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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

Lab Manual

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG

B.TECH II yr Ist Semster FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY LABORATORY MANUAL

MALLA REDDY ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN Maisammaguda, Dhulapally Hyderabad - 500014, AP

Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women LIST OF EXPERIMENTS EXP No. 1. 2. EXPERIMENT NAME IMPACT OF JET ON VANES VENTURIMETER AND ORIFICE- METER APPARATUS DETERMINATION OF LOSS OF HEAD IN PIPE LINES FITTINGS PERFORMANCE TEST ON RECIPROCATING PUMP MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP TEST

Lab Manual

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6. 7.

LOSSES IN PIPE FRICTION DETERMINATION OF FRICTION FACTOR FOR A GIVEN PIPE LINE PERFORMANCE TEST ON PELTON WHEEL

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PERFORMANCE TEST ON SINGLE TEST ON CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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FRANCIS TURBINE TEST RIG (5 H.P.)

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women EXPERIMENT NO : 1 IMPACT OF JET ON VANES

Lab Manual

AIM: To measure the impact (force) of jet on vanes. APPARATUS: Jet vane apparatus, weights, stop watch. THEORY: The DYNAMIC apparatus consists of a chamber provided with proper sheets. A floating vane fixing rod is provided over the chamber to which the vane is fixed. An initial balance weight is provided for balancing the vane. Another sliding weight is provided to balance the vane fixing rod while the jet is striking the vane. A nozzle is fixed below the vane through which a vertical jet issues. Control valves provided controls the pressure at the jet and hence the flow rate and velocity of the jet. Flat and hemispherical vanes are provided. The vanes can be interchangeably fixed to the rod. By adjusting the sliding weight rod is balanced when the jet is striking the vane. By taking the moment about the fulcrum. Impact force can be calculated. A nozzle of diameter 6mm and 8 mm is provided. PROCEDURE: Fill up clean water in the sump tan/k up so the mark (This water should be free of any oil content). Open the priming bolt (near the delivery pipe). Fill the water and remove all the air. Then tight the priming bolt. Fix the required vane (suppose flat) to the fixing rod. Fix the nozzle in perplex box at the centre (threading is provided for both) and close the top covers. Adjust the balance weight (big size) (locking bolt is provided). So the vane fixing rod is in the horizontal direction. Connect the electric supply and lose pipe connection to inlet of the nozzle. Fully open the bypass valve. Start the pump. Slowly close bypass valve. The jet strikes the vane. Vane fixing rod unbalanced (goes upward) put the sliding weight over the rod and adjust its distance such that the vane fixing rod is balanced. Note down the balance weight + its distance from the centre of the pivot ( by using scale) Close the discharge valve of measuring tank. Turn the tunnel towards the measuring tank, so that water collects in the measuring tan/k, start the stop watch -0 liter. Level an/d measure time required for 10 liter. For next reading use same procedure. Repeat the same procedure for another nozzle and vane. After completion of experiment, drain all the water (drain plug is at the bottom of the sump tank) and tight the drain plug.

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Lab Manual

OBSERVATION TABLE: S.No TYPE WEIGHT BALANCED TIME FOR Qa = VELOCITY Ftheo OF (kgs) LENGTH 10 Ltrs 0.01/t V=Q/A =(2WAV)/ VANE (L) DISCHARGE g (sec) CALCULATIONS: Taking the nozzle of 8mm diameter. Diameter of jet= d= 8*10 m Cross sectional area of jet a= 5.02 * 10 S.No MANOMETE R READING (cm) H1 H2 HEAD TIME LOSS IN m TAKEN OF WATER FOR 10 ltrs ACTUAL DISCHARGE IN m/ sec (Qa) THEORITICAL DISCHARGE (Qt) COEFFICIEN T OF DISCHARGE (Cd) Fexp = me/0.135

5 m Let the time required for 10 liters level rise in measuring tank be t sec. Discharge Q = 0.01/ t m/s Velocity of jet V=Q/A m/s Force exerted by vane For FLAT VANE: deflect of jet is 90 Ftheo = WAV/g Kg W=specific wt of water= 1000 kg/ m G= gravitation/al acceleration = 9.81 m/s For HEMISPHERICAL VANE: deflect of jet is 180 Ftheo= 2WAV/g Kg Experimentally, taking moments about the fulcrum. Distance of vane from fulcrum is 0.135 m Fexp * 0.135 = m*l Fexp= (m * l)/ 0.135 m= mass of sliding weight Kg I= distance of sliding wt from fulcrum Fexp is observed to be slightly differed.

Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

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PRECAUTIONS: Before staring the experiment use few oil drop in the pivot (small oil hole is provided) After tightening the vane and nozzle close the small covers at top of the perperx box. If variation may occurs in delivery of the pump then clean the foot valve. RESULT: obtained. The impact of jet on vane is examined and force due to jet vane is

Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women VIVA QUESTIONS:

Lab Manual

1. What is the Impact of jet 1. What is the jet of propulsion? 2. Write expression for force exerted by a jet of water on a stationary plate in the direction of jet. 3. Write expression for force exerted by a jet of water on a moving plate in the direction of jet. 4. Write expression for force exerted by a jet of water on a stationary inclined plate in the direction of jet. 5. Write expression for force exerted by a jet of water on a moving inclined plate in the direction of jet. 6. Write expression for force exerted by a jet of water on a stationary curved plate in the direction of jet. 7. Write expression for force exerted by a jet of water on a moving curved plate in the direction of jet. 8. When a jet of water strikes a hinged plate, what is the angle of swing about the hing? 9. What is the efficiency of a series of vanes? 10. Define nozzle and jet. 11. What is the range of co-efficient of velocity and co-efficient of impact? 12. What is the practical significance of impact of jet? 13. How will you measure the pressure of jet? 14. What is the energy available at the end of a nozzle?

