. See hetero-, gene, -ous]

—Related forms
het·er·o·ge·ne·ous·ly, adverb
het·er·o·ge·ne·ous·ness, noun

—Synonyms 2. varied, diverse.


—Antonyms 2. homogeneous.
het·er·o·ge·ne·ous (hět'ər-ə-jē'nē-əs, -jēn'yəs)
adj.

1. also het·er·og·e·nous (hět'ə-rŏj'ə-nəs) Consisting of dissimilar elements or parts; not


homogeneous. See Synonyms at miscellaneous.
2. Completely different; incongruous.

[From Medieval Latin heterogeneus, from Greek heterogenēs : hetero-, hetero- + genos, kind,
race; see genə- in Indo-European roots.]

het'er·o·ge'ne·ous·ly adv., het'er·o·ge'ne·ous·ness n.


heterogeneous
1624, from Gk. heterogenes, from heteros "different" + genos "kind, gender, race stock" (see
genus).

heterogeneous
95

adjective
1. consisting of elements that are not of the same kind or nature; "the population of the United
States is vast and heterogeneous" [ant: homogeneous]
2. originating outside the body [syn: heterogenous] [ant: autogenic]

Household
house·hold /ˈhaʊ sˌhoʊld, -ˌoʊld/ - [hous-hohld, -ohld]
–noun
1. the people of a house collectively; a family including its servants.
–adjective
2. of or pertaining to a household: household furniture.
3. for use in maintaining a home, esp. for use in cooking, cleaning, laundering, repairing, etc., in
the home: a household bleach.
4. common or usual; ordinary.
house·hold (hous'hōld')
n.
1.
1. A domestic unit consisting of the members of a family who live together along with
nonrelatives such as servants.
2. The living spaces and possessions belonging to such a unit.
2. A person or group of people occupying a single dwelling: the rise of nonfamily households.
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or used in a household: household appliances.
2. Commonly known; familiar: has become a household name.
[Middle English houshold : hous, house; see house + hold, possession, holding (from Old English,
from healdan, to hold; see hold1).]
household
noun
a social unit living together; "he moved his family to Virginia"; "It was a good Christian
household"; "I waited until the whole house was asleep"; "the teacher asked how many people
made up his home" [syn: family]

Inhabit

in·hab·it /ɪnˈhæbɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[in-hab-it]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object)
1. to live or dwell in (a place), as people or animals: Small animals inhabited
the woods.
2. to exist or be situated within; dwell in: Weird notions inhabit his mind.
–verb (used without object)
3. Archaic. to live or dwell, as in a place.
[Origin: 1325–75; < L inhabitāre, equiv. to in- in-2 + habitāre to dwell (see
habit2); r. ME enhabiten < MF enhabiter < L as above]
96

—Related forms
in·hab·it·a·ble, adjective
in·hab·it·a·bil·i·ty, noun
in·hab·i·ta·tion, noun

—Synonyms 1, 2. reside, occupy, tenant, populate.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
in·hab·it (ĭn-hāb'ĭt) Pronunciation Key
v. in·hab·it·ed, in·hab·it·ing, in·hab·its

v. tr.

1. To live or reside in.


2. To be present in; fill: Old childhood memories inhabit the attic.

v. intr. Archaic
To dwell.

[Middle English enhabiten, from Old French enhabiter, from Latin inhabitāre : in-,
in; see in-2 + habitāre, to dwell, frequentative of habēre, to have; see ghabh- in
Indo-European roots.]

in·hab'it·a·bil'i·ty n., in·hab'it·a·ble adj., in·hab'i·ta'tion n., in·hab'it·er n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
inhabit
c.1374, from O.Fr. enhabiter "dwell in" (12c.), from L. inhabitare, from in- "in" +
habitare "to dwell," freq. of habere "hold, have" (see habit). Inhabitant first
recorded 1462. Inhabitable was used in two opposite senses: "not habitable"
(c.1400, from in- "not" + habitable) and "capable of being inhabited" (1601, from
inhabit + -able).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
inhabit
97

verb
1. inhabit or live in; be an inhabitant of; "People lived in Africa millions of
years ago"; "The people inhabited the islands that are now deserted"; "this kind
of fish dwells near the bottom of the ocean"; "deer are populating the woods"
[syn: populate]
2. be present in; "sweet memories inhabit this house"
3. exist or be situated within; "Strange notions inhabited her mind" [syn:
dwell]

Inception

in·cep·tion /ɪnˈsɛpʃən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[in-sep-


shuhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. beginning; start; commencement.
2. British.
a. the act of graduating or earning a university degree, usually a master's or
doctor's degree, esp. at Cambridge University.
b. the graduation ceremony; commencement.
[Origin: 1375–1425; late ME incepcion < L inceptiōn- (s. of inceptiō), equiv. to
incept(us) begun (see incept) + -iōn- -ion]

—Synonyms 1. origin, outset, source, root, conception.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
in·cep·tion (ĭn-sěp'shən) Pronunciation Key
n. The beginning of something, such as an undertaking; a commencement. See
Synonyms at origin.

[Middle English incepcion, from Latin inceptiō, inceptiōn-, from inceptus, past
participle of incipere, to begin, take up : in-, in; see in-2 + capere, to take; see
kap- in Indo-European roots.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
inception
98

c.1483, from L. inceptionem (nom. inceptio), from inceptus, pp. of incipere


"begin, take in hand," from in- "in, on" + cipere comb. form of capere "take,
seize" (see capable).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
inception

noun
an event that is a beginning; a first part or stage of subsequent events [syn:
origin]

in·cept /ɪnˈsɛpt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[in-sept]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object)
to take in; ingest.
[Origin: 1560–70; < L inceptus ptp. of incipere to begin, undertake, equiv. to in-
in-2 + cep- (comb. form of cap- take; see captive) + -tus ptp. suffix; sense “take
in” by literal trans. of prefix and base]

—Related forms
in·cep·tor, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
in·cept (ĭn-sěpt') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. in·cept·ed, in·cept·ing, in·cepts
To take in; ingest.

[Latin incipere, incept-, to begin, take up; see inception.]

Impose
im·pose - [im-pohz] - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -posed, -pos·ing.
–verb (used with object)
1. to lay on or set as something to be borne, endured, obeyed, fulfilled, paid, etc.: to impose
taxes.
2. to put or set by or as if by authority: to impose one's personal preference on others.
3. to obtrude or thrust (oneself, one's company, etc.) upon others.
4. to pass or palm off fraudulently or deceptively: He imposed his pretentious books on the
public.
5. Printing. to lay (type pages, plates, etc.) in proper order on an imposing stone or the like and
secure in a chase for printing.
6. to lay on or inflict, as a penalty.
99

7. Archaic. to put or place on something, or in a particular place.


8. Obsolete. to lay on (the hands) ceremonially, as in confirmation or ordination.
–verb (used without object)
9. to make an impression on the mind; impose one's or its authority or influence.
10. to obtrude oneself or one's requirements, as upon others: Are you sure my request doesn't
impose?
11. to presume, as upon patience or good nature.
—Verb phrase
12. impose on or upon, a. to thrust oneself offensively upon others; intrude.
b. to take unfair advantage of; misuse (influence, friendship, etc.).
c. to defraud; cheat; deceive: A study recently showed the shocking number of confidence men
that impose on the public.

[Origin: 1475–85; late ME < MF imposer, equiv. to im- IM-1 + poser to POSE1; see also POSE2 ]

—Related forms
im·pos·a·ble, adjective
im·pos·er, noun

—Synonyms 3. force, foist.


im·pose (ĭm-pōz') v. im·posed, im·pos·ing, im·pos·es v. tr. 1. To establish or apply as
compulsory; levy: impose a tax.2. To apply or make prevail by or as if by authority: impose a
peace settlement. See Synonyms at dictate.3. To obtrude or force (oneself, for example) on
another or others.4. Printing To arrange (type or plates) on an imposing stone.5. To offer or
circulate fraudulently; pass off: imposed a fraud on consumers.v. intr. To take unfair advantage:
You are always imposing on their generosity. [Middle English imposen, from Old French imposer,
alteration (influenced by poser, to put, place) of Latin impōnere, to place upon : in-, on; see in-2
+ pōnere, to place; see apo- in Indo-European roots.]

Intercept
in·ter·cept - [v. in-ter-sept; n. in-ter-sept] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object)
1. to take, seize, or halt (someone or something on the way from one place to another); cut off
from an intended destination: to intercept a messenger.
2. to see or overhear (a message, transmission, etc., meant for another): We intercepted the
enemy's battle plan.
3. to stop or check (passage, travel, etc.): to intercept the traitor's escape.
4. Sports. to take possession of (a ball or puck) during an attempted pass by an opposing team.
5. to stop or interrupt the course, progress, or transmission of.
6. to destroy or disperse (enemy aircraft or a missile or missiles) in the air on the way to a
target.
7. to stop the natural course of (light, water, etc.).
8. Mathematics. to mark off or include, as between two points or lines.
9. to intersect.
10. Obsolete. to prevent or cut off the operation or effect of.
11. Obsolete. to cut off from access, sight, etc.
–noun
12. an interception.
13. Mathematics. a. an intercepted segment of a line.
100

b. (in a coordinate system) the distance from the origin to the point at which a curve or line
intersects an axis.

[Origin: 1535–45; < L interceptus ptp. of intercipere, equiv. to inter- INTER- + -cep- (comb. form
of cap-, s. of capere to take) + -tus ptp. suffix; cf. INCIPIENT ]

—Related forms
in·ter·cep·tive, adjective
in·ter·cept (ĭn'tər-sěpt') tr.v. in·ter·cept·ed, in·ter·cept·ing, in·ter·cepts 1. To stop,
deflect, or interrupt the progress or intended course of: intercepted me with a message as I was
leaving.2. Sports a. To gain possession of (an opponent's pass), as in football or basketball.b.
To gain possession of a pass made by (an opponent), especially in football.3. Mathematics To
include or bound (a part of a space or curve) between two points or lines.4. Archaic To prevent.5.
Obsolete To cut off from access or communication.n. (ĭn'tər-sěpt') 1. Mathematics The
coordinate of a point at which a line, curve, or surface intersects a coordinate axis.2. a. The
interception of a missile by another missile or an aircraft by another aircraft.b. Interception of a
radio transmission.3. An interceptor.[Middle English intercepten, from Latin intercipere, intercept-
: inter-, inter- + capere, to seize; see kap- in Indo-European roots.] in'ter·cep'tive adj.

Intercept
c.1540, from L. interceptus, pp. of intercipere "take or seize between," from inter- "between" +
-cipere, comb. form of capere "to take, catch" (see capable).

noun
1. the point at which a line intersects a coordinate axis
verb
1. seize on its way; "The fighter plane was ordered to intercept an aircraft that had entered the
country's airspace"
2. tap a telephone or telegraph wire to get information; "The FBI was tapping the phone line of
the suspected spy"; "Is this hotel room bugged?" [syn: wiretap]

Incite
in·cite /ɪnˈsaɪt/ - [in-sahyt]
–verb (used with object), -cit·ed, -cit·ing.
to stir, encourage, or urge on; stimulate or prompt to action: to incite a crowd to riot.
[Origin: 1475–85; < L incitāre, equiv. to in- in-2 + citāre to start up, excite; see cite]

—Related forms
in·cit·a·ble, adjective
in·cit·ant, adjective, noun
in·ci·ta·tion /ˌɪnsaɪˈteɪʃən, -sɪ-/ - [in-sahy-tey-shuhn, -si-] , noun
in·cit·er, noun
in·cit·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms instigate, provoke, goad, spur, arouse, exhort; fire; induce. Incite, rouse, provoke,
inflame are verbs meaning to goad or inspire an individual or a group to take some action or to
express some feeling. Incite and rouse are similar in that, although they can imply in some
contexts abrasive or inflammatory arousal of violent or uncontrolled behavior, neither necessarily
does so. Incite means simply to induce activity, of whatever kind: incited to greater effort by
encouragement; incited to riot. Rouse has an underlying sense of awakening: to rouse the
101

apathetic soldiers to a determination to win; to rouse the inattentive public to an awareness of


the danger. Provoke implies a sense of challenge or irritation along with arousal and often
suggests a resultant anger or violence: provoked by scathing references to his accomplishments;
to provoke a wave of resentment. Inflame, with its root sense to set afire, implies a resultant
intensity and passion: to inflame a mob by fiery speeches; He was inflamed to rage by constant
frustration.
—Antonyms discourage.
in·cite (ĭn-sīt')
tr.v. in·cit·ed, in·cit·ing, in·cites
To provoke and urge on: troublemakers who incite riots; inciting workers to strike. See Synonyms
at provoke.

[Middle English encyten, from Old French enciter, from Latin incitāre, to urge forward : in-,
intensive pref.; see in-2 + citāre, to stimulate, frequentative of ciēre, to put in motion; see kei-2
in Indo-European roots.]

in·cite'ment n., in·cit'er n.


incite
1447, from M.Fr. enciter (14c.), from L. incitare "to put into rapid motion, urge, encourage,
stimulate," from in- "on" + citare "move, excite" (see cite).

incite

verb
1. give an incentive for action; "This moved me to sacrifice my career" [syn: motivate]
2. provoke or stir up; "incite a riot"; "set off great unrest among the people"
1. urge on; cause to act; "The other children egged the boy on, but he did not want to throw the
stone through the window" [syn: prod]

Impediment
im·pede (ĭm-pēd')
tr.v. im·ped·ed, im·ped·ing, im·pedes
To retard or obstruct the progress of. See Synonyms at hinder1.

im·ped·i·ment /ɪmˈpɛdəmənt/ - [im-ped-uh-muhnt]


–noun
1. obstruction; hindrance; obstacle.
2. any physical defect that impedes normal or easy speech; a speech disorder.
3. Chiefly Ecclesiastical Law. a bar, usually of blood or affinity, to marriage: a diriment
impediment.
4. Usually, impediments. impedimenta.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME < L impedīmentum. See impede, -ment]

—Related forms
im·ped·i·men·tal /ɪmˌpɛdəˈmɛntl/ - [im-ped-uh-men-tl] , im·ped·i·men·ta·ry, adjective

—Synonyms 1. bar, encumbrance, check. See obstacle.


—Antonyms 1. help, encouragement.
im·ped·i·ment (ĭm-pěd'ə-mənt)
n.
102

1. Something that impedes; a hindrance or obstruction. See Synonyms at obstacle.


2. An organic defect preventing clear articulation: a speech impediment.
3. Law Something that obstructs the making of a legal contract.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin impedīmentum, from impedīre, to impede; see
impede.]

im·ped'i·men'tal (-měn'tl), im·ped'i·men'ta·ry (-měn'tə-rē) adj.


impediment
1398, from L. impedimentem "hindrance," from impedire "impede," lit. "to shackle the feet," from
in- "in" + pes (gen. pedis) "foot." Impede (1605) is first attested in Shakespeare.

impediment

noun
1. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress [syn: hindrance]
2. any structure that makes progress difficult [syn: obstruction]

Invade
in·vade /ɪnˈveɪd/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[in-veyd] Pronunciation Key -
Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -vad·ed, -vad·ing.
–verb (used with object)
1. to enter forcefully as an enemy; go into with hostile intent: Germany invaded Poland in 1939.
2. to enter like an enemy: Locusts invaded the fields.
3. to enter as if to take possession: to invade a neighbor's home.
4. to enter and affect injuriously or destructively, as disease: viruses that invade the
bloodstream.
5. to intrude upon: to invade the privacy of a family.
6. to encroach or infringe upon: to invade the rights of citizens.
7. to permeate: The smell of baking invades the house.
8. to penetrate; spread into or over: The population boom has caused city dwellers to invade the
suburbs.
–verb (used without object)
9. to make an invasion: troops awaiting the signal to invade.
[Origin: 1485–95; < L invādere, equiv. to in- in-2 + vādere to go; see wade]

—Related forms
in·vad·a·ble, adjective
in·vad·er, noun

—Synonyms 1, 2. penetrate, attack.


in·vade (ĭn-vād') Pronunciation Key
v. in·vad·ed, in·vad·ing, in·vades

v. tr.

1. To enter by force in order to conquer or pillage.


2. To encroach or intrude on; violate: "The principal of the trusts could not be invaded without
trustee approval" (Barbara Goldsmith).
103

3. To overrun as if by invading; infest: "About 1917 the shipworm invaded the harbor of San
Francisco" (Rachel Carson).
4. To enter and permeate, especially harmfully.

v. intr.
To make an invasion: "The X-rays showed that the cancer, which had invaded deeply into the
chest cavity, was retreating" (Zach Rosen).

[Middle English, from Old French invader, from Latin invādere : in-, in; see in-2 + vādere, to go.]

in·vad'er n.
invade

verb
1. march aggressively into another's territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and
occupation; "Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939"
2. to intrude upon, infringe, encroach on, violate; "This new colleague invades my territory";
"The neighbors intrude on your privacy" [syn: intrude on]
3. occupy in large numbers or live on a host; "the Kudzu plant infests much of the South and is
spreading to the North"
4. penetrate or assault, in a harmful or injurious way; "The cancer had invaded her lungs"

Incertitude
in·cer·ti·tude /ɪnˈsɜrtɪˌtud, -ˌtyud/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[in-sur-ti-
tood, -tyood] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. uncertainty or doubtfulness.
2. instability or insecurity: The incertitude of his position in life caused him to postpone marriage.
[Origin: 1595–1605; < LL incertitūdō. See in-3, certitude]
in·cer·ti·tude (ĭn-sûr'tĭ-tōōd', -tyōōd') Pronunciation Key
n.
1. Uncertainty.
2. Absence of confidence; doubt.
3. Insecurity or instability.
incertitude
noun
the state of being unsure of something [syn: doubt] [ant: certainty]

Impair

im·pair Audio Help /ɪmˈpɛər/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[im-pair] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object)
1. to make or cause to become worse; diminish in ability, value, excellence,
etc.; weaken or damage: to impair one's health; to impair negotiations.
–verb (used without object)
2. to grow or become worse; lessen.
–noun
104

3. Archaic. impairment.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME empairen, empeiren to make worse < MF empeirer,
equiv. to em- im-1 + peirer to make worse < LL péjōrāre, equiv. to L péjōr-, s. of
péjor worse + -ā- thematic vowel + -re inf. suffix; cf. pejorative]

—Related forms
im·pair·a·ble, adjective
im·pair·er, noun
im·pair·ment, noun

—Synonyms 1. See injure.


—Antonyms 1. repair.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
im·pair Audio Help /ɛ̃ˈpɛr/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[an-
per] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective French.
noting any odd number, esp. in roulette.
Compare pair.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
im·pair Audio Help (ĭm-pâr') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. im·paired, im·pair·ing, im·pairs
To cause to diminish, as in strength, value, or quality: an injury that impaired my
hearing; a severe storm impairing communications.

[Middle English empairen, from Old French empeirer, from Vulgar Latin
*impēiōrāre : Latin in-, causative pref.; see in-2 + Late Latin pēiōrāre, to worsen
(from Latin pēior, worse; see ped- in Indo-European roots).]

im·pair'ment n.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
impair
c.1374, earlier ampayre, apeyre (1297), from O.Fr. empeirier, from V.L.
*impejorare "make worse," from L. in- "into" + L.L. pejorare "make worse," from
105

pejor "worse." In ref. to driving under the influence of alcohol, first recorded
1951 in Canadian Eng.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
impair

verb
1. make worse or less effective; "His vision was impaired"
2. make imperfect; "nothing marred her beauty" [syn: mar]

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary (Beta Version) - Cite This Source -
Share This
impair [imˈpeə] verb
to damage, weaken or make less good
Example: He was told that smoking would impair his health.
Arabic: ‫ضعِف‬
ْ ُ‫ي‬

Main Entry: im·pair


Pronunciation: im-'pa(&)r, -'pe(&)r
Function: transitive verb
: to damage or make worse by or as if by diminishing in some material respect
<his health was impaired by overwork> —im·pair·ment /-'pa(&)r-m&nt/ noun
Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, © 2002 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: im·pair


Pronunciation: im-'per
Function: transitive verb
1 : to damage or make worse by or as if by diminishing <impaired health>
2 : to diminish the value of (property or property rights); specifically : to diminish
the value of (legal contractual obligations) to the point that a party loses the
benefit of the contract or the contract otherwise becomes invalid <a law
impairing a state's own obligations was entitled to less deference —Gerald
Gunther> —see also CONTRACT CLAUSE —im·pair·ment noun
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law, © 1996 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Impair
Ap*pair"\, v. t. & i. [OF. empeirier, F. empire. See Impair.] To impair; to grow
worse. [Obs.]
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
106

Impair
Im*pair"\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impaired; p. pr. & vb. n. Impairing.] [Written also
empair.] [OE. empeiren, enpeiren, OF. empeirier, empirier, F. empirer, LL.
impejorare; L. pref. im- in + pejorare to make worse, fr. pejor worse. Cf. Appair.]
To make worse; to diminish in quantity, value, excellence, or strength; to
deteriorate; as, to impair health, character, the mind, value.

Time sensibly all things impairs. --Roscommon.

In years he seemed, but not impaired by years. --Pope.

Syn: To diminish; decrease; injure; weaken; enfeeble; debilitate; reduce;


debase; deteriorate.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Impair
Im*pair"\, v. t. To grow worse; to deteriorate. --Milton.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Impair
Im"pair\, a. [F. impair uneven, L. impar; im- not + par equal.] Not fit or
appropriate. [Obs.]
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Impair
Im*pair"\, n. Diminution; injury. [Obs.]
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Impair
Pair\, v. t. [See Impair.] To impair. [Obs.] --Spenser.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Impair
Pes"si*mism\, n. [L. pessimus worst, superl. of pejor worse: cf. F. pessimisme.
Cf. Impair.]

1. (Metaph.) The opinion or doctrine that everything in nature is ordered for or


tends to the worst, or that the world is wholly evil; -- opposed to optimism.
107

2. A disposition to take the least hopeful view of things.

Intervention

in·ter·vene Audio Help (ĭn'tər-vēn') Pronunciation Key


intr.v. in·ter·vened, in·ter·ven·ing, in·ter·venes

1. To come, appear, or lie between two things: You can't see the lake from
there because the house intervenes.
2. To come or occur between two periods or points of time: A year intervened
between the two dynasties.
3. To occur as an extraneous or unplanned circumstance: He would have his
degree by now if his laziness hadn't intervened.
4.
1. To involve oneself in a situation so as to alter or hinder an action or
development: "Every gardener faces choices about how and how much to
intervene in nature's processes" (Dora Galitzki).
2. To interfere, usually through force or threat of force, in the affairs of
another nation.
5. Law To enter into a suit as a third party for one's own interests.

[Latin intervenīre : inter-, inter- + venīre, to come; see gwā- in Indo-European


roots.]

in'ter·ve'nor, in'ter·ven'er n., in'ter·ven'tion (-věn'shən) n., in'ter·ven'tion·al adj.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
intervention
c.1425, from L.L. interventionem (nom. interventio) "an interposing," noun of
action from pp. stem of L. intervenire "to come between, interrupt," from inter-
"between" + venire "come" (see venue). Verb intervene is attested from 1605.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
intervention

noun
108

1. the act of intervening (as to mediate a dispute, etc.); "it occurs without
human intervention"
2. a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries [ant:
noninterference]
3. the act or fact of interposing one thing between or among others [syn:
interposition]
4. (law) a proceeding that permits a person to enter into a lawsuit already in
progress; admission of person not an original party to the suit so that person can
protect some right or interest that is allegedly affected by the proceedings; "the
purpose of intervention is to prevent unnecessary duplication of lawsuits"
5. care provided to improve a situation (especially medical procedures or
applications that are intended to relieve illness or injury) [syn: treatment]

Inborn

in·born /ˈɪnˈbɔrn/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[in-bawrn]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
naturally present at birth; innate.
[Origin: bef. 1000; ME; OE inboren native, indigenous; see in-1, born]

—Synonyms inbred, inherent, natural, native, congenital, inherited, hereditary.


See innate.
—Antonyms acquired, learned.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
in·born (ĭn'bôrn') Pronunciation Key
adj.

1. Possessed by an organism at birth. See Synonyms at innate.


2. Inherited or hereditary.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
inborn
O.E. inboren "native to a place," from in- "within" + boren "brought forth" (see
born). Of qualities in a person, 1513.
109

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
inborn

adjective
1. present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal
development [syn: congenital]
2. normally existing at birth; "mankind's connatural sense of the good" [syn:
connatural]

Imprest

im·prest1 /ˈɪmprɛst/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[im-


prest] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun an advance of money; loan.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1560–70; prob. n. use of obs. v. imprest to advance money to < It


imprestare < L im- im-1 + praestāre to be responsible for (prae- pre- + stāre to
stand, influenced in sense by praes, s. praed- guarantor, one acting as surety]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
im·prest2 /ɪmˈprɛst/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[im-
prest] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb Archaic. pt. and pp. of impress.

Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)


Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
im·press1 /v. ɪmˈprɛs; n. ˈɪmprɛs/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[v. im-pres; n. im-pres] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
verb, -pressed or (Archaic) -prest; -pres·sing; noun
–verb (used with object) 1. to affect deeply or strongly in mind or feelings;
influence in opinion: He impressed us as a sincere young man.
2. to fix deeply or firmly on the mind or memory, as ideas or facts: to impress
the importance of honesty on a child.
3. to urge, as something to be remembered or done: She impressed the need for
action on them.
4. to press (a thing) into or on something.
110

5. to impose a particular characteristic or quality upon (something): The painter


impressed his love of garish colors upon the landscape.
6. to produce (a mark, figure, etc.) by pressure; stamp; imprint: The king
impressed his seal on the melted wax.
7. to apply with pressure, so as to leave a mark.
8. to subject to or mark by pressure with something.
9. to furnish with a mark, figure, etc., by or as if by stamping.
10. Electricity. to produce (a voltage) or cause (a voltage) to appear or be
produced on a conductor, circuit, etc.
–verb (used without object) 11. to create a favorable impression; draw attention
to oneself: a child's behavior intended to impress.
–noun 12. the act of impressing.
13. a mark made by or as by pressure; stamp; imprint.
14. a distinctive character or effect imparted: writings that bear the impress of a
strong personality.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1325–75; ME < L impressus ptp. of imprimere to press into or upon,


impress, equiv. to im- im-1 + pressus ptp. of premere (comb. form -primere) to
press1; see print]

—Related forms
im·press·er, noun

—Synonyms 1. move, sway, disturb; persuade.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
im·press2 /v. ɪmˈprɛs; n. ˈɪmprɛs/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[v. im-pres; n. im-pres] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
verb, -pressed or (Archaic) -prest; -pres·sing; noun
–verb (used with object) 1. to press or force into public service, as sailors.
2. to seize or take for public use.
3. to take or persuade into service by forceful arguments: The neighbors were
impressed into helping the family move.
–noun 4. impressment.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
111

[Origin: 1590–1600; im-1 + press2]


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This im·prest (ĭm-
prěst') Pronunciation Key
n. An advance or a loan of funds, especially for services rendered to a
government.

[From obsolete Italian impresto, loan, from past participle of imprestare, to lend :
in-, toward (from Latin; see in-2) + prestare, to lend (from Latin praestāre, to
give, from praestō, at hand; see ghes- in Indo-European roots).]

Impede

im·pede /ɪmˈpid/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[im-peed]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -ped·ed, -ped·ing. to retard in movement or progress
by means of obstacles or hindrances; obstruct; hinder.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1595–1605; < L impedīre to entangle, lit., to snare the feet. See im-1,
pedi-1]

—Related forms
im·ped·er, noun
im·ped·i·bil·i·ty /ɪmˌpidəˈbɪlɪti, -ˌpɛdə-/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[im-pee-duh-bil-i-tee, -ped-uh-] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation, noun
im·ped·i·ble, adjective
im·ped·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms slow, delay, check, stop, block, thwart. See prevent.


—Antonyms advance, encourage.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This im·pede (ĭm-
pēd') Pronunciation Key
112

tr.v. im·ped·ed, im·ped·ing, im·pedes


To retard or obstruct the progress of. See Synonyms at hinder1.

[Latin impedīre; see ped- in Indo-European roots.]

im·ped'er n.

(Download Now or Buy the Book) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This impede

verb
1. be a hindrance or obstacle to; "She is impeding the progress of our project"
2. block passage through; "obstruct the path" [syn: obstruct] [ant: disengage]

Liability

li·a·bil·i·ty /ˌlaɪəˈbɪlɪti/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[lahy-


uh-bil-i-tee] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun, plural -ties.
1. liabilities,
a. moneys owed; debts or pecuniary obligations (opposed to assets).
b. Accounting. liabilities as detailed on a balance sheet, esp. in relation to
assets and capital.
2. something disadvantageous: His lack of education is his biggest liability.
3. Also, li·a·ble·ness. the state or quality of being liable: liability to disease.

li·a·bil·i·ty (lī'ə-bĭl'ĭ-tē) Pronunciation Key


n. pl. li·a·bil·i·ties

1. The state of being liable.


2.
1. Something for which one is liable; an obligation, responsibility, or debt.
2. liabilities The financial obligations entered in the balance sheet of a
business enterprise.
3. Something that holds one back; a handicap.
113

4. Likelihood.

liability

noun
1. the state of being legally obliged and responsible
2. an obligation to pay money to another party [syn: indebtedness]
3. the quality of being something that holds you back [ant: asset]

Lien

lien1 /lin, ˈliən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[leen, lee-uhn]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
Law. the legal claim of one person upon the property of another person to secure
the payment of a debt or the satisfaction of an obligation.
[Origin: 1525–35; < AF, OF < L ligāmen tie, bandage, equiv. to ligā(re) to tie +
-men n. suffix of result]

—Related forms
lien·a·ble, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
li·en2 /ˈlaɪən, -ɛn/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[lahy-uhn,
-en] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun Anatomy.
the spleen.
[Origin: 1645–55; < L lién spleen]

—Related forms
li·e·nal /laɪˈinl, ˈlaɪənl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[lahy-
een-l, lahy-uh-nl] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
lien (lēn, lē'ən) Pronunciation Key
n. The right to take and hold or sell the property of a debtor as security or
payment for a debt or duty.
114

[French, tie, bond, from Old French, constraint, from Latin ligāmen, bond, from
ligāre, to bind; see leig- in Indo-European roots.]

lien'a·ble adj.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
lien
"right to hold property of another until debt is paid," 1531, from M.Fr. lien, from
L. ligamen "bond," from ligare "to bind, tie" (see ligament).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
lien

noun
1. the right to take another's property if an obligation is not discharged
2. a large dark-red oval organ on the left side of the body between the
stomach and the diaphragm; produces cells involved in immune responses [syn:
spleen]

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition - Cite This
Source - Share This
lien [(leen, lee-uhn)]

A claim or right given to a creditor to secure payment of a debt, usually by sale


of the debtor's property.

