A mushroom substrate is simply any substance on which mycelium will grow.

Mycelium, a thread-like collection of cells that is the vegetative growth of a fungus, is to a mushroom like an apple tree is to an apple. You need to have one as the base for producing the other. Spawn is just a smaller amount of a nutritious material upon which the mycelium can begin to grow before it's ready to colonize a substrate A substrate is inoculated with mycelium through the use of mushroom spawn.

Successful mushroom farmers select the most profitable varieties of mushrooms for cultivation, ensure proper conditions for optimal growth and find strong distribution channels that ensure product freshness for customers. From shiitake mushrooms to truffles, consumers and chefs want fresh mushrooms to enhance the flavor of their cooking and for the nutritional and health benefits mushrooms contain

POINTS TO BE NOTED for The milky mushroom (Calocybe indica): • Decide what mushroom species you want to grow. Consider your environment, local and national demand, current prices and current suppliers.
Milky mushroom is most suited to areas having higher temperature range 25-35°C and relative humidity more than 80%. Characteristic features * Crop comes to harvest from 24-28 days after spawning and the total crop cycle is only 45-50 days. Most importantly, the milky mushroom has an extended shelf life of 3-5 days compared to other cultivated species * Can be cultivated on many agricultural wastes like straw (paddy, ragi, wheat) areca husk, sugarcane thrash etc. * Contain highest protein (17.2%) and has 12 essential amino acids,

Prepare a space where you can grow your mushrooms. As opposed to other types of farming, mushroom farming requires a dark, moist environment with lots of organic waste material. Consider adding mulch to a well-shaded area and adding hardwood logs to create a suitable location for cultivation. Bag filling and spawning area should be

aseptic and if possible. Hepa filter should be used Cleanliness • Maintaining a high level of cleanliness seems obvious, but is what can hold some growers back. Make sure your growing area is clean and safe from any contaminates. Wipe down and disinfect any surfaces that might come into contact with your substrate, spawn or other items. Spray the air with a 10% bleach solution. Take care of any drafts that might be present. Use caulk or weather-stripping to stop those threats. And don't forget to wash your hands thoroughly. A high level of cleanliness will lead to quality mushrooms, which will in turn lead to quality profits.

either with for maldehyde of steam. So what do you need to do? First. pasteurizing your straw growing medium will remove possible threats of contamination. Cropping room should be providing with cross ventilators and sprinklers to maintain the required R. shiitake mushrooms reach their highest grade when they have a small curl on the edge of the cap. Ventilators should be provided with nylon net and iron mesh to protect against insects and room should be rat proof. such as your spawn or substrate. And finally. Repeat this procedure of filling the bag for 4-5 times with paddy straw and seeds. the bag is tied and labelled with date.H. drain out boiling water completely and remove the excess water if any by spreading it on a clean wire mesh in a dean room. Consider stimulating the mushroom buds by soaking the hardwood logs in water tanks. * One bottle of spawn seeds is sufficient to raise 2 polythene bags containing paddy straw of 2. The bags are kept under this condition for 18-20 days.Monitor the growth of your mushrooms. hence one should harvest at the right time and use exhaust. the spawn seeds will start growing inside the polythene bag. • Inoculate hardwood logs with mushroom spawns. When you're ready to spread out your straw to cool down. your mushrooms can grow up healthy and tasty. At this stage.One of the keys to having a successful mushroom-growing business is cleanliness. There are many things that could potentially contaminate your mushrooms. but if you take special care. take special care to wipe down and disinfect the surface using a 10% bleach solution. • Harvest your mushrooms individually when they reach peak size and development. If you experience many days without rain. • * Take fresh paddy straw. • • • • Casing material should be alkaline and must be pasteurized. For example. If spore shedding is high. Fill up the prepared paddy straw to a height of about 4′ inside the polythene bag and press it slightly. * Half handful of milky spawn seeds are spread uniformly all along the periphery of the bag. Straw filling should not be too tight or too loose. • Package your mushrooms with care. chop it into small pieces of 2-3 inches and rinse it in clean water for about 8-10 hrs * Drain out water completely and boil the pieces of straw in a wide mouth container for about 30 minutes to kill harmful microbes. . it may create allergy to certain people. Know how the species of mushrooms you are growing are graded for maximum profits. one can see the spawn seeds on the periphery of the bag. During this time. Mushrooms are delicate and can easily be damaged. mist the area with water to maintain a higher humidity level. Then. * Once spawning and bag filling is over. Workers should also use masks. * Take polythene bag of 12″ x V$ or 14′ x 24′ size and make few holes at the bottom. remember to always wash your hands thoroughly before handling any items. each. Keep the moisture level high in the logs by misting or spraying the logs routinely until you see the log filled with the small mushroom buds. so pack them carefully in containers that will minimize damage. Then the bags are shifted to spawn running room (semi dark clean room) where temperature is maintained at 32-38oC.5 kg.