EXPERIMENT NO: 2

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VENTURIMETER AND ORIFACE METER APPARATUS

AIM: To determine the co-efficient of discharge of venture meter and orifice meter. APPARATUS: Supply pipe of 21 mm (3/4 ) connected to inlet manifold. Venturimeter size inlet 21.5 mm and throat 16.5 mm Orifice meter size inlet 20 mm an/d throat 14 mm. Differential mercury manometer tappings provided at inlet an/d throat of venturimeter and orifice meter. Manometer size 50 cm height. Measuring tank size- 300 mm * 300 mm * 300 mm height. THEORY: This equipment is designed as recirculation type set up with a sump tank. Measuring tank and 0.5 HP pump with necessary piping. The delivery pipe is connected to a common manifold from which two pipe lines are taken out. A delivery valve is provided on delivery pipe for changing the Q. Venturimeter is fitted in one line and on orifice meter is fitted in another line. Flow control valves are fitted at the downstream end of the pipes. The pressure tubes from the orifice meter are connected to U-tube mercury differential manometer. A measuring tank is filled to collect the water. PROCEDURE: Check all the clamps for tightness. Open the gate valve and start the flow. Open the outlet of the venturimeter and close the valve of orifice meter. First open air cocks then open the venturimeter cocks, remove all the air bubbles and close the air cocks slowly and simultaneously so that mercury does not run away into water. Close the gate valve of measuring the time for 10 liters water discharge and also the manometer difference. Repeat the procedure by changing the discharge and also for orifice meter.

Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

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OBSERVATION TABLES: VENTURI METER: S.No MANOMETE R READING (cm) H1 H2 HEAD TIME LOSS IN m TAKEN OF WATER FOR 10 ltrs ACTUAL DISCHARGE IN m/ sec (Qa) THEORITICAL DISCHARGE (Qth) COEFFICIEN T OF DISCHARGE (Cd)

ORIFICE METER: S.No MANOMETE R READING (cm) H1 H2 HEAD LEVEL H TIME TAKEN FOR 10 ltrs ACTUAL DISCHARGE IN m/ sec (Qa) THEORITICAL DISCHARGE (Qth) COEFFICIEN T OF DISCHARGE (Cd)

CALCULATIONS: (for venture meter): Actual discharge Qa = 0.01/t Let H be the water head across manometer in , m. Therefore, H= manometer difference (sp.Gravity of mercury- sp. Gravity of water) Or H= manometer difference * (13.6-1) A= cross sectional area at throat to venturimeter = 3.63 * 104 m Therefore, Theoretical discharge Qth = (A*a sqrt (2gh))/ sqrt (A-a) m/s Or Qth = 0.00413 sqrt (h) m/s h in meters. Co-efficient of discharge Cd= Qa/ Qth

(for Orifice meter): 1. Actual discharge Qa = 0.01/t 2. Let H be the water head across manometer in , m. Therefore, H= manometer difference (sp.Gravity of mercury- sp. Gravity of water)

Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women Or H= manometer difference * (13.6-1) A= cross sectional area at throat to orifice meter = 3.14 * 104 m A= cross sectional area to orificemeter = 1.54 * 104 m

Lab Manual

Therefore, Theoretical discharge Qth = (A*a sqrt (2gh))/ sqrt (A-a) m/s Or Qth = 0.00277 sqrt (h) m/s h in meters. 3. Co-efficient of discharge Cd= Qa/ Qth PRECAUTIONS: Operate manometer valve gently while removal of air bubble so that mercury in manometer does not run away with water. Do not close the outlet valve completely. Drain all the water after completion of experiment. CONCLUSION: Calibrated values of co-efficient of discharge for venture meter is: Calibrated values of co-efficient of discharge for orifice meter is:

Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women VIVA QUESTIONS:

Lab Manual

1. What are the parts of Venturimeter ? 2. What is the angle of convergent part ? 3. What is the angle of divergent part ? 4. What is the length of convergent part ? 5. What is the length of divergent part ? 6. What is the diameter of throat ? 7. What is the main purpose of venturimeter ? 8. What is the co-efficient of discharge of venturimeter ? 9. Differentiate between simple manometer and differential manometer. 10. What is the difference between pitot-tube and u-tube manometer. 11. What do you understand by the term intensity of pressure ? 12. What is meant by pressure head ? 13. Distinguish between gauge pressure and absolute pressure. 14. State the different principles of measurement of pressure. 15. What is the specific gravity of mercury ? 16. What is the ratio of diameter of Orifice and diameter of pipe ? 17. What is the main purpose of Orificemeter ? 18. What is the co-efficient of discharge of Orificemeter ? 19. Differentiate between simple manometer and differential manometer. 20. What is the difference between u-tube manometer and inverted manometer ?

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EXPERIMENT NO : 3 DETERMINATION OF LOSS OF HEAD IN PIPE LINES FITTINGS AIM: To measure loss of head in various pipe fittings. SPECIFICATIONS: Basic piping of 15 mm size. 19 mm small bend- 1No 14 mm large bend 1No Sudden expansion from 16 mm to 27.5 mm Sudden contraction from 27.5 mm to 16 mm. HP centrifugal pump to circular the water through the piping. Multiple tapping differential manometer. Sump tank of suitable capacity. Measuring tank 300 mm * 300 mm * 300 mm height. THEORY: While installing a pipeline for conveying a fluid, its generally not possible to install long pipelines of same size all over and straight for various reasons like space restrictions, aesthetics, location of outlet etc. hence the pipe size varies and it changes its direction. Also various fittings are required to be used. All these variations of sizes and the fittings cause the loss of fluid head. The dynamic apparatus is designed to demonstrate the loss of head due to following fittings:Pipe bend (large bend) pipe elbow (small bend) Sudden expansion of the flow. Sudden contraction of the flow. The setup consists of 15 mm basic piping in which the above fittings are installed. A pressure tapping is provided at inlet and outlet of each fitting, which is connected to a common differential manometer. A gate valve at outlet and a bypass valve at pump discharge control the flow of water.

PROCEDURE: Fill up sufficient clean water in the sump tank. Fill up mercury in the manometer. Connect the electric supply. See that the flow control valve and bypass valve are fully open and all the manometer cocks are closed. Keep the water collecting funnel in the sump tank side.