[Chapter:] Business and Economics

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition


Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

li·en (ln, -n)


n.

The spleen.
115

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary


Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by
Houghton Mifflin Company.
Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: li·en


Pronunciation: 'lI-&n, 'lI-"en
Function: noun
: SPLEEN —li·en·al /-&l/ adjective
Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, © 2002 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Investopedia - Cite This Source - Share This

Lien

When a creditor or bank has the right to sell the mortgaged or collateral property
of those who fail to meet the obligations of a loan contract.

Investopedia Commentary

This is typically enforced under provincial or state laws.

Related Links

Mortgages: How Much Can You Afford?


The Indiana Jones Guide to Getting Ahead

See also: Blanket Lien, Collateral, Creditor, Encumbrance, Liquidation

Also spelled: lein


Investopedia.com. Copyright © 1999-2005 - All rights reserved. Owned and
Operated by Investopedia Inc.
Wallstreet Words - Cite This Source - Share This

lien

The legal right of a creditor to sell mortgaged assets when the debtor is unable
or unwilling to meet requirements of a loan agreement. A lien makes a
bondholder's claim more secure.

Wall Street Words: An A to Z Guide to Investment Terms for Today's Investor by


David L. Scott.
Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin
Company.
116

Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: lien


Pronunciation: 'lEn
Function: noun
Etymology: Anglo-French, bond, obligation, literally, tie, band, from Old French,
from Latin ligamen, from ligare to bind
: a charge or encumbrance upon property for the satisfaction of a debt or other
duty that is created by agreement of the parties or esp. by operation of law;
specifically : a security interest created esp. by a mortgage
assessment lien
: a lien that is on property benefiting from an improvement made by a
municipality and that secures payment of the taxes assessed to pay for the
improvement
attachment lien
: a lien acquired on property by a creditor upon levy of an attachment
car·ri·er's lien
: a lien against freight conferring on the carrier the right to retain the property
until the amount due is paid
charging lien
: a lien attaching to a judgment or recovery awarded to a plaintiff and securing
payment of the plaintiff's attorney's fees and expenses called also special lien
choate lien
: a lien that requires no further action to be made enforceable and that identifies
the lienor, the property subject to the lien, and the amount of the
liencommon–law lien
: a lien under common law giving a creditor (as a bailee) in possession of
property the right to retain possession until payment of the amount due
equitable lien
: a lien against property that does not require possession of the property and
that is available in equity to prevent unjust enrichment
factor's lien
: a lien against property held on consignment by a factor conferring the right to
retain possession of the property until payment of the amount due
NOTE: Under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code, a factor's lien is simply a
security interest and, unlike a common-law lien, is enforceable even after the
factor is no longer in possession of the property.
first lien
: a lien taking precedence over all other claims, charges, or encumbrances of the
same general category but not necessarily over those (as taxes) imposed by
government sanction
float·ing lien
117

: a lien created in a security agreement against property owned by the debtor at


the time of the agreement's creation as well as property acquired after the
agreement's creation
general lien
1 : a lien that is for the satisfaction of a balance due from an owner of property
and that is not confined to the amount due in respect to the property itself
2 : RETAINING LIEN in this entry
inchoate lien
: a lien for which some procedure remains unfinished or some term remains
undetermined
involuntary lien
: a lien that arises other than by the debtor's consent (as by operation of
law)judgment lien
: a lien acquired against the property of a debtor by a creditor upon obtaining a
favorable judgment
judicial lien
: a lien obtained by a legal or equitable process (as judgment, levy, attachment,
or execution)
ju·nior lien
: a lien that is lower in priority relative to other liens
landlord's lien
: a lien against the goods and valuables of a tenant to secure payment of rent or
sometimes repayment of money otherwise owed to a landlord
maritime lien
: a lien arising under maritime law against a ship or its cargo (as for services or
supplies tendered or for damages caused by a collision) which may be enforced
by a court-ordered seizure of the property in order to satisfy the obligation
ma·te·ri·al·man's lien
/m&-'tir-E-&l-m&nz-/
: a lien on property for materials supplied
me·chan·ic's lien
: a lien against a building and its site to assure priority of payment for labor or
services (as construction and sometimes design) or material
retaining lien
: a lien that attaches to the papers or property of a client which have come into
his or her attorney's possession in the course of employment and that secures
payment of the attorney's fees called also general lien
se·nior lien
: a lien that is higher in priority relative to other liens
special lien
1 : an equitable lien enforceable to compel performance of an obligation (as
under a divorce settlement)
2 : CHARGING LIEN in this entry
spe·cif·ic lien
118

: a lien upon specific property as security for the payment of a debt or the
satisfaction of some other obligation arising out of a transaction or agreement
involving that property —compare GENERAL LIEN in this entry
statutory lien
: a lien imposed by statute
tax lien
: a statutory lien on property for taxes due giving the taxing authority a security
interest in the property —compare tax sale at SALE
vendor's lien
: a lien on esp. real property securing payment in full of the purchase price by
the buyer
voluntary lien
: a lien created (as by contract) with the consent of the debtor

Liberate
lib·er·ate /ˈlɪbəˌreɪt/ - [lib-uh-reyt]
–verb (used with object), -at·ed, -at·ing.
1. to set free, as from imprisonment or bondage.
2. to free (a nation or area) from control by a foreign or oppressive government.
3. to free (a group or individual) from social or economic constraints or discrimination, esp.
arising from traditional role expectations or bias.
4. to disengage; set free from combination, as a gas.
5. Slang. to steal or take over illegally: The soldiers liberated a consignment of cigarettes.
[Origin: 1615–25; < L līberātus (ptp. of līberāre to free), equiv. to līberā- v. s. + -tus ptp. suffix.
See liberal, -ate1]

—Related forms
lib·er·a·tive, lib·er·a·to·ry /ˈlɪbərəˌtɔri, -ˌtoʊri/ - [lib-er-uh-tawr-ee, -tohr-ee] , adjective
lib·er·a·tor, noun

—Synonyms 1. deliver, unfetter, disenthrall, loose. See release.


—Antonyms 1. imprison; enthrall.
lib·er·ate (lĭb'ə-rāt')
tr.v. lib·er·at·ed, lib·er·at·ing, lib·er·ates

1. To set free, as from oppression, confinement, or foreign control.


2. Chemistry To release (a gas, for example) from combination.
3. Slang To obtain by illegal or stealthy action: tried to sell appliances that were liberated during
the riot.

[Latin līberāre, līberāt-, from līber, free; see leudh- in Indo-European roots.]

lib'er·at'ing·ly adv., lib'er·a'tor n.

liberate
119

1623, from L. liberatus, pp. of liberare "set free," from liber "free" (see liberal). Meaning "to free
an occupied territory from the enemy" (often used ironically) is from 1944. Liberation is c.1440;
liberation theology (1969) translates Sp. teologia de la liberación, coined 1968 by Peruvian priest
Gustavo Gutiérrez.

liberate

verb
1. give equal rights to; of women and minorities [syn: emancipate]
2. grant freedom to; free from confinement [syn: free] [ant: confine]
3. grant freedom to; "The students liberated their slaves upon graduating from the university"
4. release (gas or energy) as a result of a chemical reaction or physical decomposition [syn:
release]

Leverage
Lever(v):To move or force, especially in an effort to get something open
lev·er /ˈlɛvər, ˈlivər/ - [lev-er, lee-ver]
–noun
1. Mechanics. a rigid bar that pivots about one point and that is used to move an object at a
second point by a force applied at a third. Compare machine (def. 4b).
2. a means or agency of persuading or of achieving an end: Saying that the chairman of the
board likes the plan is just a lever to get us to support it.
3. Horology. the pallet of an escapement.
–verb (used with object), verb (used without object)
4. to move with or apply a lever: to lever a rock; to lever mightily and to no avail.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME levere, levour for *lever < AF; OF levier, equiv. to lev(er) to lift (< L
levāre to lighten, lift, v. deriv. of levis light) + -ier -ier2]
Le·ver /ˈlivər/ - [lee-ver]
–noun
lev·er (lěv'ər, lē'vər)

n.
1. A simple machine consisting of a rigid bar pivoted on a fixed point and used to transmit
force, as in raising or moving a weight at one end by pushing down on the other.
2. A projecting handle used to adjust or operate a mechanism.
3. A means of accomplishing; a tool: used friendship as a lever to obtain advancement.

tr.v. lev·ered, lev·er·ing, lev·ers


To move or lift with or as if with a lever.

[Middle English, from Old French levier, from lever, to raise, from Latin levāre, from levis, light;
see legwh- in Indo-European roots.]

lever
1297, from O.Fr. levier "a lifter, a lever," agent noun from lever "to raise," from L. levare "to
raise," from levis "light" in weight, from PIE base *le(n)gwh- "light, easy, agile, nimble" (cf. Skt.
laghuh "quick, small;" Gk. elakhys "small," elaphros "light;" O.C.S. liguku, Lith. lengvas "light;"
O.Ir. laigiu "smaller, worse;" Goth. leihts, O.E. leoht "light" (adj.)). Leverage "action of a lever" is
first recorded 1724; figurative sense is from 1858; financial speculation sense is from 1937.
lever
120

noun
1. a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum
2. a simple machine that gives a mechanical advantage when given a fulcrum
3. a flat metal tumbler in a lever lock

verb
1. to move or force, especially in an effort to get something open; "The burglar jimmied the
lock": "Raccoons managed to pry the lid off the garbage pail" [syn: pry]

lev·er·age /ˈlɛvərɪdʒ, ˈlivər-/ - [lev-er-ij, lee-ver-] noun, verb, -aged, -ag·ing.


–noun
1. the action of a lever.
2. the mechanical advantage or power gained by using a lever.
3. power or ability to act or to influence people, events, decisions, etc.; sway: Being the only
industry in town gave the company considerable leverage in its union negotiations.
4. the use of a small initial investment, credit, or borrowed funds to gain a very high return in
relation to one's investment, to control a much larger investment, or to reduce one's own liability
for any loss.
–verb (used with object)
5. to exert power or influence on.
6. to provide with leverage.
7. to invest or arrange (invested funds) using leverage.
[Origin: 1715–25; lever + -age]
lev·er·age (lěv'ər-ĭj, lē'vər-)
n.
1.
1. The action of a lever.
2. The mechanical advantage of a lever.
2. Positional advantage; power to act effectively: "started his . . . career with far more social
leverage than his father had enjoyed" (Doris Kearns Goodwin).
3. The use of credit or borrowed funds to improve one's speculative capacity and increase the
rate of return from an investment, as in buying securities on margin.

tr.v. lev·er·aged, lev·er·ag·ing, lev·er·ag·es


1.
1. To provide (a company) with leverage.
2. To supplement (money, for example) with leverage.
2. To improve or enhance: "It makes more sense to be able to leverage what we [public radio
stations] do in a more effective way to our listeners" (Delano Lewis).

leverage

noun
1. the mechanical advantage gained by being in a position to use a lever
2. strategic advantage; power to act effectively; "relatively small groups can sometimes exert
immense political leverage"
3. investing with borrowed money as a way to amplify potential gains (at the risk of greater
losses)

verb
1. supplement with leverage; "leverage the money that is already available"
121

2. provide with leverage; "We need to leverage this company"

Landscape

land·scape [land-skeyp] noun, verb, -scaped, -scap·ing.


–noun
1. a section or expanse of rural scenery, usually extensive, that can be seen from a single
viewpoint.
2. a picture representing natural inland or coastal scenery.
3. Fine Arts. the category of aesthetic subject matter in which natural scenery is represented.
4. Obsolete. a panoramic view of scenery; vista.
–verb (used with object)
5. to improve the appearance of (an area of land, a highway, etc.), as by planting trees, shrubs, or
grass, or altering the contours of the ground.
6. to improve the landscape of.
–verb (used without object)
7. to do landscape gardening as a profession.

[Origin: 1590–1600; 1925–30 for def. 6; < D landschap; c. OE landsceap, landscipe; akin to G
Landschaft. See LAND, -SHIP ]

—Synonyms 1. view, scenery, vista, prospect.


land·scape (lānd'skāp')
n.

1. An expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view: a desert landscape.


2. A picture depicting an expanse of scenery.
3. The branch of art dealing with the representation of natural scenery.
4. The aspect of the land characteristic of a particular region: a bleak New England winter
landscape.
5. Grounds that have been landscaped: liked the house especially for its landscape.
6. An extensive mental view; an interior prospect: "They occupy the whole landscape of
my thought" (James Thurber).

adj.

1. Of or relating to a landscape or landscapes: landscape painting.


2. Of or relating to landscaping: a nursery offering landscape services.
3. Of or relating to the orientation of a page such that the shorter side runs from top to
bottom: printed the document in landscape mode in order to accommodate the wide
columns of a table.

v. land·scaped, land·scap·ing, land·scapes

v. tr.
To adorn or improve (a section of ground) by contouring and by planting flowers, shrubs, or
trees.
122

v. intr.
To arrange grounds artistically as a profession.

[Dutch landschap, from Middle Dutch landscap, region : land, land; see lendh- in Indo-
European roots + -scap, state, condition (collective suff.).]

land'scap'er n.

Word History: Landscape, first recorded in 1598, was borrowed as a painters' term
from Dutch during the 16th century, when Dutch artists were pioneering the
landscape genre. The Dutch word landschap had earlier meant simply "region, tract
of land" but had acquired the artistic sense, which it brought over into English, of "a
picture depicting scenery on land." Interestingly, 34 years pass after the first
recorded use of landscape in English before the word is used of a view or vista of
natural scenery. This delay suggests that people were first introduced to landscapes
in paintings and then saw landscapes in real life.

landscape
1603, "painting representing natural scenery," from Du. landschap, from M.Du. landscap "region,"
from land "land" + -scap "-ship." Originally introduced as a painters' term. O.E. had cognate
landscipe. Meaning "tract of land with its distinguishing characteristics" is from 1886. The verb
meaning "to lay out lawns, gardens, etc., plant trees for the sake of beautification" is first
recorded 1927, from the noun.

landscape

noun
1. an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view
2. painting depicting an expanse of natural scenery
3. a genre of art dealing with the depiction of natural scenery
4. an extensive mental viewpoint; "the political landscape looks bleak without a change of
administration"; "we changed the landscape for solving the problem of payroll inequity"

verb
1. embellish with plants; "Let's landscape the yard"
2. do landscape gardening; "My sons landscapes for corporations and earns a good living"
league1 /lig/ - [leeg] noun, verb, leagued, lea·guing.
–noun
1. a covenant or compact made between persons, parties, states, etc., for the promotion or
maintenance of common interests or for mutual assistance or service.
2. the aggregation of persons, parties, states, etc., associated in such a covenant or compact;
confederacy.
3. an association of individuals having a common goal.
4. a group of athletic teams organized to promote mutual interests and to compete chiefly among
themselves: a bowling league.
5. Sports.
a. major league.
123

b. minor league.
6. group; class; category: As a pianist he just simply isn't in your league.
–verb (used with object), verb (used without object)
7. to unite in a league; combine.
—Idiom
8. in league, working together, often secretly or for a harmful purpose; united.
[Origin: 1425–75; earlier leage < It lega, n. deriv. of legare < L ligāre to bind; r. late ME ligg <
MF ligue < It liga, var. of lega]

—Synonyms 1. See alliance. 2. combination, coalition.


league2 /lig/ - [leeg]
–noun
1. a unit of distance, varying at different periods and in different countries, in English-speaking
countries usually estimated roughly at 3 miles (4.8 kilometers).
2. a square league, as a unit of land measure.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME lege, leuge < LL leuga a Gaulish unit of distance equal to 1.5 Roman
miles, appar. < Gaulish; r. OE léowe < LL, as above]
league 1 (lēg)
n.
1. An association of states, organizations, or individuals for common action; an alliance.
2. Sports An association of teams or clubs that compete chiefly among themselves. Also called
loop1.
3. A class or level of competition: The ski jump was out of his league.

v. leagued, leagu·ing, leagues

v. intr.
To come together in or as if in a league.

v. tr.
To bring together in or as if in a league.

[Alteration (influenced by Italian lega) of Middle English liege, from Old French ligue, from
Medieval Latin liga and from Old Italian lega, liga (from legare, to bind), both from Latin ligāre, to
bind; see leig- in Indo-European roots.]

league 2 (lēg)
n. Abbr. lea.

1.
1. A unit of distance equal to 3.0 statute miles (4.8 kilometers).
2. Any of various other units of about the same length.
2. A square league.

league (n.1)
"alliance," 1452, ligg, from M.Fr. ligue "confederacy, league," from It. lega, from legare "to tie, to
bind," from L. ligare "to bind" (see ligament). Originally among nations, subsequently extended to
political associations (1846) and sports associations (1879). League of Nations first attested 1917
(created 1919).

league (n.2)
124

"distance of about three miles," 1387, from L.L. leuga (cf. Fr. lieue, Sp. legua, It. lega), said by L.
writers to be from Gaulish. A vague measure (perhaps originally an hour's hike) never in official
use in England, where the record of it is more often poetic than practical.

league

noun
1. an association of sports teams that organizes matches for its members
2. an association of states or organizations or individuals for common action
3. an obsolete unit of distance of variable length (usually 3 miles)

verb
1. unite to form a league

Loom
loom·ing /ˈlumɪŋ/ - [loo-ming]
–noun
a mirage in which objects below the horizon seem to be raised above their true positions.
[Origin: 1620–30; loom2 + -ing1]
loom 1 (lōōm)
intr.v. loomed, loom·ing, looms

1. To come into view as a massive, distorted, or indistinct image: "I faced the icons that loomed
through the veil of incense" (Fergus M. Bordewich). See Synonyms at appear.
2. To appear to the mind in a magnified and threatening form: "Stalin looms over the whole
human tragedy of 1930-1933" (Robert Conquest).
3. To seem imminent; impend: Revolution loomed but the aristocrats paid no heed.

n. A distorted, threatening appearance of something, as through fog or darkness.

[Perhaps of Scandinavian origin.]

loom 2 (lōōm)
n. An apparatus for making thread or yarn into cloth by weaving strands together at right
angles.

tr.v. loomed, loom·ing, looms


To weave (a tapestry, for example) on a loom.

Legislative

leg·is·la·tive /ˈlɛdʒɪsˌleɪtɪv/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[lej-is-ley-tiv]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. having the function of making laws: a legislative body.
2. of or pertaining to the enactment of laws: legislative proceedings; legislative power.
3. pertaining to a legislature: a legislative recess.
4. enacted or ordained by legislation or a legislature: legislative ruling; legislative remedy.
125

–noun
5. legislature.
[Origin: 1635–45; legislat(ion) + -ive]

—Related forms
leg·is·la·tive·ly, adverb
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
leg·is·la·tive (lěj'ĭ-slā'tĭv) Pronunciation Key
adj.

1. Of or relating to the enactment of laws.


2. Resulting from or decided by legislation.
3. Having the power to create laws; intended to legislate.
4. Of or relating to a legislature.

n. The legislative body of a government; a legislature.

leg'is·la'tive·ly adv.
legislative

adjective
1. relating to a legislature or composed of members of a legislature; "legislative council"
2. of or relating to or created by legislation; "legislative proposal"

Moan
moan
n.

1.
a. A low, sustained, mournful cry, usually indicative of sorrow or pain.
b. A similar sound: the eerie moan of the night wind.
2. Lamentation.

v. moaned, moan·ing, moans

v. intr.
1

a. To utter a moan or moans.


b. To make a sound resembling a moan: A saxophone moaned in the background.
2. To complain, lament, or grieve: an old man who still moans about his misspent youth.

v. tr.
To bewail or bemoan: She moaned her misfortunes to anyone who would listen.
126

1. To utter with moans or a moan.

man·i·fest [man-uh-fest]
–adjective
1. readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent; plain: a
manifest error.
2. Psychoanalysis. of or pertaining to conscious feelings, ideas, and impulses that contain
repressed psychic material: the manifest content of a dream as opposed to the latent content
that it conceals.
–verb (used with object)
3. to make clear or evident to the eye or the understanding; show plainly: He manifested his
approval with a hearty laugh.
4. to prove; put beyond doubt or question: The evidence manifests the guilt of the defendant.
5. to record in a ship's manifest.
–noun
6. a list of the cargo carried by a ship, made for the use of various agents and officials at the ports
of destination.
7. a list or invoice of goods transported by truck or train.
8. a list of the cargo or passengers carried on an airplane.

[Origin: 1350–1400; (adj.) ME < L manifestus, manufestus detected in the act, evident, visible;
(v.) ME manifesten < MF manifester < L manifestāre, deriv. of manifestus. See MANUS, INFEST ]

—Related forms
man·i·fest·a·ble, adjective
man·i·fest·er, noun
man·i·fest·ly, adverb
man·i·fest·ness, noun

—Synonyms 1. clear, distinct, unmistakable, patent, open, palpable, visible, conspicuous. 3.


reveal, disclose, evince, evidence, demonstrate, declare, express. See DISPLAY.
—Antonyms 1. obscure. 3. conceal.
man·i·fest (mān'ə-fěst')
adj. Clearly apparent to the sight or understanding; obvious. See Synonyms at apparent.

tr.v. man·i·fest·ed, man·i·fest·ing, man·i·fests

1. To show or demonstrate plainly; reveal: "Mercedes . . . manifested the chaotic


abandonment of hysteria" (Jack London).
2. To be evidence of; prove.
3.
a. To record in a ship's manifest.
b. To display or present a manifest of (cargo).

n.

1. A list of cargo or passengers carried on a ship or plane.


2. An invoice of goods carried on a truck or train.
3. A list of railroad cars according to owner and location.
127

[Middle English manifeste, from Old French, from Latin manufestus, manifestus, caught in
the act, blatant, obvious; see gwhedh- in Indo-European roots.]

man'i·fest'ly adv.
manifest (adj.)
c.1374, "clearly revealed," from L. manifestus "caught in the act, plainly apprehensible, clear,
evident," from manus "hand" (see manual) + -festus "struck" (cf. second element of infest). The
noun sense of "ship's cargo" is from 1706. The verb sense of "to show plainly" is c.1374, from L.
manifestare. In the spiritualism sense, manifestation is attested from 1853.

"Other nations have tried to check ... the fulfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread
the Continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying
millions." [John O'Sullivan (1813-1895), "U.S. Magazine & Democratic Review," July 1845]

manifest
adjective
1. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment; "the effects of the drought are
apparent to anyone who sees the parched fields"; "evident hostility"; "manifest disapproval";
"patent advantages"; "made his meaning plain"; "it is plain that he is no reactionary"; "in plain
view" [syn: apparent]
noun
1. a customs document listing the contents put on a ship or plane
verb
1. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external
attributes; "His high fever attested to his illness"; "The buildings in Rome manifest a high level
of architectural sophistication"; "This decision demonstrates his sense of fairness" [syn: attest]
2. record in a ship's manifest; "each passenger must be manifested"
3. reveal its presence or make an appearance; "the ghost manifests each year on the same day"

Mitigate

mit·i·gate /ˈmɪtɪˌgeɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[mit-i-


geyt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -gat·ed, -gat·ing.
–verb (used with object)
1. to lessen in force or intensity, as wrath, grief, harshness, or pain;
moderate.
2. to make less severe: to mitigate a punishment.
3. to make (a person, one's state of mind, disposition, etc.) milder or more
gentle; mollify; appease.
–verb (used without object)
4. to become milder; lessen in severity.
[Origin: 1375–1425; late ME mitigaten < L mītigātus (ptp. of mītigāre to calm,
soften, soothe), equiv. to mīt(is) mild, soft, gentle + -ig- (comb. form of agere to
do, cause to do, make) + -ātus -ate1]

—Related forms
128

mit·i·ga·ble /ˈmɪtɪgəbəl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[mit-


i-guh-buhl] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation, adjective
mit·i·gat·ed·ly, adverb
mit·i·ga·tion, noun
mit·i·ga·tive, mit·i·ga·to·ry /ˈmɪtɪgəˌtɔri, -ˌtoʊri/ Pronunciation Key - Show
Spelled Pronunciation[mit-i-guh-tawr-ee, -tohr-ee] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation, adjective
mit·i·ga·tor, noun

—Usage note Mitigate, whose central meaning is “to lessen” or “make less
severe,” is sometimes confused with militate, “to have effect or influence,” in the
phrase mitigate against: This criticism in no way militates (not mitigates) against
your going ahead with your research. Although this use of mitigate occasionally
occurs in edited writing, it is rare and is widely regarded as an error.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
mit·i·gate (mĭt'ĭgāt') Pronunciation Key
v. mit·i·gat·ed, mit·i·gat·ing, mit·i·gates

v. tr.
To moderate (a quality or condition) in force or intensity; alleviate. See
Synonyms at relieve.

v. intr.
To become milder.

[Middle English mitigaten, from Latin mītigāre, mītigāt- : mītis, soft + agere, to
drive, do; see act.]

mit'i·ga·ble (-gə-bəl) adj., mit'i·ga'tion n., mit'i·ga'tive, mit'i·ga·to'ry (-gə-tôr'ē,


-tōr'ē) adj., mit'i·ga'tor n.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
mitigate
1432, from L. mitigatus, pp. of mitigare "make mild or gentle," ult. from mitis
"gentle, soft" + root of agere "do, make, act" (see act). First element is from PIE
base *mei- "soft, mild." Mitigation is attested from 1362.
129

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
mitigate

verb
1. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of; "The circumstances
extenuate the crime" [syn: extenuate]
2. make less severe or harsh; "mitigating circumstances"

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

mit·i·gate (mt-gt)
v. mit·i·gat·ed, mit·i·gat·ing, mit·i·gates

To moderate in force or intensity.

miti·gation n.
miti·gative or miti·ga·tory (-g-tôr) adj.
The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by
Houghton Mifflin Company.
Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: mit·i·gate


Pronunciation: 'mit-&-"gAt
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Forms: -gat·ed; -gat·ing
: to make less severe or painful
Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, © 2002 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: mit·i·gate


Pronunciation: 'mi-t&-"gAt
Function: verb
Inflected Forms: -gat·ed; -gat·ing
transitive verb : to lessen or minimize the severity of <what actions the State
took to mitigate the hazardous conditions —Estate of Arrowwood v. State, 894
Pacific Reporter, Second Series 642 (1995)> <factors that mitigate the crime> —
see also MITIGATION OF DAMAGES 1 —compare AGGRAVATE intransitive verb :
to lessen or minimize the severity of one's losses or damage <a failure to
mitigate> —mit·i·ga·tion /"mi-t&-'gA-sh&n/ noun —mit·i·ga·tive /'mi-t&-"gA-tiv/
adjective
130

Mortgage:
an agreement by which somebody borrows money from a money-lending organization such as a
bank or savings-and-loan association and gives that organization the right to take possession of
property given as security if the loan is not repaid
mort·gage /ˈmɔrgɪdʒ/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[mawr-gij]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation noun, verb, -gaged, -gag·ing.
–noun 1. a conveyance of an interest in property as security for the repayment of money
borrowed.
2. the deed by which such a transaction is effected.
3. the rights conferred by it, or the state of the property conveyed.
–verb (used with object) 4. Law. to convey or place (real property) under a mortgage.
5. to place under advance obligation; pledge: to mortgage one's life to the defense of democracy.

[Origin: 1350–1400; earlier morgage, ME < OF mortgage, equiv. to mort dead (< L mortuus) +
gage pledge, gage1]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
Loan Against Property
From ICICI Bank. Tenure Upto 15yrs No Hidden Fees. Instant Approval
ICICIBankLoanAgainstProperty.com
Sponsored Links

Get a Personal Loan


from Deutsche Bank. Upto 15 Lakhs No guarantee. Easy repayments
Deutschebank.co.in/Personal_Loans
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This mort·gage (môr'gĭj)
Pronunciation Key
n.
A temporary, conditional pledge of property to a creditor as security for performance of an
obligation or repayment of a debt.
A contract or deed specifying the terms of a mortgage.
The claim of a mortgagee upon mortgaged property.

tr.v. mort·gaged, mort·gag·ing, mort·gag·es

To pledge or convey (property) by means of a mortgage.


To make subject to a claim or risk; pledge against a doubtful outcome: mortgaged their political
careers by taking an unpopular stand.

[Middle English morgage, from Old French : mort, dead (from Vulgar Latin *mortus, from Latin
mortuus, past participle of morī, to die; see mer- in Indo-European roots) + gage, pledge (of
Germanic origin).]