Substrates exposed to rain or harvested premature (green colour) are prone to various weed moulds which may result in failure of the crop. That's when you should sell them. However. Either method allows you to sell them at a later date. dehulled maize cobs. so come prepared.sorghum stalks. vetiver grass. Substrate should be fresh and dry. They'll probably want to sample your mushrooms. ragi. such as a few days or months in the future. sugarcane baggase. Friday is a high-traffic day. freeze or dry them. Have fun with it! Pass out recipes and other information about your mushrooms. Wet straw is filled inside insulated room either in perforated shelves or in wooden trays. groundnut haulms etc. soyabean hay. cotton and jute wastes. If you're unable to sell your entire supply soon. Main purpose of soaking is to saturate the substrate with water. It is easier to soak if straw is filled in gunny bag and dipped in water. but use freezing or drying if you can't do that. Using an electric skillet. This is very popular method particularly with small growers. you can freeze or dry them to sell at a later date The production technology of milky mushroom is outlined here: Substrates Milky mushroom can be cultivated on a wide range of substrates containing lignin. maize/bajra/cotton stalks and leaves. ask if you can put on demonstrations. Better yet. Straw is chopped in small pieces (2-4cm size) and soaked in fresh water for 8-16 hours. This is especially a good idea when you're selling to grocery stores and restaurants. and hand out samples to passing customers. tea/coffee waste etc. Handing out a sample to a chef or produce buyer will increase your chance of making a sale. This can be achieved in two ways. Water is boiled in wide mouth container and chopped wet straw filled in gunny bag is submersed in hot water for 40 minutes at 80-900C to achieve pasteurization. palmarosa grass. sugarcane bagasse. your goal should be to sell your fresh mushrooms as soon as possible. Steam is . Putting on demonstrations is similar to handing out free samples. This period can be reduced when pasteurization is to be done by steam. Again. so consider doing it on that day. make one of these recipes and show your customers just what your mushrooms can do for them. wheat. It can be grown on straw of paddy. If you're able to sell your mushrooms at a grocery store. The purpose of pasteurization is to kill harmful microbes..Free samples are a great way to drum up interest for your mushrooms. If you're not able to sell your fresh mushrooms right away. cellulose and hemicelluloses. pearl millet stalks. This will help increase demand for your product. sauté your fresh mushrooms in butter. Freeze or dry unused mushrooms Your mushrooms will be at their best when they're fresh. for commercial production paddy straw is the best substrate. Fresh mushrooms will sell the best.

Bag’s top is made uniform by ruffling top surface of the substrate and sprayed with solution of carbendazim (0. are mixed with calcium carbonate @ 20g per kg of grains(dry weight). as above.1%) + formaldehyde (0. Solution should be enough to saturate the soil. Casing provides physical support. With each bottle of spawn 2 cylindrical beds can be prepared. the substrate is shade dried to remove excess moisture before bed preparation. Substrate is filled in polypropylene bags (35x45cm. It takes about 10 days for mycelium to reach on top of casing layer when fresh air is introduced while maintaining temperature and R. Casing material is spread in uniform layer of 2-3 cm thickness and sprayed with solution of carbendazim and formaldehyde to saturation level. Temperature 30-350C and R. After treatment. After draining the excess water. Air inside the room should be circulated to have uniform temperature in the substrate. thoroughly mixed and filled in polypropylene bags ( 15x30 cm size) provided with PVC rings as neck.42-kg/cm2 pressure and 126ºC . Casing material (soil 75% + sand 25%) with pH adjusted to 7. It is covered with polythene sheet to avoid escape of chemical and at a interval of 2 days soil is turned so that at the time of casing soil is free from formalin fumes. Production of mushroom spawn Sorghum or wheat grains are used for spawn preparation.released under pressure from a boiler and temperature in side substrate is raised to 650C and maintained for 5-6 hours. moisture and allows gases to escape from the substrate. Chaffed paddy straw bits of 3-5 cm length are soaked in cold water for 4-5 hours. result in the initiation of fruiting bodies with in 3-5 days in the form of needle shape which mature in about a week.H. Though hot water treatment is the safe and best method of sterilization. At the time of bed preparation the substrate should contain around 60% moisture (can be tested by squeeze method). Once pasteurization/sterilization is over straw is shifted to spawning room for cooling. Spawn requirement and availability Milky mushroom is also propagated through spawn. Mushrooms 7-8cm diam. Light should be provided in long time. The bags are tightly plugged with non-absorbent cotton and sterilized at 1. The changes thus made in environment. 80-90% are maintained.9 with chalk powder is pasteurized in autoclave at 151b psi for one hour or chemically treated with formaldehyde soln (4%) about a week in advance of casing. steam treatment or chemical treatment with a solution containing carbendazim and formalin can also be followed. Spawn produced with sorghum grain/paddy chaff as substrate is most commonly used. are harvested by twisting. the straw bits are boiled for 45-60 minutes in a separate drum. Pasteurisation/sterilization Polythene bags of 60x30 cm or 75x45 cm size are used for bed preparation. bag filling and spawning. cleaned and packed in perforated polythene/polypropylene bags for marketing. Mushrooms can also be wrapped in klin film for longer storage. Half cooked grains.8-7.H.5%). Casing means covering the top surface of bags after spawn run is over with pasteurized casing material in thickness of about 2-3cm. holding 2-3 kg wet substrate) and sterilized at 15 lb psi for 1 hour.