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Start the pump and adjust the flow rate. Now, slowly open the manometer tapping connection of small bend. Open both the cocks simultaneously. Open air vent cocks. Remove air bubbles and slowly and simultaneously close the cocks. Note down the manometer reading and flow rate. Close the cocks and similarly, note down the readings for other fittings. Repeat the procedure for different flow rates. OBSERVATIONS: TYPE OF FITTING Elbow Bend Enlargement Contraction CALCULATIONS: ELBOW: In elbow there is no change in the magnitude of velocity of water, but there is change in the direction of water, hence head loss exists. For elbow, mean area A= (/4) d = 2.83 * 104 m Diameter of the elbow d = 19 mm = 0.019 m Mean velocity of flow V = Q/A m/s Where Q = 0.01/ time required for 10 ltrs m/ sec Therefore loss of head at elbow. H1 = K[ V/ 2g] m of water Actual head loss hexp = manometer difference (m) * 12.6 PIPE BEND: Similar to elbow, loss of head at bend is due to change in the direction of water. But unlike the elbow , change of direction is not abrupt, hence loss of head is less as compared to elbow. For bend, mean area A= (/4) d = 1.54 * 104 m Diameter of bend = d= 14mm = 0.014 m Mean velocity of flow V = Q/A m/s Where Q = 0.01/ time required for 10 ltrs m/ sec Therefore loss of head at bend. H1 = K[ V/ 2g] m of water Actual head loss hexp = manometer difference (m) * 12.6 HI (CM) H2 (CM) HI-H2 (in m) TIME FOR 10 LITRE DISCHARGE (sec)

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Experimentally obtained valve of K is greater than this as it includes the loss of head for the two collars also. SUDDEN CONTRACTION: At sudden contraction, velocity of water increases which causes pressure head to drop (according to Bernoullis theorem) in addition to this there is loss of head due to sudden contraction. Hence, Manometer reading = (Head drop due to increment of velocity) + ( Head loss due to sudden contraction). Assuming no loss to be there due to contraction and applying bernoullis theorem at inlet and outlet of the section. P1/W + V1/ 2g = P0/W + V0/ 2g Inlet size = 27.5 mm= 0.0275m i.e Ai = 5.94 * 104 m Outlet size = 16 mm = 0.016m i.e Ao = 2.01 * 104 m Vi= Q/Ai m/s Vo= Q/Ao m/s Where Q = discharge= (0.01)/ time required for 10 ltrs m/ sec Ai and Ao = inlet and outlet area respectively, m Drop of head due to velocity increment Hv = Vo/2g - Vi/2g Actual drop H = (manometer reading*12.6) Loss of head due to sudden contraction Hc= H-Hv Hc= K[ Vo/2g] theoretically; Actually, value of K depends upon inside diameter, curvature radius, turbulence surface, roughness and many other factors. Hence it is better to determine the value of K, experimentally. SUDDEN EXPANSION: At sudden expansion of flow, pressure increases due to reduction in velocity, but there is pressure drop due to sudden expansion also. Hence at sudden expansion one gets rise of pressure lesser than that predicted theoretically. Assuming no loss of head. Apply Bernoullis equation at inlet and outlet, similar to equation used for sudden contraction. Rise of pressure: Hv= Vi/2g- Vo/2g Loss of head due to sudden expansion Actual He= Hv-(manometer reading(m)*12.6) Theoretically He= K[Vi- Vo] /2g

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women CONCLUSION:

Lab Manual

For any type of fitting, there is a loss of head, but its magnitude depends upon the type of fitting. Loss of head occurs due to change in PRECAUTIONS: Open both the manometer cocks slowly and simultaneously, otherwise the mercury will run away from the manometer. Operate the valves gently. Do not forcibly rotate them. Always use clean water for the experiment. RESULT: The head loss due to various pipe fittings is obtained.

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EXPERIMENT NO : 4 PERFORMANCE TEST ON RECIPROCATING PUMP AIM: To perform various test on reciprocating pump. SPECIFICATIONS: Reciprocating pump: stroke length 16 mm, piston 22mm double acting with air vessel on discharge side, suction 20 mm discharge 20mm. DC shunt motor: 1 HP, variable speed, controlled by 4 amps diameter. Measuring tank: 400mm*400mm*450mm height provided with gauge tube and funnel for delivering the flow into measuring tank or sump tank. Sump tank: 600mm*900mm*600mm height. Measurement: (a). pressure gauge 0-10 kg/cm for discharge pressure. (b). vaccum gauge 0-760 mm Hg for suction vaccum. . 1 ph energy meter for motor input measurement THEORY: Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement plunger pump. It is often used where relatively small quantities of water are to be handled and delivery pressure is quite large. Reciprocating pump are widely used as automobile service stations, chemical industries or as metering and dosing pumps. The dynamic apparatus consists of 3 cylinder, double acting reciprocating pump mounted over the sump tank. The pump is driven by a variable speed dc motor. Measurement tank is provided to measure discharge of the pump. The pressure and vaccum gauges provided to measure delivery pressure and suction vaccum respectively. PROCEDURE: fill up sufficient water in the sump tank. open the gate valve in the discharge pipe of the pump fully. check nut bolts and the driving belt for proper tightening. keep the speed control (dimmer) knob at minimum position and switch on the supply. divert funnel into the measuring tank and slowly increase the pump speed ( say500 rpm) slightly close the discharge valve. Note down pump speed, delivery pressure, suction vaccum, time for 10 apms of energy meter for flow measurement close the measuring tanks drain valve, take time for 10 ltrs. Repeat the procedure for different gate valve closing. Take care that discharge pressure does not rise above 8 kg/cm [constant rpm test].

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Change the speed and take readings for different gate valve openings. Repeat the procedure for different speeds and complete the observation table (600 rpm, 700 rpm) OBSERVATIONS: S.No PUMP SPEED (rpm) DISCHARGE SUCTION PRESSURE VACCUM kg/cm (mm of Hg) TIME FOR 10 ltrs RISE IN MEASURING TANK TIME FOR 10 BLINKS OF ENERGY METER

S . N o

P u m p s p e e d (r p m ) N p

Dis cha rge pre ssu re (K g/c m) Pd

Su cti on va cc um ( m mo f Hg )

Ti me for 10 ltrs rise in me asu rin g tan k (tw sec )

Ti m e fo r 10 i m ps of en er gy m et er (t e se c)

