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DIRECTING is said to be a process in which the managers instruct, guide and oversee the performance of the workers to achieve

predetermined goals. Directing is said to be the heart of management process. Planning, organizing, staffing have got no importance if direction function does not take place. Directing initiates action and it is from here actual work starts. Direction is said to be consisting of human factors. In simple words, it can be described as providing guidance to workers is doing work. In field of management, direction is said to be all those activities which are designed to encourage the subordinates to work effectively and efficiently. According to Human, Directing consists of process or technique by which instruction can be issued and operations can be carried out as originally planned Therefore, Directing is the function of guiding, inspiring, overseeing and instructing people towards accomplishment of organizational goals. Direction has got following characteristics: 1. Pervasive Function - Directing is required at all levels of organization. Every manager provides guidance and inspiration to his subordinates. 2. Continuous Activity - Direction is a continuous activity as it continuous throughout the life of organization. 3. Human Factor - Directing function is related to subordinates and therefore it is related to human factor. Since human factor is complex and behaviour is unpredictable, direction function becomes important. 4. Creative Activity - Direction function helps in converting plans into performance. Without this function, people become inactive and physical resources are meaningless. 5. Executive Function - Direction function is carried out by all managers and executives at all levels throughout the working of an enterprise, a subordinate receives instructions from his superior only. 6. Delegate Function - Direction is supposed to be a function dealing with human beings. Human behaviour is unpredictable by nature and conditioning the peoples behaviour towards the goals of the enterprise is what the executive does in this function. Therefore, it is termed as having delicacy in it to tackle human behaviour.

DIRECTING - Management principles

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Human nature is much more complex than what we perceive though understanding of this nature is essential. Directing means giving instructions, guiding, counselling, motivating and leading the staff in an organisation in doing work to achieve Organisational goals. Directing is a key managerial function to be performed by the manager along with planning, organising, staffing and controlling. From top executive to supervisor performs the function of directing and it takes place accordingly wherever superior subordinate relations exist. Directing is a continuous process initiated at top level and flows to the bottom through organisational hierarchy.

Directing Definition
"Activating deals with the steps a manager takes to get sub-ordinates and others to carry out plans" - Newman and Warren.

Importance of Directing
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Direction initiates actions to get the desired results in an organisation. Direction attempts to get maximum out of employees by identifying their capabilities. Direction is essential to keep the elements like Supervision, Motivation, Leadership and Communication effective. It ensures that every employee work for organisational goals. Coping up with the changes in the Organisation is possible through effective direction. Stability and balance can be achieved through directing.

Elements of Direction Supervision

"Guiding and directing efforts of employees and other resources to accomplish stated work outputs" - Terry and Franklin.

Supervision is an element of direction. "Day-to-day relationship between an executive and his immediate assistant and covers training, direction, motivation, coordination, maintenance of discipline, etc." - Newman and Warren.

Supervision denotes the functions performed by the supervisors.

"Motivation is the complex force starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. Motivation is something that moves the person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiates." - Dubin.

Motivation is the core of management. Technically, the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word movere, which means 'to move'. Motivating is a term which implies that one person induces another, to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy the motive becomes available to the individual. Motive is energiser of action, motivating is the channelisation and activation of motives, motivation is the work behaviour itself. Motivation depends on motives and motivating. It is a complex process.

"Leadership is essentially a continuous process of influencing behaviour. A leader breathes life into the group and motivates it towards goals. The lukewarm desires for achievement are transformed into burning passion for accomplishment" - George R. Terry.

Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of others to work willingly and enthusiastically for achieving predetermined goals. It is an essential ingredient for successful organisation.The successful organisation has one major attribute that sets sets it apart from unsuccessful organisation that is dynamic and effective leadership.

"Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another person. It is a way of reaching others by transmitting ideas, facts, thoughts, feeling sand values." - Newstrom and Davis.

Communication is regarded as basic to the functioning of the organisation, in its absence, the organisation would cease to exist. It is the process through which two or more persons come to exchange ideas and understanding among themselves.

Principles of Management:

Evolution of Management Principles Early perspectives - Theories. The first known management ideas were recorded in 30004000 B.C. PLANNING - Management principles Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. It makes it possible for things to occur which would not otherwise happen. ORGANISING - Management principles Organisation is the process of identifying and grouping of the works to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most efficiently.

STAFFING - Management principles Staffing is the function by which managers build an organisation through the recruitment, selection, and development of individuals as capable employees. Controlling - Management Principles The managerial function controlling always maximise the use of scarce resources to achieve the purposeful behaviour of employees in an organisation.


Principles of Control
Related to the purpose of control

Principle of assurance of objective The task of control is to assure accomplishment of objectives by detecting potential or actual deviation from plans early enough to permit effective corrective action. Principle of efficiency of controls The more control approaches and techniques detect and illuminate the causes of potential or actual deviations from plans with the minimum of costs or other unsought consequences, the more efficient these controls will be. Principle of control responsibility The primary responsibility for the exercise of control rests in the manager charged with the execution of plans. Principle of direct control The higher the quality of managers and their subordinates, the less will be the need for indirect controls. (The principle may termed as principle of reduced controls. A superior can spend less time in control activities if he has more higher quality managers and their subordinates in his department.)

Principles related to Structure of control

Principle of reflection of plans The more controls are designed to deal with and reflect the specific nature and strucuture of plans, the more effective they will serve the interests of the enterprises and its managers. Principle of organizational suitability The more controls are designed to reflect the place in the organization structure where responsibility for action lies, the more they will facilitate correction of deviation of events from plans. Principle of individuality of controls Controls have to be consistent with the position, operational responsibility, competence, and needs of the individuals who have to interpret the control measures and exercise control.

Process of control

Principle of standards Effective control requires objective, accurate, and suitable controls. Principle of critical-point control Effective control requires attention to those factors critical to appraising performance against an individual plan. The exception Principle The more a manager concentrates his control on exceptions, the more efficient will be the results of this control. Principle of flexibility of controls If controls are to remain effective despite failure or unforeseen changes in plans, flexibility is required in the design of controls. Principle of action

Principle of Action Control is justified only if indicated or experienced deviations from plans are corrected through appropriate planning, organizing, staffing and directing.

Functions of management

These functions are closely interlinked and interwoven in character. All executives or mangers, regardless of their area and position,a are o discharge these functions. These functions are the identifying marks by which a manger can be differentiated form a non-manager. Of the four functions, however, the upper or top executives are mostly preoccupied with the first two functions-planning and organization, while the lower-ranking executives are largely busy with direction and largely busy with direction and control. But the thinking functions of planning and organisation cannot be separated in to water-tight compartments from the doing functions of direction and control. Irrespective of their levels and spheres of activity, executives are required to perform all the four functions in varying degrees. 1. Planning Is the rational and orderly thinking about ways and means for the realization of certain goals. It involves thought and decision pertaining to a future course of action. It anticipates and precedes action rather than making a reflective thinking abut the past events. Absence of planning before doing implies rashness, imprudence or shortsightedness in the performance of work. Before undertaking any work, is to be done, and who is to do the work. In considering these points, managers have to clarify objectives or goals and to evolve policies and procedures for guiding those who do the work; they have to chart the proposed lines of action with proper time schedules for the execution of work. For providing a factual basis for future action, managers have to map out a programme indicating the best course of action to be followed, fixing the targets and standards of work performance there in and evolving the strategies and remedies for possible hindrances to the smooth flow of work. In other words, programmes provide a complete road map for the guidance of managers to get things done through operators. In a sense, planning and decisions making are synonymous. Like decision making, planning is made for providing guide to action in problem areas. There is much common ground between the steps planning and of decision making-diagnosis of the problem, development of alternative, evaluation of alternative and selection of the best course of action. The decision phase of planning is so important that many writers have treated planning as a synonym of decision making. 2. Organization Provides the mechanism or apparatus for purposive, integrated and co-operative action by two or more persons with a view to implementing any plan. With a few persons, organization calls for the allocation of tasks to individuals and the requires the efforts of many people, several departments come into existence under the charge of different managers who are tied together neatly by authority relationships for integrated action. That is, organization involves the division and subdivision of activities, into departments, sections and jobs as well as the integration of activities and positions into a co-ordinated whole. The division of activities entails

three thing, viz., determination of total activities, grouping of such activities and assignment of jobs to both managers and operators. The integration of activities is effected through positions which are bound together in a consistent pattern by the fabric of inter-relationships among enterprise functions, jobs and personnel. Delegation of authority is the cement that holds the positions together as one entity. The concept of organization has a number of implications. First, it has two aspects: technical or mechanistic aspect pertaining to activities and social or humanistic aspect pertaining to people. For the personal contentment and social satisfaction of people, organization calls for the matching of jobs with individuals and vice-versa. Secondly, as a mechanism for action, organization is required to be changed when either the volume and nature of action or the personnel change. Although some amount of reorganization takes place with every personnel change, upper-level personnel change is more significant in effect. Thirdly, delegation of authority takes place not only between management members, but it extends to operators as well. In addition to managerial jobs, the operating jobs are also put to the same process of delegation. 3. Direction is largely a function of human relations and motivation. This function is, of course, denoted variously by different writers, such as command, leadership, motivation, execution or actuating. The organizational mechanism is to be energized, activated or put into action for carrying out the management plan. This is what is actually done through directing function to set the organization in motion. But human beings are not inanimate cogs in a machine; they have emotions, aspirations, sentiments, capacity to participate or to withhold such participation. Like a machine, they could not be ordered to do a predetermined work. With the purpose of inducing the members of the organization to put forth their best endeavour, managers direct the employees through the medium of leadership, guidance, supervision, communication and counselling. Direction involves personal and social-group relationships. The working terms are inspired and motivated to do the work willingly and whole-heartedly because of providing desirable job satisfaction and wanted team spirit. 4. Control ensures qualitative and quantitative performance of work in the organization for completing plans and achieving objectives. Under the control function, measuring standards or yardsticks are established and communicated to managers so that they can regulate employee performance and can work by self-control. Moreover, control brings to light any management lapses that hinder satisfactory work progress, and thus it provides the managers with an opportunity to take remedial action before it is too late. The control function furnishes new data and facts that enable the managers to verify the accuracy of their decisions with regard to planning, organizing and directing functions. Controlling as a process involves measurement, evaluation and correction of performance in the light of standards established through planning. That planning and controlling are inter-dependent can be explained form the nature of either functions. As control forces events to conform to plans, three can exist no control without planning. Likewise, plans are not capable of self-achieving without the exercise of controlling function. In the past, control was work-focused rather than work-focused,