Casing Unlike oyster mushroom cultivation. Each mother spawn bag can be used for inoculating 30 bed spawn bags that can be prepared following the above procedure. Apply casing soil on to both halves to a height of 1-2 cm. Every time before spawning. The casing soil is prepared by steaming garden soil (clay loam. An entire crop in your grow room can be wiped out by a single fly! You are risking your mushroom crop when you walk into your grow room with a cold! Make sure you have cleaned the soles of your shoes when entering your grow room! Never use any chemicals in your room while you have mushrooms growing there! You will loose your mushroom crop! Never allow any visitors in your grow rooms without making sure that they are clean! (You can even go and take a shower with them just to make sure! . A second layer of processed straw is filled and spawned as above. After inoculation the spawn bags are stored in a clean room for 15-20 days before use. room temperature of 24-28°C and light intensity of about 1600 –3200 lux should be maintained in the cropping room.0 hours in an autoclave.I have done this but that's a story for another day and another blog.0) for one hour. milky mushroom production involves an additional process called casing. Repeat the process until the soaked straw is finished.5-2. before starting spawn production unit. Spawn run will be completed in 12-15 days at 30-35°C. they are aseptically inoculated with fresh cultures of oyster mushroom fungus. When the bags are cool. Be clean when you work with your spawn and whenever you enter your grow rooms. pH around 8. the cylindrical beds are cut horizontally into two equal halves. These bags with white mycelial growth serve as mother culture. the beds are to be incubated over racks in a partially sunken chamber lined with blue coloured high-density polythene sheet as roofing material. A layer of straw is laid and sprinkle one tablespoon full of spawn over the filled straw around the peripheral region.. Bed preparation Cylindrical beds are prepared following layer method of spawning. After the completion of spawn run.) . Cropping After casing. Optimum relative humidity of 8095%. The work should be done in a culture room or in a laminar flow chamber. Pinheads appear in 8-10 days after casing and the first harvest can be made in 68 days after pinhead formation.wordpress. It is advisable to have a thorough training in the Kerala Agricultural University. Proper ventilation for gaseous exchange is also essential in this chamber.temperature for 1..com/ Things (not) to do in your growroom: Be clean and healthy! This is very important. press the straw with hand for making it compact. The beds are regularly sprayed with water to maintain 50-60% moisture level on the casing surface. After obtaining the first harvest the casing medium is ge Source(s): http://freshinspirations. Finally the bag is close tightly with twine and the beds are incubated for spawn running under semi-dark condition in a clean room.