The oret ical disc har ge Qt = [Np * 1.8 2*1 05]/6 0

Ac tua l dis cha rge Qa = 0.0 1/ tw In m/ sec

suc tio n hea d Hs = Pd * 13. 6/1 000

De liv ery he ad Hd = Pd *1 0

Tota l head Ht= Hs+ Hd+ 2

O/P Pow er Pw= Qaw Ht/1 000 (kw)

i/p power IP = 10*36 00/Te *3200

o =Pw/ IP*1 00%

Cd =Q a/Q t

CALCULATIONS: Volume per stroke: /4 * D*1*3 /4 *(0.022) * (0.016)*3 1.82*10-5 m/ sec 2. Theoretical discharge:

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Qt= [1.82* 10-5 * Np]/60 m/ sec 3. Actual discharge: Qa =0.01/tw m/ sec 4. Suction head: Hs =Ps/1000 * 13.6/1 Where sp. Gravity of mercury= 13.6 5. Delivery head: Hd= discharge pressure kg/cm *10 (as 10 m of water = 1 kg/cm 6. Total head: Ht= Hs+Hd+2 m Where frictional losses= 2 m 7. Output power of pump: Pw= Qa*W*Ht/1000 Kw Where W= sp. Wt of water = 9810 N/m Qa= discharge m/ sec Ht= total head, m Input power to pump: Let the time required for 10 indication mean pulse of energy meter be Te sec. Then Ip = 10/Te * 3600/3200 Kw where energy meter constant is 3200 imp/ kwh, taking motor efficiency 80%, we have input shaft power. S.P =I.P *0.8 Overall efficiency of pump: o = PW/SP * 100% Coefficient of discharge of pump: Cd= actual discharge/ theoretical discharge= Qa/Qt Slip: Slip= (Qt-Qa)/Qt *100% GRAPHS: Plot a graph of head Vs discharge input power and efficiency of the pump (at constant speed). Plot the graph of speed Vs discharge for control head. PRECAUTIONS: Earthing id necessary clean water must be filled in the sump tank. operate all controls gently. Do not disturb the bypass knob(at the top of the pump). never allow to rise the discharge pressure above 8 kgs/ sq cm before starting the pump ensure that discharge valve is opened fully and speed contro; knob is at zero position. Do not close the discharge valve. 20 w 40 oil use in pump (keep oil level properly) oil must be changes after 2 years (drain is provided near the oil indicator) Do not run the pump more than 700 rpm. After completion of experiment drain all the water. RESULT: Various tests on reciprocating pump are conducted and efficiency is obtained.

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VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. What is the Reciprocating pump? How do you classify the Reciprocating pumps? What are the main parts of Reciprocating pumps? Why the Air vessels are fitted in Reciprocating pumps? What are the functions of Air vessels? What is the slip of Reciprocating pump? What is the separation of Reciprocating pump? How much power is saved by fitting Air vessels in single acting Reciprocating pump? How much power is saved by fitting Air vessels in double acting Reciprocating pump? What is the discharge of Reciprocating pump when compared with Centrifugal pump?

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EXPERIMENT NO : 5 MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP TEST AIM: To perform test on multistage centrifugal pump SPECIFICATIONS: Centrifugal pump- 65*50 (2 *2 ) mm size pump, monoblock , drive motor, 3 phase induction motor 5 hp Measuring tank 600*600*800 mm height, fitted with gauge glass tube for water level measurement and 50 mm (2) drain valve, mounted on sump tank. Sump tank- 850*850*575 mm height Gate valve to control the head. Pressure gauge- 0-7 Kg/sq cm to measure the head Vaccum gauge- 0-760 mm Hg to measure suction vaccum. Energy meter to measure input power of motor Starter for motor Stop watch THEORY: Centrifugal pumps are basically roto-dynamic pumps which develop dynamic pressure for liquid. In centrifugal pump liquid in impeller is made to rotate by external force, so that it us thrown away form the center of rotation. At constant supply of liquid is as made available at the centre of rotation, supply liquid can be supplied at higher level. Normally, head produced by a single impeller depends on the peripheral speed of the impeller. In order to produce higher heads, either rotational speed or diameter of impeller has to be increased, which increases stresses in the material of impellers. Hence 2 pumps in series can be used to produce higher heads. Now this method is replaced by multistage pumps. In multistage pumps, by 2 or more impellers are arranged on a single shaft so that liquid discharged by 1st stage impeller at certain speed head passes to eye of next stage impeller, where the head is increased, till the liquid finally enters into delivery pipe. The dynamic unit consists of a two stage centrifugal pump driven by a 3 phase induction motor. An energy meter provided measures electrical input to the motor and a measuring tank provided enables to measure the discharge of pump. A gate valve is fitted at the discharge side of the pump to vary the head. Thus performance of the pump can be estimated at various heads.

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PROCEDURE: Fill up water in the tank (350 ltrs) Open gate valve (priming) top of the pump. Fill up water so that air in the pump will be released, close the gate valve. Shut off the discharge valve. Start the pump. As the discharge valve is closed, no discharge will be observed, but pressure gauge is showing some reading. This is called shut off head of the pump. Now slowly open the discharge valve, so that small discharge is observed. Note down the discharge head (by pressure gauge on discharge pipe) and suction pressure. Note down time required for 100mm water collection in measuring tank. Note down the time required for 10 impulsions of energy meter. Repeat the procedure by varying the discharge valve opening and fill up the observation table. OBSERVATIONS: Disc hage press ure Pd (kg/c m) Interm ediate pressur e (kg/cm ) Suct ion pres sure Ps (mm ) Time for 100m m water colle ction Tm Ti me for 10 imp s of ene rgy met er Te Disch arge head Hd Q m / s e c Suct ion hea d Hs Total head H= Hs+ Hd+c O/p Power, W.P= W*Qht /1000 I/p power Ip=10 /Tse * 3600/ 1600 Over all effici ency o= WP/I P *100 %

CALCULATIONS: Discharge pressure Pd: (Kg/sq cm) for water 10 metres of water corresponds to 1 kg/ sq cm. Discharge head Hd= Pd*10 m of water. Discharge Q: = 0.6*0.6*0.1/Tm m/ sec Suction head: Suction vaccum Pa= mm of Hg, therefore suction head Hs= Ps/1000 * 13.6/1 where sp. Gravity of Hg= 13.6 and sp. Gravity of water is 1. Including height of delivery pipe above pressure gauge, total loss of head in suction and delivery pipes is assumed to be 2 m of water. Therefore total head = H= Hd+Hs+2m of water. Output power ( or water power): Wp= W* Q*Ht/1000 Kw, where W is sp. Weight of water= 9810 N/cu m, Q is discharge cu m/ sec and Ht is total head, m.

