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by A. F. Molisch

Peter Almers, Ove Edfors, Fredrik Floren, Anders Johanson, Johan Karedal,

Buon Kiong Lau, Andreas F. Molisch, Andre Stranne, Fredrik Tufvesson,

Shurjeel Wyne, and Hongyuan Zhang

February 14, 2006

Chapter 1

Receiver structures

1. As we have seen in Chapter 3, Eq. (B-3.6), the equivalent noise …gure of a cascade of two ampli…ers is

1

eq

= 1

1

+

1

2

1

G

1

. (1.1)

Let us now prove that ' is the correct criterion for placing an ampli…er …rst. The statement to be

proved is that the following should be ful…lled:

'

1

=

1

1

1

1 1´G

1

< '

2

=

1

2

1

1 1´G

2

. (1.2)

This can be rewritten as

(1

1

1) (1 1´G

2

) < (1

2

1) (1 1´G

1

) (1.3)

which can be expanded to

1

1

1

1

1

G

2

+

1

G

2

< 1

2

1

1

2

G

1

+

1

G

1

(1.4)

which is identical to

1

1

+

1

2

1

G

1

< 1

2

+

1

1

1

G

2

(1.5)

Quod erat demonstrandum.

1

Chapter 2

Modulation formats

1. The requested ratio becomes 0.195.

With

4

8 PSK, the constellation points are :¬´4, : = 0. 1. ..7 for the original constellation as well

as for the rotated constellation. Therefore, there are no advantages of such a modulation compared to

"normal" 8-PSK.

2.

1

s

= 42d

2

(2.1)

3. BPSK is the better choice.

2

Chapter 3

Demodulation

1. (a)

Coherent BPSK 1

TX;min

= 25.3 dBW

Coherent FSK 1

TX;min

= 22.3 dBW

Di¤erential BPSK 1

TX;min

= 24.6 dBW

Non-coherent FSK 1

TX;min

= 21.6 dBW.

(b)

j

b;QPSK

= j

b;BPSK

=

1

2

erfc

r

1

b

·

0

!

. (3.1)

j

s;QPSK

= erfc

r

1

b

·

0

!

1

1

4

erfc

r

1

b

·

0

!!

.

(c) Since QPSK has the same BER as BPSK, the required transmit power is the same as obtained for

coherently detected BPSK in a), i.e., 1

TX;min

= 25.3 dBW.

(d)

j

b;DQPSK

= 6.08 10

4

.

2 (a)

j

b;QPSK

Q

r

21

b

·

0

!

+Q

r

41

b

·

0

!

.

(b)

1

b

·

0

= 6.58 dB. (3.2)

For 1

b

´·

0

above 6.58 dB the di¤erence in error probability between the bound and the exact

expression is less than 10

5

.

3

4

5

6.

7

j

s

< c

k

2

2 ln 2

E

b

N

0

,

and consequently, j

s

!0 as ' !1 if 1

b

´·

0

2 ln 2 = 1.42 dB.

3

8 (a) Using the BER requirement and the above expressions, minimum required

1

b

´·

0

are

Coherent BPSK

E

b

N0

min

=

(12p

b;m a x

)

2

1(12p

b;m a x

)

2

= 2.50 10

4

Coherent FSK

E

b

N0

min

=

2(12p

b;m a x

)

2

1(12p

b;m a x

)

2

= 5.00 10

4

Di¤erential BPSK

E

b

N0

min

=

1

2p

b;m a x

1 = 5.00 10

4

Non-coherent FSK

E

b

N0

min

=

1

p

b;m a x

2 = 10.00 10

4

.

With the new required values of

1

b

´·

0

, the transmit power must be increased with factors of

34.4 dB in the case of coherent detection and 36.6 dB in case of non-coherent detection, i.e., with

factors of about 3000. E.g., if DPSK is used, the transmit power must be increased to 1

TX;min

= 12

dBW = 15.8 W to ful…ll the requirements on BER.

(b) Solved for j

b

= 10

5

and 1

r

= 10, and the solution is

b

= 76.623. Thus, the transmit power

must be increased by a factor of 10 log

10

(76.623´10.82) = 8.5 dB. As 1

r

! 0, the power in the

dominating component (direct path) is reduced to zero, which means that the results from the

Rayleigh fading channel are expected (use 1

r

= 0 in the expression above).

4

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