This will mix the spores with the water. It helps if you drill 4 small holes in the lid (near the corners) which are used as innoculation points later. Mushroom Spawn Making . Next you need to use a syringe and suck up this solution.the choice is yours.How to Make Your Own Mushroom Spawn One of the best things about growing mushrooms is that when you have started to grow them you can continue to grow them for years and years without the need to purchase any more mushroom spawn. When complete. When you are ready take the spore syringe and inject a few millilitres of your solution into the 4 holes in the lid of the jar. Place a piece of tyvek over the cover and seal with a metal lid.Make sure the temp. To make your own spawn you firstly need your own mushroom spores. place the jars in a warm place and after about 4 weeks your contents will have colonised and mushrooms will start to form! Or you could simply use this colonised jar of grain and use it as spawn . You can store this spore syringe in a cool place such as a refrigerator until ready to use. Make sure you are wearing a mask when spawning your growing substrate. Take a mushroom and leave it on a piece of foil to leave a spore print. Next you add a little distilled water to this print (a few millilitres) and mix this solution using something called an innoculation loop (small piece of wire with a metal curve in one end). The food is usually some kind of bird seed such as corn or rye grain. Make sure you keep a high level of humidity in your room. You could even . and this is used because the mycelium loves to grow through it and because of the shape and small size of the grain it provides many innoculation points (it has a large surface area which means you have more chance of the mycelium "leaping off" and growing through your substrate). Usually one syringe can innoculate around 5 jars. Mushroom spawn is simply some kind of food which has mycelium growing through it. Next you will need to get a large jar and fill it up with the chosen grain (such as Rye grain). As mentioned before its important that the syringe is clean and any other equipment too. It is very simple to create your own spawn and be able to store this in a fridge ready to use for several weeks. inside your room is constant. Creating your own mushroom spawn can be a very easy process when you know exactly how its done and when you are aware of the possible problems caused by contaminations (which is why it is very important to have good sterile procedures).

html http://www.even as small as a quarter acre for some specialty crops.multiply the spawn and turn the 5 jars into as many as 25! This is simply done by getting more jars of grain and mixing in part of the colonised spawn jar with the others.html#types http://www. they may be only an acre or two . but a new type of farm is growing faster than a prairie weed.nrcmushroom.pdf In the last few decades.com/english/advisory/the. One jar can turn into 10 if done properly! Discover how you can make your very own mushroom growing spawn simply by using a wild mushroom.com/grow-mushrooms-failure.alohaecowas.alohamedicinals. These new farms are much smaller than traditional farms. Article Source: http://EzineArticles. Visit our Mushroom Growing website today and learn about how you can grow mushrooms at home.mushroom.pdf http://www.easy.mushroom-appreciation.isms.org ftp://ftp. the number of traditional farms in the United States and Canada has dropped by half or more.economical.pakissan.biz/MHGIBulletins/MHGIBulletinFeb_09Final.cas.html http://www.and.psupress. Many of the .com/mushroom-spawn-cardboard. Instead of hundreds of acres.sht ml http://www.shroomery.html http://www.edu/SpawnGrowth.most.html http://mushroomspawn.com/clean-room.com/2418197 www.com/book1/chapter-4-1.org/docrep/fao/011/i0522e/i0522e00.org/Justataste/samplechapters/justatasteRussell.pdf http://www. where customers for the specialty crops are close by.mushroom-appreciation.psu.org/6219/General-Mushroom-FAQ http://www.shtml?from=FactSheets http://www.mushroom-appreciation. Many of these new "microfarms" are springing up in and around the fringes of larger cities and towns.fao.com/grow-mushrooms.

garlic. so this is one way to keep families together.many varieties .one that allows a grower to earn a solid income from an acre or less? Four specialty crops that qualify on all counts are bamboo. The country seems to be falling apart. My grandkids love helping me and learning about gardening. Grow More . so fast. or the stay-at-home mom who cares for her three kids while growing mushrooms for market in a backyard shed. "My only regret is not doing this sooner. Department of Agriculture have given it a name. Let's take a closer look at each of these money makers: Bamboo For thousands of years. bamboo is being rediscovered as a landscaping plant and most growers can't keep up with the demand. producing an edible harvest of up to ten tons per acre. where land division is restricted. while tending her garlic patch. In North America." One reason this trend is growing so fast is the zoning regulations around large towns and cities. ginseng and oyster mushrooms. Here's what to look for: • • • • • Is it growing in popularity every year? Is there enough demand to support profitable prices? Is it reasonably easy to grow? Is it a beneficial plant for consumers? Is it a "high-value" crop . This trend is growing so big.new growers choose to grow plants not just for profit. This has left a large number of smaller 2 to 5 acre parcels." While there are hundreds of very profitable plants . Owners of these parcels soon discover that they can either mow a lot of grass or put the land to more productive uses. like the lawyer who grows gourmet garlic in his spare time to destress in addition to making a profit. Many are part-timers.including quite a few illegal ones there are only a few that qualify for the top choices. providing food. Several varieties of bamboo are grown just for their edible shoots. A recent university extension service study found 760 families in one county alone making a good living with specialty crops on plots averaging 3 acres. S. or the retired school teacher who earns most of her retirement income from a half-acre of potted exotic bamboos.With Less It is simply amazing how productive a small piece of acreage can be. shelter and raw material for everything from garden fences to flutes. Bamboo is not just a tropical plant either . bamboo has been an everyday part of Asian life. but also for the satisfaction of tending a crop and the quality of life it provides. the agricultural experts at the U. "exurban microfarming. As one retiree remarked.