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Electrical input: Let the time required for 10 imp of energy meter disc to Te sec. electrical input power Ip=10/Tse* 3600/1600 Kw. Energy meter constant= 1600 imp/kwhr Overall efficiency of the pump: o =Wp/IP *100 % Graph : Operating characteristics- plot the graph of discharge Vs total head, overall efficiency.

CONCLUSION: From the operating characteristics, it is noted that: Shut off head of pump(head at zero discharge) is ----Maximum efficiency occurs at the discharge of ----cu m/sec and is --% Maximum power input to pump is ----Kw Maximum discharge of pump is cu m/ sec PRECAUTIONS: Priming is must, before starting the pump. Pump should never be run empty. Observe the direction of rotation of pump. If it is reverse, interchange any two of the three connections of the motor. Use clean water in the sump tank. Use all the controls and switches carefully. Do not disturb the pressure gauge connections. Drain all the water after completion of experiment. RESULT: Performance test on multistage centrifugal pump is conducted successfully.

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EXPERIMENT NO : 6 LOSSES IN PIPE FRICTION INTRODUCTION: When fluid is flowing through a pipe, it is subjected to resistance to flow due to shear forces between the pipe wall and the fluid particles and between fluid particles also. This resistance depends upon the velocity of flow and area of surface in contact. It also depends upon the type of flow, i.e. laminar or turbulent. This frictional resistance causes loss of pressure in the direction of flow. AIM: To determine losses due to friction in pipes. APPARATUS: The apparatus consists of four pipes with internal diameters 28.5 mm G.I pipe, 22.7G.I pipe 17.5 G.I pipe, os that loss of head can be compared for different diameters and different materials. A flow control valve is provided at outlet of pipes which enables experiments to be conducted at different flow rates i.e. at different velocities. Tappings are provided along the length of pipes, so that drop of head can be visualized along the length of pipe. Each pipe is provided with valve at outlet, which enable heads to be controlled. PROCEDURE: Fill up the water in the sump tank. (This water should be free of any oil content. Open all the outlet valves and start the pump. Check for leakage by closing 3 of outlet valves, for each pipe, and correct the leaks, if any. Open the outlet valves of the pipe to be tested. Remove all the air bubbles from manometer and connecting pipes. Reduce the flow. Adjust outlet valve, so that water heads in manometer are to the readable height. Note down the heads and flow rate Now, increase the flow and accordingly adjust the outlet valve, so that water will not overflow. Note down the heads and flow. Repeat the procedure for other pipes. OBSERVATION TABLE: S.No PIPE TYPE HEAD DROP (h , in m) FLOW RATE, t sec (time for 10 ltrs, in sec)

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CACULATIONS: 28.5mm G.I pipe: Area of pipe, A =/4 * D m = /4 * (0.0285) m =0.0006379 m Discharge, Q = 0.01/t m/sec Velocity of water, V= Q/A m/sec Let, f be the coefficient of friction. Test length of pipe is 1 meter. For 1 meter length, drop of head, Hf . Therefore , Hf = manometer difference. According to darcys weish batch equation, Hf = (f*L*v)/2*g*d Where, f= coefficient of fricion L= length of pipe= 1 m V= velocity of water m/sec g= gravitational acceleration= 9.81 m/ sec d= inside diameter of pipe, m Then, f= (2 Hf*g*d)/Lv PRECAUTIONS: 1. Ensure that the delivery valve is fully closed before starting the motor. 2. See that the water does not overflow from the measuring tank. 3. Operation of any two pressure cocks should be done at a time so that mercury does not run down and see that no air bubbles entrapped while taking the Manometer readings. Result:

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VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. What are the minor losses in pipe flow? What are the major losses in pipe flow? What is the Darcys frictional factor? What are the forces consider in pipe flow? What do you understand by total energy line? What do you understand by hydraulic gradient line? What do you understand by pipes in series? What do you understand by pipes in parallel? What is an equivalent pipe? What is a compound pipe? What will be loss of head when pipes are connected in series? What will be loss of head when pipes are connected in parallel?

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women EXPERIMENT NO : 7

Lab Manual

DETERMINATION OF FRICTION FACTOR FOR A GIVEN PIPE LINE AIM: To Determine the Co-Efficient of Friction for a Given Pipe Line. APPARATUS: The apparatus consists of four pipes with one Ds1 28.5 mm G.I pipe, 22.7 G.I pipe 17.5 mm, G.I pipe, so that loss of head can be compared for different diameters and different materials. A flow control valve is provided at outlet of pipes. This enables experiments to be conducted at different flow rates i.e. at different velocities. Tappings are provided along the length of pipes, so that drop of head can be visualized along the length of pipe. Each pipe is provided with valve at outlet which enables heads to be controlled. THEORY: When a fluid is flowing the pipe, it is subjected to resistance to flow due to shear forces between the pipe wall and fluid particles and between the fluid particles also. This resistance is generally called frictional resistance. This resistance depends upon the velocity of flow and area of surface in contact. It also depends upon the type of flow i.e. laminar or turbulent. This frictional resistance causes loss of pressure in the direction of flow. PROCEDURE: Fill up water in the sump tank (this water should be free of any oil content). Open all the outlet valves and start the pump. Check for leakage by closing three of outlet valves, for each pipe and correct the leaks, if any. Open the outlet valves of the pipe to be tested. Remove all the air bubbles from the manometer and connecting pipes. Reduce the flow. Adjust outlet valves, so that water heads in manometer are to be readable height. Note down the heads and flow rate. Now, increase the flow and accordingly adjust the outlet valve, so that water will not overflow. Note down heads and flow.

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Lab Manual

Repeat the procedure for other pipes. Note: (during measuring the heads, slight variation may occur due to voltage changes, valves etc in such cases, average readings may be taken). CALCULATIONS: 28.5mm G.I pipes / area of pipe: A = /4 * D^2 m^2 = /4 * (0.0285) ^2 m^2 = 0.0006379 m^2 Discharge Q = 0.01/t m^3/sec Velocity of water V = Q/A m^3/sec Let f is the co-efficient of friction. Test length of pipe is 1 meter. For 1 meter length, drop of head hf. Therefore hf = manometer difference. According to Darcys weishbatch equation hf = F.L.V^2 / 2gd. Where f = co-efficient of friction L = length of pipe = 1m V = velocity of water m/sec G = gravitational acceleration = 9.81m/s^2 d = inside diameter of pipe, m Then f = 2hf.gd / Lv^2 RESULT: The friction factors for various pipes are obtained.

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women EXPERIMENT NO : 8 PERFORMANCE TEST ON PELTON WHEEL AIM: To perform various tests on pelton wheel and find its efficiency.

Lab Manual

SPECIFICATIONS: 1. TURBINE POWER: 1 HP, speed 600rpm, filled with 18 NO. Of buckets, mounted over the sump tank provided with nozzle and spear. 2. PUMP: 5 HP monoblock pump, head-30mtr, Discharge-7.4 LPs. Provided with D.O.L starter. 3. MEASUREMENTS: a) venturimeter with mercury manometer for discharge measurement. b) Rope brake pulley dia 0.207m with spring balance 20kgs capacity and belt thickness -6mm. c) Pressure gauge to note down the pressure 0-7 kgs/cm^2. THEORY: Hydro power is one of the major cheap sources of power available on earth, and hence it is widely used for generation of electric power world wide. Water stored in dam contains P.E. the water flows the turbine, so that power is generated by impact of water. The turbine drives a generator which delivers electric power. Thus turbines are of great importance. Turbines are basically of two types, they are a) Impulse turbines and b) Reaction turbines. In impulse turbines, water coming from high head acquires high velocity. The high velocity water jet strikes the buckets of the turbine runner and causes it to rotate by impact. In reaction turbine, total head of water is partly converted into velocity head as it approaches turbines runner and it fills the runner and pressure of water gradually changes as it flows through runner. In impulse turbine, the only turbine used now a day is pelton wheel turbine. In reaction turbines, Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine are the examples. The dynamic pelton wheel turbine consists of runner mounted over the main shaft. Runner consists of buckets filled to the disc. The buckets have a shape of double ellipsoidal cups. The runner is encased in a casing provided with a perplex window for visualization. A nozzle filled in the side of casing directs the water jet over the splitter or centre ridge of the buckers. A spear operates inside the nozzle to control the water flow on the other side of the shaft; a rope brake is mounted for loading the turbine.

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

Lab Manual

OBSERVATION: Constant speed test: N = 1000rpm S.NO : SPRING BALANCE DIFFERENCE (kg) MANOMETER DIFFERENCE (meter) PRESSURE GAUGE READING (kg/cm^2)

Constant head test: spear opening for , , , full load, pressure gauge = 4.2 kg/cm^2 S.NO : SPRING BALANCE TURBINE SPEED (rpm) DIFFERENCE (Kg) For constant head: S.N HEAD O: DIFFEREN CE (hm) 1/4 1/2 3/4 FUL L

LOAD DIFFEREN CE (kg)

SPEE D (rpm)

PRESSU HEAD DISCHAR RE h*10m GE Q (kg/cm^2) tr

POWE R

S.NO: 1/4 1/2 3/4 FULL PROCEDURE:

BRAKE (watts)

POWER SPECIFIC rpm

SPEED OVERALL EFFICIENCY

Fill up sufficient water in the sump tank. a) Keep the venturimeter valves closed. b) Close nozzle by operating the spear. Press green button of starter, so that pumps starts running. c) Observe direction of pump rotation during starting. It should be clockwise as seen from fan end. If it is reverse, interchange any two phases in supply line. If direction pump is correct, pressure gauge will read the pressure about 4 - 4.5 kgs/cm^2. if it is reverse, pressure gauge will read 1 2 kgs / cm^2. d) First open air valves then open the venturimeter valves, remove all the air bubbles and close the air valves slowly and simultaneously so that mercury does not run away 28

Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

Lab Manual

into water. Slowly open the nozzle. Turbine will start rotating. Adjust the spear so that turbine is rotating are 1000rpm e) Put the load using loading stud. Open the nozzle, so that turbine is again rotating at 1000rpm. f) Note down the readings in observations table. g) Repeat the procedure for different speeds; say 800rpm, 600rpm, and 500rpm. h) Release all the load keep at opening load the rope brake with 0.5kgs load. Note down the speed. i) Go on adding the load, without disturbing spear position. Note down head, spear, and discharge and load each time. j) Repeat the procedure for , and full spear opening. This is a constant head test. CALCULATIONS: 1) HEAD OVER THE TURBINE: since 10m of water head corresponds to 1kg/cm^2 Therefore H = pressure gauge reading kg/cm^2 *10m. 2) WATER FLOW RATE: Q = cd * a1a2 / (a1^2 a2^2)^0.5 * (2ghw)^0.5 m^3/sec = 0.0212 (h in meter) ^0.5 Where a1 = area at inlet of venturimeter at dia. = 0.05m = 1.963 * 10^-3 m^2 A2 = throat area of venturimeter at dia, = 0.038m = 1.13*10^-3 m^2. Cd = co-efficient of discharge = 0.98 HW = water load across venturimeter, = manometer difference (h)*12.6m of water. 3) POWER SUPPLIED TO TURBINE: Pin = WQH * 9.81 watts Where W = specific weight of water = 1000kg/m^3. 4) BRAKE POWER: T = (spring balance diff. kgs) * 9.81 * (0.132+0.003) nm. Brake power = 2NT / 60 watts. Note: a) turbine speed is to be noted from laboratory tachometer, which is not the part of equipment. c) Belt thickness is 0.6cms (i.e. 0.006mtr). 5) SPECIFIC SPEED: Ns = N (p)^0.5 / H^5/4 where pin h.p = N [pin / 0.735]^0.5 / H^5/4 , = N* 1.166*[pin]^0.5 / H^5/4. 6) OVERALL EFFICIENCY OF TURBINE: efficiency = BP/Pin * 100%.

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

Lab Manual

GRAPHS: 1) CONSTANT SPEED TEST: plot the graph of load (B.P) vs. efficiency and discharge vs. B.P & efficiency. Find out valve of the Qo. This is the minimum discharge required to rotate the turbine from test. 2) CONSTANT HEAD TEST: plot the graph of speed N vs. B.P and N vs. overall efficiency for various spear openings. PRECAUTIONS: 1) While putting ON the pump see that the nozzle is closed by the spear and load on the brake drum is released. 2) Use clean water I n the tank. 3) Operate all the controls and switches gently. 4) Lubricate the bearings, before experiment, 5) Drain the water after completion of experiment.

RESULT: The constant speed and constant head test is undertaken on pelton wheel.

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

Lab Manual

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. What is Turbine ? How do you classify turbines ? Differentiate between Impulse turbine and Radial flow turbine. Pelton wheel turbine is which type of turbine ? On what basis the dimensions of bucket are designed ? What are the energies available at inlet of the Pelton wheel turbine ? What is the jet ratio ?. What is the condition for maximum efficiency of Pelton wheel ? Why the Draft tube is not provided in the Pelton wheel turbine ? What are the functions of casing of the Pelton wheel turbine? What is the braking jet ? What are the main components of pelton wheel ?

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women EXPERIMENT NO : 9

Lab Manual

PERFORMANCE TEST ON SINGLE TEST ON CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AIM: To perform tests on centrifugal pump. SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Centrifugal pump 25*25mm size base mounted max, total head -11m discharge 1.5 LPs at 2900rpm. 2. Motor: 1H.P DC motor directly coupled to pump. 3. Measuring tank -400 * 400 *450mm, height fitted with gauge tube and drain valve. 4. Sump tank 600 * 600 * 900mm height. 5. Gate valve to control the head. 6. Pressure gauge to measure discharge pressure. 7. Vacuum gauge to measure suction vacuum. 8. energy meter to measure input the motor. THEORY: Centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic machine which develops dynamic pressure of liquid by virtue of rotation for pumping of liquid to a higher height. In centrifugal pump, liquid In the impeller of a pump is made to rotate by external force, so that it is thrown away from the centre of rotation. As constant supply of liquid is made available at the centre, liquid can be pumped to higher level. The dynamic unit consists of a centrifugal pump driven by a dc motor. Input to motor is measured o energy motor. A measuring tank is provided to measure the discharge. Suction vacuum and discharge pressure is measured by gauges. A gate valve on discharge pipe varies the head. Thus performance of pump can be estimated at various speed and heads. OBSERVATIONS: S.NO. PUMP SPEED rpm SUCTION VACCUM MM OF HG TIMES FOR TIME FOR 10 DISCHARGE 10 LIT, WATER IMP. OF ENER PRESSURE LEVEL RISE GY METER te (KG/CM^2) Sec. DISCHAROUTPUT INPUT GE Q POWER POWER OVERALL M^3/sec. PW SP EFFICIENCY =%

S.NO.

DISCHARGSUCTION TOTAL E HEAD HEAD HEAD (HD) (HS) (HT)

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

Lab Manual

PROCEDURE: 1. Fill up sufficient water In the sump tank. 2. Open the priming nipple plug (at the top of pump) and fill up water unto the nipple, replace the plug. 3. Shut off the discharge valve. 4. Start the pump. As discharge valve is closed no discharge will be indicated. This is called shut off head of the pump. 5. Slowly open the discharge valve, so that small discharge is observed. 6. Note down discharge head, suction vacuum and time required for 10 liter of water level rise in measuring tank and 10 impulsions of energy meter. 7. Note down the observations at different valve openings. 8. Repeat the procedure 5 to 7 for different speeds. CALCULATIONS: 1. DISCHARGE PRESSURE: Pd = kg/cm^2 For water 10m height corresponds to 1kg/cm^2 Therefore discharge head hd = Pd * 10m of water. 2. SUCTION HEAD: Suction vacuum ps = mm of hg Therefore suction head = hs = ps /1000 *13.6 /1 Where specific gravity of hg = 13.6, Specific gravity of water = 1 3. TOTAL HEAD: hf = HD +hs + hf Where hf = 2m is the head loss due to friction. 4. DISCHARGE: let time for 10 liter level rise to tw sec then, discharge Q = 0.01 / tw. M^3 /sec. 5. OUTPUT POWER (OR WATER POWER): WP = WQht /1000 kW Where w = specific weight of water = 9810 n/m^2, Q = discharge m^3/sec. Ht = total head, 6. ELECTRICAL INPUT: Let time required for 10 revolution of energy meter disc be te power Ip = 10 / te * 3600 / 3200, Where energy meter constant = 3200 imp /kW / hr Taking efficiency as 75% we have input shaft power. S, p = electrical input * 0.75 7. OVERALL EFFICIENCY OF THE PUMP: Efficiency = WP /sp *100% sec. electrical input

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

Lab Manual

GRAPHS: 1. main characteristics plot the graphs of discharge vs total head, input power and overall efficiency at different speeds. 2. Operating characteristics plot the graph of discharge vs. total head, overall efficiency, input power and water power at rated speed. PRECAUTIONS: 1. Priming is must before starting the pump. Pump should never be run empty. 2. Use clean water I the sump tank. 3. After completion of experiment drain all the water. Result:

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

Lab Manual

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. What is the Centrifugal pump? How do you classify the Centrifugal pumps? What are the main parts of Centrifugal pumps? What is the priming in Centrifugal pump? What is the function of spiral casing in Centrifugal pump? Name the different types of efficiencies Centrifugal pump? Name the different types of casings for the impeller of Centrifugal pump? What do you understand by the term multistage pump? How the water enters in to the Centrifugal pump? What is the discharge of Centrifugal pump when compared with Reciprocating pump/

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women EXPERIMENT NO : 10 FRANCIS TURBINE TEST RIG (5 H.P.)

Lab Manual

Hydro power is one of the major source of power in the world now a days. To convert potential energy of water into mechanical power, turbines are used. Depending upon the head and quantity of water available, various turbines are installed. When water is available at high heads, normally impulse turbines i.e. Pelton wheel turbines are used. For low head and greater quantity of water, reaction turbine os one of reaction turbines widely used. In reaction turbines, pressure of the water changes gradually as it flows through the runner. In Francis turbine, water from the penstock enters the scroll casing, which completely surrounds the runner. From scroll casing, water passes through a series of guide vanes, which are provide around the periphery of the runner. The guide vanes direct the water to runner at an appropriate angle and also regulate the flow of water through runner. The guide vanes are of streamlined shape. From the guide vanes, water enters the runner radially. After flowing through the runner passages and having imparted all the energy to the runner, water leaves the runner axially. Normally, negative head is established at the exit of the runner, hence a draft tube of divergent section is fitted at exit of the runner. The lower end of the draft tube is always submerged in the water. Due to divergent section of the draft tube, it converts a large portion to install the turbine above the tail race without loss of head. The unit essentially consists of a spiral casing, outer bearing pedestal and rotor assembly with runner, shaft and brake drum, all mounted on a suitable sturdy cast iron base plate. A straight conical draft tube is provided for the purpose of regaining the kinetic energy from the exit water and also facilitating easy accessibility of the turbine due to its location at a higher level than the tail race. A rope brake arrangement is provide to load the turbine. The output of the turbine can be controlled by adjusting the guide vanes for which a hand wheel and a suitable link mechanism is provide the net supply head on the turbine is measured by a pressure gauge and for the measurement of speed, use hand tachometer. SPECIFICATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Rated speed Power output Run away speed Break drum diameter 5. Belt thickness 9. Pump set 10. Venturimeter Inlet 11. Throat diameter . 1500 rpm. . 3.75 KW. (5 hp) . 2600 rpm. . 270 mm. . 6 mm. . 15 H.P. . 100mm .. 75mm.

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Lab Manual

The turbine is placed on sturdy sump tank at suitable height. The supply pump set mounted on sump, draws water from the same and supplies it to the turbine. The 100mm. Venturimeter and manometer arrangements are mounted as shown to measure the flow rate. A gate valve is provided just above the inlet of the turbine to regulate the discharge and supply head on the turbine in relation to the guide vane settings. A set of guide vanes are provided around the periphery of the runner to control the load, the whole of the guide vane mechanism. The flow measuring unit, venturimeter and manometer, is so arranged and mounted that the readings can be conveniently taken. The discharge from the turbine is directly led into the sump tank. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1. Fill up sufficient water in the sump tank. 2. Pump to be primed while starting the turbine . 3. keep the venturimeter cocks closed. 4. Insure that there should not any load on the turbine. Close gate valve (top of the turbine )& Guide vane pointer should be in zero position. Press green button of starter, hold it for 1-2 seconds and release so that pump starts running . 5. Observe direction of pump rotation during starting. It should be clockwise, as seen from fan end. If it is reverse , interchange any two phases in supply line. 6. Slowly open the venturimeter cocks and remove the air bubbles. Then slowly open the gate valve. 7. Adjust the guide vanes so that turbine will start rotating. 8. Open the cock for the cooling water to the loading drum. 9. Take the readings at different load. The turbine speed 1800 rpm. (for constant speed use guide vanes.) 10. note down the readings in observation table. 11. Repeat the procedure for different speeds also,, say 1300 rpm.,1400,1500,1600 rpm. 12. This is a constant speed test. 13. Repeat the procedure for constant guide vane position. OBSERVATION TABLE :1) CONSTANT SPEED -------RPM. (BY CHANGING GUIDE VANES POSITION- AT FULL OPENING OF GATE VALVE) Sr.No. Spring balance difference,. L,kg Manometer Pressure difference gauge (hw) mm of (kg/cm^2) water Suction Guide vanes vacuum mm position of Hgs

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Lab Manual

2) CONSTANT SPEED ------ RPM. (BY CHANGING GATE VALVE POSITION AT CONSTANT GUIDE VANES POSITION) S. No. Spring balance difference,. L,kg Manometer Pressure difference gauge (hw) mm of (kg/cm^2) water Suction Guide vanes vacuum mm position of Hgs

3) CONSTANT GUIDE VANES POSITION:(AT FULL OPENING OF GATE VALVE) S.No. Spring balance difference,. L,kg Manometer Pressure difference gauge (hw) mm of (kg/cm^2) water Suction Guide vanes vacuum mm position of Hgs

CALCULATIONS:1) HEAD OVER THE TURBINE :Since 10mtrs. Of water head corresponds to 1 kg / cm^2 Therefore H1 = pressure guage readings (kg/cm^2)*10 mtr H2 = suction vacuum * 12.6 mtr. Total head = H1 +H2 mtr. 2) WATER FOLW RATE :Q = Cd * (a1*a2 / a1^2 a2^2) * (2ghw)^0.5 m^3/sec. Q = 0.0821 (hw)^0.5 m^4/sec Where A1 = inlet area of venture at dia. = 0.1m = 7.854*10^-3 m^2 A2 = throat area of venture at dia. = 0.75m = 4.41/10^-3 m^2 Cd = co-efficient of discharge = 0.98 Hw = manometer difference (h) mtr. 3) POWER SUPPLIED TO TURBINE Pin = (WQH * 9.81) / 1000 KW. WHERE w = specific weight of water = 1000 kg /m^3 4) BRAKE POWER T = (spring balance diff. kgs?) * 9.81 * (0.135 + 0.003) N-M. Brake power = 2 pie NT / 60,000 kw.

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women = 1.42 /10 ^-4 * N *L Note- i)brake drum diameter is 270mm. (0.270) mtr;. ii) belt thickness is 6 mm.(i.e. 0.006 mtr.) 5) OVERALL EFFICIENCY OF TURBINE EFFICENCY = BP/Pin * 100% GRAPH Plot the graph of load ( B.P.) Vs efficiency

Lab Manual

PRECAUTIONS: 1. Do not start the pump if there is no water in the sump tank. 2. Check the direction of rotation of pump. 3. Supply sufficient cooling water to the rope brake drum when the turbine is in running condition. 4. Make sure that there is no load on the turbine while starting and stopping the pump. RESULT: The performance test has been conducted and thus the characteristic curves are obtained.

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Malla Reddy Engineering College For Women

Lab Manual

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. What is Turbine ? How do you classify turbines ? Differentiate between Impulse turbine and Radial flow turbine. Francis turbine is which type of turbine ? What are the functions of Draft tube ? What are the energies available at inlet of the Francis turbine ? List out different types of Draft tubes. Why the Draft tube is submerged in the below water level of the tail race ? Why Draft tube is provided in the Francis turbine ? What is the function of casing of the Francis turbine ?

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