Word History: The great jurist Sir Edward Coke, who lived from 1552 to 1634, has explained why
the term mortgage comes from the Old French words mort, "dead," and gage, "pledge." It
seemed to him that it had to do with the doubtfulness of whether or not the mortgagor will pay
the debt. If the mortgagor does not, then the land pledged to the mortgagee as security for the
debt "is taken from him for ever, and so dead to him upon condition, &c. And if he doth pay the
money, then the pledge is dead as to the [mortgagee]." This etymology, as understood by 17th-
131

century attorneys, of the Old French term morgage, which we adopted, may well be correct. The
term has been in English much longer than the 17th century, being first recorded in Middle
English with the form morgage and the figurative sense "pledge" in a work written before 1393.

Novice

new·bie (nōō'bē, nyōō'-)


n. Slang
One that is new to something, especially a novice at using computer technology or the Internet.
nov·ice - [nov-is] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. a person who is new to the circumstances, work, etc., in which he or she is placed; beginner;
tyro: a novice in politics.
2. a person who has been received into a religious order or congregation for a period of probation
before taking vows.
3. a person newly become a church member.
4. a recent convert to Christianity.

[Origin: 1300–50; ME novyce < MF novice < ML novītius convent novice, var. of L novīcius newly
come into a particular status, deriv. of novus NEW. See -ITIOUS ]

—Related forms
nov·ice·hood, noun
nov·ice·like, adjective

—Synonyms 1. newcomer. 1, 2. neophyte.


nov·ice (nŏv'ĭs)
n.

1. A person new to a field or activity; a beginner.


2. A person who has entered a religious order but has not yet taken final vows. Also called
novitiate.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Medieval Latin novīcius, from Latin, recently entered
into a condition, from Latin novus, new; see newo- in Indo-European roots.]
novice
1340, "probationer in a religious order," from O.Fr. novice, from M.L. novicius, noun use of L.
novicius "newly imported, inexperienced" (of slaves), from novus "new" (see new). Meaning
"inexperienced person" is attested from 1432.

noun
1. someone who has entered a religious order but has not taken final vows [syn: novitiate]
2. someone new to a field or activity

Notorious
132

no·to·ri·ous /noʊˈtɔriəs, -ˈtoʊr-, nə-/ - [noh-tawr-ee-uhs, -tohr-, nuh-]


–adjective
1. widely and unfavorably known: a notorious gambler.
2. publicly or generally known, as for a particular trait: a newspaper that is notorious for its
sensationalism.
[Origin: 1540–50; < ML nōtōrius evident, equiv. to nō(scere) to get to know (see notify) + -tōrius
-tory1]

—Related forms
no·to·ri·ous·ly, adverb
no·to·ri·ous·ness, noun

no·to·ri·ous (nō-tôr'ē-əs, -tōr'-)


adj. Known widely and usually unfavorably; infamous: a notorious gangster; a district notorious
for vice.

[From Medieval Latin nōtōrius, well-known, from Latin nōtus, known, past participle of nōscere,
to get to know; see gnō- in Indo-European roots.]

no·to'ri·ous·ly adv., no·to'ri·ous·ness n.


notorious
1548, "publicly known," from M.L. notorius "well-known, commonly known," from L. notus
"known," pp. of noscere "come to know" (see know). Negative connotation arose 17c. from
frequent association with derogatory nouns.

notorious

adjective
known widely and usually unfavorably; "a notorious gangster"; "the tenderloin district was
notorious for vice"; "the infamous Benedict Arnold"; [syn: ill-famed]

Obliges

o·blige - [uh-blahyj] - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, o·bliged, o·blig·ing.


–verb (used with object)
1. to require or constrain, as by law, command, conscience, or force of necessity.
2. to bind morally or legally, as by a promise or contract.
3. to place under a debt of gratitude for some benefit, favor, or service: I'm much obliged for the
ride.
4. to put (one) in a debt of gratitude, as by a favor or accommodation: Mr. Weems will oblige us
with a song.
5. to make (an action, policy, etc.) necessary or obligatory: Your carelessness obliges firmness on
my part.
–verb (used without object)
6. to be kindly accommodating: I'll do anything within reason to oblige.

—Related forms
133

o·blig·ed·ly - [uh-blahy-jid-lee] - Show IPA Pronunciation, adverb


o·blig·ed·ness, noun
o·blig·er, noun

—Synonyms 1. compel, force. 2. obligate. 4. Oblige, accommodate imply making a gracious and
welcome gesture of some kind. Oblige emphasizes the idea of conferring a favor or benefit (and
often of taking some trouble to do it): to oblige someone with a loan. Accommodate emphasizes
doing a service or furnishing a convenience: to accommodate someone with lodgings and meals.

o·blige (ə-blīj')
v. o·bliged, o·blig·ing, o·blig·es

v. tr.

1. To constrain by physical, legal, social, or moral means.


2. To make indebted or grateful: I am obliged to you for your gracious hospitality.
3. To do a service or favor for: They obliged us by arriving early.

v. intr.
To do a service or favor: The soloist obliged with yet another encore.
[Middle English obligen, from Old French obligier, from Latin obligāre : ob-, to; see ob- +
ligāre, to bind; see leig- in Indo-European roots.]
o·blig'er n.

Synonyms: These verbs mean to perform a service or a courteous act for: obliged
me by keeping the matter quiet; accommodating her by lending her money; favor
an audience with an encore. See Also Synonyms at force. Antonym: disoblige

oblige
1297, "to bind by oath," from O.Fr. obligier, from L. obligare, from ob "to" + ligare "to bind," from
PIE base *leig- "to bind" (see ligament). Main modern meaning "to make (someone) indebted by
conferring a benefit or kindness" is from 1567; be obliged "be bound by ties of gratitude" is from
1548. Obliging "willing to do service or favors" is attested from 1632.

oblige
verb
1. force somebody to do something; "We compel all students to fill out this form" [syn: compel]
2. bind by an obligation; cause to be indebted; "He's held by a contract"; "I'll hold you by your
promise"
3. provide a service or favor for someone; "We had to oblige him" [ant: disoblige]

Obscure

ob·scure (ŏb-skyŏŏr', əb-)


adj. ob·scur·er, ob·scur·est
Deficient in light; dark.
134

1.
a. So faintly perceptible as to lack clear delineation; indistinct. See Synonyms at dark.
b. Indistinctly heard; faint.
c. Linguistics Having the reduced, neutral sound represented by schwa (ə).
d. Far from centers of human population: an obscure village.
e. Out of sight; hidden: an obscure retreat.
2.
a. Far from centers of human population: an obscure village.
b. Out of sight; hidden: an obscure retreat.
3. Not readily noticed or seen; inconspicuous: an obscure flaw.
4. Of undistinguished or humble station or reputation: an obscure poet; an obscure family.
5. Not clearly understood or expressed; ambiguous or vague: "an impulse to go off and fight
certain obscure battles of his own spirit" (Anatole Broyard). See Synonyms at ambiguous.

tr.v. ob·scured, ob·scur·ing, ob·scures

1. To make dim or indistinct: Smog obscured our view. See Synonyms at block.
2. To conceal in obscurity; hide: "Unlike the origins of most nations, America's origins are not
obscured in the mists of time" (National Review).
3. Linguistics To reduce (a vowel) to the neutral sound represented by schwa (ə).

Offend

of·fend - [uh-fend] - Show IPA Pronunciation


–verb (used with object)
1. to irritate, annoy, or anger; cause resentful displeasure in: Even the hint of prejudice offends
me.
2. to affect (the sense, taste, etc.) disagreeably.
3. to violate or transgress (a criminal, religious, or moral law).
4. to hurt or cause pain to.
5. (in Biblical use) to cause to fall into sinful ways.
–verb (used without object)
6. to cause resentful displeasure; irritate, annoy, or anger: a remark so thoughtless it can only
offend.
7. to err in conduct; commit a sin, crime, or fault.
[Origin: 1275–1325; ME offenden < MF offendre < L offendere to strike against, displease, equiv.
to of- OF- + -fendere to strike ]

—Related forms
of·fend·a·ble, adjective
of·fend·ed·ly, adverb
of·fend·ed·ness, noun
of·fend·er, noun

—Synonyms 1. provoke, chafe, nettle, affront, insult. 7. transgress.


—Antonyms 1. please.
of·fend (ə-fěnd')
v. of·fend·ed, of·fend·ing, of·fends
135

v. tr.

1. To cause displeasure, anger, resentment, or wounded feelings in.


2. To be displeasing or disagreeable to: Onions offend my sense of smell.
3.
a. To transgress; violate: offend all laws of humanity.
b. To cause to sin.

v. intr.

1. To result in displeasure: Bad manners may offend.


2.
a. To violate a moral or divine law; sin.
b. To violate a rule or law: offended against the curfew.

[Middle English offenden, from Old French offendre, from Latin offendere; see gwhen- in
Indo-European roots.]

Synonyms: These verbs mean to cause resentment, humiliation, or hurt. To offend


is to cause displeasure, wounded feelings, or repugnance in another: "He often
offended men who might have been useful friends" (John Lothrop Motley).
Insult implies gross insensitivity, insolence, or contemptuous rudeness: "I . . .
refused to stay any longer in the room with him, because he had insulted me"
(Anthony Trollope).
To affront is to insult openly, usually intentionally: "He continued to belabor the poor
woman in a studied effort to affront his hated chieftain" (Edgar Rice Burroughs).
Outrage implies the flagrant violation of a person's integrity, pride, or sense of right
and decency: "Agnes . . . was outraged by what seemed to her Rose's callousness"
(Mrs. Humphry Ward).

offend
c.1320, "to sin against (someone)," from M.Fr. offendre, from L. offendere "strike against,
stumble, commit a fault, displease," from ob "against" + fendere "to strike" (found only in
compounds). Meaning "to violate (a law), to make a moral false step, to commit a crime" is from
1382." Meaning "to wound the feelings" is from late 14c. The literal sense of "to attack, assail" is
attested from c.1374; this has been lost in Mod.Eng., but is preserved in offense and offensive.

offend
136

verb
1. cause to feel resentment or indignation; "Her tactless remark offended me" [syn: pique]
2. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises; "offend all laws of humanity"; "violate
the basic laws or human civilization"; "break a law"; "break a promise" [syn: transgress] [ant:
keep]
3. strike with disgust or revulsion; "The scandalous behavior of this married woman shocked her
friends" [syn: shock]
4. hurt the feelings of; "She hurt me when she did not include me among her guests"; "This
remark really bruised my ego" [syn: hurt]

Obtrusive
ob·tru·sive /əbˈtrusɪv/ - [uhb-troo-siv]
–adjective
1. having or showing a disposition to obtrude, as by imposing oneself or one's opinions on others.
2. (of a thing) obtruding itself: an obtrusive error.
3. protruding; projecting.
[Origin: 1660–70; < L obtrūs(us) (see obtrusion) + -ive]

—Related forms
ob·tru·sive·ly, adverb
ob·tru·sive·ness, noun

—Synonyms 1. interfering, meddlesome, officious, presumptuous. 2. blatant.


ob·tru·sive (ŏb-trōō'sĭv, -zĭv, əb-)
adj.

1. Thrusting out; protruding: an obtrusive rock formation.


2. Tending to push self-assertively forward; brash: a spoiled child's obtrusive behavior.
3. Undesirably noticeable: an obtrusive scar.

[From Latin obtrūsus, past participle of obtrūdere, to obtrude; see obtrude.]

ob·tru'sive·ly adv., ob·tru'sive·ness n.


obtrusive

adjective
1. undesirably noticeable; "the obtrusive behavior of a spoiled child"; "equally obtrusive was the
graffiti" [ant: unnoticeable]
2. sticking out; protruding

ob·struct /əbˈstrʌkt/ - [uhb-struhkt]


–verb (used with object)
1. to block or close up with an obstacle; make difficult to pass: Debris obstructed the road.
2. to interrupt, hinder, or oppose the passage, progress, course, etc., of.
3. to block from sight; to be in the way of (a view, passage, etc.).
[Origin: 1605–15; < L obstructus (ptp. of obstruere to build or pile up in the way, bar). See ob-,
construct]
137

—Related forms
ob·struct·ed·ly, adverb
ob·struct·er, ob·struc·tor, noun
ob·struct·ing·ly, adverb
ob·struc·tive, adjective
ob·struc·tive·ly, adverb
ob·struc·tive·ness, ob·struc·tiv·i·ty /ˌɒbstrʌkˈtɪvɪti/ - [ob-struhk-tiv-i-tee] , noun

—Synonyms 1. stop, choke, clog, hinder, impede, prevent; check, slow, retard, arrest.
—Antonyms 1. encourage, further.
ob·struct (əb-strŭkt', ŏb-)
tr.v. ob·struct·ed, ob·struct·ing, ob·structs

1. To block or fill (a passage) with obstacles or an obstacle. See Synonyms at block.


2. To impede, retard, or interfere with; hinder: obstructed my progress. See Synonyms at
hinder1.
3. To get in the way of so as to hide from sight.

[Latin obstruere, obstrūct- : ob-, against; see ob- + struere, to pile up; see ster-2 in Indo-
European roots.]

ob·struct'er, ob·struc'tor n., ob·struc'tive adj., ob·struc'tive·ly adv., ob·struc'tive·ness n.


obstruct

verb
1. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of; "His brother blocked him at every turn"
2. block passage through; "obstruct the path" [ant: disengage]
3. shut out from view or get in the way so as to hide from sight; "The thick curtain blocked the
action on the stage"; "The trees obstruct my view of the mountains"

Precede
pre·cede /prɪˈsid/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[pri-seed]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -ced·ed, -ced·ing, noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to go before, as in place, order, rank, importance, or time.
2. to introduce by something preliminary; preface: to precede one's statement
with a qualification.
–verb (used without object)
3. to go or come before.
–noun
4. Journalism. copy printed at the beginning of a news story presenting late
bulletins, editorial notes, or prefatory remarks.
[Origin: 1325–75; ME preceden < L praecédere. See pre-, cede]
138

—Related forms
pre·ced·a·ble, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
pre·cede (prĭ-sēd') Pronunciation Key
v. pre·ced·ed, pre·ced·ing, pre·cedes

v. tr.

1. To come, exist, or occur before in time.


2. To come before in order or rank; surpass or outrank.
3. To be in a position in front of; go in advance of.
4. To preface; introduce: preceded her lecture with a funny anecdote.

v. intr.
To come or go before in time, order, rank, or position.

[Middle English preceden, from Old French preceder, from Latin praecēdere :
prae-, pre- + cēdere, to go; see ked- in Indo-European roots.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
precede
1485, "to go before" in rank or importance, from M.Fr. preceder, from L.
præcedere "to go before," from præ- "before" + cedere "to go" (see cede).
Meaning "to walk in front of" is from 1530; that of "to come before in time" is
attested from 1540.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
precede

verb
1. be earlier in time; go back further; "Stone tools precede bronze tools" [syn:
predate] [ant: follow]
2. come before; "Most English adjectives precede the noun they modify"
139

3. be the predecessor of; "Bill preceded John in the long line of Susan's
husbands" [ant: come after]
4. move ahead (of others) in time or space [ant: follow]
5. furnish with a preface or introduction; "She always precedes her lectures
with a joke"; "He prefaced his lecture with a critical remark about the institution"

Predate

pre·date /ˈpriˈdeɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[pree-deyt]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -dat·ed, -dat·ing.
1. to date before the actual time; antedate: He predated the check by three
days.
2. to precede in date: a house that predates the Civil War.
[Origin: 1860–65; pre- + date1]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
pre·date (prē-dāt') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. pre·dat·ed, pre·dat·ing, pre·dates

1. To mark or designate with a date earlier than the actual one: predated the
check.
2. To precede in time; antedate.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
predate
1864, from pre- + date "point in time."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
predate

verb
1. be earlier in time; go back further; "Stone tools precede bronze tools" [ant:
follow]
2. come before; "Most English adjectives precede the noun they modify" [syn:
precede]
140

3. prey on or hunt for; "These mammals predate certain eggs" [syn: raven]
4. establish something as being earlier relative to something else [ant:
postdate]

Provoke

pro·voke /prəˈvoʊk/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[pruh-


vohk] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -voked, -vok·ing.
1. to anger, enrage, exasperate, or vex.
2. to stir up, arouse, or call forth (feelings, desires, or activity): The mishap
provoked a hearty laugh.
3. to incite or stimulate (a person, animal, etc.) to action.
4. to give rise to, induce, or bring about: What could have provoked such an
incident?
5. Obsolete. to summon.
[Origin: 1400–50; late ME < L prōvocāre to call forth, challenge, provoke, equiv.
to prō- pro-1 + vocāre to call; akin to vōx voice]

—Related forms
pro·vok·er, noun

—Synonyms 1. irk, annoy, aggravate, exacerbate, infuriate. See irritate. 2. rouse,


instigate. 2, 3. See incite.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
pro·voke (prə-vōk') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. pro·voked, pro·vok·ing, pro·vokes

1. To incite to anger or resentment.


2. To stir to action or feeling.
3. To give rise to; evoke: provoke laughter.
4. To bring about deliberately; induce: provoke a fight.

[Middle English provoken, from Old French provoquer, from Latin prōvocāre, to
challenge : prō-, forth; see pro-1 + vocāre, to call; see wekw- in Indo-European
roots.]

Synonyms: These verbs mean to move a person to action or feeling or to


summon something into being by so moving a person. Provoke often merely
141

states the consequences produced: "Let my presumption not provoke thy wrath"
(Shakespeare). "A situation which in the country would have provoked meetings"
(John Galsworthy).
To incite is to provoke and urge on: Members of the opposition incited the
insurrection.
Excite implies a strong or emotional reaction: The movie will fail; the plot
excites little interest or curiosity.
Stimulate suggests renewed vigor of action as if by spurring or goading: "Our
vigilance was stimulated by our finding traces of a large ... encampment" (Francis
Parkman).
To arouse means to awaken, as from inactivity or apathy; rouse means the
same, but more strongly implies vigorous or emotional excitement: "In a
democratic society like ours, relief must come through an aroused popular
conscience that sears the conscience of the people's representatives" (Felix
Frankfurter). "The oceangoing steamers ... roused in him wild and painful
longings" (Arnold Bennett).
To stir is to cause activity, strong but usually agreeable feelings, trouble, or
commotion: "It was him as stirred up th' young woman to preach last night"
(George Eliot). "I have seldom been so ... stirred by any piece of writing" (Mark
Twain). See Also Synonyms at annoy.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
provoke
1432, from O.Fr. provoker (14c., Fr. provoquer), from L. provocare "call forth,
challenge," from pro- "forth" + vocare "to call" (see voice).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
provoke

verb
1. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses); "arouse pity"; "raise a
smile"; "evoke sympathy" [syn: arouse]
2. evoke or provoke to appear or occur; "Her behavior provoked a quarrel
between the couple"
3. provide the needed stimulus for
4. annoy continually or chronically; "He is known to harry his staff when he is
overworked"; "This man harasses his female co-workers"
142

Perpetual

per·pet·u·al /pərˈpɛtʃuəl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[per-


pech-oo-uhl] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. continuing or enduring forever; everlasting.
2. lasting an indefinitely long time: perpetual snow.
3. continuing or continued without intermission or interruption; ceaseless: a
perpetual stream of visitors all day.
4. blooming almost continuously throughout the season or the year.
–noun
5. a hybrid rose that is perpetual.
6. a perennial plant.
[Origin: 1300–50; late ME perpetuall < L perpetuālis permanent, equiv. to
perpetu(us) uninterrupted (per- per- + pet-, base of petere to seek, reach for +
-uus deverbal adj. suffix) + -ālis -al1; r. ME perpetuel < MF < L as above]

—Related forms
per·pet·u·al·i·ty, per·pet·u·al·ness, noun
per·pet·u·al·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1. permanent, enduring. See eternal. 3. continuous, incessant,


constant, unending, uninterrupted.
—Antonyms 1. temporary. 3. discontinuous.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
per·pet·u·al (pər-pěch'ōō-əl) Pronunciation Key
adj.

1. Lasting for eternity.


2. Continuing or lasting for an indefinitely long time.
3. Instituted to be in effect or have tenure for an unlimited duration: a treaty of
perpetual friendship.
4. Continuing without interruption. See Synonyms at continual.
5. Flowering throughout the growing season.

[Middle English perpetuel, from Old French, from Latin perpetuālis, from
perpetuus, continuous : per-, per- + petere, to go toward; see pet- in Indo-
European roots.]
143

per·pet'u·al·ly adv.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
perpetual
c.1340, from O.Fr. perpetuel (12c.), from L. perpetualis "universal," in M.L.
"permanent," from perpetuus "continuous, universal," from perpetis, gen. of Old
L. perpes "lasting," probably from per- "through" + root of petere "to seek, go to,
aim at" (see petition). The verb perpetuate is first recorded 1530; perpetuity is
from 1406. Perpetual motion is attested from 1593.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
perpetual

adjective
1. continuing forever or indefinitely; "the ageless themes of love and
revenge"; "eternal truths"; "life everlasting"; "hell's perpetual fires"; "the
unending bliss of heaven" [syn: ageless]
2. uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing; "the ceaseless
thunder of surf"; "in constant pain"; "night and day we live with the incessant
noise of the city"; "the never-ending search for happiness"; "the perpetual
struggle to maintain standards in a democracy"; "man's unceasing warfare with
drought and isolation"; "unremitting demands of hunger" [syn: ceaseless]

Presume

pre·sume (prĭ-zōōm') Pronunciation Key


v. pre·sumed, pre·sum·ing, pre·sumes

v. tr.

1. To take for granted as being true in the absence of proof to the contrary: We
presumed she was innocent.
2. To constitute reasonable evidence for assuming; appear to prove: A signed
hotel bill presumes occupancy of a room.
3. To venture without authority or permission; dare: He presumed to invite
himself to dinner.

v. intr.
144

1. To act overconfidently; take liberties.


2. To take unwarranted advantage of something; go beyond the proper limits:
Don't presume on their hospitality.
3. To take for granted that something is true or factual; suppose: That's the
new assistant, I presume.

[Middle English presumen, from Old French presumer, from Late Latin
praesūmere, from Latin, to anticipate : prae-, pre- + sūmere, to take; see em- in
Indo-European roots.]

pre·sum'ed·ly (-zōō'mĭd-lē) adv., pre·sum'er n.

Synonyms: These verbs signify to take something for granted or as being a


fact. To presume is to suppose that something is reasonable or possible in the
absence of proof to the contrary: "I presume you're tired after the long ride"
(Edith Wharton).
Presuppose can mean to believe or suppose in advance: It is unrealistic to
presuppose a sophisticated knowledge of harmony in a beginning music student.
Postulate and posit denote the assertion of the existence, reality, necessity, or
truth of something as the basis for reasoning or argument: "We can see
individuals, but we can't see providence; we have to postulate it" (Aldous
Huxley).
To assume is to accept something as existing or being true without proof or on
inconclusive grounds: "We must never assume that which is incapable of proof"
(G.H. Lewes).

Probe

/proʊb/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[prohb]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, probed, prob·ing, noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to search into or examine thoroughly; question closely: to probe one's
conscience.
2. to examine or explore with a probe.
–verb (used without object)
3. to examine or explore with or as if with a probe.
–noun
4. the act of probing.
5. a slender surgical instrument for exploring the depth or direction of a
wound, sinus, or the like.
6. an investigation, esp. by a legislative committee, of suspected illegal
activity.
145

7. Aerospace. space probe.


8. a projecting, pipelike device on a receiving aircraft used to make
connection with and receive fuel from a tanker aircraft during refueling in flight.
9. a device, attached by cord to an oven, that can be inserted into roasts or
other food so that the oven shuts off when the desired internal temperature of
the food is reached.
10. Biology. any identifiable substance that is used to detect, isolate, or identify
another substance, as a labeled strand of DNA that hybridizes with its
complementary RNA or a monoclonal antibody that combines with a specific
protein.
[Origin: 1555–65; (n.) < ML proba examination, LL: test, deriv. of probāre (see
prove); (v.) partly deriv. of the n., partly < L probāre. See proof]

—Related forms
probe·a·ble, adjective
prober, noun

—Synonyms 1. investigate, scrutinize.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
probe (prōb) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. An exploratory action, expedition, or device, especially one designed to


investigate and obtain information on a remote or unknown region.
2. A slender, flexible surgical instrument used to explore a wound or body
cavity.
3. Biology A substance, such as DNA, that is radioactively labeled or otherwise
marked and used to detect or identify another substance in a sample.
4. The act of exploring or searching with or as if with a device or instrument.
5. An investigation into unfamiliar matters or questionable activities; a
penetrating inquiry: a congressional probe into price fixing. See Synonyms at
inquiry.
6. A space probe.

v. probed, prob·ing, probes

v. tr.

1. To explore with or as if with a probe: probe a wound; probe one's motives.


2. To delve into; investigate.
146

v. intr.
To conduct an exploratory investigation; search.

[Middle English, examination, from Medieval Latin proba, from Late Latin, proof,
from Latin probāre, to test, from probus, good; see per1 in Indo-European
roots.]

prob'er n., prob'ing·ly adv.


probe (n.)
1580, "instrument for exploring wounds, etc.," from M.L. proba "examination," in
L.L. "test, proof," from L. probare (see prove). Meaning "act of probing" is 1890,
from the verb; fig. sense of "penetrating investigation" is from 1903. Meaning
"small, unmanned exploratory craft" is attested from 1953. The verb is first
recorded 1649 (originally figurative; "to search thoroughly, interrogate"), from
the noun.

probe

noun
1. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities; "there was a
congressional probe into the scandal"
2. a flexible slender surgical instrument with a blunt end that is used to
explore wounds or body cavities
3. an exploratory action or expedition
4. an investigation conducted using a flexible surgical instrument to explore
an injury or a body cavity

verb
1. question or examine thoroughly and closely
2. examine physically with or as if with a probe; "probe an anthill"

Pollen

pol·len - [pol-uh n] - Show IPA Pronunciation


–noun
1. the fertilizing element of flowering plants, consisting of fine, powdery, yellowish grains or
spores, sometimes in masses.
–verb (used with object)
2. to pollinate.

[Origin: 1515–25; < NL, special use of L: fine flour, mill dust ]
147

—Related forms
pol·len·less, adjective
pol·len·like, adjective
pol·lin·ic - [puh-lin-ik] - Show IPA Pronunciation, pol·lin·i·cal, adjective

pol·len (pŏl'ən)
n. The fine powderlike material consisting of pollen grains that is produced by the anthers
of seed plants.

[Latin, fine flour.]

pollen
1760 as a botanical term for the fertilizing element of flowers (from Linnæus, 1751), earlier
"dust" (1523), from L. pollen "mill dust, fine flour," related to polenta "peeled barley," and pulvis
(gen. pulveris) "dust," from PIE base *pel- "dust, porridge made of meal" (cf. Gk. poltos "pap,
porridge," Skt. palalam "ground seeds," Lith. pelenai, O.C.S. popelu, Rus. pepelo "ashes").
Pollination is first recorded 1875, from Fr. pollination, formed 1812 from L. pollen.

pollen

noun
the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant

Pursuit

pur·suit [per-soot]
–noun
1. the act of pursuing: in pursuit of the fox.
2. an effort to secure or attain; quest: the pursuit of happiness.
3. any occupation, pastime, or the like, in which a person is engaged regularly or customarily:
literary pursuits.

[Origin: 1300–50; ME < AF purseute ≪ VL *prōsequita for L prōsecūta, fem. of prōsecūtus, ptp.
of prōsequī to PURSUE; cf. SUIT ]

—Synonyms 1. chase, hunt. 2. search. 3. activity, preoccupation, inclination.


pur·suit (pər-sōōt')
n.

1. The act or an instance of chasing or pursuing.


2. The act of striving: the pursuit of higher education.
3. An activity, such as a vocation or hobby, engaged in regularly.
148

[Middle English, from Anglo-Norman pursuite, from pursure, to pursue; see pursue.]

pursuit
c.1380, "persecution," from Anglo-Fr. purseute, from O.Fr. porsuite (1326), from porsivre (see
pursue). Meaning "action of pursuit" attested from 1412; sense of "one's profession, recreation,
etc." first recorded 1529.

pursuit

noun
1. the act of pursuing in an effort to overtake or capture; "the culprit started to run and the cop
took off in pursuit"
2. a search for an alternative that meets cognitive criteria; "the pursuit of love"; "life is more than
the pursuance of fame"; "a quest for wealth"
3. an auxiliary activity [syn: avocation]
4. a diversion that occupies one's time and thoughts (usually pleasantly); "sailing is her favorite
pastime"; "his main pastime is gambling"; "he counts reading among his interests"; "they
criticized the boy for his limited pursuits" [syn: pastime]

Protrude

pro·trude - [proh-trood, pruh-] - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -trud·ed, -trud·ing.


–verb (used without object)
1. to project.
–verb (used with object)
2. to thrust forward; cause to project.

1
[Origin: 1610–20; < L prōtrūdere to thrust forward, equiv. to prō- PRO- + trūdere to thrust ]
—Related forms
pro·trud·ent, adjective
pro·tru·si·ble - [proh-troo-suh-buh l, -zuh-, pruh-] - Show IPA Pronunciation,
pro·trud·a·ble, adjective
—Synonyms 1. bulge, swell, belly.
pro·trude (prō-trōōd')
v. pro·trud·ed, pro·trud·ing, pro·trudes
v. tr.
To push or thrust outward.
v. intr.
To jut out; project. See Synonyms at bulge.

[Latin prōtrūdere : prō-, forward; see pro-1 + trūdere, to thrust; see treud- in Indo-European
roots.]
pro·trud'ent (-trōōd'nt) adj.
protrude
149

1620, "to drive along, thrust forward," from L. protrudere "thrust forward," from pro- "forward" +
trudere "to thrust" (see extrusion). Intransitive meaning "stick out" first recorded 1626.

protrude
verb
1. extend out or project in space; "His sharp nose jutted out"; "A single rock sticks out from the
cliff" [syn: stick out]
2. bulge outward; "His eyes popped" [syn: start]
3. swell or protrude outwards; "His stomach bulged after the huge meal" [syn: bulge]

Picturesque

pic·tur·esque [pik-chuh-resk]
–adjective
1. visually charming or quaint, as if resembling or suitable for a painting: a picturesque fishing
village.
2. (of writing, speech, etc.) strikingly graphic or vivid; creating detailed mental images: a
picturesque description of the Brazilian jungle.
3. having pleasing or interesting qualities; strikingly effective in appearance: a picturesque hat.

[Origin: 1695–1705; < F pittoresque < It pittoresco (pittor(e) PAINTER + -esco -ESQUE), with
assimilation to PICTURE ]

—Related forms
pic·tur·esque·ly, adverb
pic·tur·esque·ness, noun

—Synonyms 2. Picturesque, graphic, vivid apply to descriptions that produce a strong, especially
a visual, impression. Picturesque is a less precise term than the other two. A picturesque account,
though striking and interesting, may be inaccurate or may reflect personal ideas: He called the
landscape picturesque. A graphic account is more objective and factual: it produces a clear,
definite impression, and carries conviction. A vivid account is told with liveliness and intenseness;
the description is so interesting, or even exciting, that the reader or hearer may be emotionally
stirred.
pic·tur·esque (pĭk'chə-rěsk')
adj.

1. Of, suggesting, or suitable for a picture: picturesque rocky shores.


2. Striking or interesting in an unusual way; irregularly or quaintly attractive: a
picturesque French café.
3. Strikingly expressive or vivid: picturesque language.

[Alteration of French pittoresque, from Italian pittoresco, from pittore, painter, from Latin
pictor; see Pictor.]

pic'tur·esque'ly adv., pic'tur·esque'ness n.


picturesque
150

1703, on pattern of Fr. pittoresque, a loan-word from It. pittoresco "pictorial" (1664), from pittore
"painter," from L. pictorem (nom. pictor), see pictorial.

picturesque
adjective
1. suggesting or suitable for a picture; pretty as a picture; "a picturesque village"
2. strikingly expressive; "a picturesque description of the rainforest"

par·a·dise - [par-uh-dahys, -dahyz]


–noun
1. heaven, as the final abode of the righteous.
2. an intermediate place for the departed souls of the righteous awaiting resurrection.
3. (often initial capital letter ) EDEN (def. 1).
4. a place of extreme beauty, delight, or happiness.
5. a state of supreme happiness; bliss.
6. Architecture.
a. PARVIS.
b. an enclosure beside a church, as an atrium or cloister.
7. (initial capital letter, italics ) Italian, Pa·ra·di·so - [pah-rah-dee-zaw] . the third and
concluding part of Dante's Divine Comedy, depicting heaven, through which he is guided by
Beatrice. Compare INFERNO (def. 3), PURGATORY (def. 2).

Paradise

Par·a·dise - [par-uh-dahys, -dahyz]


–noun
a town in N California. 22,571.
par·a·dise (pār'ə-dīs', -dīz')
n.

1. often Paradise The Garden of Eden.


2. Christianity
a. The abode of righteous souls after death; heaven.
b. An intermediate resting place for righteous souls awaiting the Resurrection.
3. A place of ideal beauty or loveliness.
4. A state of delight.

[Middle English paradis, from Old French, from Late Latin paradīsus, from Greek paradeisos,
garden, enclosed park, paradise, from Avestan pairidaēza-, enclosure, park : pairi-, around;
see per1 in Indo-European roots + daēzō, wall; see dheigh- in Indo-European roots.]

par'a·di·si'a·cal (-dĭ-sī'ə-kəl, -zī'-), par'a·di·si'ac (-āk), par'a·di·sa'i·cal (-dĭ-sā'ĭ-kəl,


-zā'-), par'a·di·sa'ic (-ĭk), par'a·dis'al (-dī'səl, -zəl) adj., par'a·di·si'a·cal·ly,
par'a·di·sa'i·cal·ly, par'a·dis'al·ly adv.
151

Word History: The history of paradise is an extreme example of amelioration, the


process by which a word comes to refer to something better than what it used to
refer to. The old Iranian language Avestan had a noun pairidaēza-, "a wall enclosing
a garden or orchard," which is composed of pairi-, "around," and daēza- "wall." The
adverb and preposition pairi is related to the equivalent Greek form peri, as in
perimeter. Daēza- comes from the Indo-European root *dheigh-, "to mold, form,
shape." Zoroastrian religion encouraged maintaining arbors, orchards, and gardens,
and even the kings of austere Sparta were edified by seeing the Great King of Persia
planting and maintaining his own trees in his own garden. Xenophon, a Greek
mercenary soldier who spent some time in the Persian army and later wrote
histories, recorded the pairidaēza- surrounding the orchard as paradeisos, using it
not to refer to the wall itself but to the huge parks that Persian nobles loved to build
and hunt in. This Greek word was used in the Septuagint translation of Genesis to
refer to the Garden of Eden, whence Old English eventually borrowed it around
1200.

paradise
c.1175, "Garden of Eden," from O.Fr. paradis, from L.L. paradisus, from Gk. paradeisos "park,
paradise, Garden of Eden," from an Iranian source, cf. Avestan pairidaeza "enclosure, park"
(Mod.Pers. and Arabic firdaus "garden, paradise"), compound of pairi- "around" + diz "to make,
form (a wall)." The first element is cognate with Gk. peri- "around, about" (see peri-), the second
with Skt. digen "firm, solid," originally "kneaded into a compact mass," Gk. teikhos "wall," L.
fingere "form, fashion" (cf. fiction), Goth. deigan "to smear," O.E. dag "dough." The Gk. word,
originally used for an orchard or hunting park in Persia, was used in Septuagint to mean "Garden
of Eden," and in New Testament translations of Luke xxiii.43 to mean "heaven" (a sense attested
in Eng. from c.1205). Meaning "place like or compared to Paradise" is from c.1300.

paradise

noun
1. any place of complete bliss and delight and peace [syn: Eden]
2. (Christianity) the abode of righteous souls after death

Projection
pro·jec·tion /prəˈdʒɛkʃən/ - [pruh-jek-shuhn]
–noun
1. a projecting or protruding part.
2. the state or fact of jutting out or protruding.
3. a causing to jut or protrude.
4. the act, process, or result of projecting.
5. Cartography. a systematic construction of lines drawn on a plane surface representative of and
corresponding to the meridians and parallels of the curved surface of the earth or celestial sphere.
6. Photography.
a. the act of reproducing on a surface, by optical means, a remote image on a film, slide, etc.
b. an image so reproduced.
7. the act of visualizing and regarding an idea or the like as an objective reality.
8. something that is so visualized and regarded.
152

9. calculation of some future thing: They fell short of their projection for the rate of growth.
10. the act of communicating distinctly and forcefully to an audience.
11. Psychology.
a. the tendency to ascribe to another person feelings, thoughts, or attitudes present in oneself, or
to regard external reality as embodying such feelings, thoughts, etc., in some way.
b. Psychoanalysis. such an ascription relieving the ego of a sense of guilt or other intolerable
feeling.
12. the act of planning or scheming.
13. Alchemy. the casting of the powder of philosophers' stone upon metal in fusion, to transmute
it into gold or silver.
[Origin: 1470–80; < L prōjectiōn- (s. of prōjectiō) a throwing forward. See project, -ion]

—Related forms
pro·jec·tion·al /prəˈdʒɛkʃənl/ - [pruh-jek-shuh-nl] , adjective

—Synonyms 1. jut, overhang, protrusion. 9. prediction.


pro·jec·tion (prə-jěk'shən)
n.

1. The act of projecting or the condition of being projected.


2. A thing or part that extends outward beyond a prevailing line or surface: spiky projections on
top of a fence; a projection of land along the coast.
3. A plan for an anticipated course of action: "facilities [that] are vital to the projection of U.S.
force . . . in the Pacific" (Alan D. Romberg).
4. A prediction or an estimate of something in the future, based on present data or trends.
5.
1. The process of projecting a filmed image onto a screen or other viewing surface.
2. An image so projected.
3. The attribution of one's own attitudes, feelings, or suppositions to others: "Even trained
anthropologists have been guilty of unconscious projection—of clothing the subjects of their
research in theories brought with them into the field" (Alex Shoumatoff).
4. The attribution of one's own attitudes, feelings, or desires to someone or something as a
naive or unconscious defense against anxiety or guilt.
6. Mathematics The image of a geometric figure reproduced on a line, plane, or surface.
7. A system of intersecting lines, such as the grid of a map, on which part or all of the globe or
another spherical surface is represented as a plane surface.
8. Psychology
1. The attribution of one's own attitudes, feelings, or suppositions to others: "Even trained
anthropologists have been guilty of unconscious projection—of clothing the subjects of their
research in theories brought with them into the field" (Alex Shoumatoff).
2. The attribution of one's own attitudes, feelings, or desires to someone or something as a
naive or unconscious defense against anxiety or guilt.

pro·jec'tion·al adj.
projection
noun
1. a prediction made by extrapolating from past observations
2. the projection of an image from a film onto a screen
3. a planned undertaking [syn: project]
4. any structure that branches out from a central support
5. any solid convex shape that juts out from something
153

6. (psychiatry) a defense mechanism by which your own traits and emotions are attributed to
someone else
7. the acoustic phenomenon that gives sound a penetrating quality; "our ukuleles have been
designed to have superior sound and projection"; "a prime ingredient of public speaking is
projection of the voice"
8. the representation of a figure or solid on a plane as it would look from a particular direction
9. the act of projecting out from something [syn: protrusion]
10. the act of expelling or projecting or ejecting [syn: expulsion]

projection (prə-jěk'shən)

1. The image of a geometric figure reproduced on a line, plane, or surface.


2. A system of intersecting lines, such as the grid of a map, on which part or all of the globe or
another spherical surface is represented as a plane surface. See more at azimuthal projection,
conic projection, cylindrical projection.

pro·jec·tion (pr-jkshn)
n.

1. The act of projecting or the condition of being projected.


2. The attribution of one's own attitudes, feelings, or suppositions to others.
3. The attribution of one's own attitudes, feelings, or desires to someone or something as a
naive or unconscious defense against anxiety or guilt.
4. The localization of visual impressions to a point in space relative to the person who is doing
the viewing: straight ahead, right, left, above, or below.
5. Any of the systems of nerve fibers by which a group of nerve cells discharges its nerve
impulses to one or more other cell groups.

Main Entry: pro·jec·tion


Pronunciation: pr&-'jek-sh&n
Function: noun
1 a : the process or technique of reproducing a spatial object or a section of such an object upon
a plane or curved surface b : a diagram or figure formed by projection;especially : VIEW
2 a : the act of referring a mental image constructed by the brain from bits of data collected by
the sense organs to the actual source of stimulation outside the body b : the attribution of one's
own ideas, feelings, or attitudes to other people or to objects; especially : the externalization of
blame, guilt, or responsibility as a defense against anxiety
3 : the functional correspondence and connection of parts of the cerebral cortex with parts of the
organism <the projection of the retina upon the visual area>

projection theory
In domain theory, a function, f, which is (a) idempotent, i.e. f(f(x))=f(x) and (b) whose result is
no more defined than its argument. E.g. F(x)=bottom or F(x)=x.
In reduction systems, a function which returns some component of its argument. E.g. head, tail, \
(x,y) . x. In a graph reduction system the function can just return a pointer to part of its
argument and does not need to build any new graph.
(1997-01-29)

Poke
154

poke1 /poʊk/ - [pohk] verb, poked, pok·ing, noun


–verb (used with object)
1. to prod or push, esp. with something narrow or pointed, as a finger, elbow, stick, etc.: to poke
someone in the ribs.
2. to make (a hole, one's way, etc.) by or as by prodding or pushing.
3. to thrust or push: She poked her head out of the window.
4. to force, drive, or stir by or as by pushing or thrusting: He poked the fire up.
5. to thrust obtrusively: The prosecutor kept poking his finger at the defendant.
–verb (used without object)
6. to make a pushing or thrusting movement with the finger, a stick, etc.
7. to extend or project (often fol. by out): His handkerchief is poking out of his back pocket.
8. to thrust oneself obtrusively: to poke into something that is not one's affair.
9. to search curiously; pry (often fol. by around or about).
10. to go or proceed in a slow or aimless way (often fol. by along).
–noun
11. a thrust or push.
12. Informal. a slow or dawdling person; slowpoke.
—Idioms
13. poke fun at, to ridicule or mock, esp. covertly or slyly: In her novel, she pokes fun at her ex-
husband.
14. poke one's nose into, Informal. to meddle in; pry into: We felt as if half the people in town
were poking their noses into our lives.
1. Chiefly Midland U.S. and Scot.. a bag or sack, esp. a small one.
2. a wallet or purse.
3. Archaic. a pocket.
poke 1 (pōk)
v. poked, pok·ing, pokes

v. tr.

1. To push or jab at, as with a finger or an arm; prod.


2. To make (a hole or pathway, for example) by or as if by prodding, elbowing, or jabbing: I
poked my way to the front of the crowd.
3. To push; thrust: A seal poked its head out of the water.
4. To stir (a fire) by prodding the wood or coal with a poker or stick.
5. Slang To strike; punch.

v. intr.

1. To make thrusts or jabs, as with a stick or poker.


2. To pry or meddle; intrude: poking into another's business.
3. To search or look curiously in a desultory manner: poked about in the desk.
4. To proceed in a slow or lazy manner; putter: just poked along all morning.
5. To thrust forward; appear: The child's head poked from under the blankets.

n.

1. A push, thrust, or jab.


2. Slang A punch or blow with the fist: a poke in the jaw.
3. One who moves slowly or aimlessly; a dawdler.
155

Purge

purge Audio Help /pɜrdʒ/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[purj] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, purged,
purg·ing, noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to rid of whatever is impure or undesirable; cleanse; purify.
2. to rid, clear, or free (usually fol. by of or from): to purge a political party of
disloyal members.
3. to clear of imputed guilt or ritual uncleanliness.
4. to clear away or wipe out legally (an offense, accusation, etc.) by
atonement or other suitable action.
5. to remove by cleansing or purifying (often fol. by away, off, or out).
6. to clear or empty (the bowels) by causing evacuation.
7. to cause evacuation of the bowels of (a person).
8. to put to death or otherwise eliminate (undesirable or unwanted members)
from a political organization, government, nation, etc.
9. Metallurgy.
a. to drive off (undesirable gases) from a furnace or stove.
b. to free (a furnace or stove) of undesirable gases.
–verb (used without object)
10. to become cleansed or purified.
11. to undergo or cause purging of the bowels.
–noun
12. the act or process of purging.
13. the removal or elimination of members of a political organization,
government, nation, etc., who are considered disloyal or otherwise undesirable.
14. something that purges, as a purgative medicine or dose.
[Origin: 1250–1300; (v.) ME purgen < OF purg(i)er < L pūrgāre to cleanse; (n.)
ME < OF, deriv. of the v.]

—Related forms
purge·a·ble, adjective
purger, noun

—Synonyms 8. oust, liquidate, extirpate.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
purge Audio Help (pûrj) Pronunciation Key
v. purged, purg·ing, purg·es

v. tr.
156

1.
1. To free from impurities; purify.
2. To remove (impurities and other elements) by or as if by cleansing.
3. To rid (a nation or political party, for example) of people considered
undesirable.
4. To get rid of (people considered undesirable). See Synonyms at
eliminate.
5. To cause evacuation of (the bowels).
6. To induce evacuation of the bowels in (an individual).
2. To rid of sin, guilt, or defilement.
3. Law To clear (a person) of a charge or an imputation. Often used with
respect to contempt of court.
4.
1. To rid (a nation or political party, for example) of people considered
undesirable.
2. To get rid of (people considered undesirable). See Synonyms at
eliminate.
3. To cause evacuation of (the bowels).
4. To induce evacuation of the bowels in (an individual).
5. Medicine
1. To cause evacuation of (the bowels).
2. To induce evacuation of the bowels in (an individual).

v. intr.

1. To become pure or clean.


2. Medicine To undergo or cause an emptying of the bowels.

n.

1. The act or process of purging.


2. Something that purges, especially a medicinal purgative.

[Middle English purgen, from Old French purgier, from Latin pūrgāre, from pūrus,
pure; see peuə- in Indo-European roots.]

purg'er n.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
157

Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.


Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
purge (v.)
c.1290, from O.Fr. purgier (12c.), from L. purgare "cleanse, purify," from Old L.
purigare, from purus "pure" (see pure) + root of agere "to drive, make" (see
act). The noun is recorded from 1563.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
purge

noun
1. the act of clearing yourself (or another) from some stigma or charge
2. an act of removing by cleansing; ridding of sediment or other undesired
elements
3. an abrupt or sudden removal of a person or group from an organization or
place; "he died in a purge by Stalin"

verb
1. oust politically; "Deng Xiao Ping was purged several times throughout his
lifetime" [ant: rehabilitate]
2. clear of a charge
3. make pure or free from sin or guilt; "he left the monastery purified" [syn:
purify]
4. rid of impurities; "purge the water"; "purge your mind"
5. rinse, clean, or empty with a liquid; "flush the wound with antibiotics";
"purge the old gas tank" [syn: flush]
6. eject the contents of the stomach through the mouth; "After drinking too
much, the students vomited"; "He purged continuously"; "The patient
regurgitated the food we gave him last night" [syn: vomit] [ant: keep down]
7. excrete or evacuate (someone's bowels or body); "The doctor decided that
the patient must be purged"

Provision

pro·vi·sion /prəˈvɪʒən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[pruh-


vizh-uhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. a clause in a legal instrument, a law, etc., providing for a particular matter;
stipulation; proviso.
2. the providing or supplying of something, esp. of food or other necessities.
3. arrangement or preparation beforehand, as for the doing of something, the
meeting of needs, the supplying of means, etc.
158

4. something provided; a measure or other means for meeting a need.


5. a supply or stock of something provided.
6. provisions, supplies of food.
7. Ecclesiastical.
a. an appointment to an ecclesiastical office.
b. appointment by the pope to a see or benefice not yet vacant.
–verb (used with object)
8. to supply with provisions.
[Origin: 1300–50; ME < L prōvīsiōn- (s. of prōvīsiō) a foreseeing, equiv. to
prōvīs(us) (ptp. of prōvidére to provide) + -iōn- -ion]

—Related forms
pro·vi·sion·er, noun
pro·vi·sion·less, adjective

—Synonyms 1. condition. 2. catering, purveying. 6. store, provender, stock. See


food.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
pro·vi·sion (prə-vĭzh'ən) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. The act of supplying or fitting out.


2. Something provided.
3. A preparatory action or measure.
4. provisions A stock of necessary supplies, especially food.
5. A stipulation or qualification, especially a clause in a document or
agreement.

tr.v. pro·vi·sioned, pro·vi·sion·ing, pro·vi·sions


To supply with provisions.

[Middle English, from Old French, forethought, from Latin prōvīsiō, prōvīsiōn-,
from prōvīsus, past participle of prōvidēre, to foresee, provide for; see provide.]

pro·vi'sion·er n.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
159

Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This


provision (n.)
c.1380, "providing beforehand" (originally in ref. to ecclesiastical appointments
made before the position was vacant), from O.Fr. provision (1320), from L.
provisionem (nom. provisio) "foresight, preparation," from providere "look ahead"
(see provide). Meaning "something provided" is attested from 1494; specific
sense of "supply of food" is from 1610. The verb is attested from 1805 (implied in
provisioned). Provisional "of a temporary arrangement," first recorded 1601, from
O.Fr. provisionnal (c.1485), on notion of "provide for present needs."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
provision

noun
1. a stipulated condition; "he accepted subject to one provision"
2. the activity of supplying or providing something
3. the cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of
something happening; "his planning for retirement was hindered by several
uncertainties" [syn: planning]
4. a store or supply of something (especially of food or clothing or arms)

verb
1. supply with provisions

Pursue

pur·sue /pərˈsu/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[per-soo]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -sued, -su·ing.
–verb (used with object)
1. to follow in order to overtake, capture, kill, etc.; chase.
2. to follow close upon; go with; attend: Bad luck pursued him.
3. to strive to gain; seek to attain or accomplish (an end, object, purpose,
etc.).
4. to proceed in accordance with (a method, plan, etc.).
5. to carry on or continue (a course of action, a train of thought, an inquiry,
studies, etc.).
6. to continue to annoy, afflict, or trouble.
7. to practice (an occupation, pastime, etc.).
8. to continue to discuss (a subject, topic, etc.).
9. to follow: They pursued the river to its source. I felt their eyes pursuing
me.
10. to continue; go on with (one's course, a journey, etc.).
–verb (used without object)
160

11. to follow in pursuit.


12. to continue.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME pursuen < AF pursuer ≪ L prōsequī to pursue, follow,
continue. See pro-1, sue, prosecute]

—Related forms
pur·su·a·ble, adjective

—Synonyms 1. trail, hunt. 2. dog.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
pur·sue (pər-sōō') Pronunciation Key
v. pur·sued, pur·su·ing, pur·sues

v. tr.

1. To follow in an effort to overtake or capture; chase: a fox that was pursued


by hounds.
2. To strive to gain or accomplish: pursue lofty political goals.
3. To proceed along the course of; follow: a ship that pursued the southern
course.
4. To carry further; advance: Let's not pursue this argument.
5. To be engaged in (a vocation or hobby, for example).
6. To court: a lady who was pursued by many suitors.
7. To continue to torment or afflict; haunt: was pursued by the demons of lust
and greed.

v. intr.

1. To follow in an effort to overtake or capture; chase.


2. To carry on; continue.

[Middle English pursuen, from Anglo-Norman pursuer, from Vulgar Latin


*prōsequere, from Latin prōsequī; see prosecute.]

pur·su'a·ble adj., pur·su'er n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
161

Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
pursue
c.1290, "to follow with hostile intent," from Anglo-Fr. pursuer, from O.Fr. poursuir,
variant of porsivre, from V.L. *prosequare, from L. prosequi "follow up" (cf.
prosecute), from pro- "forward" + sequi "follow" (see sequel). Meaning "to
proceed, to follow" (a path, etc.), usually figurative, is from 1390.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
pursue

verb
1. carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in; "She pursued many
activities"; "They engaged in a discussion" [syn: prosecute]
2. follow in or as if in pursuit; "The police car pursued the suspected
attacker"; "Her bad deed followed her and haunted her dreams all her life"
3. go in search of or hunt for; "pursue a hobby" [syn: quest for]
4. carry further or advance; "Can you act on this matter soon?"

Parlance

par·lance /ˈpɑrləns/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[pahr-


luhns] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun 1. a way or manner of speaking; vernacular; idiom: legal parlance.
2. speech, esp. a formal discussion or debate.
3. talk; parley.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1570–80; < AF; see parle, -ance]


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This par·lance
(pär'ləns) Pronunciation Key
n.
A particular manner of speaking; idiom: legal parlance.
Speech, especially a conversation or parley.

[Middle French, from Old French, from parler, to speak; see parley.]
162

(Download Now or Buy the Book) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
parlance

1579, way of speaking, from Anglo-Fr. (c.1300) and O.Fr. parlance, from O.Fr.
parlaunce, from parler "to speak" (see parley).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This parlance

noun
a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language

WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.


Free On-line Dictionary of Computing - Cite This Source - Share This
Parlance
A concurrent language.
["Parallel Processing Structures: Languages, Schedules, and Performance
Results", P.F. Reynolds, PhD Thesis, UT Austin 1979].
(1994-12-12)

Pretermit

pre·ter·mit /ˌpritərˈmɪt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[pree-


ter-mit] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -mit·ted, -mit·ting. 1. to let pass without notice;
disregard.
2. to leave undone; neglect; omit.
3. to suspend or interrupt: The government temporarily pretermitted its
repayments of foreign aid.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1505–15; < L praetermittere to let pass, equiv. to praeter- preter- +


mittere to let go, send]

—Related forms
163

pre·ter·mis·sion /ˌpritərˈmɪʃən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[pree-ter-mish-uhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation,
noun
pre·ter·mit·ter, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This pre·ter·mit
(prē'tər-mĭt') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. pre·ter·mit·ted, pre·ter·mit·ting, pre·ter·mits

To disregard intentionally or allow to pass unnoticed or unmentioned.


To fail to do or include; omit.
To interrupt or terminate.

[Latin praetermittere : praeter, beyond; see preterit + mittere, to let go.]

pre'ter·mis'sion (-mĭsh'ən) n., pre'ter·mit'ter n.

(Download Now or Buy the Book) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This pretermit

verb
1. disregard intentionally or let pass
2. leave undone or leave out; "How could I miss that typo?"; "The workers on
the conveyor belt miss one out of ten" [syn: neglect] [ant: attend to]

Procure
pro·cure /proʊˈkyʊər, prə-/ - [proh-kyoor, pruh-] verb, -cured, -cur·ing.
–verb (used with object)
1. to obtain or get by care, effort, or the use of special means: to procure evidence.
2. to bring about, esp. by unscrupulous and indirect means: to procure secret documents.
3. to obtain (a person) for the purpose of prostitution.
–verb (used without object)
4. to act as a procurer or pimp.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME procuren < L prōcūrāre to take care of. See pro-1, cure]

—Related forms
pro·cure·ment, noun
—Synonyms 1. gain, win. See get. 2. contrive. 4. pander, pimp.
164

—Antonyms 1. lose.

pro·cure (prō-kyŏŏr', prə-)


v. pro·cured, pro·cur·ing, pro·cures
v. tr.
1. To get by special effort; obtain or acquire: managed to procure a pass.
2. To bring about; effect: procure a solution to a knotty problem.
3. To obtain (a sexual partner) for another.
v. intr.
[Middle English procuren, from Old French procurer, to take care of, from Latin prōcūrāre : prō-,
for; see pro-1 + cūrāre, to care for (from cūra, care; see cure).]
pro·cur'a·ble adj., pro·cur'ance, pro·cure'ment n.

procurement
noun
the act of getting possession of something; "he was responsible for the procurement of materials
and supplies"

Procurement

1. To attain possession of something, usually after exerting a substantial effort to do so.

2. The purchasing of something usually for a company, government or other organization.

Here are some examples of sentences using the word "procurement":

1. He was able to procure seats to the sold-out concert.


2. The company has a large budget for the procurement of office supplies.
Procurement is a term commonly used in the energy industry as many retailers must procure gas,
electricity and/or other energy sources through trading activities, such as buying futures
contracts.

Main Entry: pro·cure·ment


Function: noun
1 : the act of procuring
2 : the purchasing, leasing, renting, or selling of materials, services, equipment, or construction
(as for a government agency)

Perception
per·cep·tion /pərˈsɛpʃən/ - [per-sep-shuhn]
–noun
1. the act or faculty of apprehending by means of the senses or of the mind; cognition;
understanding.
2. immediate or intuitive recognition or appreciation, as of moral, psychological, or aesthetic
qualities; insight; intuition; discernment: an artist of rare perception.
3. the result or product of perceiving, as distinguished from the act of perceiving; percept.
4. Psychology. a single unified awareness derived from sensory processes while a stimulus is
present.
5. Law. the taking into possession of rents, crops, profits, etc.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME percepcioun (< OF percepcïon) < L perceptiōn- (s. of perceptiō)
comprehension, lit., a taking in. See percept, -ion]
165

—Related forms
per·cep·tion·al, adjective

—Synonyms 1. awareness, sense, recognition.


per·cep·tion (pər-sěp'shən)
n.

1. The process, act, or faculty of perceiving.


2. The effect or product of perceiving.
3. Psychology
1. Recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based chiefly on memory.
2. The neurological processes by which such recognition and interpretation are effected.
3. Insight, intuition, or knowledge gained by perceiving.
4. The capacity for such insight.
4.
1. Insight, intuition, or knowledge gained by perceiving.
2. The capacity for such insight.

[Middle English percepcioun, from Old French percepcion, from Latin perceptiō, perceptiōn-, from
perceptus, past participle of percipere, to perceive; see perceive.]

per·cep'tion·al adj.
perception
1483, "receiving, collection," from L. perceptionem (nom. perceptio) "perception, apprehension, a
taking," from percipere "perceive" (see perceive). First used in the more literal sense of the L.
word; in secondary sense, "the taking cognizance of," it is recorded in Eng. from 1611. Meaning
"intuitive or direct recognition of some innate quality" is from 1827.

perception

noun
1. the representation of what is perceived; basic component in the formation of a concept [syn:
percept]
2. a way of conceiving something; "Luther had a new perception of the Bible"
3. the process of perceiving
4. knowledge gained by perceiving; "a man admired for the depth of his perception"
5. becoming aware of something via the senses [syn: sensing]

Percieve
per·ceive /pərˈsiv/ - [per-seev]
–verb (used with object), -ceived, -ceiv·ing.
1. to become aware of, know, or identify by means of the senses: I perceived an object looming
through the mist.
2. to recognize, discern, envision, or understand: I perceive a note of sarcasm in your voice. This
is a nice idea but I perceive difficulties in putting it into practice.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME perceiven < AF *perceivre, for perçoivre < L percipere to lay hold of,
grasp, equiv. to per- per- + -cipere, comb. form of capere to take]

—Related forms
per·ceiv·ed·ly /pərˈsivɪdli, -ˈsivd-/ - [per-see-vid-lee, -seevd-] , adverb
166

per·ceiv·ed·ness, noun
per·ceiv·er, noun
per·ceiv·ing·ness, noun

—Synonyms 1. note, discover, observe, descry, distinguish. See notice.


per·ceive (pər-sēv')
tr.v. per·ceived, per·ceiv·ing, per·ceives

1. To become aware of directly through any of the senses, especially sight or hearing.
2. To achieve understanding of; apprehend. See Synonyms at see1.

[Middle English perceiven, from Old French perceivre, from Latin percipere : per-, per- + capere,
to seize; see kap- in Indo-European roots.]

per·ceiv'a·ble adj., per·ceiv'a·bly adv., per·ceiv'er n.


perceive
c.1300, via Anglo-Fr. parceif, O.N.Fr. *perceivre, O.Fr. perçoivre, from L. percipere "obtain,
gather," also, metaphorically, "to grasp with the mind," lit. "to take entirely," from per
"thoroughly" + capere "to grasp, take" (see capable). Replaced O.E. ongietan. Both the L. senses
were in O.Fr., though the primary sense of Mod.Fr. percevoir is literal, "to receive, collect" (rents,
taxes, etc.), while Eng. uses the word almost always in the metaphorical sense.

perceive
verb
1. to become aware of through the senses; "I could perceive the ship coming over the horizon"
2. become conscious of; "She finally perceived the futility of her protest"

Retention

re·ten·tion Audio Help /r??t?n??n/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[ri-ten-shuhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. the act of retaining.
2. the state of being retained.
3. the power to retain; capacity for retaining.
4. the act or power of remembering things; memory.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME retencion < L retentio-n- (s. of retentio-) a keeping
back, equiv. to retent(us) (ptp. of retinére to retain) + -io-n- -ion]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
retention

To learn more about retention visit Britannica.com


167

© 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
re·ten·tion Audio Help (ri(-te(n'sh?n) Pronunciation Key
n.

1.
1. The act of retaining.
2. The condition of being retained.
2. Capacity or power of retaining.
3. An ability to recall or recognize what has been learned or experienced;
memory.
4. Something retained.
5. Involuntary withholding of bodily wastes or secretions that are normally
eliminated.

[Middle English retencioun, from Old French retention, from Latin retentio-,
retentio-n-, from retentus, past participle of retine-re, to retain; see retain.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
retention
c.1400, from L. retentionem (nom. retentio) "a retaining, a holding back," from
pp. stem of retinere (see retain). Retentive is attested from c.1375, from O.Fr.
retentif.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
retention

noun
1. the act of retaining something
2. the power of retaining and recalling past experience; "he had a good
memory when he was younger" [syn: memory]
3. the power of retaining liquid; "moisture retentivity of soil" [syn:
retentiveness]

Retorfit
168

ret·ro·fit Audio Help /v. ?r?tro??f?t, ?r?tro??f?t; n., adj. ?r?tro??f?t/


Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[v. re-troh-fit, re-troh-fit; n., adj.
re-troh-fit] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -fit·ted or -fit,
-fit·ting, noun, adjective
–verb (used with object)
1. to modify equipment (in airplanes, automobiles, a factory, etc.) that is
already in service using parts developed or made available after the time of
original manufacture.
2. to install, fit, or adapt (a device or system) for use with something older: to
retrofit solar heating to a poorly insulated house.
–verb (used without object)
3. (of new or modified parts, equipment, etc.) to fit into or onto existing
equipment.
4. to replace existing parts, equipment, etc., with updated parts or systems.
–noun
5. something that has been retrofitted.
6. an instance of updating, enlarging, etc., with new or modified equipment: A
retrofit could save thousands of dollars.
–adjective
7. being or characterized by a retrofit: retrofit units.
[Origin: retro- + fit1]

—Related forms
ret·ro·fit·ta·ble, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
retrofit

To learn more about retrofit visit Britannica.com

© 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
ret·ro·fit Audio Help (re(t'ro--fi(t') Pronunciation Key
v. ret·ro·fit·ted or ret·ro·fit, ret·ro·fit·ting, ret·ro·fits

v. tr.

1. To provide (a jet, automobile, computer, or factory, for example) with parts,


devices, or equipment not in existence or available at the time of original
manufacture.
2. To install or fit (a device or system, for example) for use in or on an existing
structure, especially an older dwelling.
169

v. intr.

1. To fit into or onto equipment already in existence or service.


2. To substitute new or modernized parts or systems for older equipment: an
industrial plant that was retrofitting to meet new safety regulations.

n.

1. Something that has been retrofitted or that has undergone retrofitting.


2. An instance of modernizing or expanding with new or modified parts,
devices, systems, or equipment: a retrofit for the heating system.

adj. Relating to or being a retrofit: a retrofit kit for the homeowner; an energy-
saving retrofit program; a large retrofit market.

ret'ro·fit'ta·ble adj., ret'ro·fit'ter n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
retrofit
1954, from retro(active) + (re)fit.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
retrofit

noun
1. a component or accessory added to something after it has been
manufactured
2. the act of adding a component or accessory to something that did not have
it when it was manufactured; "the court ordered a retrofit on all automobiles"

verb
1. provide with parts, devices, or equipment not available or in use at the time
of the original manufacture; "They car companies retrofitted all the old models
with new carburetors"
2. fit in or on an existing structure, such as an older house; "The mansion was
retrofitted with modern plumbing"
170

3. substitute new or modernized parts or equipment for older ones; "The


laboratory retrofitted to meet the safety codes"

Reputation

Re-pu·ta·tion /ˌrɛpyəˈteɪʃən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[rep-yuh-tey-shuhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. the estimation in which a person or thing is held, esp. by the community or
the public generally; repute: a man of good reputation.
2. favorable repute; good name: to ruin one's reputation by misconduct.
3. a favorable and publicly recognized name or standing for merit,
achievement, reliability, etc.: to build up a reputation.
4. the estimation or name of being, having, having done, etc., something
specified: He has the reputation of being a shrewd businessman.
[Origin: 1325–75; ME reputacioun < L reputātiōn- (s. of reputātiō) computation,
consideration, equiv. to reputāt(us) (ptp. of reputāre; see repute) + -iōn- -ion]

—Related forms
rep·u·ta·tion·al, adjective

—Synonyms 1. regard, name. Reputation, character are often confused.


Reputation, however, is the word which refers to the position one occupies or the
standing that one has in the opinion of others, in respect to attainments,
integrity, and the like: a fine reputation; a reputation for honesty. Character is
the combination of moral and other traits which make one the kind of person one
actually is (as contrasted with what others think of one): Honesty is an
outstanding trait of his character. 2. fame, distinction, renown, esteem, honor,
recognition. 3. See credit.
—Antonyms 2. disrepute.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
rep·u·ta·tion (rěp'yə-tā'shən) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. The general estimation in which a person is held by the public.


2. The state or situation of being held in high esteem.
3. A specific characteristic or trait ascribed to a person or thing: a reputation
for courtesy.
171

[Middle English reputacioun, from Latin reputātiō, reputātiōn-, a reckoning, from


reputātus, past participle of reputāre, to reckon, think over; see repute.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
reputation
c.1380, from L. reputationem (nom. reputatio) "consideration," from reputatus,
pp. of reputare "reflect upon, reckon," from re- "repeatedly" + putare "to reckon,
consider" (see putative).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
reputation

noun
1. the state of being held in high esteem and honor [syn: repute] [ant:
discredit]
2. notoriety for some particular characteristic; "his reputation for promiscuity"
3. the general estimation that the public has for a person; "he acquired a
reputation as an actor before he started writing"; "he was a person of bad report"

Reconcile

rec·on·cile /ˈrɛkənˌsaɪl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[rek-


uhn-sahyl] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -ciled, -cil·ing.
–verb (used with object)
1. to cause (a person) to accept or be resigned to something not desired: He
was reconciled to his fate.
2. to win over to friendliness; cause to become amicable: to reconcile hostile
persons.
3. to compose or settle (a quarrel, dispute, etc.).
4. to bring into agreement or harmony; make compatible or consistent: to
reconcile differing statements; to reconcile accounts.
5. to reconsecrate (a desecrated church, cemetery, etc.).
6. to restore (an excommunicate or penitent) to communion in a church.
–verb (used without object)
7. to become reconciled.
[Origin: 1300–50; ME reconcilen < L reconciliāre to make good again, repair. See
re-, conciliate]

—Related forms
172

rec·on·cile·ment, noun
rec·on·cil·er, noun
rec·on·cil·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 2. pacify, propitiate, placate. 4. harmonize.


—Antonyms 3. anger.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
rec·on·cile (rěk'ən-sīl') Pronunciation Key
v. rec·on·ciled, rec·on·cil·ing, rec·on·ciles

v. tr.

1. To reestablish a close relationship between.


2. To settle or resolve.
3. To bring (oneself) to accept: He finally reconciled himself to the change in
management.
4. To make compatible or consistent: reconcile my way of thinking with yours.
See Synonyms at adapt.

v. intr.

1. To reestablish a close relationship, as in marriage: The estranged couple


reconciled after a year.
2. To become compatible or consistent: The figures would not reconcile.

[Middle English reconcilen, from Old French reconcilier, from Latin reconciliāre :
re-, re- + conciliāre, to conciliate; see conciliate.]

rec'on·cile'ment n., rec'on·cil'er n., rec'on·cil'i·a·to'ry (-sĭl'ē-ə-tôr'ē, -tōr'ē) adj.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
reconcile
c.1300, of persons, from L. reconcilare "to bring together again," from re- "again"
+ concilare "make friendly" (see conciliate). Reflexive sense is recorded from
173

1535. Meaning "to make (discordant facts or statements) consistent" is from


1565.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
reconcile

verb
1. make (one thing) compatible with (another); "The scientists had to
accommodate the new results with the existing theories" [syn: accommodate]
2. bring into consonance or accord; "harmonize one's goals with one's
abilities" [syn: harmonize]
3. come to terms; "After some discussion we finally made up"
4. accept as inevitable; "He resigned himself to his fate" [syn: resign]

Reconciliation

:Settlement, understanding, squaring off, resolution, compromise, reunion,


ceasefire, bringing

Reputation

: good name
rep·u·ta·tion /ˌrɛpyəˈteɪʃən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[rep-yuh-tey-shuhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun 1. the estimation in which a person or thing is held, esp. by the
community or the public generally; repute: a man of good reputation.
2. favorable repute; good name: to ruin one's reputation by misconduct.
3. a favorable and publicly recognized name or standing for merit, achievement,
reliability, etc.: to build up a reputation.
4. the estimation or name of being, having, having done, etc., something
specified: He has the reputation of being a shrewd businessman.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1325–75; ME reputacioun < L reputātiōn- (s. of reputātiō) computation,


consideration, equiv. to reputāt(us) (ptp. of reputāre; see repute) + -iōn- -ion]

—Related forms
rep·u·ta·tion·al, adjective
174

—Synonyms 1. regard, name. Reputation, character are often confused.


Reputation, however, is the word which refers to the position one occupies or the
standing that one has in the opinion of others, in respect to attainments,
integrity, and the like: a fine reputation; a reputation for honesty. Character is
the combination of moral and other traits which make one the kind of person one
actually is (as contrasted with what others think of one): Honesty is an
outstanding trait of his character. 2. fame, distinction, renown, esteem, honor,
recognition. 3. See credit.
—Antonyms 2. disrepute.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This rep·u·ta·tion
(rěp'yə-tā'shən) Pronunciation Key
n.
The general estimation in which a person is held by the public.
The state or situation of being held in high esteem.
A specific characteristic or trait ascribed to a person or thing: a reputation for
courtesy.

[Middle English reputacioun, from Latin reputātiō, reputātiōn-, a reckoning, from


reputātus, past participle of reputāre, to reckon, think over; see repute.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
reputation

c.1380, from L. reputationem (nom. reputatio) "consideration," from reputatus,


pp. of reputare "reflect upon, reckon," from re- "repeatedly" + putare "to reckon,
consider" (see putative).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This reputation

noun
1. the state of being held in high esteem and honor [syn: repute] [ant: discredit]
2. notoriety for some particular characteristic; "his reputation for promiscuity"
3. the general estimation that the public has for a person; "he acquired a
reputation as an actor before he started writing"; "he was a person of bad report"
175

Remand

re·mand /rɪˈmænd, -ˈmɑnd/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[ri-mand, -mahnd] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object)
1. to send back, remit, or consign again.
2. Law.
a. to send back (a case) to a lower court from which it was appealed, with
instructions as to what further proceedings should be had.
b. (of a court or magistrate) to send back (a prisoner or accused person) into
custody, as to await further proceedings.
–noun
3. the act of remanding.
4. the state of being remanded.
5. a person remanded.
[Origin: 1400–50; late ME remaunden (v.) < OF remander < LL remandāre to
repeat a command, send back word, equiv. to re- re- + mandāre to entrust,
enjoin; see mandate]

—Related forms
re·mand·ment, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
re·mand (rĭ-mānd') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. re·mand·ed, re·mand·ing, re·mands

1. To send or order back.


2. Law
1. To send back to custody.
2. To send back (a case) to a lower court with instructions about further
proceedings.

[Middle English remaunden, from Old French remander, from Late Latin
remandāre, to send back word : Latin re-, re- + Latin mandāre, to order; see
man-2 in Indo-European roots.]

re·mand' n., re·mand'ment n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
176

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition


Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
remand
1439, from M.Fr. remander (12c.), from L.L. remandare "to send back word,
repeat a command," from L. re- "back" + mandare "to consign, order, commit to
one's charge" (see mandate).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
remand

noun
1. the act of sending an accused person back into custody to await trial (or
the continuation of the trial)

verb
1. refer (a matter or legal case) to another committee or authority or court for
decision [syn: remit]
2. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail; "The suspects were imprisoned without
trial"; "the murderer was incarcerated for the rest of his life"

Resilient

re·sil·ient - [ri-zil-yuh nt, -zil-ee-uh nt] - Show IPA Pronunciation


–adjective
1. springing back; rebounding.
2. returning to the original form or position after being bent, compressed, or stretched.
3. recovering readily from illness, depression, adversity, or the like; buoyant.
[Origin: 1635–45; < L resilient- (s. of resiliéns), prp. of resilīre to spring back, equiv. to re- RE- +
-sil-, comb. form of salīre to leap, jump + -ent- -ENT); see SALIENT ]

—Related forms
re·sil·ient·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1. elastic, flexible, springy.


re·sil·ient (rĭ-zĭl'yənt)
adj.

1. Marked by the ability to recover readily, as from misfortune.


2. Capable of returning to an original shape or position, as after having been compressed.
See Synonyms at flexible.

[Latin resiliēns, resilient-, present participle of resilīre, to leap back; see resile.]
177

re·sil'ient·ly adv.
resilient

adjective
1. recovering readily from adversity, depression, or the like
2. elastic; rebounds readily; "clean bouncy hair"; "a lively tennis ball"; "as resilient
as seasoned hickory"; "springy turf" [syn: bouncy]

Main Entry: re·sil·ient


Pronunciation: -y&nt
Function: adjective
: characterized or marked by resilience

Replicate
rep·li·cate /adj., n. ˈrɛplɪkɪt; v. ˈrɛplɪˌkeɪt/ - [adj., n. rep-li-kit; v. rep-li-keyt] adjective, verb,
-cat·ed, -cat·ing, noun
–adjective
1. Also, rep·li·cat·ed. folded; bent back on itself.
–verb (used with object)
2. to bend or fold back: a replicated leaf.
3. to repeat, duplicate, or reproduce, esp. for experimental purposes.
–verb (used without object)
4. to undergo replication.
–noun
5. something that is replicated, as an experiment or procedure.
[Origin: 1525–35; < LL replicātus ptp. of replicāre to fold back. See re-, ply2, -ate1]

rep·li·cate (rěp'lĭ-kāt')
v. rep·li·cat·ed, rep·li·cat·ing, rep·li·cates
v. tr.
1. To duplicate, copy, reproduce, or repeat.
2. Biology To reproduce or make an exact copy or copies of (genetic material, a cell, or an
organism).
3. To fold over or bend back.

v. intr.
To become replicated; undergo replication.

n. (-kĭt)
A repetition of an experiment or procedure.

adj. replicate (-kĭt) also rep·li·cat·ed (-kā'tĭd)


Folded over or bent back upon itself: a replicate leaf.

[Middle English replicaten, from Late Latin replicāre, replicāt-, to repeat, from Latin, to fold back :
re-, re- + plicāre, to fold; see plek- in Indo-European roots.]

rep'li·ca'tive adj.

replicate
178

verb
1. bend or turn backward [syn: retroflex]
2. reproduce or make an exact copy of; "replicate the cell"; "copy the genetic information"
3. make or do or perform again; "He could never replicate his brilliant performance of the magic
trick" [syn: duplicate]

rep·li·cate (rpl-kt)
v. rep·li·cat·ed, rep·li·cat·ing, rep·li·cates

1. To duplicate, copy, reproduce, or repeat.


2. To reproduce or make an exact copy or copies of genetic material, a cell, or an organism.

n.

A repetition of an experiment or a procedure.

Main Entry: 2rep·li·cate


Pronunciation: -li-k&t
Function: noun
1 : one of several identical experiments, procedures, or samples
2 : something (as a gene, DNA, or a cell) produced by replication

Main Entry: 1rep·li·cate


Pronunciation: 'rep-l&-"kAt
Function: verb
Inflected Forms: -cat·ed; -cat·ing
transitive senses
: to repeat or duplicate (as an experiment) replicate intransitive senses
: to undergo replication : produce a replica of itself <virus particles replicating in cells>

Retract
re·tract /rɪˈtrækt/ - [ri-trakt]
–verb (used with object)
1. to withdraw (a statement, opinion, etc.) as inaccurate or unjustified, esp. formally or explicitly;
take back.
2. to withdraw or revoke (a decree, promise, etc.).
–verb (used without object)
3. to draw or shrink back.
4. to withdraw a promise, vow, etc.
5. to make a disavowal of a statement, opinion, etc.; recant.
[Origin: 1535–45; < L retractāre to reconsider, withdraw, equiv. to re- re- + tractāre to drag, pull,
take in hand (freq. of trahere to pull)]

—Related forms
re·tract·a·ble, re·tract·i·ble, adjective
re·tract·a·bil·i·ty, re·tract·i·bil·i·ty, noun
re·trac·ta·tion /ˌritrækˈteɪʃən/ - [ree-trak-tey-shuhn] , noun

—Synonyms 1, 2. deny, renounce, recant, abrogate, nullify, annul.


re·tract (rĭ-trākt')
179

v. re·tract·ed, re·tract·ing, re·tracts

v. tr.

1. To take back; disavow: refused to retract the statement.


2. To draw back or in: a plane retracting its landing gear. See Synonyms at recede1.
3. Linguistics
1. To utter (a sound) with the tongue drawn back.
2. To draw back (the tongue).

v. intr.

1. To take something back or disavow it.


2. To draw back.

Scribe

scribe Audio Help (skrīb) Pronunciation Key


n.

1. A public clerk or secretary, especially in ancient times.


2. A professional copyist of manuscripts and documents.
3. A writer or journalist.
4. See scriber.

v. scribed, scrib·ing, scribes

v. tr.

1. To mark with a scriber.


2. To write or inscribe.

v. intr.
To work as a scribe.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Late Latin scrība, from Latin, keeper of
accounts, secretary, from scrībere, to write; see skrībh- in Indo-European roots.]

scrib'al adj.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
180

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition


Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This

Scribes

anciently held various important offices in the public affairs of the nation. The
Hebrew word so rendered (sopher) is first used to designate the holder of some
military office (Judg. 5:14; A.V., "pen of the writer;" R.V., "the marshal's staff;"
marg., "the staff of the scribe"). The scribes acted as secretaries of state, whose
business it was to prepare and issue decrees in the name of the king (2 Sam.
8:17; 20:25; 1 Chr. 18:16; 24:6; 1 Kings 4:3; 2 Kings 12:9-11; 18:18-37, etc.).
They discharged various other important public duties as men of high authority
and influence in the affairs of state. There was also a subordinate class of scribes,
most of whom were Levites. They were engaged in various ways as writers. Such,
for example, was Baruch, who "wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words
of the Lord" (Jer. 36:4, 32). In later times, after the Captivity, when the nation
lost its independence, the scribes turned their attention to the law, gaining for
themselves distinction by their intimate acquaintance with its contents. On them
devolved the duty of multiplying copies of the law and of teaching it to others
(Ezra 7:6, 10-12; Neh. 8:1, 4, 9, 13). It is evident that in New Testament times
the scribes belonged to the sect of the Pharisees, who supplemented the ancient
written law by their traditions (Matt. 23), thereby obscuring it and rendering it of
none effect. The titles "scribes" and "lawyers" (q.v.) are in the Gospels
interchangeable (Matt. 22:35; Mark 12:28; Luke 20:39, etc.). They were in the
time of our Lord the public teachers of the people, and frequently came into
collision with him. They afterwards showed themselves greatly hostile to the
apostles (Acts 4:5; 6:12). Some of the scribes, however, were men of a different
spirit, and showed themselves friendly to the gospel and its preachers. Thus
Gamaliel advised the Sanhedrin, when the apostles were before them charged
with "teaching in this name," to "refrain from these men and let them alone"
(Acts 5:34-39; comp. 23:9).

Salutation

sal·u·ta·tion /ˌsælyəˈteɪʃən/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[sal-yuh-tey-shuhn] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. the act of saluting.
2. something uttered, written, or done by way of saluting.
3. a word or phrase serving as the prefatory greeting in a letter or speech, as
Dear Sir in a letter or Ladies and Gentlemen in a speech.
181

[Origin: 1350–1400; ME < L salūtātiōn- (s. of salūtātiō) greeting, equiv. to


salūtāt(us) (ptp. of salūtāre to greet; see salute, -ate1) + -iōn- -ion]

—Related forms
sal·u·ta·tion·al, adjective
sal·u·ta·tion·less, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
sal·u·ta·tion (sāl'yə-tā'shən) Pronunciation Key
n.

1.
1. A polite expression of greeting or goodwill.
2. salutations Greetings indicating respect and affection; regards.
2. A gesture of greeting, such as a bow or kiss.
3. A word or phrase of greeting used to begin a letter or message.

sal'u·ta'tion·al adj.

Usage Note: The informality of electronic mail poses a problem for the
traditional norms of epistolary style. In a formal e-mail message, there is nothing
out of place in beginning with a formula such as Dear Professor Fillmore and
closing with Very truly yours. Since e-mail is a relatively new medium for
communication, however, set phrases for informal greetings and closings are still
being established. At times, the salutation and valediction are left out entirely,
even when the correspondents do not know each other well. Informal salutations
include common greetings like Hi or simply the addressee's name. People have
been much more creative with the closing, employing terms such as best wishes
and cheers, the latter term previously associated with British use and perhaps
adopted because it sounds a neutral note between the kind of closings used in
letters and phone calls. Still more informal is TTFN, an abbreviation for ta-ta for
now, another Briticism.

Severe

se·vere /səˈvɪər/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[suh-veer]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective, -ver·er, -ver·est.
1. harsh; unnecessarily extreme: severe criticism; severe laws.
2. serious or stern in manner or appearance: a severe face.
3. grave; critical: a severe illness.
4. rigidly restrained in style, taste, manner, etc.; simple, plain, or austere.
182

5. causing discomfort or distress by extreme character or conditions, as


weather, cold, or heat; unpleasantly violent, as rain or wind, or a blow or shock.
6. difficult to endure, perform, fulfill, etc.: a severe test of his powers.
7. rigidly exact, accurate, or methodical: severe standards.
[Origin: 1540–50; < L sevérus, or back formation from severity]

—Related forms
se·vere·ly, adverb
se·vere·ness, noun

—Synonyms 2. strict, hard. See stern1. 4. unadorned. 7. demanding, exacting.


—Antonyms 1. lenient. 2. gentle.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
se·vere (sə-vîr') Pronunciation Key
adj. se·ver·er, se·ver·est

1. Unsparing, harsh, or strict, as in treatment of others: a severe critic.


2. Marked by or requiring strict adherence to rigorous standards or high
principles: a severe code of behavior.
3. Stern or forbidding, as in manner or appearance: spoke in a severe voice.
4. Extremely plain in substance or style: a severe black dress.
5. Causing great discomfort, damage, or distress: a severe pain; a severe
storm.
6. Very dangerous or harmful; grave or grievous: severe mental illness.
7. Extremely difficult to perform or endure; trying: a severe test of our loyalty.

[Latin sevērus, serious, strict; see segh- in Indo-European roots.]

se·vere'ly adv., se·vere'ness n.

Synonyms: These adjectives mean unsparing and exacting with respect to


discipline or control. Severe implies adherence to rigorous standards or high
principles and often suggests harshness: "Praise or blame has but a momentary
effect on the man whose love of beauty in the abstract makes him a severe critic
on his own works" (John Keats).
Stern suggests unyielding disposition, uncompromising resolution, or
forbidding appearance or nature: "a man fatally stern and implacable" (George
Meredith).
183

Austere connotes aloofness or lack of feeling or sympathy, and often rigid


morality: Austere officers demand meticulous conformity with military
regulations.
Ascetic suggests self-discipline and often renunciation of worldly pleasures for
spiritual improvement: "Be systematically ascetic ... do ... something for no other
reason than that you would rather not do it" (William James).
Strict means requiring or showing stringent observance of obligations, rules, or
standards: "He could not be severe nor even passably strict" (W.H. Hudson).

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
severe

adjective
1. intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality; "severe
pain"; "a severe case of flu"; "a terrible cough"; "under wicked fire from the
enemy's guns"; "a wicked cough"
2. very strong or vigorous; "strong winds"; "a hard left to the chin"; "a
knockout punch"; "a severe blow" [syn: hard]
3. severely simple; "a stark interior" [syn: austere]
4. unsparing and uncompromising in discipline or judgment; "a parent severe
to the pitch of hostility"- H.G.Wells; "a hefty six-footer with a rather severe
mien"; "a strict disciplinarian"; "a Spartan upbringing"
5. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm; "a dangerous
operation"; "a grave situation"; "a grave illness"; "grievous bodily harm"; "a
serious wound"; "a serious turn of events"; "a severe case of pneumonia"; "a life-
threatening disease" [syn: dangerous]
6. very bad in degree or extent; "a severe worldwide depression"; "the house
suffered severe damage"

Severity

se·ver·i·ty /səˈvɛrɪti/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[suh-ver-


i-tee] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun, plural -ties.
1. harshness, sternness, or rigor: Their lives were marked by severity.
2. austere simplicity, as of style, manner, or taste: The severity of the decor
was striking.
3. intensity or sharpness, as of cold or pain.
184

4. grievousness; hard or trying character or effect: The severity of his loss


was finally becoming apparent.
5. rigid exactness or accuracy.
6. an instance of strict or severe behavior, punishment, etc.
[Origin: 1475–85; < L sevéritās, equiv. to sevér(us) severe + -itās -ity]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
se·ver·i·ty (sə-věr'ĭ-tē) Pronunciation Key
n. pl. se·ver·i·ties

1. The state or quality of being severe.


2. The act or an instance of severe behavior, especially punishment.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
severity
1481, "austerity or strictness of life," from M.Fr. severite, from L. severitas, from
severus "stern, strict, serious," possibly from *se vero "without kindness," from
se "without" (see secret) + *vero "kindness," neuter ablative of verus "true" (see
very). Meaning "strictness in dealing with others" is recorded from 1530. Severe
is 1548, from M.Fr. severe, from L. severus.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
severity

noun
1. used of the degree of something undesirable e.g. pain or weather [syn:
badness]
2. something hard to endure; "the asperity of northern winters" [syn:
asperity]
3. extreme plainness [syn: austereness]
4. excessive sternness; "severity of character"; "the harshness of his
punishment was inhuman"; "the rigors of boot camp"

Sustain
185

sus·tain /səˈsteɪn/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[suh-steyn]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object)
1. to support, hold, or bear up from below; bear the weight of, as a structure.
2. to bear (a burden, charge, etc.).
3. to undergo, experience, or suffer (injury, loss, etc.); endure without giving
way or yielding.
4. to keep (a person, the mind, the spirits, etc.) from giving way, as under
trial or affliction.
5. to keep up or keep going, as an action or process: to sustain a
conversation.
6. to supply with food, drink, and other necessities of life.
7. to provide for (an institution or the like) by furnishing means or funds.
8. to support (a cause or the like) by aid or approval.
9. to uphold as valid, just, or correct, as a claim or the person making it: The
judge sustained the lawyer's objection.
10. to confirm or corroborate, as a statement: Further investigation sustained
my suspicions.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME suste(i)nen < AF sustenir, OF < L sustinére to uphold,
equiv. to sus- sus- + -tinére, comb. form of tenére to hold]

—Related forms
sus·tain·a·ble, adjective
sus·tain·a·bil·i·ty, noun
sus·tain·ed·ly /səˈsteɪnɪdli, -ˈsteɪnd-/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[suh-stey-nid-lee, -steynd-] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation, adverb
sus·tain·ing·ly, adverb
sus·tain·ment, noun

—Synonyms 1. carry. See support. 3. bear. 5. maintain.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Autodesk Architecture
Streamline Your Profit With AEC Solutions. Check Online Today!
www.autodesk.in
Sponsored Link
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
sus·tain (sə-stān') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. sus·tained, sus·tain·ing, sus·tains

1. To keep in existence; maintain.


2. To supply with necessities or nourishment; provide for.
186

3. To support from below; keep from falling or sinking; prop.


4. To support the spirits, vitality, or resolution of; encourage.
5. To bear up under; withstand: can't sustain the blistering heat.
6. To experience or suffer: sustained a fatal injury.
7. To affirm the validity of: The judge has sustained the prosecutor's objection.
8. To prove or corroborate; confirm.
9. To keep up (a joke or assumed role, for example) competently.

[Middle English sustenen, from Old French sustenir, from Latin sustinēre : sub-,
from below; see sub- + tenēre, to hold; see ten- in Indo-European roots.]

sus·tain'a·bil'i·ty n., sus·tain'a·ble adj., sus·tain'er n., sus·tain'ment n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
sustain
c.1290, from O.Fr. sustenir "hold up, endure," from L. sustinere "hold up,
support, endure," from sub "up from below" + tenere "to hold" (see tenet).
Sustainable growth is recorded from 1965.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
sustain

verb
1. lengthen or extend in duration or space; "We sustained the diplomatic
negotiations as long as possible"; "prolong the treatment of the patient"; "keep
up the good work" [syn: prolong]
2. undergo (as of injuries and illnesses); "She suffered a fracture in the
accident"; "He had an insulin shock after eating three candy bars"; "She got a
bruise on her leg"; "He got his arm broken in the scuffle" [syn: suffer]
3. provide with nourishment; "We sustained ourselves on bread and water";
"This kind of food is not nourishing for young children" [syn: nourish]
4. supply with necessities and support; "She alone sustained her family"; "The
money will sustain our good cause"; "There's little to earn and many to keep"
5. be the physical support of; carry the weight of; "The beam holds up the
roof"; "He supported me with one hand while I balanced on the beam"; "What's
holding that mirror?" [syn: hold]
6. admit as valid; "The court sustained the motion"
187

7. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts; "his story confirmed


my doubts"; "The evidence supports the defendant" [syn: confirm] [ant:
contradict]

Subsidiary

sub·sid·i·ar·y /səbˈsɪdiˌɛri/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[suhb-sid-ee-er-ee] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
adjective, noun, plural -ar·ies.
–adjective 1. serving to assist or supplement; auxiliary; supplementary.
2. subordinate or secondary: subsidiary issues.
3. of or pertaining to a subsidiary.
–noun 4. a subsidiary thing or person.
5. subsidiary company.
6. Music. a subordinate theme or subject.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: 1535–45; < L subsidiārius, equiv. to subsidi(um) (see subsidy) + -ārius


-ary]

—Related forms
sub·sid·i·ar·i·ly /səbˌsɪdiˈɛərəli, -ˈsɪdiˌɛr-/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[suhb-sid-ee-air-uh-lee, -sid-ee-er-] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation, adverb
sub·sid·i·ar·i·ness, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This sub·sid·i·ar·y
(səb-sĭd'ē-ěr'ē) Pronunciation Key
adj.
Serving to assist or supplement; auxiliary.
Secondary in importance; subordinate.
Of, relating to, or of the nature of a subsidy.

n. pl. sub·sid·i·ar·ies

One that is subsidiary to another.


A subsidiary company.
Music A theme subordinate to a main theme or subject.
188

[Latin subsidiārius, from subsidium, support; see subsidy.]

sub·sid'i·ar'i·ly (-âr'ə-lē) adv.

(Download Now or Buy the Book) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
subsidiary

1543, from M.Fr. subsidiaire, from L. subsidiarius "serving to assist or


supplement," from subsidium "help, aid" (see subsidy).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This subsidiary

adjective
1. functioning in a supporting capacity; "the main library and its auxiliary
branches" [syn: auxiliary]

noun
1. an assistant subject to the authority or control of another [syn: subordinate]
2. a company that is completely controlled by another company [syn: subsidiary
company]

Sparrow

spar·row /ˈspæroʊ/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[spar-oh]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun 1. any of numerous American finches of the family Emberizinae. Compare
chipping sparrow, song sparrow.
2. any member of the Old World genus Passer, formerly thought to be closely
related to the weaverbirds but now placed in their own family, Passeridae.
3. British. the house sparrow.
4. any of several other unrelated small birds. Compare Java sparrow, hedge
sparrow.
5. (initial capital letter) Military. a 12-ft. (4-m), all-weather, radar-guided U.S.
air-to-air missile with an 88-lb. (40-kg) high-explosive warhead.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Origin: bef. 900; ME sparowe, OE spearwa; c. Goth sparwa, ON spǫrr]


189

—Related forms
spar·row·less, adjective
spar·row·like, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This spar·row
(spār'ō) Pronunciation Key
n.
Any of various small New World finches of the family Emberizidae, having
brownish or grayish plumage and including the song sparrow, white-throated
sparrow, chipping sparrow, vesper sparrow, and other closely related species.
Any of various birds of the family Passeridae, especially the house sparrow.
Any of various similar or related birds, such as the Java sparrow.

[Middle English sparowe, from Old English spearwa.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
sparrow

small brownish-gray bird, O.E. spearwa, from P.Gmc. *sparwan (cf. O.N. spörr,
O.H.G. sparo, Ger. Sperling, Goth. sparwa), from PIE *sper- (cf. Cornish frau
"crow;" O.Prus. spurglis "sparrow;" Gk. spergoulos "small field bird," psar
"starling"). Sparrowhawk is attested from c.1400. Sparrowfarts (1886) was
Cheshire slang for "very early morning."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This sparrow

noun
1. any of several small dull-colored singing birds feeding on seeds or insects
2. small brownish European songbird [syn: hedge sparrow]

T
Tenor
190

ten·or Audio Help /ˈtɛnər/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[ten-er] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. the course of thought or meaning that runs through something written or
spoken; purport; drift.
2. continuous course, progress, or movement.
3. Rhetoric. the subject of a metaphor, as “she” in “She is a rose.” Compare
vehicle (def. 8).
4. Music.
a. the adult male voice intermediate between the bass and the alto or
countertenor.
b. a part sung by or written for such a voice, esp. the next to the lowest part
in four-part harmony.
c. a singer with such a voice.
d. an instrument corresponding in compass to this voice, esp. the viola.
e. the lowest-toned bell of a peal.
5. quality, character, or condition.
–adjective
6. Music. of, pertaining to, or having the compass of a tenor.
[Origin: 1250–1300; < ML, L: course, continuity, tone, equiv. to ten(ére) to hold
+ -or -or1; r. ME ten(o)ur < AF < L, as above]

—Related forms
ten·or·less, adjective

—Synonyms 1. sense, import, content, substance, gist.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
ten·or Audio Help (těn'ər) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. A continuous, unwavering course. See Synonyms at tendency.


2. The word, phrase, or subject with which the vehicle of a metaphor is
identified, as life in "Life's but a walking shadow" (Shakespeare).
3.
1. The course of thought or argument running through something written
or spoken.
2. General sense; purport.
3. The exact meaning or actual wording of a document as distinct from its
effect.
4. An exact copy of a document.
5. The highest natural adult male voice.
191

6. One who sings this part.


7. An instrument that sounds within this range.
8. Abbr. T A vocal or instrumental part written within this range.
4. Law
1. The exact meaning or actual wording of a document as distinct from its
effect.
2. An exact copy of a document.
3. The highest natural adult male voice.
4. One who sings this part.
5. An instrument that sounds within this range.
6. Abbr. T A vocal or instrumental part written within this range.
5. Music
1. The highest natural adult male voice.
2. One who sings this part.
3. An instrument that sounds within this range.
4. Abbr. T A vocal or instrumental part written within this range.

[Middle English, from Anglo-Norman, from Latin, uninterrupted course, from


tenēre, to hold, continue; see ten- in Indo-European roots.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
tenor
c.1300, "general meaning, purpose, drift," from O.Fr. tenour "substance, sense"
(13c.), from L. tenorem (nom. tenor) "contents, course," originally "a holding
on," from tenere "to hold" (see tenet). The musical sense of "high male voice" is
attested from c.1388, because the sustained melody (canto fermo) was carried
by the tenor's part.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
tenor

adjective
1. (of a musical instrument) intermediate between alto and baritone or bass;
"a tenor sax"
2. of or close in range to the highest natural adult male voice; "tenor voice"

noun
192

1. the adult male singing voice above baritone


2. the pitch range of the highest male voice
3. an adult male with a tenor voice
4. a settled or prevailing or habitual course of a person's life; "nothing
disturbed the even tenor of her ways"
5. the general meaning or substance of an utterance; "although I disagreed
with him I could follow the tenor of his argument"

Stripe

stripe1 /straɪp/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[strahyp]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation, noun, verb, striped, strip·ing.
–noun
1. a relatively long, narrow band of a different color, appearance, weave,
material, or nature from the rest of a surface or thing: the stripes of a zebra.
2. a fabric or material containing such a band or bands.
3. a strip of braid, tape, or the like.
4. stripes,
a. a number or combination of such strips, worn on a military, naval, or other
uniform as a badge of rank, service, good conduct, combat wounds, etc.
b. Informal. status or recognition as a result of one's efforts, experience, or
achievements: She earned her stripes as a traveling sales representative and
then moved up to district manager.
5. a strip, or long, narrow piece of anything: a stripe of beach.
6. a streak or layer of a different nature within a substance.
7. style, variety, sort, or kind: a man of quite a different stripe.
8. Also called magnetic stripe. Movies. a strip of iron oxide layer on the edge
of a film that is used for recording and reproducing a magnetic sound track.
–verb (used with object)
9. to mark or furnish with a stripe or stripes.
[Origin: 1620–30; < MD or MLG strīpe; see strip2, stripe2]

—Related forms
stripeless, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
stripe2 /straɪp/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[strahyp]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation,
–noun
a stroke with a whip, rod, etc., as in punishment.
[Origin: 1400–50; late ME; obscurely akin to stripe1]
193

Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)


Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
stripe 1 (strīp) Pronunciation Key
n.

1.
1. A long narrow band distinguished, as by color or texture, from the
surrounding material or surface.
2. A textile pattern of parallel bands or lines on a contrasting background.
3. A fabric having such a pattern.
2. A strip of cloth or braid worn on a uniform to indicate rank, awards received,
or length of service; a chevron.
3. Sort; kind: "All Fascists are not of one mind, one stripe" (Lillian Hellman).

tr.v. striped, strip·ing, stripes


To mark with stripes or a stripe.

[Middle English, possibly from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German strīpe.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
stripe 2 (strīp) Pronunciation Key
n. A stroke or blow, as with a whip.

[Middle English.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
stripe (1)
"a line or band in cloth," 1626 (but probably much older), from M.Du. or M.L.G.
stripe "stripe, streak," from P.Gmc. *stripanan (cf. Dan. stribe "a striped fabric,"
Ger. Streifen "stripe"), cognate with O.Ir. sriab "stripe," from PIE base *streig-
(see strigil). Of soldiers' chevrons, badges, etc., attested from 1827.
194

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
stripe (2)
"a stroke or lash," 1440, probably a special use of stripe (1), from the marks left
by a lash. Cf. also Du. strippen "to whip," W.Fris. strips, apparently cognate but
not attested as early as the Eng. word.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
stripe

noun
1. an adornment consisting of a strip of a contrasting color or material [syn:
band]
2. a piece of braid, usually on the sleeve, indicating military rank or length of
service
3. V-shaped sleeve badge indicating military rank and service; "they earned
their stripes in Kuwait" [syn: chevron]
4. a kind or category; "businessmen of every stripe joined in opposition to the
proposal"
5. a narrow marking of a different color or texture from the background; "a
green toad with small black stripes or bars"; "may the Stars and Stripes forever
wave"

verb
1. mark with stripes

Severe

se·vere /səˈvɪər/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[suh-veer]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective, -ver·er, -ver·est.
1. harsh; unnecessarily extreme: severe criticism; severe laws.
2. serious or stern in manner or appearance: a severe face.
3. grave; critical: a severe illness.
4. rigidly restrained in style, taste, manner, etc.; simple, plain, or austere.
5. causing discomfort or distress by extreme character or conditions, as
weather, cold, or heat; unpleasantly violent, as rain or wind, or a blow or shock.
6. difficult to endure, perform, fulfill, etc.: a severe test of his powers.
7. rigidly exact, accurate, or methodical: severe standards.
[Origin: 1540–50; < L sevérus, or back formation from severity]

—Related forms
195

se·vere·ly, adverb
se·vere·ness, noun

—Synonyms 2. strict, hard. See stern1. 4. unadorned. 7. demanding, exacting.


—Antonyms 1. lenient. 2. gentle.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
se·vere (sə-vîr') Pronunciation Key
adj. se·ver·er, se·ver·est

1. Unsparing, harsh, or strict, as in treatment of others: a severe critic.


2. Marked by or requiring strict adherence to rigorous standards or high
principles: a severe code of behavior.
3. Stern or forbidding, as in manner or appearance: spoke in a severe voice.
4. Extremely plain in substance or style: a severe black dress.
5. Causing great discomfort, damage, or distress: a severe pain; a severe
storm.
6. Very dangerous or harmful; grave or grievous: severe mental illness.
7. Extremely difficult to perform or endure; trying: a severe test of our loyalty.

[Latin sevērus, serious, strict; see segh- in Indo-European roots.]

se·vere'ly adv., se·vere'ness n.

Synonyms: These adjectives mean unsparing and exacting with respect to


discipline or control. Severe implies adherence to rigorous standards or high
principles and often suggests harshness: "Praise or blame has but a momentary
effect on the man whose love of beauty in the abstract makes him a severe critic
on his own works" (John Keats).
Stern suggests unyielding disposition, uncompromising resolution, or
forbidding appearance or nature: "a man fatally stern and implacable" (George
Meredith).
Austere connotes aloofness or lack of feeling or sympathy, and often rigid
morality: Austere officers demand meticulous conformity with military
regulations.
Ascetic suggests self-discipline and often renunciation of worldly pleasures for
spiritual improvement: "Be systematically ascetic ... do ... something for no other
reason than that you would rather not do it" (William James).
Strict means requiring or showing stringent observance of obligations, rules, or
standards: "He could not be severe nor even passably strict" (W.H. Hudson).
196

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
severe

adjective
1. intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality; "severe
pain"; "a severe case of flu"; "a terrible cough"; "under wicked fire from the
enemy's guns"; "a wicked cough"
2. very strong or vigorous; "strong winds"; "a hard left to the chin"; "a
knockout punch"; "a severe blow" [syn: hard]
3. severely simple; "a stark interior" [syn: austere]
4. unsparing and uncompromising in discipline or judgment; "a parent severe
to the pitch of hostility"- H.G.Wells; "a hefty six-footer with a rather severe
mien"; "a strict disciplinarian"; "a Spartan upbringing"
5. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm; "a dangerous
operation"; "a grave situation"; "a grave illness"; "grievous bodily harm"; "a
serious wound"; "a serious turn of events"; "a severe case of pneumonia"; "a life-
threatening disease" [syn: dangerous]
6. very bad in degree or extent; "a severe worldwide depression"; "the house
suffered severe damage"

Strive
strive - [strahyv] - Show IPA Pronunciation,

–verb (used without object), strove or strived, striv·en - [striv-uh n] -


Show IPA Pronunciation or strived, striv·ing.
1. to exert oneself vigorously; try hard: He strove to make himself understood.
2. to make strenuous efforts toward any goal: to strive for success.
3. to contend in opposition, battle, or any conflict; compete.
4. to struggle vigorously, as in opposition or resistance: to strive against fate.
5. to rival; vie.

strijven, G streben to strive ]

—Related forms
striver, noun
striv·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1. See TRY. 2. toil. 3. struggle, fight.


197

strive (strīv)
intr.v. strove (strōv), striv·en (strĭv'ən) or strived, striv·ing, strives

1. To exert much effort or energy; endeavor.


2. To struggle or fight forcefully; contend: strive against injustice.

[Middle English striven, from Old French estriver, from estrit, estrif, quarrel; see strife.]

striv'er n., striv'ing·ly adv.

strive
c.1205 (implied in striving), from O.Fr. estriver "to quarrel, dispute," from estrif, estrit "quarrel"
(see strife). It became a strong verb (past tense strove) by rhyming association with drive, etc.

strive

verb
1. attempt by employing effort; "we endeavor to make our customers happy" [syn: endeavor]
2. to exert much effort or energy; "straining our ears to hear"

Shrink

shrink - [shringk] - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, shrank or, often, shrunk;
shrunk or shrunk·en; shrink·ing; noun
–verb (used without object)
1. to draw back, as in retreat or avoidance: to shrink from danger; to shrink from contact.
2. to contract or lessen in size, as from exposure to conditions of temperature or moisture: This
cloth will not shrink if washed in lukewarm water.
3. to become reduced in extent or compass.
–verb (used with object)
4. to cause to shrink or contract; reduce.
5. Textiles. to cause (a fabric) to contract during finishing, thus preventing shrinkage, during
laundering, of the garments made from it.
–noun
6. an act or instance of shrinking.
7. a shrinking movement.
8. SHRINKAGE.
9. Also, shrinker. Also called head shrinker. Slang. a psychotherapist, psychiatrist, or
psychoanalyst.

skrynka to shrink, Norw skrukka old shrunken woman ]

—Related forms
198

shrink·a·ble, adjective
shrink·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1. withdraw, recoil, quail. See WINCE. 3. See DECREASE.


—Antonyms 3. increase.

shrink (shrĭngk)
v. shrank (shrāngk) or shrunk (shrŭngk), shrunk or shrunk·en (shrŭng'kən),
shrink·ing, shrinks

v. intr.

1. To become constricted from heat, moisture, or cold.


2. To become reduced in amount or value; dwindle: His savings quickly shrank.
3. To draw back instinctively, as from something alarming; recoil.
4. To show reluctance; hesitate: shrink from making such a sacrifice.

v. tr.
To cause to shrink.
n.

1.
a. The act of shrinking.
b. The degree to which something shrinks; shrinkage.
2. Slang A psychotherapist.

[Middle English shrinken, to wither, shrivel up, from Old English scrincan; see sker-2 in
Indo-European roots.]

shrink'a·ble adj., shrink'er n.


shrink
O.E. scrincan (class III strong verb; past tense scranc, pp. scruncen), from P.Gmc. *skrenkanan
(cf. M.Du. schrinken), probably from PIE base *(s)ker- "to turn, bend." Originally with causal
shrench (cf. drink/drench). The meaning "draw back, recoil" (c.1300) perhaps was suggested by
the behavior of snails. The slang sense of "psychiatrist" is first recorded 1966, from head-shrinker
(1950). Shrink-wrap is attested from 1961.

shrink
noun
1. a physician who specializes in psychiatry [syn: psychiatrist]
verb
1. wither, as with a loss of moisture; "The fruit dried and shriveled" [syn: shrivel]
2. draw back, as with fear or pain; "she flinched when they showed the slaughtering of
the calf" [syn: flinch]
3. reduce in size; reduce physically; "Hot water will shrink the sweater"; "Can you shrink
this image?"
4. become smaller or draw together; "The fabric shrank"; "The balloon shrank" [ant:
expand, stretch]
5. decrease in size, range, or extent; "His earnings shrank"; "My courage shrivelled
when I saw the task before me"
199

Swirl

swirl - [swurl] - Show IPA Pronunciation,


–verb (used without object)
1. to move around or along with a whirling motion; whirl; eddy.
2. to be dizzy or giddy, as the head.
–verb (used with object)
3. to cause to whirl; twist.
–noun
4. a swirling movement; whirl; eddy.
5. a twist, as of hair around the head or of trimming on a hat.
6. any curving, twisting line, shape, or form.
7. confusion; disorder.

—Related forms
swirl·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 2. reel, spin.


swirl (swûrl)
v. swirled, swirl·ing, swirls
v. intr.
To move with a twisting or whirling motion; eddy.

1. To be dizzy or disoriented.
2. To be arranged in a spiral, whorl, or twist.

v. tr.
To cause to move with a twisting or whirling motion. See Synonyms at turn.

1. To form into or arrange in a spiral, whorl, or twist.

n.

1. A whirling or eddying motion or mass: a swirl of white water.


2. Something, such as a curl of hair, that coils, twists, or whirls.
3. Whirling confusion or disorder: "high-pressure farce built around the swirl of mistaken
identities" (Jay Carr).

[Middle English swyrl, eddy, probably of Low German or Scandinavian origin.]

swirl'y adj.
swirl (n.)
c.1425, "whirlpool, eddy," originally Scottish, perhaps related to dialectal Norw. svirla or Du.
zwirrelen "to whirl." The meaning "whirling movement" is from 1818. The verb is attested from
1513, with an isolated instance from 14c.

swirl
200

noun
1. the shape of something rotating rapidly [syn: whirl]

verb
1. turn in a twisting or spinning motion; "The leaves swirled in the autumn wind" [syn: twirl]
2. flow in a circular current, of liquids [syn: eddy]

Sorely

sore·ly - [sawr-lee, sohr-] - Show IPA Pronunciation


–adverb
1. in a painful manner.
2. extremely; very: I was sorely tempted to report him.

sore·ly (sôr'lē, sōr'-)


adv.

1. Painfully; grievously.
2. Extremely; greatly: Their skills were sorely needed.

sorely

adverb
1. to a great degree; "I missed him sorely"; "we were sorely
taxed to keep up with them"
2. in or as if in pain; "she moved painfully forward"; "sorely
wounded" [syn: painfully] [ant:

Strip1

strip1 - [strip] - Show IPA Pronunciation, verb, stripped or stript, strip·ping, noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to deprive of covering: to strip a fruit of its rind.
2. to deprive of clothing; make bare or naked.
3. to take away or remove: to strip sheets from the bed.
4. to deprive or divest: to strip a tree of its bark; to strip him of all privileges.
5. to clear out or empty: to strip a house of its contents.
6. to deprive of equipment; dismantle: to strip a ship of rigging.
7. to dispossess, rob, or plunder: to strip a man of his possessions.
8. to remove varnish, paint, wax, or the like from: The wood should be stripped and then
refinished.
9. to separate the leaves from the stalks of (tobacco).
10. to remove the midrib, as from tobacco leaves.
11. Machinery. to break off the thread of (a screw, bolt, etc.) or the teeth of (a gear), as by
applying too much force.
12. to remove the mold from (an ingot).
201

13. to draw the last milk from (a cow), esp. by a stroking and compressing movement.
14. to draw out (milk) in this manner.
15. Photoengraving. to remove (the emulsion from a film base) in order to place it on a glass plate
for exposure to the metal plate.
16. Textiles.
a. to clean (a carding roller) by removing waste fibers.
b. to transfer (fibers) from one carding roller to another.
c. to remove (color) from a cloth or yarn in order to redye it another color.
d. to remove color from (a cloth or yarn).
17. Bridge. to lead successively winning cards from (a hand) in order to dispose of as many cards
as necessary preparatory to surrendering the lead to an opponent so that any card the
opponent plays will be to his or her disadvantage.
18. Mining. to strip-mine.
19. Chemistry. to remove the most volatile components from, as by distillation or evaporation.
20. Finance. to split (a bond) for selling separately as a principal certificate and as interest
coupons.
21. Surgery. to remove (a vein) by pulling it inside out through a small incision, using a long,
hooked instrument.
–verb (used without object)
22. to strip something.
23. to remove one's clothes.
24. to perform a striptease.
25. to become stripped: Bananas strip easily.
–noun
26. a striptease.

[Origin: 1175–1225; (v.) ME strippe, OE *stryppan (cf. MHG strupfen to strip off); r. ME stripen,
strepen, strupen (cf. OE bestrȳpan to rob, plunder) ]

—Synonyms 1. uncover, peel, decorticate. 2. denude. 7. despoil. Strip, deprive, dispossess, divest
imply more or less forcibly taking something away from someone. To strip is to take something
completely (often violently) from a person or thing so as to leave in a destitute or powerless
state: to strip a man of all his property; to strip the bark from a tree. To deprive is to take away
forcibly or coercively what one has, or to withhold what one might have: to deprive workers of
their livelihood. To dispossess is to deprive of the holding or use of something: to dispossess the
renters of a house. Divest usually means depriving of rights, privileges, powers, or the like: to
divest a king of authority.
—Antonyms 6. supply, furnish.
strip2 - [strip] - Show IPA Pronunciation noun, verb, stripped, strip·ping.
–noun
1. a narrow piece, comparatively long and usually of uniform width: a strip of cloth, metal, land,
etc.
2. a continuous series of drawings or pictures illustrating incidents, conversation, etc., as a comic
strip.
3. Aeronautics.
a. an airstrip; runway.
b. LANDING STRIP.
4. Philately. three or more stamps joined either in a horizontal or vertical row.
5. Informal. STRIPLIGHT.
6. (sometimes initial capital letter ) a road, street, or avenue, usually in a city or a main
202

thoroughfare between outlying suburbs, densely lined on both sides by a large variety of retail
stores, gas stations, restaurants, bars, etc.: Sunset Strip in Los Angeles.
7. STRIP STEAK.
8. DRAG STRIP.
–verb (used with object)
9. to cut, tear, or form into strips.
10. Printing. to combine (a piece of film) with another, esp. for making a combination plate of lines
and halftones.
11. to broadcast (a television series) in multiple related segments, as daily from Monday through
Friday.
strip 1 (strĭp)
v. stripped, strip·ping, strips

v. tr.

1.
a. To remove clothing or covering from.
b. To deprive of (clothing or covering).
c. To remove all excess detail from; reduce to essentials.
d. To remove equipment, furnishings, or supplementary parts or attachments from.
2. To deprive of honors, rank, office, privileges, or possessions; divest.
3.
a. To remove all excess detail from; reduce to essentials.
b. To remove equipment, furnishings, or supplementary parts or attachments from.
4. To clear of a natural covering or growth; make bare: strip a field.
5. To remove an exterior coating, as of paint or varnish, from: stripped and refinished the old
chest of drawers.
6. To remove the leaves from the stalks of. Used especially of tobacco.
7. To dismantle (a firearm, for example) piece by piece.
8. To damage or break the threads of (a screw, for example) or the teeth of (a gear).
9. To press the last drops of milk from (a cow or goat, for example) at the end of milking.
10. To rob of wealth or property; plunder or despoil.
11. To mount (a photographic positive or negative) on paper to be used in making a printing plate.

v. intr.

a. To undress completely.
b. To perform a striptease.

To fall away or be removed; peel.

n. A striptease.
[Middle English stripen, from Old English -strȳpan, to plunder (in bestrȳpan).]
strip'pa·ble adj.
strip 2 (strĭp)
n.
203

1.
a. A long narrow piece, usually of uniform width: a strip of paper; strips of beef.
b. A long narrow region of land or body of water.
2. A comic strip.
3. An airstrip.
4. An area, as along a busy street or highway, that is lined with a great number and variety of
commercial establishments.

tr.v. stripped, strip·ping, strips


To cut or tear into strips.

[Middle English, perhaps from Middle Low German strippe, strap, thong.]

strip (v.)
"make bare," O.E. -striepan, -strypan "plunder, despoil," as in W.Saxon bestrypan "to plunder,"
from P.Gmc. *straupijanan (cf. M.Du. stropen "to strip off, to ramble about plundering," O.H.G.
stroufen "to strip off, plunder," Ger. streifen "strip off, touch upon, to ramble, roam, rove").
Meaning "to unclothe" is recorded from c.1225. Of screw threads, from 1839; of gear wheels,
from 1873. Strip poker is attested from 1929; strip search is from 1947.

strip (n.)
"long, narrow, flat piece," 1459, "narrow piece of cloth," probably from M.L.G. strippe "strap,
thong," related to stripe (see stripe (1)). Sense extension to wood, land, etc. first recorded 1638.
Sense in comic strip is from 1920. Meaning "street noted for clubs, bars, etc." is attested from
1939, originally in ref. to Los Angeles' Sunset Strip. Strip mine is attested from 1934, so called
because the surface material is removed in successive parallel strips.

strip
noun
1. a relatively long narrow piece of something; "he felt a flat strip of muscle"
2. artifact consisting of a narrow flat piece of material
3. an airfield without normal airport facilities [syn: airstrip]
4. a sequence of drawings telling a story in a newspaper or comic book [syn: comic strip]
5. thin piece of wood or metal
6. a form of erotic entertainment in which a dancer gradually undresses to music; "she did a
strip right in front of everyone"
verb
1. take away possessions from someone; "The Nazis stripped the Jews of all their assets" [syn:
deprive]
2. get undressed; "please don't undress in front of everybody!"; "She strips in front of strangers
every night for a living" [syn: undress] [ant: apparel, dress]
3. remove the surface from; "strip wood"
4. remove substances from by a percolating liquid; "leach the soil" [syn: leach]
5. lay bare; "denude a forest" [syn: denude]
6. steal goods; take as spoils; "During the earthquake people looted the stores that were
deserted by their owners" [syn: plunder]
7. remove all contents or possession from, or empty completely; "The boys cleaned the
sandwich platters"; "The trees were cleaned of apples by the storm" [syn: clean]
8. strip the cured leaves from; "strip tobacco"
9. remove the thread (of screws)
10. remove a constituent from a liquid
204

11. take off or remove; "strip a wall of its wallpaper"


12. draw the last milk (of cows)
13. remove (someone's or one's own) clothes; "The nurse quickly undressed the accident victim";
"She divested herself of her outdoor clothes"; "He disinvested himself of his garments"

Squeeze

squeeze - [skweez] - Show IPA Pronunciation, verb, squeezed, squeez·ing, noun


–verb (used with object)
1. to press forcibly together; compress.
2. to apply pressure to in order to extract juice, sap, or the like: to squeeze an orange.
3. to force out, extract, or procure by pressure: to squeeze juice from an orange.
4. to thrust forcibly; force by pressure; cram: to squeeze three suits into a small suitcase.
5. to fit into a small or crowded space or timespan: The doctor will try to squeeze you in between
appointments.
6. to enclose (another person's hand, arm, etc.) in one's hand and apply pressure as a token of
affection, friendship, sympathy, or the like: His father squeezed his hand and wished him luck.
7. to give (someone) a hug.
8. to threaten, intimidate, harass, or oppress (a person) in order to obtain a favor, money, or an
advantageous attitude or action.
9. to cause financial hardship to: manufacturers squeezed by high tariffs.
10. to obtain a facsimile impression of.
11. to cause to merge, as two or more lines of traffic into fewer lanes.
12. Baseball.
a. to enable (a runner on third base) to score on a squeeze play (often fol. by in): He
squeezed him in with a perfect bunt.
b. to score (a run) in this way (often fol. by in): The Dodgers squeezed in a run in the eighth
inning.
13. Bridge. to force (an opponent) to play a potentially winning card on a trick he or she cannot
win.
–verb (used without object)
14. to exert a compressing force.
15. to force a way through some narrow or crowded place (usually fol. by through, in, out, etc.).
16. to merge or come together.
–noun
17. the act or fact of squeezing or the fact of being squeezed.
18. a clasping of one's hand around another's hand, arm, etc., as a token of affection, friendship,
sympathy, or the like.
19. a hug or close embrace.
20. a troubled financial condition, esp. caused by a shortage or restriction, as of credit or funds.
21. a small quantity or amount of anything obtained by squeezing.
22. SQUEAK (def. 3).
23. Slang. a sweetheart: his main squeeze.
24. a facsimile impression of an inscription or the like, obtained by pressing some plastic
substance over or around it.
25. SQUEEZE PLAY.
26. Bridge. a play or circumstance whereby an opponent is forced to waste or discard a potentially
winning card.
205

27. an act of threatening, intimidating, harassing, or oppressing a person or persons to obtain a


favor, money, or an advantageous attitude or action: gangsters putting the squeeze on small
businesses.
28. money or a favor obtained in such a way.

[Origin: 1590–1600; perh. var. of obs. squize (OE cwȳsan) to squeeze, with initial s by false
division of words in sandhi ]

—Related forms
squeezer, noun
squeez·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 4. crowd, pack, jam, stuff.


squeeze (skwēz)
v. squeezed, squeez·ing, squeez·es

v. tr.

1. To press hard on or together; compress.


2. To press gently, as in affection: squeezed her hand.
3. To exert pressure on, as by way of extracting liquid: squeeze an orange.
4. To extract by or as if by applying pressure: squeeze juice from a lemon; squeezed a
confession out of a suspect.
5. To extract by dishonest means; extort.
6. To pressure or intimidate (someone) to comply with a demand, as to make an extortion
payment.
7. To obtain room for by pressure; cram: squeezed her books into the briefcase.
8. To manage to find time or space for.
9. Games To force (an opponent) to use a potentially winning card in a trick he or she
cannot take in bridge.
10.Baseball To cause (a run or base runner) to score on a squeeze play.

v. intr.

1. To give way under pressure.


2. To exert pressure.
3. To force one's way: squeeze through a crowd; squeeze into a tight space.

n.

1. The act or an instance of squeezing.


2. An amount squeezed out: a squeeze of lemon.
3. A handclasp or brief embrace.
4. A group crowded together; a crush.
5. Informal A squeeze play.
6. Financial pressure caused by shortages or narrowing economic margins.
206

7. Pressure or intimidation to comply with a demand, as to make an extortion payment.


8. Games A forced discard of a potentially winning card in bridge.
9. Slang One's primary romantic partner or sweetheart.

Phrasal Verb(s):
squeeze off
To fire (a round of bullets) by squeezing the trigger.
squeeze through/by
To manage narrowly to pass, win, or survive.

[Probably alteration of obsolete quease, to press, from Middle English queisen, from Old
English cwȳsan.]

squeez'a·ble adj., squeez'er n.

squeeze
c.1600, probably an alteration of quease (c.1550), from O.E. cwysan "to squeeze," of unknown
origin, perhaps imitative (cf. Ger. quetschen "to squeeze"). Slang expression to put the squeeze
on (someone or something) "exert influence" is from 1711. Baseball squeeze play first recorded
1905. Main squeeze "most important person" is attested from 1896; meaning "one's sweetheart,
lover" is attested by 1980.

squeeze

noun
1. the act of gripping and pressing firmly; "he gave her cheek a playful squeeze"
2. a state in which there is a short supply of cash to lend to businesses and consumers and
interest rates are high [syn: credit crunch]
3. a situation in which increased costs cannot be passed on to the customer; "increased
expenses put a squeeze on profits"
4. (slang) a person's girlfriend or boyfriend; "she was his main squeeze"
5. a twisting squeeze; "gave the wet cloth a wring"
6. an aggressive attempt to compel acquiescence by the concentration or manipulation of
power; "she laughed at this sexual power play and walked away" [syn: power play]
7. a tight or amorous embrace; "come here and give me a big hug" [syn: hug]
8. the act of forcing yourself (or being forced) into or through a restricted space; "getting
through that small opening was a tight squeeze"

verb
1. to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition; "crush an aluminum can";
"squeeze a lemon" [syn: squash]
2. press firmly; "He squeezed my hand"
3. squeeze like a wedge into a tight space; "I squeezed myself into the corner" [syn:
wedge]
4. to cause to do through pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means
:"She forced him to take a job in the city"; "He squeezed her for information" [syn:
coerce]
5. obtain by coercion or intimidation; "They extorted money from the executive by
threatening to reveal his past to the company boss"; "They squeezed money from the
owner of the business by threatening him" [syn: extort]
207

6. press or force; "Stuff money into an envelope"; "She thrust the letter into his
hand" [syn: thrust]
7. squeeze tightly between the fingers; "He pinched her behind"; "She squeezed the
bottle" [syn: pinch]
8. squeeze (someone) tightly in your arms, usually with fondness; "Hug me, please"; "They
embraced"; "He hugged her close to him" [syn: embrace]
9. squeeze or press together; "she compressed her lips"; "the spasm contracted the
muscle" [syn: compress]

slate1

slate1 - [sleyt] - Show IPA Pronunciation noun, verb, slat·ed, slat·ing.


–noun
1. a fine-grained rock formed by the metamorphosis of clay, shale, etc., that tends to split along
parallel cleavage planes, usually at an angle to the planes of stratification.
2. a thin piece or plate of this rock or a similar material, used esp. for roofing or as a writing
surface.
3. a dull, dark bluish gray.
4. a list of candidates, officers, etc., to be considered for nomination, appointment, election, or the
like.
–verb (used with object)
5. to cover with or as with slate.
6. to write or set down for nomination or appointment: the district leader slated for city judge.
7. to plan or designate (something) for a particular place and time; schedule: The premiere was
slated for January.
8. to censure or criticize harshly or violently; scold.
9. to punish severely.
—Idiom
10. clean slate, an unsullied record; a record marked by creditable conduct: to start over with a
clean slate.
1
[Origin: 1300–50; ME sclate < MF esclate, fem. of esclat piece split off; see SLAT ]

slate2 - [sleyt] - Show IPA Pronunciation


–verb (used with object), slat·ed, slat·ing. British.
to sic or set a dog on (a person or animal).

[Origin: 1300–50; ME slayten < ON *sleita; c. OE slǣtan ]


slate (slāt)
n.

1. A fine-grained metamorphic rock that splits into thin, smooth-surfaced layers.


2.
a. A piece of this rock cut for use as roofing or surfacing material or as a writing surface.
b. A writing tablet made of a similar material.
3. A record of past performance or activity: start over with a clean slate.
4. A list of the candidates of a political party running for various offices.
5. A dark or bluish gray to dark bluish or dark purplish gray.

adj.
208

1. Made of a fine-grained metamorphic rock: a slate roof.


2. Of the color slate.

tr.v. slat·ed, slat·ing, slates

1. To cover (a roof, for example) with slate.


2. To put on a list of candidates.

3. To schedule or designate: Our professor has slated the art history lecture for Thursday
afternoon; was slated to direct the studio's next film.

Skeptical

skep·ti·cal - [skep-ti-kuh l] - Show IPA Pronunciation


–adjective
1. inclined to skepticism; having doubt: a skeptical young woman.
2. showing doubt: a skeptical smile.
3. denying or questioning the tenets of a religion: a skeptical approach to the nature of miracles.
4. (initial capital letter ) of or pertaining to Skeptics or Skepticism.
Also, sceptical.

[Origin: 1630–40; SKEPTIC + -AL1 ]

—Related forms
skep·ti·cal·ly, adverb
skep·ti·cal·ness, noun

—Synonyms 1. skeptic. See DOUBTFUL. 3. unbelieving.


skep·ti·cal also scep·ti·cal (skěp'tĭ-kəl)
adj.

1. Marked by or given to doubt; questioning: a skeptical attitude; skeptical of political


promises.
2. Relating to or characteristic of skeptics or skepticism.

skep'ti·cal·ly adv.
skeptical
adjective
1. denying or questioning the tenets of especially a religion; "a skeptical approach to the
nature of miracles" [syn: disbelieving]
2. marked by or given to doubt; "a skeptical attitude"; "a skeptical listener" [syn:
doubting]

skeptical
209

skeptical: in CancerWEB's On-line Medical Dictionary

slave /sleɪv/ - [sleyv] noun, verb, slaved, slav·ing.


–noun
1. a person who is the property of and wholly subject to another; a bond servant.
2. a person entirely under the domination of some influence or person: a slave to a drug.
3. a drudge: a housekeeping slave.
4. a slave ant.
5. Photography. a subsidiary flash lamp actuated through its photoelectric cell when the principal
flash lamp is discharged.
6. Machinery. a mechanism under control of and repeating the actions of a similar mechanism.
Compare master (def. 19).
–verb (used without object)
7. to work like a slave; drudge.
8. to engage in the slave trade; procure, transport, or sell slaves.
–verb (used with object)
9. to connect (a machine) to a master as its slave.
10. Archaic. to enslave.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME sclave < ML sclāvus (masc.), sclāva (fem.) slave, special use of Sclāvus
Slav, so called because Slavs were commonly enslaved in the early Middle Ages; see Slav]

—Related forms
slaveless, adjective
slavelike, adjective

—Synonyms 7. toil, labor, slog, grind.


Slave /sleɪv/ - [sleyv]
–noun, plural Slaves, (especially collectively) Slave.
a member of a group of Athabaskan-speaking North American Indians living in the upper
Mackenzie River valley region of the Northwest Territories and in parts of British Columbia,
Alberta, and the Yukon Territory.
Also, Slavey.
slave (slāv)
n.

1. One bound in servitude as the property of a person or household.


2. One who is abjectly subservient to a specified person or influence: "I was still the slave of
education and prejudice" (Edward Gibbon).
3. One who works extremely hard.
4. A machine or component controlled by another machine or component.

intr.v. slaved, slav·ing, slaves

1. To work very hard or doggedly; toil.


2. To trade in or transport slaves.

[Middle English sclave, from Old French esclave, from Medieval Latin sclāvus, from Sclāvus, Slav
(from the widespread enslavement of captured Slavs in the early Middle Ages); see Slav.]
210

Word History: The derivation of the word slave encapsulates a bit of European history and
explains why the two words slaves and Slavs are so similar; they are, in fact, historically identical.
The word slave first appears in English around 1290, spelled sclave. The spelling is based on Old
French esclave from Medieval Latin sclavus, "Slav, slave," first recorded around 800. Sclavus
comes from Byzantine Greek sklabos (pronounced sklävōs) "Slav," which appears around 580.
Sklavos approximates the Slavs' own name for themselves, the Slověnci, surviving in English
Slovene and Slovenian. The spelling of English slave, closer to its original Slavic form, first
appears in English in 1538. Slavs became slaves around the beginning of the ninth century when
the Holy Roman Empire tried to stabilize a German-Slav frontier. By the 12th century stabilization
had given way to wars of expansion and extermination that did not end until the Poles crushed
the Teutonic Knights at Grunwald in 1410. · As far as the Slavs' own self-designation goes, its
meaning is, understandably, better than "slave"; it comes from the Indo-European root *kleu-,
whose basic meaning is "to hear" and occurs in many derivatives meaning "renown, fame." The
Slavs are thus "the famous people." Slavic names ending in -slav incorporate the same word,
such as Czech Bohu-slav, "God's fame," Russian Msti-slav, "vengeful fame," and Polish Stani-slaw,
"famous for withstanding (enemies)."

slave (n.)
c.1290, "person who is the property of another," from O.Fr. esclave, from M.L. Sclavus "slave" (cf.
It. schiavo, Fr. esclave, Sp. esclavo), originally "Slav" (see Slav), so called because of the many
Slavs sold into slavery by conquering peoples.

"This sense development arose in the consequence of the wars waged by Otto the Great and
his successors against the Slavs, a great number of whom they took captive and sold into
slavery." [Klein]

O.E. Wealh "Briton" also began to be used in the sense of "serf, slave" c.850; and Skt. dasa-,
which can mean "slave," is apparently connected to dasyu- "pre-Aryan inhabitant of India." More
common O.E. words for slave were þeow (related to þeowian "to serve") and þræl (see thrall).
The Slavic words for "slave" (Rus. rab, Serbo-Croatian rob, O.C.S. rabu) are from O.Slav. *orbu,
from the PIE base *orbh- (also source of orphan) the ground sense of which seems to be "thing
that changes allegiance" (in the case of the slave, from himself to his master). The Slavic word is
also the source of robot. Applied to devices from 1904, especially those which are controlled by
others (cf. slave jib in sailing, similarly of locomotives, flash bulbs, amplifiers). Slavery is from
1551; slavish is attested from 1565; in the sense of "servilely imitative" it is from 1753. slave-
driver is attested from 1807. In U.S. history, slavocracy "the political dominance of slave-owners"
is attested from 1840.

slave (v.)
1602, "to enslave," from slave (n.). The meaning "work like a slave" is first recorded 1719.

Slave
Indian tribe of northwestern Canada, 1789, from slave, translating Cree awahkan "captive, slave."

slave

noun
1. a person who is owned by someone
2. someone who works as hard as a slave
3. someone entirely dominated by some influence or person; "a slave to fashion"; "a slave to
cocaine"; "his mother was his abject slave"

verb
211

1. work very hard, like a slave

Seldom
sel·dom /ˈsɛldəm/ - [sel-duhm]
–adverb
1. on only a few occasions; rarely; infrequently; not often: We seldom see our old neighbors
anymore.
–adjective
2. rare; infrequent.

Substantial
sub·stan·tial /səbˈstænʃəl/ - [suhb-stan-shuhl]
–adjective
1. of ample or considerable amount, quantity, size, etc.: a substantial sum of money.
2. of a corporeal or material nature; tangible; real.
3. of solid character or quality; firm, stout, or strong: a substantial physique.
4. basic or essential; fundamental: two stories in substantial agreement.
5. wealthy or influential: one of the substantial men of the town.
6. of real worth, value, or effect: substantial reasons.
7. pertaining to the substance, matter, or material of a thing.
8. of or pertaining to the essence of a thing; essential, material, or important.
9. being a substance; having independent existence.
10. Philosophy. pertaining to or of the nature of substance rather than an accident or attribute.
–noun
11. something substantial.
[Origin: 1300–50; ME substancial < LL substantiālis, equiv. to L substanti(a) substance + -ālis
-al1]

—Related forms
sub·stan·ti·al·i·ty, sub·stan·tial·ness, noun
sub·stan·tial·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 3. stable, sound. 6. valid, important.


—Antonyms 2. immaterial, ethereal.
sub·stan·tial (səb-stān'shəl)
adj.

1. Of, relating to, or having substance; material.


2. True or real; not imaginary.
3. Solidly built; strong.
4. Ample; sustaining: a substantial breakfast.
5. Considerable in importance, value, degree, amount, or extent: won by a substantial margin.
6. Possessing wealth or property; well-to-do.

n.

1. An essential. Often used in the plural.


212

2. A solid thing. Often used in the plural.

[Middle English substancial, from Old French substantiel, from Latin substantiālis, from
substantia, substance; see substance.]

sub·stan'ti·al'i·ty (-shē-āl'ĭ-tē), sub·stan'tial·ness (-shəl-nĭs) n., sub·stan'tial·ly adv.


substantially
adverb
1. to a great extent or degree; "I'm afraid the film was well over budget"; "painting the room
white made it seem considerably (or substantially) larger"; "the house has fallen considerably in
value"; "the price went up substantially" [syn: well]
2. in a strong substantial way; "the house was substantially built"

Sprinkle
sprin·kle /ˈsprɪŋkəl/ - [spring-kuhl] verb, -kled, -kling, noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to scatter (a liquid, powder, etc.) in drops or particles: She sprinkled powder on the baby.
2. to disperse or distribute here and there.
3. to overspread with drops or particles of water, powder, or the like: to sprinkle a lawn.
4. to diversify or intersperse with objects scattered here and there.
–verb (used without object)
5. to scatter or disperse liquid, a powder, etc., in drops or particles.
6. to be sprinkled.
7. to rain slightly (often used impersonally with it as subject): It may sprinkle this evening.
–noun
8. the act or an instance of sprinkling.
9. something used for sprinkling.
10. Usually, sprinkles. small particles of chocolate, candy, sugar, etc., used as a decorative
topping for cookies, cakes, ice-cream cones, and the like.
11. a light rain.
12. a small quantity or number.
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME sprenklen (v.); c. D sprenkelen, G sprenkeln; akin to OE sprengan to
sprinkle, make (something) spring, scatter, causative of springan to spring]

—Synonyms 1. distribute, rain. Sprinkle, scatter, strew mean to fling, spread, or disperse. To
sprinkle means to fling about small drops or particles: to sprinkle water on clothes, powder on
plants. To scatter is to disperse or spread widely: to scatter seeds. To strew is to scatter, esp. in
such a way as to cover or partially cover a surface: to strew flowers on a grave.
sprin·kle (sprĭng'kəl)
v. sprin·kled, sprin·kling, sprin·kles

v. tr.

1. To scatter in drops or particles: sprinkled sugar on the cereal.


2. To scatter drops or particles on.
3. To intersperse with something as if by scattering: sprinkled his speech with quotations.
4. To distribute or intersperse at random.

v. intr.
213

1. To scatter something in drops or particles.


2. To fall or rain in small or infrequent drops.

n.

1. The act of sprinkling.


2. A light rainfall.
3. A small amount; a sprinkling.
4. sprinkles Small particles of candy sprinkled on ice cream as a topping.

[Middle English sprenklen, perhaps of Middle Dutch or Middle Low German origin.]

sprinkle
1382 (implied in sprinkled), frequentative of sprenge (see spring (v.)) or via M.Du., M.L.G.
sprenkel "spot, speck," from PIE base *(s)preg- "to jerk, scatter" (cf. L. spargere "to scatter,
sprinkle"). The meaning "rain lightly" is first recorded 1778. Sprinkling "small amount" first
recorded 1594. Sprinkler is attested from 1535.

sprinkle

noun
1. a light shower that falls in some locations and not others nearby [syn: scattering]
2. the act of sprinkling or splashing water; "baptized with a sprinkling of holy water"; "a sparge
of warm water over the malt"

verb
1. distribute loosely; "He scattered gun powder under the wagon" [syn: scatter]
2. cause (a liquid) to spatter about, especially with force; "She splashed the water around her"
3. rain gently; "It has only sprinkled, but the roads are slick"
4. scatter with liquid; wet lightly; "Sprinkle the lawn"

Slum

slum /slʌm/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[sluhm] Pronunciation Key - Show
IPA Pronunciation noun, verb, slummed, slum·ming.
–noun
1. Often, slums. a thickly populated, run-down, squalid part of a city, inhabited by poor people.
2. any squalid, run-down place to live.
–verb (used without object)
3. to visit slums, esp. from curiosity.
4. to visit or frequent a place, group, or amusement spot considered to be low in social status.
[Origin: 1805–15; cf. earlier argot slum room; orig. obscure]

—Related forms
slummer, noun
slum (slŭm) Pronunciation Key
214

n. A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor. Often used
in the plural.
intr.v. slummed, slum·ming, slums
To visit impoverished areas or squalid locales, especially out of curiosity or for amusement.
[Origin unknown.]
slum'mer n., slum'my adj.
slum
1845, from back slum "back alley, street of poor people" (1825), originally a slang word meaning
"room," especially "back room" (1812), of unknown origin. Go slumming is from 1884, pastime
popularized by East End novels. Slumlord first attested 1953, from slum landlord (1893).
slum
noun
1. a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions

verb
1. spend time at a lower socio-economic level than one's own, motivated by curiosity or desire
for adventure; usage considered condescending and insensitive; "attending a motion picture show
by the upper class was considered sluming in the early 20th century"

Substandard
sub·stand·ard /sʌbˈstændərd/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[suhb-stan-
derd] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. below standard or less than adequate: substandard housing conditions.
2. noting or pertaining to a dialect or variety of a language or a feature of usage that is often
considered by others to mark its user as uneducated; nonstandard.
3. Insurance.
a. not measuring up to an insurer's regular standards in undertaking risks: a substandard risk.
b. pertaining to insurance written to cover substandard risks.
[Origin: 1895–1900; sub- + standard]
sub·stan·dard (sŭb-stān'dərd) Pronunciation Key
adj.
1. Failing to meet a standard; below standard.
2. Linguistics
1. Of, relating to, or indicating a pattern of linguistic usage that does not conform to that of
the prestige group in a speech community or to that of the standard language.
2. Not in accord with notions of good English; nonstandard. See Usage Note at
nonstandard.
substandard
adjective
falling short of some prescribed norm; "substandard housing" [syn: deficient]

Schism
schism /ˈsɪzəm, ˈskɪz-/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[siz-uhm, skiz-]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. division or disunion, esp. into mutually opposed parties.
2. the parties so formed.
3. Ecclesiastical.
215

a. a formal division within, or separation from, a church or religious body over some doctrinal
difference.
b. the state of a sect or body formed by such division.
c. the offense of causing or seeking to cause such a division.
[Origin: 1350–1400; < LL (Vulgate) sc(h)isma (s. sc(h)ismat-) < Gk, deriv. of schízein to split,
with -ma (s. -mat-) n. suffix of result; r. ME (s)cisme, sisme < MF < LL, as above]

—Related forms
schismless, adjective
schism (skĭz'əm, sĭz'-) Pronunciation Key
n.
1. A separation or division into factions.
2.
1. A formal breach of union within a Christian church.
2. The offense of attempting to produce such a breach.
3. Disunion; discord.

Tweak
tweak /twik/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[tweek] Pronunciation Key -
Show IPA Pronunciation,
–verb (used with object)
1. to pinch and pull with a jerk and twist: to tweak someone's ear; to tweak someone's nose.
2. to pull or pinch the nose of, esp. gently: He tweaked the baby on greeting.
3. to make a minor adjustment to: to tweak a computer program.
–noun
4. an act or instance of tweaking; a sharp, twisting pull or jerk.
[Origin: 1595–1605; akin to twitch]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source
tweak (twēk) Pronunciation Key
tr.v. tweaked, tweak·ing, tweaks

1. To pinch, pluck, or twist sharply.


2. To adjust; fine-tune.
3. To make fun of; tease.
n.
1. A sharp, twisting pinch.
2. A teasing remark or action; a joke.

[Probably variant of dialectal twick, from Middle English twikken, from Old English twiccian.]
tweak'y adj.
tweak (v.)
probably from O.E. twiccian "to pluck," of obscure origin; perhaps related to twitch. Meaning "to
make fine adjustments" is attested from 1966.

tweak

noun
216

1. a squeeze with the fingers [syn: pinch]


verb
1. pinch or squeeze sharply
2. pull or pull out sharply; "pluck the flowers off the bush" [syn: pluck]
3. adjust finely; "fine-tune the engine" [syn: fine-tune]

Tact
tact /tækt/ - [takt] ,
–noun
1. a keen sense of what to say or do to avoid giving offense; skill in dealing with difficult or
delicate situations.
2. a keen sense of what is appropriate, tasteful, or aesthetically pleasing; taste; discrimination.
3. touch or the sense of touch.
[Origin: 1150–1200; < L tāctus sense of touch, equiv. to tag-, var. s. of tangere to touch + -tus
suffix of v. action]

tact (tākt)
n.
1. Acute sensitivity to what is proper and appropriate in dealing with others, including the
ability to speak or act without offending.
2. Archaic The sense of touch.

[French, from Old French, sense of touch, from Latin tāctus, from past participle of tangere, to
touch; see tag- in Indo-European roots.]
Synonyms: These nouns denote the ability to deal with others with skill, sensitivity, and
finesse. Tact implies propriety and the ability to speak or act unoffensively: "He had . . . a tact
that would preserve him from flagrant error in any society" (Francis Parkman).
Address suggests deftness and grace in social situations: "With the charms of beauty she
combined the address of an accomplished intriguer" (Charles Merivale).
Diplomacy implies adroit management of difficult situations: Diffusing the confrontation
required delicate diplomacy.
Savoir-faire involves knowing the right or graceful thing to say or do: The hosts set the shy
visitor at ease with their savoir-faire.

tact
1651, "sense of touch or feeling" (with an isolated instance from c.1200), from L. tactus "touch,
feeling, handling, sense of touch," from root of tangere "to touch" (see tangent). Meaning "sense
of "discernment, diplomacy, etc." first recorded 1804, from a sense that developed in Fr. cognate
tact.

Tangle
tan·gle1 /ˈtæŋgəl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[tang-guhl] Pronunciation
Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -gled, -gling, noun
–verb (used with object)
1. to bring together into a mass of confusedly interlaced or intertwisted threads, strands, or
other like parts; snarl.
2. to involve in something that hampers, obstructs, or overgrows: The bushes were tangled with
vines.
3. to catch and hold in or as if in a net or snare.
217

–verb (used without object)


4. to be or become tangled.
5. Informal. to come into conflict; fight or argue: I don't want to tangle with him over the new
ruling.
–noun
6. a tangled condition or situation.
7. a tangled or confused mass or assemblage of something.
8. a confused jumble: a tangle of contradictory statements.
9. Informal. a conflict; disagreement: He got into a tangle with the governor.
[Origin: 1300–50; ME tangilen, tagilen to entangle < Scand; cf. Sw (dial.) taggla to disarrange]

—Related forms
tan·gle·ment, noun
tangler, noun
tangly, adverb

—Synonyms 8. snarl, net, labyrinth, maze.


Tangle
Toys to play & learn Puzzles & more Register for free. Buy online now!
www.ebay.com/india
Sponsored Link
tan·gle2 /ˈtæŋgəl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[tang-guhl]
–noun
any of several large seaweeds of the genus Laminaria.
[Origin: 1530–40; < Scand; cf. ON thǫngull strand of tangle, Norw tang]
tan·gle 1 (tāng'gəl) Pronunciation Key
v. tan·gled, tan·gling, tan·gles

v. tr.

1. To mix together or intertwine in a confused mass; snarl.


2. To involve in hampering or awkward complications; entangle.
3. To catch and hold in or as if in a net; entrap. See Synonyms at catch.

v. intr.

1. To be or become entangled.
2. Informal To enter into argument, dispute, or conflict: tangled with the law.

n.

1. A confused, intertwined mass.


2. A jumbled or confused state or condition.
3. A state of bewilderment.
4. Informal An argument or altercation.

[Middle English tangilen, to involve in an embarrassing situation, variant of tagilen, probably of


Scandinavian origin; akin to Swedish dialectal taggla, to entangle.]

tan'gly adj.
tan·gle 2 (tāng'gəl) Pronunciation Key
n. A large seaweed of the genus Laminaria.
218

[Of Scandinavian origin; akin to Old Norse thöngull, seaweed.]

tangle
1340, nasalized variant of tagilen "to involve in a difficult situation, entangle," from a Scand.
source (cf. dialectal Swed. taggla "to disorder," O.N. þongull "seaweed"). In ref. to material
things, from 1506. Meaning "to fight with" is Amer.Eng., first recorded 1928. The noun is first
recorded 1615, "a tangled condition." Tanglefoot (1859) was Western Amer.Eng. slang for "strong
whiskey."

tangle
noun
1. a twisted and tangled mass that is highly interwoven; "they carved their way through the
tangle of vines"
2. something jumbled or confused; "a tangle of government regulations"

verb
1. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action; "They were swept up by the
events"; "don't drag me into this business" [syn: embroil]
2. tangle or complicate; "a ravelled story" [syn: ravel] [ant: unknot, ravel]
3. disarrange or rumple; dishevel; "The strong wind tousled my hair" [syn: tousle]
4. twist together or entwine into a confusing mass; "The child entangled the cord" [syn:
entangle] [ant: disentangle]

Upfront

up-front Audio Help /ˈʌpˈfrʌnt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[uhp-fruhnt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation Informal.
–adjective Also, upfront.
1. invested or paid in advance or as beginning capital: an up-front fee of five
percent and an additional five percent when the job is done.
2. honest; candid; straightforward: He's very up-front about discussing his
past.
3. conspicuous or prominent: The company has an up-front position in its
industry.
4. located in the front or forward section: to request up-front seats on a
plane.
–adverb Also, up front.
5. as an initial investment, beginning capital, or an advance payment: They'll
need a half-million dollars up-front before opening the business.
6. before other payments, deductions, or returning a profit: Estimated
operating expenses will be deducted up-front.
[Origin: 1965–70]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
219

upfront

To learn more about upfront visit Britannica.com

© 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
up-front or up·front (ŭp'frŭnt')
adj.

1. Straightforward; frank.
2. Paid or due in advance: up-front cash.

adv. also up front


In advance; beforehand: demanded to be paid up front for the photographs.

Uplift

up·lift Audio Help /v. ?p?l?ft; n. ??p?l?ft/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[v. uhp-lift; n. uhp-lift] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object)
1. to lift up; raise; elevate.
2. to improve socially, culturally, morally, or the like: to uplift downtrodden
and deprived peoples.
3. to exalt emotionally or spiritually.
–verb (used without object)
4. to become uplifted.
–noun
5. an act of lifting up or raising; elevation.
6. the process or work of improving, as socially, intellectually, or morally.
7. emotional or spiritual exaltation.
8. a brassiere.
9. Geology. an upheaval.

Unwieldy

(un·wield·y - [uhn-weel-dee] - Show IPA Pronunciation


–adjective, -wield·i·er, -wield·i·est.
not wieldy; wielded with difficulty; not readily handled or managed in use or action, as from size,
shape, or weight; awkward; ungainly.
Also, un·wield·ly.

1
[Origin: 1350–1400; ME unweldy. See UN- , WIELDY ]

—Related forms
220

un·wield·i·ly, adverb
un·wield·i·ness, noun

—Synonyms bulky, unmanageable, clumsy.

un·wield·y (ŭn-wēl'dē)
adj. un·wield·i·er, un·wield·i·est
Difficult to carry or manage because of size, shape, weight, or complexity: an unwieldy
parcel; an unwieldy bureaucracy.

un·wield'i·ly adv., un·wield'i·ness n.


unwieldy
c.1386, "lacking strength," from un- (1) "not" + O.E. wielde "active, vigorous," from P.Gmc.
*walth- "have power" (see wield). Meaning "moving ungracefully" is recorded from 1530; in ref.
to weapons, "difficult to handle, awkward by virtue of size or shape" it is attested from 1547.

unwieldy

adjective
1. difficult to use or handle or manage because of size or weight or shape; "we set about towing
the unwieldy structure into the shelter"; "almost dropped the unwieldy parcel" [ant: step]
2. difficult to work or manipulate; "unwieldy rules and regulations"
3. lacking grace in movement or posture; "a gawky lad with long ungainly legs"; "clumsy fingers";
"what an ungainly creature a giraffe is"; "heaved his unwieldy figure out of his chair" [syn:
gawky]
up-front - [uhp-fruhnt] - Show IPA Pronunciation Informal.
–adjective Also, upfront.
1. invested or paid in advance or as beginning capital: an up-front fee of five percent and an
additional five percent when the job is done.
2. honest; candid; straightforward: He's very up-front about discussing his past.
3. conspicuous or prominent: The company has an up-front position in its industry.
4. located in the front or forward section: to request up-front seats on a plane.
–adverb Also, up front.
5. as an initial investment, beginning capital, or an advance payment: They'll need a half-million
dollars up-front before opening the business.
6. before other payments, deductions, or returning a profit: Estimated operating expenses will be
deducted up-front.
up-front or up·front (ŭp'frŭnt')
adj.

1. Straightforward; frank.
2. Paid or due in advance: up-front cash.

adv. also up front


In advance; beforehand: demanded to be paid up front for the photographs.

up'-front'ness n.
upfront
adjective
221

frank and honest; "he was upfront about his intentions"

Volatile

vol·a·tile - [vol-uh-tl, -til or, especially Brit., -tahyl] - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. evaporating rapidly; passing off readily in the form of vapor: Acetone is a volatile solvent.
2. tending or threatening to break out into open violence; explosive: a volatile political situation.
3. changeable; mercurial; flighty: a volatile disposition.
4. (of prices, values, etc.) tending to fluctuate sharply and regularly: volatile market conditions.
5. fleeting; transient: volatile beauty.
6. Computers. of or pertaining to storage that does not retain data when electrical power is turned
off or fails.
7. able to fly or flying.
–noun
8. a volatile substance, as a gas or solvent.

[Origin: 1250–1300; ME < L volātilis, equiv. to volāt(us) (ptp. of volāre to fly; see -ATE1) + -ilis -ILE
]

—Related forms
vol·a·til·i·ty - [vol-uh-til-i-tee] - Show IPA Pronunciation, vol·a·tile·ness, noun

—Synonyms 2. eruptive, unstable, unsettled.

vol·a·tile (vŏl'ə-tl, -tīl')


adj.

1. Chemistry
a. Evaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures.
b. That can be readily vaporized.
c. Tending to vary often or widely, as in price: the ups and downs of volatile stocks.
d. Inconstant; fickle: a flirt's volatile affections.
e. Lighthearted; flighty: in a volatile mood.
f. Ephemeral; fleeting.
2.
a. Tending to vary often or widely, as in price: the ups and downs of volatile stocks.
b. Inconstant; fickle: a flirt's volatile affections.
c. Lighthearted; flighty: in a volatile mood.
d. Ephemeral; fleeting.
3. Tending to violence; explosive: a volatile situation with troops and rioters eager for a
confrontation.
4. Flying or capable of flying; volant.
222

[French, from Old French, from Latin volātilis, flying, from volātus, past participle of volāre,
to fly.]

vol'a·tile n., vol'a·til'i·ty (-tĭl'ĭ-tē), vol'a·tile·ness (-tl-nĭs, -tīl'-) n.


volatility

noun
1. the property of changing readily from a solid or liquid to a vapor
2. the trait of being unpredictably irresolute; "the volatility of the market drove many
investors away"
3. being easily excited [syn: excitability]

Volatility

1. A statistical measure of the tendency of a market or security to rise or fall sharply within a
period of time.

2. A variable in option pricing formulas that denotes the extent to which the return of the
underlying asset will fluctuate between now and the expiration of the option.

Investopedia Commentary

Volatility is typically calculated by using variance or annualized standard deviation of the price or
return. A measure of the relative volatility of a stock to the market is its beta. A highly volatile
market means that prices have huge swings in very short periods of time.

waive

waive Audio Help /we?v/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[weyv] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), waived, waiv·ing.
1. to refrain from claiming or insisting on; give up; forgo: to waive one's
right; to waive one's rank; to waive honors.
2. Law. to relinquish (a known right, interest, etc.) intentionally.
3. to put aside for the time; defer; postpone; dispense with: to waive
formalities.
4. to put aside or dismiss from consideration or discussion: waiving my
attempts to explain.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME weyven < AF weyver to make a waif (of someone) by
forsaking or outlawing (him or her)]

—Synonyms 1. resign, renounce, surrender, remit.


—Antonyms 1. demand.
223

Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)


Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
waiving

To learn more about waiving visit Britannica.com

© 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
waive Audio Help (wa-v) Pronunciation Key
tr.v. waived, waiv·ing, waives

1. To give up (a claim or right) voluntarily; relinquish. See Synonyms at


relinquish.
2. To refrain from insisting on or enforcing (a rule or penalty, for example);
dispense with: "The original ban on private trading had long since been waived"
(William L. Schurz).
3. To put aside or off temporarily; defer.

[Middle English weiven, to abandon, from Anglo-Norman weyver, from waif,


ownerless property; see waif1.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law - Cite This Source - Share This

Main Entry: waive


Pronunciation: 'wAv
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Forms: waived; waiv·ing
Etymology: Anglo-French waiver weiver, literally to abandon, forsake, from waif
weif forlorn, stray, probably from Old Norse veif something loose or flapping
1 : to relinquish (as a right or privilege) voluntarily and intentionally <the
defendant waived a felony hearing on the charge —National Law Journal> —
compare FORFEIT, RESERVE
2 : to refrain from enforcing or requiring <some statutes waive the age
requirement —W. M. McGovern, Junior et al.> —waiv·able adjective
224

"a·sy·lum /əˈsaɪləm/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[uh-


sahy-luhm] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. (esp. formerly) an institution for the maintenance and care of the mentally ill,
orphans, or other persons requiring specialized assistance.
2. an inviolable refuge, as formerly for criminals and debtors; sanctuary: He
sought asylum in the church.
3. International Law.
a. a refuge granted an alien by a sovereign state on its own territory.
b. a temporary refuge granted political offenders, esp. in a foreign embassy.
4. any secure retreat.
[Origin: 1400–50; late ME; < L < Gk ásȳlon sanctuary, equiv. to a- a-6 + sŷlon
right of seizure]

—Synonyms 2. haven, shelter, retreat.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
a·sy·lum (ə-sī'ləm) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. An institution for the care of people, especially those with physical or mental
impairments, who require organized supervision or assistance.
2. A place offering protection and safety; a shelter.
3. A place, such as a church, formerly constituting an inviolable refuge for
criminals or debtors.
4. The protection afforded by a sanctuary. See Synonyms at shelter.
5. Protection and immunity from extradition granted by a government to a
political refugee from another country.
"
225

"be·tray /bɪˈtreɪ/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[bi-trey]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object)
1. to deliver or expose to an enemy by treachery or disloyalty: Benedict Arnold
betrayed his country.
2. to be unfaithful in guarding, maintaining, or fulfilling: to betray a trust.
3. to disappoint the hopes or expectations of; be disloyal to: to betray one's
friends.
4. to reveal or disclose in violation of confidence: to betray a secret.
5. to reveal unconsciously (something one would preferably conceal): Her
nervousness betrays her insecurity.
6. to show or exhibit; reveal; disclose: an unfeeling remark that betrays his lack
of concern.
7. to deceive, misguide, or corrupt: a young lawyer betrayed by political
ambitions into irreparable folly.
8. to seduce and desert.
[Origin: 1200–50; ME bitraien, equiv. to bi- be- + traien < OF trair < L trādere to
betray. See traitor]

—Related forms
be·tray·al, noun
be·tray·er, noun

—Synonyms 4. bare, expose, tell, divulge. 6. display, manifest, expose, uncover.


—Antonyms 4, 6. hide, conceal.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
be·tray (bĭ-trā') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. be·trayed, be·tray·ing, be·trays

1.
1. To give aid or information to an enemy of; commit treason against:
betray one's country.
2. To deliver into the hands of an enemy in violation of a trust or
allegiance: betrayed Christ to the Romans.
2. To be false or disloyal to: betrayed their cause; betray one's better nature.
3. To divulge in a breach of confidence: betray a secret.
4. To make known unintentionally: Her hollow laugh betrayed her contempt for
the idea.
5. To reveal against one's desire or will.
6. To lead astray; deceive. See Synonyms at deceive.
226

[Middle English bitrayen : bi-, be- + trayen, to betray (from Old French trair, from
Latin trādere, to hand over; see tradition).]

be·tray'al n., be·tray'er n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
betray
c.1275, bitrayen ""mislead, deceive, betray,"" from M.E. be- + O.Fr. traien, from
L. tradere ""hand over,"" from trans- ""across"" + dare ""to give"" (see date (1)).

betray

verb
1. reveal unintentionally; ""Her smile betrayed her true feelings""
2. deliver to an enemy by treachery; ""Judas sold Jesus""; ""The spy betrayed
his country""
3. disappoint, prove undependable to; abandon, forsake; ""His sense of smell
failed him this time""; ""His strength finally failed him""; ""His children failed him
in the crisis"" [syn: fail]
4. be sexually unfaithful to one's partner in marriage; ""She cheats on her
husband""; ""Might her husband be wandering?"" [syn: cheat on]
5. give away information about somebody; ""He told on his classmate who had
cheated on the exam""
6. cause someone to believe an untruth; ""The insurance company deceived me
when they told me they were covering my house"" [syn: deceive] [ant:
undeceive] "

"bur·y /ˈbɛri/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[ber-ee]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, bur·ied, bur·y·ing, noun, plural
bur·ies.
–verb (used with object)
1. to put in the ground and cover with earth: The pirates buried the chest on the
island.
227

2. to put (a corpse) in the ground or a vault, or into the sea, often with
ceremony: They buried the sailor with full military honors.
3. to plunge in deeply; cause to sink in: to bury an arrow in a target.
4. to cover in order to conceal from sight: She buried the card in the deck.
5. to immerse (oneself): He buried himself in his work.
6. to put out of one's mind: to bury an insult.
7. to consign to obscurity; cause to appear insignificant by assigning to an
unimportant location, position, etc.: Her name was buried in small print at the
end of the book.
–noun
8. Nautical. housing1 (def. 8a, b).
—Idioms
9. bury one's head in the sand, to avoid reality; ignore the facts of a situation:
You cannot continue to bury your head in the sand—you must learn to face facts.
10. bury the hatchet, to become reconciled or reunited.
[Origin: bef. 1000; ME berien, buryen, OE byrgan to bury, conceal; akin to OE
beorgan to hide, protect, preserve; c. D, G bergen, Goth bairgan, ON bjarga]

—Synonyms 2. inter, entomb, inhume. 4. hide, secrete.


—Antonyms 2. disinter, exhume. 4. uncover.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
bur·y (běr'ē) Pronunciation Key
tr.v. bur·ied, bur·y·ing, bur·ies

1. To place in the ground: bury a bone.


2.
1. To place (a corpse) in a grave, a tomb, or the sea; inter.
2. To dispose of (a corpse) ritualistically by means other than interment or
cremation.
3. To conceal by or as if by covering over with earth; hide: buried her face in
the pillow; buried the secret deep within himself.
4. To occupy (oneself) with deep concentration; absorb: buried myself in my
studies.
5. To put an end to; abandon: buried their quarrel and shook hands.

[Middle English burien, from Old English byrgan; see bhergh-1 in Indo-European
roots.]

bur'i·er n.
228

Word History: Why does bury rhyme with berry and not with jury? The answer
goes back to early English times. The late Old English form of the verb bury was
byrgan, pronounced approximately (bür'yən). During Middle English times this
(ü) sound changed, but with different results in different regions of England: to
(ŏŏ) as in put in the Midlands, to (ĭ) as in pit in southern England, or to (ě) as in
pet in southeast England. London is located in the East Midlands, but because of
its central location and its status as the capital, its East Midlands dialect was
influenced by southern (Saxon) and southeastern (Kentish) dialects. The normal
East Midlands development of (ü) was (ŏŏ), spelled u. Because scribes from the
East Midlands pronounced the word with this vowel they tended to spell the word
with a u, and this spelling became standard when spellings were fixed after the
introduction of printing. The word's pronunciation, however, is southeastern. Bury
is the only word in Modern English with a Midlands spelling and a southeastern
pronunciation. Similarly, the word busy, from Old English bysig, bisig, and its verb
bysgian, bisgian, ""to employ,"" is spelled with the East Midlands dialect u, but
pronounced with the southern (Saxon) development of (ü), (ĭ).

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
Bur·y (běr'ē) Pronunciation Key
A borough of northwest England north-northwest of Manchester. It was founded
on the site of a Saxon settlement and has been a textile center since the 14th
century. Population: 60,700.

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
bury
O.E. byrgan, akin to beorgan ""to shelter,"" from P.Gmc. *burzjanan ""protection,
shelter"" (cf. O.N. bjarga, Sw. berga, Ger. bergen, Goth. bairgan), from PIE base
*bhergh- ""protect, preserve"" (cf. O.C.S. brego ""I preserve, guard""). The O.E.
-y- was a short ""oo"" sound, like modern Fr. -u-. It normally transformed into
Mod.Eng. -i- (cf. bridge, kiss, listen, sister), but in bury and a few other words
(merry, knell) it retains a Kentish change to ""e"" that took place in the late O.E.
period. In the West Midlands, meanwhile, the O.E. -y- sound persisted, slightly
modified over time, giving the standard modern pronunciation of blush, much,
church.
229

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
bury

verb
1. cover from sight; ""Afghani women buried under their burkas""
2. place in a grave or tomb; ""Stalin was buried behind the Kremlin wall on Red
Square""; ""The pharaohs were entombed in the pyramids""; ""My grandfather
was laid to rest last Sunday""
3. place in the earth and cover with soil; ""They buried the stolen goods""
4. enclose or envelop completely, as if by swallowing; ""The huge waves
swallowed the small boat and it sank shortly thereafter"" [syn: immerse]
5. embed deeply; ""She sank her fingers into the soft sand""; ""He buried his
head in her lap""
6. dismiss from the mind; stop remembering; ""I tried to bury these unpleasant
memories"" [syn: forget] [ant: remember] "

"cease-fire /ˈsisˈfaɪər/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[sees-


fahyuhr] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. a cessation of hostilities; truce.
2. Military. an order issued for a cease-fire.
[Origin: 1840–50; n. use of v. phrase cease fire]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
cease-fire or cease·fire (sēs'fīr')
n.

1. An order to stop firing.


2. Suspension of active hostilities; a truce.
"
230

"de·plore /dɪˈplɔr, -ˈploʊr/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[di-


plawr, -plohr] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), -plored, -plor·ing.
1. to regret deeply or strongly; lament: to deplore the present state of morality.
2. to disapprove of; censure.
3. to feel or express deep grief for or in regard to: The class deplored the death
of their teacher.
[Origin: 1550–60; < L déplōrāre to weep bitterly, complain, equiv. to dé- de- +
plōrāre to wail, prob. of imit. orig.]

—Related forms
dep·lo·ra·tion /ˌdɛpləˈreɪʃən, ˌdiplə-/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled
Pronunciation[dep-luh-rey-shuhn, dee-pluh-] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation, noun
de·plor·er, noun
de·plor·ing·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1. bemoan, bewail. 3. mourn.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
de·plore (dĭ-plôr', -plōr') Pronunciation Key
tr.v. de·plored, de·plor·ing, de·plores

1. To feel or express strong disapproval of; condemn: ""Somehow we had to


master events, not simply deplore them"" (Henry A. Kissinger).
2. To express sorrow or grief over.
3. To regret; bemoan.

[French déplorer, lament, regret, from Latin dēplōrāre : dē-, de- + plōrāre, to
wail.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
deplore
1559, from L. deplorare ""deplore, bewail,"" from de- ""entirely"" + plorare
""weep, cry out.""
231

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
deplore

verb
1. express strong disapproval of; ""We deplore the government's treatment of
political prisoners""
2. regret strongly; ""I deplore this hostile action""; ""we lamented the loss of
benefits"" "

" dis·si·dent /ˈdɪsɪdənt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[dis-i-


duhnt] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. a person who dissents.
–adjective
2. disagreeing or dissenting, as in opinion or attitude: a ban on dissident
magazines.
[Origin: 1525–35; < L dissident- (s. of dissidéns, prp. of dissidére to sit apart),
equiv. to dis- dis-1 + -sid- (comb. form of sed- sit) + -ent- -ent]

—Related forms
dis·si·dent·ly, adverb
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
dis·si·dent (dĭs'ĭ-dənt) Pronunciation Key
adj. Disagreeing, as in opinion or belief.

n. One who disagrees; a dissenter.

[Latin dissidēns, dissident-, present participle of dissidēre, to disagree : dis-,


apart; see dis- + sedēre, to sit; see sed- in Indo-European roots.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
232

Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This


dissident (adj.)
c.1534, from L. dissidentem (nom. dissidens), prp. of dissidere ""to be remote,
disagree, be removed from,"" lit. ""to sit apart,"" from dis- ""apart"" + sedere
""to sit"" (see sedentary). The noun in the political sense first used 1940, with
rise of totalitarian systems, especially with ref. to the Soviet Union. The noun is
first recorded 1766, in allusion to Protestants.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
dissident

adjective
1. characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards
2. disagreeing, especially with a majority [syn: dissentient]

noun
1. a person who dissents from some established policy [syn: dissenter] "

"po·tent1 /ˈpoʊtnt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[poht-nt]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–adjective
1. powerful; mighty: a potent fighting force.
2. cogent; persuasive: Several potent arguments were in his favor.
3. producing powerful physical or chemical effects: a potent drug.
4. having or exercising great power or influence: a potent factor in the economy.
5. (of a male) capable of sexual intercourse.
[Origin: 1490–1500; < L potent- (s. of poténs), prp. of posse to be able, have
power; see -ent]

—Related forms
po·tent·ly, adverb
po·tent·ness, noun

—Synonyms 1. strong, puissant. See powerful. 4. influential.


—Antonyms 1. weak. 4. ineffectual.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
233

po·tent2 /ˈpoʊtnt/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[poht-nt]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation Heraldry.
–noun
1. a fur having a pattern of T-shaped forms, placed in alternate directions and
having alternating tinctures, one metal and one color, so that all forms of one
tincture face the same way and are between, above, and below forms of the
other tincture facing the other way.
2. a T-shaped form used in potent or counterpotent.
–adjective
3. (of a cross) having a crosspiece at the extremity of each arm: a cross potent.
[Origin: 1325–75; ME potente crutch, var. of potence < F crutch, support < ML
potentia, L: power, potency]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
po·tent (pōt'nt) Pronunciation Key
adj.

1. Possessing inner or physical strength; powerful.


2.
1. Exerting or capable of exerting strong physiological or chemical effects:
potent liquor; a potent toxin.
2. Exerting or capable of exerting strong influence; cogent: potent
arguments.
3. Having great control or authority: ""The police were potent only so long as
they were feared"" (Thomas Burke).
4. Able to perform sexual intercourse. Used of a male.

[Middle English, from Latin potēns, potent-, present participle of posse, to be


able; see poti- in Indo-European roots.]

po'tent·ly adv., po'tent·ness n.


(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
potent
c.1500, from L. potentem (nom. potens) ""powerful,"" prp. of *potere ""be
powerful,"" from potis ""powerful, able, capable"" (cognate with Skt. patih
""master, husband,"" Gk. posis, Lith. patis ""husband""). Meaning ""having sexual
234

power"" is first recorded 1899. Potency is attested from 1539, from L. potentia
""power,"" from potentem ""potent.""

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
potent

adjective
1. having great influence
2. having or wielding force or authority; ""providing the ground soldier with
increasingly potent weapons""
3. having a strong physiological or chemical effect; ""a potent toxin""; ""potent
liquor""; ""a potent cup of tea"", ""a stiff drink"" [ant: impotent]
4. (of a male) capable of copulation [ant: impotent] "

"re-treat /riˈtrit/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[ree-treet]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–verb (used with object), verb (used without object)
to treat again.
[Origin: 1880–85; re- + treat]
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Ancient Secret Mantra
Achieve your Heart's Desire! Start seeing Results in a Week.
www.uncannymind.com/140mantra.html
Sponsored Links

Spiritual retreat
Manifesting Desires One By One, Get The Ten Simple Steps To Make It Fun
LightisReal.com
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This
re·treat /rɪˈtrit/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[ri-treet]
Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation
–noun
1. the forced or strategic withdrawal of an army or an armed force before an
enemy, or the withdrawing of a naval force from action.
2. the act of withdrawing, as into safety or privacy; retirement; seclusion.
3. a place of refuge, seclusion, or privacy: The library was his retreat.
235

4. an asylum, as for the insane.


5. a retirement or a period of retirement for religious exercises and meditation.
6. Military.
a. a flag-lowering ceremony held at sunset on a military post.
b. the bugle call or drumbeat played at this ceremony.
7. the recession of a surface, as a wall or panel, from another surface beside it.
–verb (used without object)
8. to withdraw, retire, or draw back, esp. for shelter or seclusion.
9. to make a retreat: The army retreated.
10. to slope backward; recede: a retreating chin.
11. to draw or lead back.
—Idiom
12. beat a retreat, to withdraw or retreat, esp. hurriedly or in disgrace.
[Origin: 1300–50; (n.) ME retret < OF, var. of retrait, n. use of ptp. of retraire to
draw back < L retrahere (re- re- + trahere to draw; see retract1); (v.) late ME
retreten < MF retraitier < L retractāre to retract2]

—Related forms
re·treat·al, adjective
re·treat·er, noun
re·treat·ive, adjective

—Synonyms 2. departure, withdrawal. 3. shelter. 8. leave, pull back. See depart.


—Antonyms 1, 8, 9. advance.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
Resort
Directory of over 10,000 resorts, lodges, cabins, and cottages
www.ResortsandLodges.com
Sponsored Link
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
re·treat (rĭ-trēt') Pronunciation Key
n.

1.
1. The act or process of withdrawing, especially from something hazardous,
formidable, or unpleasant.
2. The process of going backward or receding from a position or condition
gained.
3. A period of seclusion, retirement, or solitude.
4. A period of group withdrawal for prayer, meditation, or study: a religious
retreat.
236

5. Withdrawal of a military force from a dangerous position or from an


enemy attack.
6. The signal for such withdrawal.
7. A bugle call or drumbeat signaling the lowering of the flag at sunset, as
on a military base.
8. The military ceremony of lowering the flag.
2. A place affording peace, quiet, privacy, or security. See Synonyms at shelter.
3.
1. A period of seclusion, retirement, or solitude.
2. A period of group withdrawal for prayer, meditation, or study: a religious
retreat.
3. Withdrawal of a military force from a dangerous position or from an
enemy attack.
4. The signal for such withdrawal.
5. A bugle call or drumbeat signaling the lowering of the flag at sunset, as
on a military base.
6. The military ceremony of lowering the flag.
4.
1. Withdrawal of a military force from a dangerous position or from an
enemy attack.
2. The signal for such withdrawal.
3. A bugle call or drumbeat signaling the lowering of the flag at sunset, as
on a military base.
4. The military ceremony of lowering the flag.

v. re·treat·ed, re·treat·ing, re·treats

v. intr.

1. To fall or draw back; withdraw or retire. See Synonyms at recede1.


2. To slope backward.

v. tr. Games
To move (a chess piece) back.

[Middle English retret, from Old French retrait, retret, from past participle of
retraire, retrere, to draw back, from Latin retrahere; see retract.]

re·treat'er n.
(Download Now or Buy the Book)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
237

Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.


Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
retreat (n.)
c.1300, from O.Fr. retret, noun use of pp. of retrere ""draw back,"" from L.
retrahere ""draw back,"" from re- ""back"" + trahere ""to draw"" (see tract (1)).
Meaning ""place of seclusion"" is from 1423; sense of ""establishment for
mentally ill persons"" is from 1797. The verb is first attested 1422.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
retreat

noun
1. (military) withdrawal of troops to a more favorable position to escape the
enemy's superior forces or after a defeat; ""the disorderly retreat of French
troops""
2. a place of privacy; a place affording peace and quiet
3. (military) a signal to begin a withdrawal from a dangerous position
4. (military) a bugle call signaling the lowering of the flag at sunset
5. an area where you can be alone [syn: hideaway]
6. withdrawal for prayer and study and meditation; ""the religious retreat is a
form of vacation activity"" [syn: retirement]
7. the act of withdrawing or going backward (especially to escape something
hazardous or unpleasant) [ant: advance]

verb
1. pull back or move away or backward; ""The enemy withdrew""; ""The limo
pulled away from the curb"" [syn: withdraw] [ant: advance]
2. move away, as for privacy; ""The Pope retreats to Castelgondolfo every
summer""
3. move back; ""The glacier retrogrades"" [syn: retrograde]
4. make a retreat from an earlier commitment or activity; ""We'll have to
crawfish out from meeting with him""; ""He backed out of his earlier promise"";
""The aggressive investment company pulled in its horns"" "

"sov·er·eign /ˈsɒvrɪn, ˈsɒvərɪn, ˈsʌv-/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled


Pronunciation[sov-rin, sov-er-in, suhv-] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA
Pronunciation
–noun
1. a monarch; a king, queen, or other supreme ruler.
238

2. a person who has sovereign power or authority.


3. a group or body of persons or a state having sovereign authority.
4. a gold coin of the United Kingdom, equal to one pound sterling: went out of
circulation after 1914.
–adjective
5. belonging to or characteristic of a sovereign or sovereignty; royal.
6. having supreme rank, power, or authority.
7. supreme; preeminent; indisputable: a sovereign right.
8. greatest in degree; utmost or extreme.
9. being above all others in character, importance, excellence, etc.
10. efficacious; potent: a sovereign remedy.
[Origin: 1250–1300; ME soverain (alter. by influence of reign) < OF soverain <
VL *superānus, equiv. to L super- super- + -ānus -an]

—Related forms
sov·er·eign·ly, adverb

—Synonyms 1. emperor, empress, potentate. 3. government. 5. regal, majestic,


imperial, princely, monarchical, kingly, queenly. 7. chief, paramount, principal,
predominant. 10. effective, effectual.
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
sov·er·eign (sŏv'ər-ĭn, sŏv'rĭn) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. One that exercises supreme, permanent authority, especially in a nation or


other governmental unit, as:
1. A king, queen, or other noble person who serves as chief of state; a
ruler or monarch.
2. A national governing council or committee.
2. A nation that governs territory outside its borders.
3. A gold coin formerly used in Great Britain.

adj.

1. Self-governing; independent: a sovereign state.


2. Having supreme rank or power: a sovereign prince.
3. Paramount; supreme: Her sovereign virtue is compassion.
4.
1. Of superlative strength or efficacy: a sovereign remedy.
2. Unmitigated: sovereign contempt.
239

"

"truce /trus/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[troos]


Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation,
–noun
1. a suspension of hostilities for a specified period of time by mutual agreement
of the warring parties; cease-fire; armistice.
2. an agreement or treaty establishing this.
3. a temporary respite, as from trouble or pain.
[Origin: 1175–1225; ME trewes, pl. of trewe, OE tréow belief, pledge, treaty. See
trow]

—Related forms
truceless, adjective

—Synonyms 3. lull, pause, rest, stay.


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
2006.
American Heritage Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
truce (trōōs) Pronunciation Key
n.

1. A temporary cessation or suspension of hostilities by agreement of the


opposing sides; an armistice.
2. A respite from a disagreeable state of affairs.

tr. & intr.v. truced, truc·ing, truc·es


To end or be ended with a truce.

[Middle English trewes, pl. of trewe, treaty, pledge, from Old English trēow; see
deru- in Indo-European roots.]

(Download Now or Buy the Book)


The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
truce
240

c.1225, triws, variant of trewes, originally plural of trewe ""faith, assurance of


faith, covenant, treaty,"" from O.E. treow ""faith, treaty,"" from P.Gmc. *trewwo
(cf. O.Fris. triuwe, M.Du. trouwe, Du. trouw, O.H.G. triuwa, Ger. treue, Goth.
triggwa ""faith, faithfulness""). Related to O.E. treowe ""faithful"" (see true). The
Gmc. word was borrowed into L.L. as tregua, hence Fr. trève, It. treuga. Trucial
States, the pre-1971 name of the United Arab Emirates, is attested from 1891, in
ref. to the 1835 maritime truce between Britain and the Arab sheiks of Oman.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper


WordNet - Cite This Source - Share This
truce

noun
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
[syn: armistice] "