For thousands of years. One Pennsylvania grower has found even more ways to add value to his garlic. he sells "garlic gardens" sized to grow on a windowsill. and it's easy to grow. Garlic Garlic is a member of the same plant family as onions. Elephant garlic. Why? According to one grower. Bamboo keeps it's green color through the winter. "You can use bamboo as a hedge. "There's a booming market out there for fresh local garlic. But growing ginseng is not a get-rich-quick scheme. "American ginseng has great potential as a small-scale cash crop. It's value lies in it's slow growing root. much like chives. According to experts at North Carolina's Horticultural Crops Research Station. as a specimen plant or as a shade plant.000 pounds per acre. The Chinese have valued the ginseng root for thousands of years as the most potent of herbs and as a regenerative tonic.are grown in Japan and China. By it's nature. Landscapers are also using more and more bamboo instead of traditional shrubs. and value-added bamboo products. For decades. Potted bamboo plants can bring as much as $150 each retail. such as fencing and garden art.S. so he now sells greens and a recipe for garlic greens pesto sauce for $15 a pound in season! Ginseng Once called "Green Gold". as it is almost foolproof to grow. such as garlic braids. Most small growers use "value-added" methods to get a higher price for their garlic. ginseng requires patience. In addition to garlic braids and bulbs." . retails for $8 a pound and produces up to 15. Plus. growers have nicknamed garlic "the mortgage lifter" for that very reason. almost 300 years ago. According to a vegetable crops professor at Cornell University. lower cholesterol levels and act as an organic insecticide. where the climate can be just as harsh as our northern states and provinces. you can get a big plant quickly. garlic has been used for cooking and medicinal purposes. most ginseng has been exported to Asia. Those growing it can sell every clove they produce.". Recent scientific research has proven many of the historical claims for garlic's healing powers." Garlic is an ideal crop for the small grower. unlike trees that take years to mature. a screen. Since it was discovered in the U. It's chemical ingredients can fight bacteria. for example. He also discovered that the Chinese have long harvested the garlic greens for fresh seasoning. fresh garlic greens and garlic powder. Because it tolerates a wide variety of soils and weather. ginseng is an ordinary looking plant that grows on the shaded forest floor. it's very hard to lose a crop. leeks and chives. shallots.

that beats growing most any other crop by a country mile! Oyster Mushrooms Bob Hanson and his wife Kathy started growing gourmet mushrooms a few years ago. A few weeks later.000 pounds of mushrooms each year. A 200 square foot growing area. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.000 per year. most growers sell seed and two-year rootlets to earn an income from their ginseng crop in the years before the harvest. Most growers average six "crop cycles" per year. He keeps the operation small scale.Although it takes 6 years before the slow growing ginseng roots are ready to harvest for market.the average is one pound of mushrooms for each pound of straw used to grow them. rootlets and mature roots over that 6-year period. Both have a short shelf life. Hanson is fond of his oyster mushrooms.com/6327794 . you can market it. he has mushrooms. pesticide free and have many medicinal benefits. or over $16. who believes in sustainable agriculture.000 worth of seeds. Consumers are also concerned about their food safety. At current ginseng prices. Oyster mushrooms also produce heavy yields . This allows growers to produce lots of mushrooms in a small space. As any ginseng grower will tell you. because as he says. That's why small local growers will always have the "freshness advantage" with local consumers who want a high quality product.a barrier to large mushroom companies. "There are a lot of different niches that people can go into. grows all his mushrooms in his barn. Gourmet mushrooms are fat-free. mushrooms fit the bill nicely. and now grow shiitake. portobello and oyster mushrooms. and gourmet mushrooms can be grown without harmful chemicals. Says Hanson." In most areas. What do consumers like about gourmet mushrooms? With the trend to healthier foods. and do not stand up well to long distance shipping . cholesterol free. a half-acre ginseng patch could produce $100. "They are so easy to grow. where regular customers line up to buy the freshly harvested mushrooms every week.000 to 6. it's hard to find gourmet mushrooms. for example. As long as you can grow a good product. Hanson. They sell their entire crop at the Farmer's Market. such as oyster and shiitake. where "high technology" consists of a fan and a 40-watt light bulb. with he and his wife supplying all the labor. can produce 5." He just mixes spawn with straw and puts the straw in plastic bags with slits.

.com . available at: http://extraincomebulletin. read Golden Harvest. For the mushrooms you're ready to sell now.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful