ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN AFRICAN, CARIBBEAN & PACIFIC (ACP) STATES FOR CTA’S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES West

Africa

Country Study: Sierra Leone

Final Report Prepared by:

Abdulai Jalloh on behalf of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)

Project: 4-7-41-207-5/b

July 2006

Disclaimer This report has been commissioned by the CTA to enhance its monitoring of information needs in ACP countries. CTA does not guarantee the accuracy of data included in this report, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof. The views and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of CTA. CTA reserves the right to select projects and recommendations that fall within its mandate.

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List of Acronyms
ACP AFRC AGORA AGRIS AICU ARC CGIAR CIAT CSO CRS CTA DACO DAF ECOWAS FAO FFS FSRE GDP GoSL IADP IAR ICRISAT ICT IITA INGO IRRI ISNAR LINKS LWDD MAFMR MAFS MANR&F NAFSL NARCC NGO NNGO NU PEMSD PRSP PVS REL ROPPA RRS SAP SAPA SLHIS SLLB TEEAL UNDP WARDA WFP African Caribbean and Pacific Armed Forces Revolutionary Council Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology Agricultural Information and Communication Unit American Refugee Council Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical Central Statistics Office Catholic Relief Service Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Cooperation Development Assistance Coordination Office Department of Agriculture and Forestry Economic Community of West African States Food and Agriculture Organization Farmer Field School Farming System and Extension Research Gross Domestic Product Government of Sierra Leone Integrated Agricultural Development Project Institute of Agricultural Research International Centre for Research in Semi arid Tropics Information and Communication Technology International Institute of Tropical Agriculture International Non Governmental Organization International Rice Research Institute International Service for National Agricultural Research Promoting Linkages for Livelihood Security and Economic Development Land and Water Development Division Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Marine resources Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Forestry National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone National Agricultural Research Coordinating Council Non Governmental Organization National Non Governmental Organization Njala University Project Evaluation and Monitoring Services Division Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Participatory Varietal Selection Research and Extension Liaison Reseau des organisations paysans et des producteurs agricole de l’Afrique de l’ouest Rice Research Station Structural Adjustment Programme Social Action for Poverty Alleviation Sierra Leone Housing Sierra Leone Library Board The Essential Electronic Agricultural Library United Nations Development Programme West Africa Rice Development Association World Food Programme

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Exchange rates and date – 21-07-06 Foreign currency 1 2 3 British Pound European Euro Unites States Dollar Amount £ 1.00 € 1.00 $ 1.00 Sierra Leone currency – Leone (Le) Buying Selling Le 4 960 Le 5 300 Le 3 420 Le 3 660 Le 2 850 Le 3 050

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Table of Contents
List of Acronyms ............................................................................................................................................ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................................vi 1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 1 2. COUNTRY PROFILE ........................................................................................................................... 11 2.1 Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Pastorialism .......................................................................... 12 2.1.1 Agriculture................................................................................................................................... 12 2.1.2 Fisheries ..................................................................................................................................... 12 2.1.3 Forestry ....................................................................................................................................... 13 2.1.4 Pastoralism ................................................................................................................................. 13 2.2 Information and Communication Management Capacity............................................................... 13 2.2.1 Agricultural Libraries ................................................................................................................... 14 2.2.2 Publishing Capacity .................................................................................................................... 15 2.2.3 Data Collection and Management .............................................................................................. 15 2.2.4 Extension Services ..................................................................................................................... 16 2.2.5 Communication Capacity ............................................................................................................ 16 2.3 Agriculture Information Services .................................................................................................... 17 3. OVERVIEW OF ICM ISSUES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT: DONOR INTERVENTIONS, CAPACITY, SERVICES AND NEEDS ................................................................................................. 20 3.1 Current and Planned Donor Interventions ..................................................................................... 20 3.2 Institutional Needs Analysis ........................................................................................................... 21 3.2.1 Information Needs ...................................................................................................................... 21 3.2.2 Capacity-Building Needs ............................................................................................................ 25 4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................... 29 4.1 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................... 29 4.1.1 Information Needs ...................................................................................................................... 29 4.1.2 Capacity-Building Needs ............................................................................................................ 30 4.1.3 Potential Partners and Beneficiaries .......................................................................................... 31 4.2 Recommendations ......................................................................................................................... 31 4.2.1 Information Needs ...................................................................................................................... 31 4.2.2 Capacity-Building Needs ............................................................................................................ 31 4.2.3 Potential Partners ....................................................................................................................... 32 ANNEXES ................................................................................................................................................... 33 ANNEX I. TERMS OF REFERENCE .......................................................................................................... 34 ANNEX II. COUNTRY PROFILE – SIERRA LEONE.................................................................................. 39 II.1 General Agricultural Profile........................................................................................................ 39 II.1.1 Size of Agricultural Population (male/female/youth)................................................................... 40 II.1.2 Farmed Land, Forests and Fishing Areas .................................................................................. 41 II.1.3 Agricultural Systems ................................................................................................................... 42 II.1.4 Agriculture in the Economy (% GDP) ......................................................................................... 43 II.1.5 Main Agricultural Produce and Secondary Products .................................................................. 44 II.1.6 Main Export Markets ................................................................................................................... 45 II.1.7 Trade Agreements that include Agriculture ................................................................................ 47 II.1.8 Sectoral Policy Related to Agriculture, Fisheries and Forests ................................................... 47 II.2 Socio-Economic Profile ..................................................................................................................... 50 II.2.1 Demographics............................................................................................................................. 50 II.2.2 Literacy Level and Languages.................................................................................................... 52 II.2.3 Access to Services ..................................................................................................................... 53 II.2.4 Rural – Urban Drift ...................................................................................................................... 56 II.3 Media and Telecommunications ................................................................................................ 57 II.3.1 Newspapers and periodicals ...................................................................................................... 57 II.3.2 Telecommunication Services ...................................................................................................... 59 II.3.3 Computers and the Internet ........................................................................................................ 60

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ANNEX III. PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS .................................................................................................. 62 Annex III.1 List of Institutions Involved In Agriculture and Rural Development in Sierra Leone ............. 63 Annex III.2 List of Key Institutions ........................................................................................................... 70 ANNEX IV. LIST OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED ....................................................................................... 82 ANNEX V. REFERENCES......................................................................................................................... 83

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Executive summary
Introduction The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under the Lomé Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) Group of States and the European Union Member States. CTA’s mandate is to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in this area. CTA works primarily through intermediary organizations and partners (non-governmental organizations, farmers’ organizations, regional organizations, …) to promote agriculture and rural development and to deliver its various information products and capacity building services. By partnering with these organizations, CTA seeks to increase the number of ACP organizations capable of generating and managing information and developing their own information and communication management strategies. The identification of appropriate partners is therefore of primordial importance. In order to target its work better, CTA initiated a series of country level studies assessing the information and information and communications management (ICM) needs of rural development activities in a number of ACP countries in Pacific and Caribbean countries. This process is being continued in Africa with a particular focus on the needs of countries recovering from prolonged periods of conflict. Objectives of the study The objectives of the study are as follows: to understand agricultural information needs that arise in post-conflict countries; to develop a strategy for CTA’s approach to post-conflict countries; to improve the effectiveness of CTA’s support for post-conflict countries to compile baseline data on the status of ICM and ICTs in agriculture and rural development in the 6 post-conflict countries. Methodology A desk study collected available data on general agriculture and socio-economic profile together with information on media and telecommunication. A comprehensive list of institutions involved in agriculture and rural development was then produced, followed by the selection of 11 key institutions found to represent the diversity of interventions and spread throughout the country. A representative of each of these institutions was interviewed using a questionnaire designed by CTA. Expected results The expected results of the study include the following elements: an inventory of the status of agricultural information services, institutions and other actors and their needs as their relate to physical infrastructure, information availability and access and human capacity development; an assessment of the current and / or planned interventions of the government and bi- or multilateral agencies in the field of information for agriculture and rural development; an overview of the needs of potential partners for CTA activities and services in terms of building capacity for information and communication management;

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a short-list of potential partners / beneficiaries for CTA activities and services; baseline data to facilitate subsequent monitoring activities. It is also expected that this study will provide the framework for CTA to develop a framework for action and fashion a strategy aimed at institutions in countries emerging from conflict situations and provide input into its 2007 – 2010 strategic plan. Findings The study revealed a rather paradoxical case of tremendous potential for positive contribution of agricultural information in the agricultural and overall development of the country while there is an apparent unawareness of such potential, particularly by the farmers who are mainly subsistence and largely illiterate. Major agricultural information sources include libraries (research institutions, universities, regional government libraries, and other agencies), newspapers, and FM radio stations. The stock of books, journals, newsletters, etc. in the libraries is inadequate and often not up-to-date. The research institutions and the agricultural university have close links with International Agricultural Research institutions of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and CTA which serve as important sources of information. There is a proliferation of FM radio stations in many parts of the country providing local news and other relevant information on various aspects including the agricultural sector. There is generally a divergent requirement for information by all involved in the agricultural sector, including the national research system, farmers, manufacturers and businessmen. Agricultural data is mainly collected by the monitoring wing of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food security together with other agencies like WFP and the Central Statistics Office. The Government’s extension service is largely inadequate due to limited personnel and improper remuneration. Better resourced NGOs are taking up more and more extensions functions. The Farmer Field School approach is being tested by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security to address personnel problems and involve farmers more in technology development, verification and dissemination. Conclusions The war in Sierra Leone did a lot of damage to both infrastructure and human resources. The existing capacity to effectively carry out proper collection, storage and dissemination of information is, consequently, limited. The high level of illiteracy among farmers poses serious challenges in effectively communicating with them. There is however, tremendous potential in the proliferating FM radio stations to effectively disseminate information including agricultural information to all stakeholders in the agricultural sector. CTA products and services when effectively redeployed in Sierra Leone will positively impact on agricultural development of the country. Recommendations Against the background of the tremendous potential of a well-developed and focused information collection, storage and dissemination, for agricultural development in Sierra Leone and in view of the trail of devastation by the war in the country, a systematic and comprehensive revamping of ICM is imperative. There is a primary need for the promotion of the use of information particularly among the largely illiterate farming population to create an effective demand for information products and services that will positively impact on agricultural production, the quality of such products and the general well being of the farmers. Information needs • Attention should be given to the increasing specialisation of farmers as they become more marketoriented, thereby narrowing their choice of crops and consequently the type of information they would require. • Increasingly, there will be need for specialised sources of information dealing with specific types of information for example, the emerging private sector will be more interested in available markets and appropriate prices for their products. Avenues for the development of such specialised facets are desirable.
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Capacity building needs • Sierra Leone has been hard hit by the eleven year civil war with a weak economic base that requires considerable assistance. There should be concerted effort to solicit the provision of basic communication equipment (computers, scanners, video documentary production equipment, etc.) to key partners. • Specific training in IT and documentation is absolutely essential. • Symbols designating key facts and figures should be harmonised and popularised among farmers to facilitate communication with them. Also, extension personnel should undergo special training to better understand farmers. • Adult education need to be supported to enable farmers to comprehend common written messages and to conduct simple transactions. Potential partners In the immediate future, partners should include the two research institutions, the national Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone and the Agricultural Information Unit of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security. These partners will provide vital link, feedback and support for CTA’s intervention in Sierra Leone. Identification of these partners is against the background that these are the gateway to the entire farming population of Sierra Leone now and in the immediate future. It is envisaged that with the devolution of authority to the District Councils and Local authorities and the improvement in radio and television, there may be need to engage the farmers through the Farmer Field Schools if the experiment is successful or the District Councils. Strategic recommendation There is need for a pilot project to be designed for implementation with farmers in Sierra Leone to involve technology development/adaptation and transfer comprising farmers, researchers, processors and retailers and incorporating awareness-raising in the need and use of information, tapping indigenous knowledge, sharing of information and capacity building. Farmers in Northern Sierra Leone have started growing Irish potatoes against the general perception that the crop is not adaptable to prevailing conditions in the country. This is a possible avenue for research to capitalize on farmers’ initiative and establish a strong link between the two and create a platform for effective communication. CTA could partner with the Institute of Agricultural Research which has the mandate for research on Irish potato to develop an appropriate project.

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1. INTRODUCTION
1. The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under the
Lomé Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) Group of States and the European Union Member States. Since 2000, it has operated within the framework of the ACP-EC Cotonou Agreement.

2. CTA’s tasks are to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and
rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in this area. CTA’s programmes are organised around three principal activities: providing an increasing range and quantity of information products and services and enhancing awareness of relevant information sources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange (particularly intra-ACP); and developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management (ICM) strategies, including those relevant to science and technology. These activities take account of methodological developments in cross-cutting issues (gender, youth, information & communication technologies – ICTs, and social capital), findings from impact assessments and evaluations of ongoing programmes as well as priority information themes for ACP agriculture1.

3. CTA’s activities are currently distributed among three operational programme areas / departments: • • •
Information Products and Services; Communication Channels and Services; Information and Communication Management Skills and Systems.

4. These operational departments are supported by Planning and Corporate Services (P&CS) which is
charged with the methodological underpinning of their work and monitoring the ACP environment in order to identify emerging issues and trends and make proposals for their translation into programmes and activities. In order to target its work better CTA initiated a series of country level studies assessing the information and information and communications management (ICM) needs of rural development activities in a number of ACP countries in Pacific and Caribbean countries. This process is being continued in Africa with a particular focus on the needs of countries recovering from prolonged periods of conflict.

5. Institutions, economic, social and physical infrastructure are altered by conflict, depending on the
scale, duration and type of war. At one extreme, formal political, social and economic institutions may be completely destroyed, while the importance and type of informal institutions may be changed2. This statement is largely true of the 6 post-conflict countries forming the object of this study (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone, Eritrea and Rwanda). These countries are presently at different stages of the post-conflict rehabilitation process with some being more advanced than others and have been receiving support from various bi- and multilateral agencies in this regard. CTA has commissioned this study in order to gain better insight into the agricultural information needs of institutions in these affected countries and the actions of other agencies in this area.

6. The objectives of this study are to: •

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contribute to economic development through capacity building in the area of agricultural information management and knowledge sharing; develop a strategy for CTA’s approach to post-conflict countries;

Priority information themes for ACP agriculture have formed the basis of various several studies, workshops and seminars bringing together various stakeholders, organisations and institutions active in the field of agriculture and rural development. The documents (or extracts thereof) will be provided to the consultants.

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improve the effectiveness of CTA’s support for post-conflict countries; compile baseline data on the status of ICM and ICTs in agriculture and rural development in the 6 post-conflict countries.

7. The study should assist CTA to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential
partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organisations); to have a more informed picture of their needs and aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. The study also highlights where there are specific needs for CTA’s products and services thereby enabling improvement in the delivery of the same.

8. A desk study using already published data throws light on the agricultural and socio-economic profile
and the status of the media and telecommunications together with a list of institutions involved in agriculture and rural development make up the annex of the study. Eleven of these institutions were selected to cover the diverse characteristic, interest groups and coverage of the institutions to reflect the as much as possible the true scenario of the partners in agricultural development in Sierra Leone.

9. A questionnaire designed by CTA was administered by the consultant to key representatives of these
institutions to provide basis for the objectives of the study. The study revealed that most of the institutions were not aware of the existence of CTA. Information needs and the management of information with associated challenges were revealed and suggestions were made regarding the key constraints with a view to improvement in information management by the relevant institutions.

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2.

COUNTRY PROFILE
72,300 km2 of which 5.4 million ha (74 % of total land area) are potentially cultivable. Sierra Leone’s economy is largely based on two sectors: agriculture and mining. In addition to a largely favourable environment for agriculture with abundant rainfall (2000 – 4500 mm per annum), diverse agroecologies and biodiversity, the country has rich marine resources and minerals including diamonds, gold, rutile and iron ore.

10. Sierra Leone has a population of 4,963,298 and lies on the West coast of Africa covering an area of

11. Major food crops produced and consumed in Sierra Leone include rice, which is the country’s staple,
cassava, sweet potato, yam, maize, groundnut, and oil palm; while cocoa, coffee, and ginger, are export crops. Livestock include, cattle, poultry, goats, sheep and pigs. Crop and animal production are mainly carried out by small-scale farmers with major constraints like lack of inputs, declining soil fertility, increasing pests and diseases, in addition to significant post- harvest losses.

12. Sierra Leone has sixteen ethnic groups each with its own language. The Mendes, Temnes and Limbas
are the three largest groups comprising approximately 60 % of the total population. About 55 % of the population are Muslims while Christians make up about 30 % and the remaining 10 – 15 % has indigenous beliefs. Unlike other nations with considerable religious and ethnic intolerance, Sierra Leone is fostering enviable religious and tribal coexistence. English is the official language of government while Creole, a language based on English but incorporates words and syntax from other African and European languages such as Yoruba, French and Portuguese is the lingua franca. At 31 %, Sierra Leone’s adult literacy rate is one of the lowest in the world.

13. Despite these vast resource endowments, Sierra Leone is one of the poorest countries with a GDP per
capita income estimated at about US $ 120 in 2003, which is less than half of what it was in 1980 (GoSL, 2005a). Since the mid 1980s, the country has suffered economic decline and political instability. It has gone through five military coups, and a brutal armed conflict that lasted for 11 years (March 1991 – January 2002). The war caused extensive damage to an already inadequate economic and social infrastructure leading to further deterioration in the living standards of a hard-pressed population with one of the worst human development and social indicators; including high infant mortality rate (284/1000), high maternal mortality rate (1,800/100,000 live births), poor access to health services (40 %), and safe water (57 %) while life expectancy at birth is 34 years (GoSL, 2005a). There is a significant shortfall in domestic food production creating an imminent threat for food insecurity among the highly vulnerable groups of society. Already, food imports are costing the country high and it would be worse if the trend of low investment in agriculture continues and the 2.6 % annual growth rate in population continues unchecked.

14. In the light of this, improved agricultural productivity is an important priority for Sierra Leone. Both the
Vision 2025 Project and the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) which proposes actions that should not only impact immediately on the living conditions of the people but also lay a solid base from which to address the long-term causes of conflict and poverty, give significant emphasis for increasing food security through improved agricultural productivity supported by intensification of agriculture and sustainable management of natural resources. In addition to national census, a comprehensive review of the agricultural sector has been concluded providing a profile of the country’s agricultural sector and its natural and human resource base, its institutions and its development strategies and policy measures. Major sector reforms are at an advanced stage and progress has been made in strengthening accountability and transparency, anti-corruption and monitoring of service delivery. Political devolution has also progressed with the enactment of the local Government Act 2004. Another peaceful national election in 2007 will be a strong indicator of peace and growing democracy, both essential ingredients for sustainable development.
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2.1 2.1.1

Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Pastorialism Agriculture

15. Agriculture is the dominant sector in the economy, employing about 70 % of the population before the
civil war that started in 1991. The war led to a significant displacement of the rural population resulting in an estimated farming population of 51 % after the official end of the war in 2002. About 45 % of the farming population are women. Despite being the largest single employer, the agricultural sector contributed about half of GDP in 1993/94 and it still contributes only 47 % (GoSL, 2005b/Annex 11.1.4).

16. Crop production is the main source of livelihood in Sierra Leone for over 50 % of the country’s
population. About 600,000 – 660,000 ha of the land (10 – 12 % of cultivable area) is cropped each year by about 400,000 farm families. Food production in Sierra Leone is in the hands of small scale farmers who produce barely enough for home consumption with little or none for the market. Widespread use of unimproved crop varieties, limited use of fertilizer, coupled with unimproved cultural practices adversely affects agricultural production. The crop sub-sector, with the country’s staple, rice dominating, contributes about 75 % of agricultural GDP. Annual per capita consumption of rice is amongst the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that domestic production of rice currently accounts for up to 60 % of the total annual national requirement for rice of 550,000 mt. The bush fallow rotational farming system predominates. All the major food crops are cropped through this system and up to 15 and more different crops (sorghum, millet, maize, fundi (digitaria), benniseed, groundnuts, cowpeas, root crops and tubers including cassava, sweet potato, and yam together with a host of vegetables) are traditionally grown in mixed stands, with upland rice dominating. The upland agroecology represents approximately 80 % of cultivable land, and the rest are lowlands (inland valley swamps, bolilands, riverain grassland, and mangrove) with potential for high crop yields under sound management practices (GoSL, 2005b/Annex 11.1)..

17. Various lowland ecologies are also used for the cultivation of rice invariably under flooded conditions.
Tree crop plantations in the Eastern region constitute the bulk of agricultural exports and the domestic palm oil supply. The main tree crops are coffee, cocoa, oil palm and kola nut followed by rubber, cashew, orange and mango.

18. Urban/peri-urban agriculture hitherto not receiving due attention is increasingly getting into the
limelight. A lot of women have been engaged in cultivating small plots of vegetables for the urban market in most urban areas in Sierra Leone where there is a ready market for such high value crops. Vegetables like tomatoes, cucumbers, pepper, garden eggs, lettuce, cabbage and potato leaves are grown in empty lots and around refuse dumps with ready organic manure. Access to market and water is encouraging the growth of the vegetable market in urban areas.

19. Post-war Sierra Leone is experiencing a growth in peri-urban agriculture with labour provided by
displaced people from the rural areas. Expansion in urban/peri-urban agriculture has increased the supply of vegetables and stabilised prices in urban areas. Urban/peri-urban agriculture has therefore helped greatly in providing employment for displaced people who might have been forced into unlawful activities. However, the engagement of the displaced people has also contributed to the reluctance of these people to return to their original homes thereby congesting the urban areas and putting pressure on the already inadequate facilities. The Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL) is far advanced in negotiations with the African Development Bank to fund peri-urban agriculture projects aimed at better coordinating the efforts of these farmers and improving their productivity.

2.1.2 Fisheries 20. Along its coastline of 570 km and the continental shelf area of 25,600 km2, Sierra Leone is rich with
marine resources. It is also well endowed with inland waters (rivers, lakes, and flood plains) which
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support a large number of aquatic organisms. Fishing is carried out largely by local canoes which exploit the inshore waters and the three large estuaries in the north-west and south of the country. There are an estimated 20,000 full time fisher men operating with some 6,000 boats of different sizes and designs. The level of boat motorization is about 16 %. A variety of fishing gears are in use (Ring nets, Drift nets, Beach seines, Cast nets, Hook and line). The bulk of the fish produced by the artisanal sector is consumed locally. Industrial fishing is mainly done by foreign fleets. Aquaculture is not yet of significance. Total catch is currently estimated at 65,000 mt with artisanal production accounting for up to 70 %. The fisheries sub-sector contributes 21 % of agricultural GDP.

2.1.3 Forestry 21. Forestry has contributed between 9 % and 13 % of GDP since 1984/85. Most of the country is in the
moist tropical zone. Fuel wood and charcoal production is the most important forestry activity and provides a supplementary source of income for most farmers. A variety of wildlife resources are available in various ecosystems such as mountains, hills, lakes, and inland and coastal wetlands. The country has fauna and flora of international importance suitable for eco-tourism. Only 5 % of the total land area is now covered by closed forest (approximately, 640,000 ha), the remainder having being converted by cultivation mainly to farm fallow scrub and to secondary forest re-growth; and in some areas, to derived savannah. The productive timber area is estimated at about 180,250 ha. Wood is obtained from bush fallow and mangrove forests. Fish thrive in mangrove swamps, and oysters are gathered from the roots of Rhizophora, pointing to an urgent need for good agroforestry practices in the coastal regions. In the Gola Rainforest arrangements are underway to designate conservation areas.

2.1.4 Pastoralism 22. Livestock are kept mainly by semi-nomadic Fula herders in the Northern part of the country. All the
ruminants are indigenous populations of well adapted trypano-tolerant animals. Poultry are the most widely owned form of livestock and also the most numerous. Pigs are the least widely owned and mainly found in urban areas. The country’s livestock population was severely depleted during the conflict. Livestock represents 4 % of agricultural GDP. Open grazing is generally practiced with cattle driven away in search of fresh fields by herd boys during the day and kept in wooden fence enclosures during the night. Women have the responsibility for looking after calves. They also milk the cows and process the milk into butter and yoghurt which they sell in nearby markets or along the roadsides.

2.2

Information and Communication Management Capacity

23. GoSL with assistance from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is developing a
Communication Policy. Consultations with relevant stakeholders have already been held and a draft document is being discussed. Hitherto, there were no guidelines for communication. However, there is no indication that there will be a specific communication policy on agriculture. It is expected that the policy will cover all forms of communication. An Act of Parliament established The Independent Media Commission (IMC) in 2000 as an autonomous body for the regulation of mass media institutions and for other related matters connected therewith. Among other objectives, the IMC was established to promote technological research and the development of adequate human resources for the advancement of the media industry throughout Sierra Leone (IMC, 2005).

24. A large number of FM radio stations cover various parts of the country while television is still poorly
developed and covers only the capital city, Freetown. There is a vibrant local press with about 40 active newspapers. One of the major challenges of the IMC is the controversy over the criminal libel law, which is hotly debated. The mass media in Sierra Leone, particularly the radio, which broadcast in local languages and host phone in programmes, which give people the opportunity to air their views, provides huge opportunities for positive contribution to agricultural development in the country.
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25. In the agricultural sector, which is largely dominated by subsistence farmers, there is no apparent
manifestation of the awareness of the need for information. The majority of institutions do not have a separate information strategy. Where a unit for the storage of documents exists, there is usually no qualified personnel for the proper handing of information. There is insufficient effort and initiative in promoting the need and usefulness of information as a major ingredient for agricultural development.

2.2.1 Agricultural Libraries 26. There are many libraries in Sierra Leone hosting collections of agricultural documents. The Sierra
Leone Library Board (SLLB) owned by the Government of Sierra Leone operates a library in the capital city and in each of the three provincial headquarter towns of Bo in the South, Kenema in the East and Makeni in the North. These libraries stock books in virtually all disciplines, including agriculture and cater mostly for primary schools and secondary schools together with teacher training colleges. Trained librarians man these libraries in all the regions. These libraries mostly depend on donations with very old collections and virtually no journals. The Sierra Leone gazette, which contains government policies including agriculture, is one of the main collections of SLLB. None of the government libraries have Internet facilities and the telephone connection is not reliable.

27. The Njala University (NU) which was a component of the University of Sierra Leone then called Njala
University College has a library which caters for the need of students in the College of Agriculture. The library has a huge collection of books in agriculture and related subjects, journals, monographs, newsletters, newspapers, briefs, etc. including various CTA publications. It should be noted that the war disrupted the link with CTA and therefore no CTA collections are received now. Under the Njala University College, a common library was shared by all the faculties. Sections were therefore designated for the various disciplines. The faculties have now been upgraded to Schools/colleges and the College of Agriculture will now occupy the main campus with exclusive use of the library. More space is therefore available for collections. There are trained librarians at the NU library but there is dire need to keep up with subscriptions of the major journals and stocking of new books. The library currently in Freetown has Internet facilities. The Njala campus is being rehabilitated and will hopefully be connected by the time the faculty is relocated. At the moment, the campus is covered by two of the mobile companies operating in the country, but do not provide Internet facilities. It is, however, possible that these companies will be able to provide Internet facilities as promised by the time the college is relocated.

28. The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MAFS) has an Agricultural Information and
Communication Unit (AICU) at the Ministry’s headquarters in Freetown. The unit has a library that exclusively hosts agriculture and agriculture related rural development publications including books, monographs and CDs. There are presently no trained personnel to handle the library and the unit is not connected to the Internet.

29. The two research institutions – Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) at Njala in Southern Sierra
Leone and the Rice Research Station (RRS) at Rokupr in the North, both coordinated by the National Agricultural Research Coordinating Council (NARCC) in the capital city Freetown, have libraries. These libraries have an appreciable collection of agriculture-related publications in the form of books, monographs, journals, etc. The Rice Research Station which has the mandate for research on the country’s staple rice has a greater number of the publications dealing with rice. A good number of publications by the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are available at the RRS library. The Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) with a mandate for other major food crops apart from rice has publications on the root and tubers, grain legumes, and maize. A good number of publications from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), the International Centre for Research in Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) are available at the IAR library. Both libraries also have collections dealing with
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socio- economics, gender issues and rural development. The Institute of Agricultural Research also subscribes to The Essential Electronic Agricultural Library (TEEAL) developed by Cornell University which provides access to articles published by 140 agricultural journals. Some staff members of IAR are also benefiting from the SDI service provided by CTA. Similar to Njala University, both research institutions have Internet facilities at the Freetown offices but not at the headquarters at Njala and Rokupr for IAR and RRS, respectively. Both institutions are expressing the need for a landline telephone connection to have access to the Internet. There is a strong possibility that Internet will be provided by the emerging wireless telephone companies.

30. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) representation in Freetown operates a document centre
for its publications. In addition, FAO Rome also provides online access to major journals in agriculture and related biological, environmental and social sciences through the Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA) for developing countries. The research institutions (IAR and RRS) and NU, are eligible for free AGORA service on http://www.agInternetwork.org. However, for now they can only access AGORA while in Freetown but not at Njala and Rokupr due to the lack of Internet facilities at both locations.

2.2.2 Publishing Capacity 31. There are about 20 printing presses in Sierra Leone, while there is only one local publisher (Mount
Everest) and two international publishers (Evans Brothers Ltd. and Macmillan). The Government operates the largest printing press used mainly to print government documents including the Sierra Leone Gazette as well as acts and bills from Parliament.

32. Major agricultural publications include annual reports, newsletters, and monographs which are usually
contracted to private printers while fact sheets are mostly printed by the various institutions. Newspapers often carry agriculture-related news items and feature articles. These are printed by private printers. The Awoko newspaper has a printing press while the majority of newspapers hire private printers.

2.2.3 Data Collection and Management 33. The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security has a Project Evaluation and Monitoring Services
Division (PEMSD) which is responsible for the collection, analysis and dissemination of agricultural statistics. Each year, data on crop and animal production including – farm size, yield, and other components are collected by PEMSD. Similarly, the Ministry of Health’s monitoring unit periodically collects data on various aspects of the national nutrition status.

34. Annually, PEMSD publishes the Agricultural Survey Report comprising the status of agricultural
production including crops and animals. The World Food Programme (WFP) and several International Non Governmental Organizations collect various livelihood data in their operational areas.

35. The Central Statistics Office (CSO) is responsible for overall statistics of the country including the
population census publishes agricultural data obtained from PEMSD. In addition, the Development Assistance and Coordination Office (DACO) supported by UNDP publishes the Encyclopaedia for Sierra Leone designed to facilitate information sharing and aims to enable better and more informed coordination, decision-making, development planning and policy formulation – http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/slis.

36. The government has set up the Right to Food secretariat with assistance from the Federal
Government of Germany to coordinate various efforts aimed at achieving the right to food in Sierra Leone. One of the principal functions of the secretariat is the coordination of data for all relevant institutions with a direct relationship to food security.
15

37. Recently, one of the mobile phone companies (Celtel) has launched a new service called Know it all.
Subscribers can text a designated number and will be supplied with market data including the price of essential food stuffs, schedule of the major airlines and a host of other market-related data.

2.2.4 Extension Services 38. Extension plays a fundamental role in agricultural development. In Sierra Leone, the Government has
facilitated access to agricultural extension to expedite agricultural growth. Delivery has until recently been managed and funded mainly by MAFS, Government research institutions (IAR and RRS), and parastatals. Extension systems tended to rely exclusively on government staff, whose capacity to maintain regular contacts between the different layers of the service as well as farmers was constrained by lack of transport and high recurrent costs. Furthermore, inadequate training of frontline extension staff restricted their ability to adequately respond to issues raised by farmers. NGOs with their decentralised structure are now providing much of the extension advice replacing the hierarchical structure of government services.

39. Between the government and the NGOs over ten different extension delivery and management
systems notably the Training and Visit System (T&V), the Integrated Agricultural Development (IADP) and the Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSRE) concept have been tested in the country.

40. The two research institutions are taking up extension responsibilities against the background of the
inefficient government system. IAR has an outreach programme while RRS has the Research Extension Liaison (REL) system that links research with farmers. Recently, both institutions have adopted the Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS) system to ensure the effective and less costly method of involving farmers in developing crop varieties and ensuring widespread adopting of varieties.

41. Currently, the major emphasis is on the development of community-based extension systems, with
increased stakeholder participation and funding. Farmers’ Field Schools (FFS) are the latest extension mechanism being tested in Sierra Leone. The experiment is based on the acceptance that extension systems designed to deliver messages to farmers in a prescriptive manner are not likely to be effective in a country characterized by immense agro-ecological and ethnic diversity. The initial field school is expected to evolve into a community support group that would address the multifaceted aspects of food security, including measures to improve productivity and marketing opportunities, seed banks, simple processing equipment, diversify production, reduce risks, mitigate the effects of HIV/AIDS and put in place safety nets.

2.2.5 Communication Capacity 42. Communication of agricultural-related information takes several formats depending on the source and
potential target. The traditional extension system that is now being replaced by the Farmers’ Field Schools depended on contacts between the extension agent and the farmer. There is direct communication between the two verbally and at times reading materials are delivered. The advantage of this system is that there is direct feedback but the major draw back is the need for adequate number of agents to service the large number of farmers.

43. The research institutions are increasingly taking up extension responsibilities with adequate staff to
cover farmers in their areas of operation where the National Extension System is inadequate. Such areas are usually designated domains with characteristics representing other parts of the country where similar research results can be extrapolated. A verified technology is then passed on to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, which has responsibility to cover the entire country, and in many cases to NGOs who then pass on these technologies to farmers in their areas of operations.

16

44. One-page fact sheets on various crops are produced in English and distributed to farmers during field
days and trade fairs. Newspapers are used for the publication of feature articles in agriculture. Major events like field days are also reported in newspapers with some of the important messages. Even though most of the farmers are illiterate, it has been realised that they benefit from information on fact sheets and even in newspapers although they are written in English. When the farmers go back to their villages, their children and other relatives translate these fact sheets to them. In some cases, they use teachers resident in the villages to translate the fact sheets. The farmers often keep these fact sheets as very important documents. In addition, there is a growing number of literate people particularly civil servants going into agriculture who can adequately read and understand these fact sheets.

45. The radio is widely used for the delivery of agricultural messages. In the past two years all
administrative districts have been provided with FM radio stations. Effectively, all regions in Sierra Leone are covered by radio. The important development here is that discussions are carried out in the local languages enabling local people to get the messages correctly. The on-going decentralization and associated devolution of responsibilities including agricultural production to the district councils will greatly ensure the active participation of people at the grassroots in having a say on issues affecting their livelihood.

46. The use of Internet is limited to communication between researchers and with NGOs. The Consortium
for Rural Development (CORAD) comprising four international NGOs (CARE, CRS, World Vision and ARC) funded by USAID and UNDP in collaboration with the Talking Drum Studio has a common publication to promote linkages for livelihood security and economic development (LINKS). The Common Grounds Studio also produces various radio programmes relating to agriculture and rural development in the major local languages which are broadcast on most of the radio stations in the country.

2.3

Agriculture Information Services

47. There is a significant variation among the various categories of institutions with regard to the type and
sources of information. Both research institutions and the university have or have had contact with CTA. The private institutions and all the NGOs except the National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone (NAFSL) have not had any direct contact with CTA. However, the Director of the Kamchew enterprises had heard of CTA while as Permanent Secretary at the then Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources (MAFNR). Efforts are underway for CTA to support the linking of the NAFSL with their counterparts in neighbouring Liberia.

48. However, undoubtedly, the great majority of institutions and farmers in Sierra Leone do benefit directly
or most often indirectly from CTA products and services without being aware that the support comes from CTA. On many occasions, scientists have shared with their colleagues research articles requested through the Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) service of CTA. In the past two years, scientists from the university and the two research institutions have attended scientific writing and data management courses sponsored by CTA. Most farmers and fellow colleagues have benefited from knowledge gained in these courses through assistance in editing their reports and proposals for funding. In addition, presentations by scientists have improved significantly over the years enabling them to appropriately report and convey research results at annual work reviews and journals.

49. Some staff members of IAR are still benefiting from the SDI service provided by CTA. However, a
good number of IAR staff on the SDI mailing list have either died or have left the institution, while some existing staff members are no longer receiving the service. There is an ongoing effort to update the mailing list. Moreover, IAR has contacted other institutions to enrol for the service.

17

50. The main sources of information for the research institutions and the university are The Essential
Electronic Agricultural Library (TEEAL - Cornell university) subscribed to by IAR and shared with the other institutions, the Internet, FAO and the international research institutions with special linkages depending on common mandates – IAR with IITA and CIAT while RRS is linked to WARDA and IRRI. The University and the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security have a general collection from all partners since they are serving a wider interest. There is also the exchange of information, mainly research findings, amongst the institutions.

51. The private companies rely on the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the research institutions and
the University, the radio, meetings, Fairs and Exhibitions. The Cotton Tree Enterprise uses the AGRIMAX Commodities of Holland as a broker and a valuable source for specific information regarding standards of product required.

52. In addition to the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security and NGOs seek information from the radio
and meetings. The National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone maintains a very strong link with the research institutions and the regional organizations such as the Economic Community for West African States (ECOWAS) and the Reseau des Organisations paysans et de Producteurs agricoles de L’Afrique de L’Oeust (ROPPA). Also, the local NGO Movement for Children and Women in Need and the International NGO Catholic Relief Services identified the Ministry of Development as a regular source of information.

53. CRS also has close contact with CIAT in the form of a learning alliance wherein CIAT provides
resource persons for the Agro Enterprise Development Project. CRS like most other international NGOs use the Internet to search for information. Table 1. Main Sources of Information for Institutions Interviewed
Category of Institution Institution Institute of Agricultural Research Sources of information AGORA, TEEAL, IITA, CTA, FAO, CIAT, WARDA, NU, RRS, newspapers, IFPRI, colleagues, Internet. TEEAL, CTA, FAO, WARDA, newspapers, IAR, NU, colleagues, Internet. TEEAL, IITA, CTA, FAO, IAR, RRS, WARDA, newspapers, colleagues, Internet. AGRIS, FAO, CTA, IAR, RRS, NU, NAFSL, JICA, NARCC AGRIMAX Commodities, Internet, MAFS, NU, LWDD, Personal contact. MAFS, NAFSL, radio, meeting with beneficiaries, Fairs and Exhibitions. IAR, RRS, MAFS, ROPA, ECOWAS, Radio, CARE-SL, Ministry of Development, Ministry of Health MAFS, radio, meeting with beneficiaries, Radio, MAFS, Meeting with beneficiaries, fairs and exhibitions.
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Research and University Rice Research Station

Njala University

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security

Agricultural Information and Communication Unit Cotton tree Enterprises

Private Companies Kamchew Enterprises

Local Non Governmental Organizations

National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone Movement for Children and Women in Need Livestock Extension and General Services MuaWoma Rural Women’s Association

Category of Institution International Non Governmental Organization

Institution Catholic Relief Services

Sources of information Internet, MAFS, Ministry of Development, IAR, RRS, NU, CIAT

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3.

OVERVIEW OF ICM ISSUES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT: DONOR INTERVENTIONS, CAPACITY, SERVICES AND NEEDS
Current and Planned Donor Interventions
has profound implications for the roles of the public and private sectors in the provision of agricultural services in post-war Sierra Leone. It requires that the government provides a facilitatory environment through improvements in roads, utilities and other rural infrastructure as well as regulatory frameworks, while allowing the private sector to engage in production and marketing activities.

3.1

54. The transformation of the agricultural sector highlighted in the Agricultural Sector Review document

55. The current Decentralization and Local Government Reform Programme which is heavily donor
funded seeks to reactivate local government institutions and to strengthen their capacity to carry out their functions at the local level. The programme also envisages the devolution of authority and the transfer of certain functions, services and responsibilities from the central government to elected Local Councils. Among others it is intended to:

• • • •

create opportunities for participatory democracy; create a mechanism for the dissemination of important information about national and local issues and the opportunity to discuss them at the local level; give greater control to local people over their resources by involving them in the mobilization, allocation and utilization of funds; improve the delivery services to the rural communities.

56. Closely linked with decentralization is the evident donor support for the establishment of Community
Radios in virtually all parts of the country. This is a direct support to improvement in communication particularly with local programmes being aired in local languages and possibilities for feedback through phone-in slots increasingly being facilitated by the growing coverage of mobile phones particularly in the rural areas.

57. To better improve and coordinate information collection and dissemination, UNDP is supporting the
drawing up of a Communication Policy for Sierra Leone. This follows the establishment of the Independent Media Commission by an Act of parliament in 2000 as an autonomous body for the regulation of mass media institutions and for other matters connected therewith. It is envisaged that a well-developed policy framework will guide and improve information collection and dissemination with the desired impact on development.

58. Following a long period of an ineffective agricultural extension system in Sierra Leone, NGOs with their
decentralised structures are providing much of the extension advisory services replacing the hierarchical structure of government services. Based on the acceptance that extension systems designed to deliver messages to farmers in a prescriptive manner are not likely to be effective in a country characterized by immense agro-ecological and ethnic diversity, the Farmer Field School (FFS) approach is being promoted in Sierra Leone with funding from FAO, UNDP and USAID. Originally developed in Asia for promoting the uptake of Integrated Pest Management System in rice farming, FFS are now being used in many developing countries to empower farmers’ groups to acquire, adapt and act upon knowledge and many other aspects of farming and rural life relevant to particular needs.

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59. The Development Relief Programme (DRP) is a USAID-funded transitional assistance programme
designed by four international NGOs who have formed the Consortium for Rehabilitation and Development (CORAD) to implement the programme. Members of CORAD include CARE, World Vision, Africare and CRS. There are both agriculture and health components to the DRP which seeks to restore livelihoods and food security for vulnerable rural households by improving their health status and encouraging the re-establishment of productive agricultural activities and targeting extremely vulnerable and food insecure groups such as women-headed households, mothers and children in selected chiefdoms in the Koinadugu and Kailahun districts. Associated with CORAD also is the USAID and UNDP funded Promoting Linkages for Livelihood Security and Economic Development (LINKS). The LINKS project is broadening the range and increasing the productivity of livelihood activities at community level and linking these into regional and national markets. LINKS in collaboration with the Talking Drum Studio produces a newsletter that publishes information about the activities carried out by CORAD with substantial market survey information including prices of selected products.

60. The gap that the LINK survey is covering is chiefdom level information which is normally not covered
by surveys carried out by newspapers and the bank of Sierra Leone. Thus rural information is made available.

61. The Talking Drum Studio sponsored by Canada produces radio programmes depicting rural life and
interventions that are bound to affect rural people. The programmes are in local languages including Creole and are broadcast on all radio stations in the country. The Talking Drum Studio is a major medium through which rural people are provided the opportunity to express themselves and also for other compatriots to be aware of the thinking of rural people.

62. The African Development Bank (ADB) is funding the Agricultural Sector Rehabilitation Project (ASRP)
with a goal to reduce poverty and enhance food security in the Kambia, Portloko, Moyamba, Pujehun and Kenema Districts while the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) is funding the Rehabilitation and Community-Based Poverty Reduction Project (RCPRP) in the Kono and Kailahun districts with a goal of reducing post conflict poverty and food insecurity and improving livelihoods and living conditions of rural communities in the project areas.

63. Another significant donor intervention that is bound to influence agricultural communication and overall
development in Sierra Leone is the funding of basic education. The World Bank is funding the construction of a significant number of both primary and secondary schools country wide. Bearing in mind that the present adult literacy rate in Sierra Leone is 31 %, increased enrolment and retention in schools will in the long-run have a significant impact on the literacy level and influence communication in the country.

3.2

Institutional Needs Analysis

3.2.1 Information Needs 64. The broad range of information options outlined in the questionnaire guidelines cover the range of
information required by the various stakeholders in the Sierra Leone agricultural sector. The study reveals the various information needs of the categories of institutions and the corresponding needs for capacity building (cf. Table 2).

65. In general, the research institutions and the university together with the Agricultural Information and
Communication Unit require most of the category of information options. In addition the research intuitions and the university cited additional technical information. These institutions cater for a wide variety of disciplines in the agricultural sector. At the College of Agriculture, the courses offered
21

include: Soil Science, Crop Science, Crop Physiology, Animal Science, Post harvest Physiology, Plant Pathology, Entomology, Agricultural Education and Extension, Agricultural Economics, Sociology, Biometrics, Rural Development, Food Science and Nutrition etc. in addition to basic preparatory courses like Biology, Chemistry and Physics. In effect, all the various categories of information are required to varying degrees in the various departments.

66. The level of such information ranges from post-high school, since the university is now catering for
students that have attempted the general public examination but are having difficulties in passing the required number of subjects. An access course is offered to prepare such students who then take regular examinations set by the college. Beyond this level, there are the undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, including M.Sc. and Ph.D.

67. Even though there are generally a wide variety of books and journals in the basic sciences, there still
remains need for appropriate books that reflect local situations particularly in the applied sciences like agriculture. There is a need for books addressing local issues and prevailing conditions to make more meaning to students. It is necessary for students in agriculture, particularly those trained as extension personnel, to be familiar with current and appropriate extension techniques and communication skills that will enable them to adequately interact with farmers and pass on the right messages.

68. The Agricultural Information and Communication Unit needs similar information like the research
institutions and the university. The library caters for professionals, consultants and students who are doing various research projects.

69. The National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone (NAFSL) also requires a wide range of
information on the agricultural sector, though of a less academic nature (the standard might need to be better if it is to be absolutely clear and well understood!) compared to the research institutions and the university. The nature of the farming system in Sierra Leone makes it difficult to distinguish clear categories of needs that do not overlap. Most of the farmers produce at subsistence level with no specialization. Each farm family tries to produce all their crop requirements, hence the predominantly mixed farming system. On a typical upland rice farm, there is a mixture of up to 15 different crops including the energy supplying crops like the staple food rice and the root and tubers, the protein supplying legumes (beans, sesame, etc) and a host of vegetables. In addition to crops, most farmers will also own chickens and a few goats and sheep. In the case of livestock farmers like the Fulani, they very often cultivate crops in addition to the cattle.

70. The mixed farming system therefore explains the desire for a wide range of information covering the
entire farming system. This situation is not likely to change in the immediate future. Most farmers will therefore require specially packaged information targeting the prevailing conditions for example improved rotations systems involving their major crops to address soil fertility concerns that will ensure sustainable yields. Growing legumes which fix nitrogen that is made available to associated high nitrogen demanding crops like maize will help to reduce the dependence on inorganic fertilizer which are expensive and often unavailable. In general, the farm problems are inter-related requiring practical solutions often not found in standard textbooks and other publications.

71. Similarly, CRS indicated a need for all the information options except information related to
PATENTING. This is probably because farmers are not very aware of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). It is very common for farmers to exchange planting materials. Most farmers keep part of their harvest as seed and therefore do not need to buy seeds. It is, however, expected that as civil society movements become more active and need to make their presence felt they would take of farmers’ issues like IPRs. The small percentage of farmers who are literate can barely read and write and therefore can only effectively use less technical publications. Due attention should be given to the presentation of information for the understanding of illiterate farmers. The study did not provide for the interviewing of individual farmers. However, the institutions interviewed with regard to their information needs reflect farmers’ view.
22

Table 2.
Category of Institution

Information Needs of Institutions Interviewed
Institution Information needed Farm problems, non farm livelihoods, social development issues, gender issues, government and international regulations, conferences and meetings, development and funding programmes, available agricultural/development networks, post harvest technology, equipment sourcing, waste utilization, patents, integrated pest management, biotechnology, soil management, credit and micro credit, market date, crop insurance systems management of information, editing of reports, participative methodologies Farm problems, non farm livelihoods, social development issues, gender issues, government and international regulations, conferences and meetings, trade fairs, development and funding programmes, available agricultural/development networks, post harvest technology, equipment sourcing, waste utilization, patents, integrated pest management, credit and micro credit, market date, identification of markets, commodity profiles, crop insurance systems photography and videoing, using character generation and mixing in video productions, management of information, editing of reports, participative methodologies Farm problems, government and international regulations, conferences and meetings, development and funding programmes post harvest technology, packaging, equipment sourcing/ availability, waste utilization, integrated pest management credit and micro credit, market data, identification of markets, commodity profiles, crop insurance system management of information within the organization, editing reports participative methodologies Farm problems, development and funding programmes post harvest technology, crop varieties, integrated pest management identification of markets, crop insurance system management of information within the organization, participative methodologies

Research and University

Institute of Agricultural Research

Rice Research Station Njala University

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security

Agricultural Information and Communication Unit

Cotton tree Enterprises

Private Companies

Kamchew Enterprises

23

Category of Institution Local Non Governmental Organizations

Institution National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone

Information needed Farm problems, social development issues, gender issues, government and international regulations, conferences and meetings, trade fairs, development and funding programmes, available agricultural/development networks, grading systems, post harvest technology, crop varieties, packaging, equipment sourcing, transportation, waste utilization, patents, industrial profiles, integrated pest management, biotechnology, soil management; credit and micro credit, market date, identification of markets, commodity profiles, crop insurance systems documentary production and broadcast, management of information, editing of reports, participative methodologies Social development issues, gender issues, conferences and meetings, development and funding programmes, available agricultural/development networks, post harvest technology, crop varieties, packaging, equipment sourcing, transportation, market date, identification of markets, crop insurance systems Farm problems, social development issues, gender issues, conferences and meetings, trade fairs, development and funding programmes, available agricultural/development networks, integrated pest management, equipment sourcing, animal insurance systems producing videos for clients, management of information within the organization Social development issues, gender issues, conferences and meetings, development and funding programmes, available agricultural/development networks, post harvest technology, crop varieties, packaging, equipment sourcing, transportation, market date, identification of markets, crop insurance systems management of information within the organization Farm problems, social development issues, gender issues, government and international regulations, conferences and meetings, trade fairs, development and funding programmes, available agricultural/development networks, grading systems, post harvest technology, crop varieties, packaging, equipment sourcing, transportation, waste utilization, patents, industrial profiles, integrated pest management,; credit and micro credit, market date, identification of markets, commodity profiles, crop insurance systems participative methodologies

Movement for Children and Women in Need

Livestock Extension and General Services

MuaWoma Rural Women’s Association

International Non Governmental Organization

Catholic Relief Services

72. The format of information varied sharply with the category of institutions. The research institutions,
University and the Agricultural Information and Communication Unit (AICU) of at the Ministry of
24

Format of information:

Agriculture prefer journal articles, briefing summaries and abstracts. Normally, the abstracts are first consulted followed by the full papers where there is need. Even before the war, all the institutions had found it very difficult to keep abreast with subscriptions to major journals.

73. The AGRIS abstracts are still being received at AICU, while some members of the Institute of
Agricultural Research (IAR) are still receiving the CTA’s Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) abstracts. IAR currently has a subscription to TEEAL. However, journals are only available on TEEAL one year after publication. Therefore the advantage of the SDI is that any new publication can be obtained immediately. The only disadvantage of SDI is that one is restricted as to the number of full articles to be requested for free.

74. In addition to the journal articles, briefing summaries and abstracts, AICU requires materials for mass
distribution, material in local languages and visual and pictorial information. These are required to pass on extension messages to farmers particularly in the rural areas. These formats are also required by the two research institutions engaged in extension activates in relatively limited areas compared to AICU.

75. The illiterate farmers will not benefit from publication in their own local languages, no matter the level.
In this regard, the research institutions in their Participatory Varietal Selection with farmers are using appropriate signs and symbols to depict basic facts which can be understood by farmers. As it is now clear that for now and the immediate future Sierra Leone’s farming population will be largely illiterate, there is need to improvise using more appropriate symbol communication strategies for farmers.

76. Private enterprises and NGOs require information materials primarily for mass distribution, material in
local languages and visual and pictorial information. These formats deemed are more appropriate when dealing with mostly illiterate people who make up the bulk of the farming population. At the moment, community radios are doing a good job of informing, educating and entertaining farmers and the general public. The research institutions and NGOs are developing and producing agricultural programmes for the rural audiences. In many instances also, the programme managers at the radio stations recognise the need to develop particular programmes relating to farming, based on their interaction with farmers particularly during field days.

3.2.2 Capacity-Building Needs 77. There is substantial need to build appropriate capacity (equipment and manpower) to handle
information and documentation in order to realise the full potential of the contribution of information to agricultural development in Sierra Leone. A crucial point is the understanding and appreciation of the nature of farmers who are the main targets for agricultural development. There is also a need train technicians to be able to interact and pass on appropriate extension messages but it is probably more important for the farmer, as is the ultimate recipient, to be in a position to understand, appreciate, and contribute towards this development. Planned interventions to build the capacity of change agents should be linked to the circumstances and needs of the farmers who are the main actors.

78. It would appear that more effort should be made to base any intended intervention on the capacity of
farmers to respond positively to proposed changes. In effect, any intervention to build capacity should consider farmers’ needs. The neglect of this fact is a frequent mistake made by many development workers. Perceived interventions should be verified and sanctioned by the beneficiaries to ensure acceptance and sustainability of the intervention. It is for this reason the Rapid Rural Appraisal approaches are recommended to get an appreciable understanding of the situation and consequently incorporate the wishes of recipients. It is therefore necessary for adult education programmes to be implemented to upgrade the level of farmers so that they can firstly understand what the existing literature is all about and be able to suggest the nature of interaction with regards to communication mechanisms.

25

79. Among the institutions interviewed, all the research institutions (IAR and RRS), the university (NU) and
the Agricultural Information and Communication Unit (AICU) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MAFS) have designated units for documentation and communication. All the local NGOs and the private enterprises apart from the international NGO CRS, only have administrative documentation for filing personal data, correspondence and accounting records. There is very little arrangement for Early Warning Systems to foresee potential threats before their harmful effects are felt. Most of the efforts are responses to events. It is hoped that the current decentralisation process will enable local councils to have resources to plan for themselves and implement programmes with the active consultation and participation of the local people.

80. After war, the need to restore physical assets that have either been destroyed or stolen is unavoidable
in order to provide a foundation for sustainable and more rapid development. The need for equipment was therefore very prominent in all the institutions interviewed. Interestingly, some of the requests never existed before the war, but the usual urgency to catch up after the wanton destruction requires more than what existed before the war.

81. IAR, RRS, NU and AICU require substantial upgrading of basic facilities to serve as communication
facets. These institutions lack sufficient number of basic equipment like computers, printers, cameras, scanners and photocopiers. These institutions first acquired one or two computers in the early nineties. Lack of resources and the effects of the war that started in 1991 stagnated progress in acquiring more computers and other equipment.

82. The university and research institutions are connected to the Internet at their Freetown
offices/campuses but not at the original headquarters at Rokupr for RRS and Njala for both IAR and the College of Agriculture. The non availability of Internet at the main headquarters is as a result of a lack of land lines in those areas either destroyed during the war or abandoned before the war. However, both locations are covered by at least two mobile networks that do not offer Internet facilities. A private wireless Internet server covers only the capital city Freetown but there are plans to extend it to other parts of the country.

83. None of the institutions have a website except the Njala University with a website hosted in Germany,
and CRS which shares the global CRS website. All the institutions expressed the desire to have and operate their own websites. The National Agricultural Research Coordinating Council that coordinates the activities of both IAR and RRS is on the verge of creating a website that will cover both constituent research institutions.

84. There is need for audiovisual equipment like character generators, projectors and cinema van for the
production and projection of documentaries which are required for appropriately demonstrating and passing on extension messages to the rural population. The war led to the flight of a considerable number of professionals out of the country. There is a definite lack of personnel to carry out basic functions for the successful production of appropriate documentaries required to broadcast to farmers. Even in cases where there are personnel, the long period of inactivity and the introduction of new equipment, which they are not used to, means they require training to be able to effectively keep up with modern technology.

85. The local NGOs and the private enterprises have virtually nothing except a computer or two. With the
exception of the National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone (NAFSL) none of the local NGOs and the private enterprises has Internet connectivity. There is substantial need for basic equipment to have a functional documentation and communication unit. All these institutions need personnel that are versatile in communication and documentation to identify required equipment. Consequently, there is need to employ and/or train key personnel to handle documentation and communication. More importantly, there is need to get a crop of personnel who can understand farmers and effectively interact with them. In the same vein, farmers need to be upgraded to be able to accommodate new developments. Therefore basic adult education and training in the operation of basic equipment would
26

be necessary. A television set provided for a village need not have a specialist to operate it. Such basic training will enable farmers to raise their threshold to accommodate new developments.

86. CRS, like most other international NGOs (CARE, World Vision, Action Aid, Oxfam, etc.) operating in
Sierra Leone, have adequate number of computers and are using Broadband connectivity. However, there remains a gap in the transmission of messages to farmers due to the level of farmers and lack of desired commitment and to the lack of an appropriate understanding of communication dynamics to reach farmers.

Table 3. Capacity-building needs of institutions interviewed
Category of Institution Institution Institute of Agricultural Research Research and University Rice Research Station Capacity building needs Equipment – computers, video cameras, scanners, photo copiers Website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), video documentary production and editing, Equipment – computers, video cameras, photocopiers, scanners Internet connection, website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), video documentary production and editing, Equipment –photocopiers, scanners Internet connection, website Training – video documentary production and editing, Equipment – computers, televisions, video cameras, character generator, cinema van, photocopiers, scanners Internet connection, website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), video documentary production and editing, Equipment – computers photocopiers, scanners Internet connection, website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), video documentary production and editing, Equipment – computers, photocopiers, scanners Internet connection, website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), Equipment – computers, televisions, video cameras, photocopiers, scanners Internet connection, website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), video documentary production and editing, Equipment – computers, televisions, photocopiers, scanners Internet connection, website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), video documentary production and editing, Equipment – computers, televisions, video cameras, photocopiers, scanners Internet connection, website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), video documentary production and editing,

Njala University

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security

Agricultural Information and Communication Unit

Cotton tree Enterprises Private Companies

Kamchew Enterprises

National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone Local Non Governmental Organizations

Movement for Children and Women in Need

Livestock Extension and General Services

27

MuaWoma Rural Women’s Association

International Non Governmental Organization

Catholic Relief Services

Equipment – computers, televisions, video cameras, photocopiers, scanners Internet connection, website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), video documentary production and editing, Website Training – Document specialist (Librarian), video documentary production and editing,

28

4.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

4.1 Conclusions 87. Sierra Leone was already grappling with declining economic conditions when the war started in 1991
and disrupted the lives of the populace particularly the farmers who make up more than half of the population of the country. In post war Sierra Leone, there is a growing awareness and need for the management and provision of appropriate agricultural information to assist the various stakeholders in agricultural development. Whilst the research institutions, universities remain the major source of agricultural information, the emerging private sector in the production, processing and marketing of agricultural products is presenting fresh challenges. However, availability of mobile telephones networks and FM radio stations are offering tremendous opportunities for ICM in Sierra Leone.

4.1.1 Information Needs 88. The research institutions, university and the information unit of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
require a wide range of information in respect of the divergent disciplinary needs of students and researchers. The other NGOs and Private Enterprises require a relatively narrow range of information that is directly related to their operations. Among the categories of information the following were cited as most important for each of the categories: Broad Rural and Development Information:

89. Farm Problems – This was widely cited with the hope that relevant information will assist in solving
common problems in the farming system. The research institutions in their on-farm adaptive research approach have identified farmers’ major problems and are jointly working in the evaluation of varieties (Participatory Varietal Selection) to solve problems of low yields, adaptability and consumer qualities. These interactions are mainly individual contacts between the research and extension agents and the farmer. New and more appropriate methodologies need to be adopted to reach many more and widely spread farmers. The Farmer Field Schools have provided the opportunity for greater farmer-to-farmer contact. There may be need for rural television to promote these technologies through demonstration plots shown on television.

90. Conferences and Meetings – There is now a huge opportunity for civil society members to be heard.
Most members have been sponsored to attend various workshops and conferences both internally and outside of the country. There is a strong desire to travel and interact with other colleagues particularly those in countries with established civil movements to exchange notes and share experiences.

91. Development and Funding Programmes – The civil war devastated the economy of Sierra Leone. The
great majority of the population depended, and most are still depending on, various types of assistance from donors. The flow of emergency assistance into the country during and following end of the war led to the emergence of numerous NGOs. Most of them were only supported during the emergency phase while the development phase requires strong competition and justification for funds. Technical Information: 92. Crop varieties – Efforts by the research institutions have shown that improved crop varieties are superior in many ways over the local varieties. The market-oriented production of crops requires specific attributes that are therefore sought by farmers, and processors.

93. Transportation – The growing market beyond the borders of the country and the increasing volume of
production has necessitated enquiry about nature, cost and schedule of transportation. There is particular interest in cutting down costs and efficiently and speedily delivering products in the required condition particularly perishable products.
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94. Waste Utilization – In addition to awareness raised by concerned groups and associated funding
agencies, the increased production and processing of crops has raised the necessity of waste disposal and transformation.

95. Integrated Pest Management – There is an upsurge in pest problems on farmers’ fields causing
significant losses in both crop and animal production. In particular weeds, grasshoppers and the avian flu were identified as serous threats to production and the health of animals and even human beings. Economic Information:

96. Credit and Micro Credit – There is growing need for either the initiation of small businesses or
expansion of already existing enterprises. The government initiated a micro credit programme through the Social Action for Poverty Alleviation (SAPA) which has been doing well. A lot of people particularly women are keen to access such funds.

97. Identification of Markets – Alternative markets are being sought to obtain appropriate prices for
products.

4.1.2 Capacity-Building Needs 98. There is substantial need for building of appropriate capacity (equipment and manpower) to handle
information and documentation in order to realise the full potential of the contribution of information to agricultural development in Sierra Leone. Equipment:

99. Limited budgetary allocations to the research institutions, the university and the Agricultural
Information Unit at the Ministry of Agriculture, have severely constrained these institutions in procuring relevant equipment to properly run their documentation units. The eleven year war did not only directly affect these institutions by the wanton destruction of property but degraded the government’s ability to adequately fund these institutions. These institutions together with the local NGOs and private enterprises lack sufficient number of basic equipment like computers, printers, camera, scanners and photocopiers, character generators, projectors and cinema van for the production and projection.

100.

The university and research institutions are connected to the Internet at their Freetown offices/campuses but not at the original headquarters at Rokupr for RRS and Njala for both IAR and the college of Agriculture. Website: No single institution has a website that is operated directly.

101.

Management of information within the organization: 102. There is dire need for an information management unit in most of the institutions. Most of the personnel handing information are not adequately trained to effectively perform the required functions. Apart from the research institutions and the university all the other lack personnel that are versatile in communication and documentation to identify required equipment. Consequently, there is need for employing and/or training key personnel to handle documentation and communication.

103.

Farmer Training: In as much as there is need to train personnel to appropriately interact with farmers, there is also equal if not more need to appropriately upgrade the level of farmers so that they can better understand and appreciate the introduced changes. Adult education is needed and the provision of appropriate symbols to represent key facts will be essential in communicating with illiterate farmers. On the other hand, the change agents need special training to appropriately interact with farmers with the perceived deficiencies in reading and writing. The capacity of farmers can also be raised by providing appropriate equipment like televisions at village squares for viewing of extension programmes.
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104.

4.1.3 Potential Partners and Beneficiaries 105.
Sierra Leone remains an agrarian economy with the sector employing the majority of the workforce. The agricultural sector is one of the major sectors that is expected to act as the engine of growth and stimulate the entire economy. Appropriate agricultural information is expected to play a key role in the realisation of the agricultural potential of the country. Undoubtedly, there is a growing need for information and therefore numerous potential beneficiaries of CTA products and services in Sierra Leone. It is of course crucial to effectively serve the needs of these beneficiaries through carefully and appropriately identified representative partners.

4.2 106.

Recommendations
Against the background of the tremendous potential of a well developed and focused information collection, storage and dissemination, for agricultural development in Sierra Leone and in view of the trail of devastation by the war in the country, a systematic and comprehensive revamping of ICM is desirable for Sierra Leone. There is a primary need for the promotion of the use of information particularly among the largely illiterate farming population to create an effective demand for information products and services.

4.2.1 Information Needs 107.
Attention should be given to the increasing specialisation of farmers as they become more market oriented, thereby narrowing their choice of crops and consequently the type of information they would require.

108.

Increasingly, there will be need for specialised sources of information dealing with specific types of information for example, the emerging private sector will be more interested in available markets and appropriate prices for their products. Avenues for the development of such specialised facets are desirable. There is need to package required information with respect to technical level and detail to correspond to the level of the beneficiary.

109. 110.

The SDI service has been identified as very useful to researchers and the university. It is recommended that printed abstracts be sent and use the Internet only when specified.

4.2.2 Capacity-Building Needs 111.
Sierra Leone has been hard hit by the eleven year civil war with a weak economic base that requires considerable assistance. There should be concerted effort to solicit the provision of basic communication equipment (computers, scanners, video documentary production equipment, etc.) to key partners. On-going CTA training in scientific writing, data management should be extended to as many people as possible. There is a strong need for training in editing and data management. It is also very important to extend and advertise training to private institutions and the NGOs. Specific training in IT and documentation is absolutely essential.

112.

113.

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114.

Training in appropriate symbol designation for illiterate farmers to better understand key facts and be able to suggest is crucial. Also, extension personnel should undergo special training to better understand farmers. Adult education need to be supported to enable farmers to comprehend common written messages and to conduct simple transactions.

115.

4.2.3 Potential Partners 116.
The following nominated partners will provide vital link, feed back and support for CTA intervention in Sierra Leone. Identification of these partners is against the background that these are the gateway to the entire farming population of Sierra Leone now and in the immediate future. It is envisaged that with the devolution of authority to the District Councils and Local authorities and the improvement in radio and television, there may be need to engage the farmers through the Farmer Field Schools if the experiment is successful or the District Councils. In the meantime the following are recommended: It is also important to note that these institutions are in direct link with the potential sub units name above, therefore decentralisation will be efficient as and when necessary: • The Agricultural Information and Communication Unit of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security; • The National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone; • The Institute of Agricultural Research; • The Rice Research Station.

117.

Strategic recommendation

118.

There is need for a pilot project to be designed for implementation with farmers in Sierra Leone to involve technology development/adaptation and transfer comprising farmers, researchers, processors and retailers and incorporating awareness raising in the need and use of information, tapping indigenous knowledge, sharing of information and capacity building.

119.

It has recently been observed that farmers in Northern Sierra Leone have started growing Irish potatoes against the general perception that the crop is not adaptable to prevailing conditions in the country. This is a possible avenue for research to capitalize on farmers’ initiative and establish a strong link between the two and create a platform for effective communication. CTA could partner with the Institute of Agricultural Research which has the mandate for research on Irish potato to develop an appropriate project.

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ANNEXES

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ANNEX I. TERMS OF REFERENCE ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS FOR CTA’S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES IN POST-CONFLICT ACP AFRICAN STATES
1. Introduction The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under the Lomé Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) Group of States and the European Union Member States. Since 2000, it has operated within the framework of the ACP-EC Cotonou Agreement. CTA’s tasks are to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in this area. CTA’s programmes are organised around three principal activities: providing an increasing range and quantity of information products and services and enhancing awareness of relevant information sources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange (particularly intra-ACP); and developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management (ICM) strategies, including those relevant to science and technology. These activities take account of methodological developments in cross-cutting issues (gender, youth, information & communication technologies – ICTs, and social capital), findings from impact assessments and evaluations of ongoing programmes as well as priority information themes for ACP agriculture3. CTA’s activities are currently distributed among three operational programme areas / departments: Information Products and Services Communication Channels and Services Information and Communication Management Skills and Systems These operational departments are supported by Planning Corporate Services (P&CS) which is charged with the methodological underpinning of their work and monitoring the ACP environment in order to identify emerging issues and trends and make proposals for their translation into programmes and activities. This current exercise, therefore, falls within the mandate of P&CS. 2. Background CTA works primarily through intermediary organisations and partners (non-governmental organisations, farmers’ organisations, regional organisations, …) to promote agriculture and rural development and to deliver its various information products and capacity building services. By partnering with these organisations, CTA seeks to increase the number of ACP organisations capable of generating and managing information and developing their own information and communication management strategies. The identification of appropriate partners is therefore of primordial importance. The “Evaluation of the Implementation of the Mid-Term Plan (1997 – 2000)” and the subsequent “Evaluation of CTA’s Strategic Plan and Framework for Action 2001 – 2005” emphasised the need for CTA to develop a more pro-active approach and elaborate criteria for decision-making with regard to the choice of partner organisations and beneficiaries. While the evaluations note the relevance of CTA’s activities as demonstrated through the partners and beneficiaries appreciative responses, concern is expressed about: the extent to which CTA’s activities are relevant to and reach the poor, gender awareness and how to identify potential partners especially in the independent sectors. As a direct response to these concerns, CTA undertook a series of needs assessment studies in 21 countries in the ACP Pacific and Caribbean in the 2003 – 2005. The third in the series of needs assessment studies will focus on the needs agricultural information needs of 6 countries emerging from prolonged conflict situations in ACP Africa, namely: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone, Eritrea and Rwanda. The results of these studies as well as those already conducted in the Caribbean and Pacific will feed into the elaboration of CTA’s 2006 – 2010 strategic plan.

3

Priority information themes for ACP agriculture have formed the basis of various several studies, workshops and seminars bringing together various stakeholders, organisations and institutions active in the field of agriculture and rural development. The documents (or extracts thereof) will be provided to the consultants. 34

3. Justification and main issues to be addressed Institutions, economic, social and physical infrastructure a.o. are altered by conflict, depending on the scale, duration and type of war. At one extreme, formal political, social and economic institutions may be completely destroyed, while the importance and type of informal institutions may be changed4. This statement is largely true of the 6 postconflict countries forming the object of this study (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone, Eritrea and Rwanda), which are also characterised by: over 70% of the population in rural areas and dependent on subsistence agriculture for their basic needs; a high level of food insecurity; important numbers of displaced populations; high numbers of de-commissioned soldiers who are in need of disarmament, social rehabilitation and reinsertion; illiteracy and low school enrolment / attendance numbers; poor access to basic services such as potable water and electricity not to mention information and communication technologies. These countries are presently at different stages of the post-conflict rehabilitation process with some being more advanced than others (e.g. Mozambique vs. Rwanda and Angola) and have been receiving support from various biand multilateral agencies in this regard. CTA has therefore commissioned this study in order to gain better insight into the agricultural information needs of institutions in these affected countries and the actions of other agencies in this area. 4. Overall objective To contribute to economic development through capacity building in the area of agricultural information management and knowledge sharing. 5. Specific objectives and scope of the study The objectives of the study are as follows: to develop a strategy for CTA’s approach to post-conflict countries; to improve the effectiveness of CTA’s support for post-conflict countries to compile baseline data on the status of ICM and ICTs in agriculture and rural development in the 6 postconflict countries. The study should assist CTA to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organisations); to have a more informed picture of their needs and aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. The study should also highlight where there are specific needs for CTA’s products and services thereby enabling improvement in the delivery of the same. 6. Methodology The consultant will use a combination of qualitative and quantitative rapid appraisal methods for the six countries including: the desk review of available literature and information sources including other donor interventions in the field of agricultural information and capacity (human and physical) development; the conduct of face-to-face interviews with relevant stakeholders / concerned parties and if possible, group discussions; the limited use of questionnaires. The rapid appraisal approach will allow a general overview of the key issues and company / organisational profiles on a per country basis and may give rise to more in-depth studies as and when needed in the future. 7. Expected results / output The expected results will include the following elements: an inventory of the status of agricultural information services, institutions and other actors and their needs as their relate to physical infrastructure, information availability and access and human capacity development; an assessment of the current and / or planned interventions of the government and bi- or multilateral agencies in the field of information for agriculture and rural development;
4

ARON, J., 2002. Building Institutions in Post-Conflict African Countries, Discussion Paper N° 2002/124, University of Oxford, U.K.

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an overview of the needs of potential partners for CTA activities and services in terms of building capacity for information and communication management; a short-list of potential partners / beneficiaries for CTA activities and services; baseline data to facilitate subsequent monitoring activities. It is also expected that this study will provide the framework for CTA to develop a framework for action and fashion a strategy aimed at institutions in countries emerging from conflict situations and provide input into its 2006 – 2010 strategic plan. The direct output is one main report per country not exceeding 30 pages (excluding annexes) according to the following table of contents: Main report List of Acronyms 1. Executive summary 2. Introduction 3. Country profile – summary structure and economic characteristics with particular attention to agricultural sector (includes fisheries and forestry): 3.1 Summary of how agriculture, fisheries and forestry is organised in the country 3.2 Summary of the information and communication management capacity 3.3 The current source of agricultural information and services (synthesis of Annex 3) 4. Overview of ICM issues in agriculture and rural development: Capacity, Services and Needs 4.1 Current and planned donor interventions 4.2 Institutional needs analysis 4.2.1 Information needs 4.2.2 Capacity building needs (skills, training, media, ICT, equipment) 5. Conclusions and recommendations 5.1 Conclusions 5.2 Recommendations Annexes 1. Terms of reference 2. Country profile 2.1 General agricultural profile (from available documentation) 2.1.1 Size of agricultural population (male / female / youth) 2.1.2 Farmed land, forests, fishing areas 2.1.3 Agricultural systems 2.1.4 Agriculture in the economy (percentage GDP) 2.1.5 Main agricultural produce and secondary products 2.1.6 Main export markets 2.1.7 Trade agreements that include agriculture 2.1.8 Sectoral policy related to agriculture, fisheries and forests 2.2 Socio-economic profile (from available documentation) 2.2.1 Total active population, demographic breakdown 2.2.2 Literacy level and languages 2.2.3 Access to services (health, schools, electricity) 2.2.4 Rural urban drift 2.3 Media and telecommunications (update / check) 2.3.1 Newspapers, periodicals, magazines, radio stations, television channels, 2.3.2 Telecommunication services (fixed, mobile, etc.) 2.3.4 Computers and Internet access Profile of institutions 31. List of all local, national and regional institutions involved in agriculture and rural development activities, including private sector and civil society organisations, with name, contact details, type and role of institution. 3.2 Select list of key institutions involved in agriculture and rural development, with extensive data and information on the institution, the problems faced and why it is considered a key actor List of persons / institutions interviewed Bibliography
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3.

4. 5.

8. Reporting The country reports will not exceed 30 pages (excluding annexes). The annexes should include the various sections mentioned above. 9. Timing Draft report of annex 2 to be submitted to CTA within 2 months after contract signature. Complete draft final report is to be submitted within 4 months after contract signature by CTA Final report due two weeks after receipt of comments from CTA. 10. Expertise needed

The national consultant should have a university degree or equivalent by experience. In addition, he/she should have at least 10 years experience in field of agriculture, rural development or social / economic sciences. He/she must have in-depth knowledge of the agricultural sector in his/her country and be able to identify key players and institutions / organisations active in this area. Some knowledge of information sciences would be an added advantage. The ability to communicate and write clearly in English or French is essential, while knowledge of at least one of the local languages for communication / interview purposes is an added advantage. In addition to the skills above, the overall coordinator is expected to be fluent in both English and French, have some knowledge of the 6 countries forming the object of this study, have demonstrated experience in coordinating studies with several consultants, and in producing synthesis reports.
The overall coordination will be carried out by Ms Christine Webster, Deputy Head, Planning and Corporate Services CTA. 11. Specific tasks The national consultant is expected to undertake the following tasks in the specific country: Desk review of available and relevant literature on agriculture and rural development; Conduct interviews with stakeholders in agriculture and rural development sector; Disseminate questionnaires and compile results obtained; Liaise with the overall coordinator and CTA throughout the process Write and submit draft final and final reports according to the stipulated table of contents.

The overall coordinator is expected to: Supervise the national consultants; Guide and monitor their execution of the country studies; Answer technical queries from national consultants, review their reports and prepare technical and editorial comments for the 6 countries; Prepare a draft and final overview report according to the stipulated table of contents.
12. Implementation schedule (CTA) Preparation/Finalisation of ToR; Identification/ short-listing of (potential) consultants; Call for offers: September – mid November 2005; Selection of consultants & contractual arrangements: mid to end November 2005 Briefing: 23 – 27 January 2006 Start date of contract: 19 December 2005 Implementation period 19 December - 30 June 2006 End date of contract: 30 June 2006 13. Key documents to be made available to consultants Documents include: Cotonou Framework Agreement Excerpts of relevant sections of CTA’s Strategic Plan and Plan of Action (2001-2005) Annual Reports Documents on priority information themes identified for the African region Documents on products & services provided by CTA

_________________________________
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38

ANNEX II. COUNTRY PROFILE – SIERRA LEONE
II.1 General Agricultural Profile

Sierra Leone covers 72,300 km2 of which 5.4 million ha are potentially cultivable. Agriculture is the dominant sector in the economy, employing about 70 % of the population before the civil war that started in 1991. The war led to a significant displacement of the rural population resulting in an estimated farming population of 51 % after the official end of the war in 2002. Despite being the largest single employer, the agricultural sector contributes about half of GDP in 1993/94 and it still contributes only 47 %. The upland agro-ecology represents approximately 80 % of cultivable land, and the rest are lowlands with potential for high crop yields under sound management practices. The lowlands comprise 690,000 ha inland valley swamps, 145,000 ha of naturally grassy drainage depressions (bolilands), 130,000 ha of riverain grassland and 20,000 ha of mangrove. The crop sub-sector, with the country’s staple, rice dominating, contributes about 75 % of agricultural GDP. Annual per capita consumption of rice is amongst the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that domestic production of rice currently accounts for up to 60 % of the total annual national requirement for rice of 550,000 mt. The bush fallow rotational farming system predominates. All the major food crops are cropped through this system and up to 15 and more different crops (sorghum, millets, maize, fundi (digitaria), benniseed, groundnuts, cowpea; the root and tubers including cassava, sweet potato, and yam together with a host of vegetables) are traditionally grown in mixed stands, with upland rice dominating. Tree crop plantations, which are found mostly in the eastern part of the country, constitute the bulk of agricultural exports and of the domestic palm oil supply. The main export crops are coffee, cocoa, kola nuts and oil palm. Livestock are kept mainly by semi-nomadic herders in the Northern part of the country. Birth rates are low (45 %), mortality is high and off take is only 7 %, due mainly to deficiencies and uncontrolled parasites and diseases. All the ruminants are indigenous populations of well adapted trypano-tolerant animals. Poultry are the most widely owned form of livestock and also the most numerous. Pigs are the least widely owned but nevertheless they are widely distributed and many are found in urban areas. The country’s livestock population has been very severely depleted during the conflict and many years will be required to rebuild stock numbers to pre-war level. Livestock contributes 4 % of agricultural GDP. Along its coastline of 570 km and the continental shelf area of 25,600 km2, Sierra Leone is rich with marine resources. It is also well endowed with inland waters (rivers, lakes, and flood plains) which support a large number of aquatic organisms. Fisheries are dominated by artisanal marine capture systems, and by smallscale fishing in inland waters. Industrial fishing is mainly done by foreign fleets. Aquaculture is not yet of significance. Total catch is currently estimated at 65,000 mt with artisanal production accounting for up to 70 %. The fisheries sub-sector contributes 21 % of agricultural GDP. Most of the country is in the moist tropical zone. Fuel wood and charcoal production is the most important forestry activity and provides a supplementary source of income for most farmers. It is estimated that the country requires at least 30 % of total land area to be under forest to be self sufficient in wood. Forest reserves under the government comprise about 4 % of the country, and currently represent almost the only reliable source of timber. The contribution of forestry to the agricultural sectors GDP has varied between 9 % and 13 % since 1984/85. The value of forests and other natural areas is also tied to the maintenance of biological diversity. This refers to the array of plants, animals and micro organisms that exist in natural association within the
39

physical environment. A variety of wildlife resources are available in various ecosystems such as mountains, hills, lakes, and inland and coastal wetlands. The country has fauna and flora of international importance suitable for eco-tourism. In spite of favourable conditions for agriculture, there is a significant shortfall in domestic food production creating an imminent threat for food insecurity among the highly vulnerable groups of society. Already, food imports are costing the country high and it would be worse if the trend of low investment in agriculture continues and the 2.6 annual growth rate in population continues unchecked. In the light of this, improved agricultural productivity is an important priority for Sierra Leone. Both the Vision 2025 Project and the PRSP give significant emphasis for increasing food security through improved agricultural productivity supported by intensification of agriculture and sustainable management of natural resources.

II.1.1 Size of Agricultural Population (male/female/youth)
Data from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security (MAFFS) surveys showed that there were approximately 387,000 farm families in 1988/898 with an average number of 6 persons per household giving a total farm population of 2.37 million persons. The most recent findings of the Vulnerability Assessment Surveys carried out jointly by FAO and MAFFS, put the population of Sierra Leone in September 2002 at 4.8 million. The average %age of population directly engaged in farming was estimated at 2.1 million people. The great majority (70 – 80%) of households are engaged in full-time farming. About 45 % of the farming population are women. The 2004 National Population and Housing Census of Sierra Leone revealed a total population of 4,976,871. Table II.1.1.1 Distribution of farming population by region and vulnerability level
District Kailahun Kenema Kono Eastern Province Bombali Kambia Koinadugu Portloko Tonkolili Northern province Bo Bonth Moyamba Pujehun Southern Province Western Area Grand total Very low 100,771 151,484 30,297 282,551 205,558 78,141 159,140 88,735 531,574 108,438 10,141 73,236 154,278 346,093 11,210 1,171,428 Vulnerability level Low Moderate High 44,736 6,757 13,654 50,769 120,265 9,919 91,750 1,957 95,505 218,773 25,530 51,352 10,791 79,261 39,561 3,846 36,618 14,325 26,832 5,089 27,282 92,681 29,606 214,272 52,498 150,474 11,976 36,676 23,728 12,228 15,235 7,091 14,240 19,625 3,518 7,053 7,238 38,444 78,589 41,575 13,350 21,380 348,221 363,211 238,959 Total Very high 23,306 36,767 60,073 10,416 4,197 30,660 45,273 1,725 1,725 8,085 115,156 189,224 332,437 160,771 682,432 151,820 245,119 132,930 222,540 241,682 994,091 180,818 44,695 110,619 170,294 506,426 54,025 2,236,974

Source : FAO Vulnerability Assessment 2003 Table II.1.1.3 Poverty in Sierra Leone by occupation of head of household Occupation Farmer Mining Manufacturing Construction Services Incidence poverty 79.4 61.3 59.7 36.3 50.7 of Intensity of poverty 35.1 22.2 26.7 15.3 19.4 Severity of poverty 15.5 8.0 11.9 6.5 7.4
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All
Source: SLHIS, 2003/04

70.0

31.6

13.7

II.1.2 Farmed Land, Forests and Fishing Areas
In relation to the 2004 census figures of Sierra Leone (4,976,871 people), the country still has abundant land (5,360,000 ha) for farming (Table II.1.2.1). At the moment, less than 10 percent of potentially arable land is being cultivated. There is therefore enough land to accommodate expansion in farming to increase food production. The upland agro-ecology accounts for 80 percent of arable land while the lowlands (inland valley swamps, bolilands, mangrove swamp and riverain grasslands) cover 20 percent. Present government policy for increased food production is geared towards rice intensification in the lowlands which are relatively more fertile while the uplands are grown to tree crops and annual crops that are not adapted to lowland conditions. Most of the country is in the moist tropical zone. Formerly, high forest covered 80 percent of the country, leaving a belt of savannah woodland in the drier northern part. The traditional shifting cultivation method of farming has converted most of the forest areas to farm fallow scrub, and to secondary forest regrowth with less than 400,000 ha of closed high forest (Table II.1.2.2). Along its coastline of 570 km and the continental shelf area of 25,600 km2, Sierra Leone is rich in marine resources with huge potentials (Table II.1.2.3). The marine resources include demersal (bottom dwelling) and pelagic (surface dwelling ) fish, shrimps, cephalopods, lobster and crabs Table II.1.2.1 Major categories of land and land use in Sierra Leone Ecosystem Arable land Area (ha) % Available land 4,300,000 70.9 630,000 91.3 120,000 200,000 110,000 5,360,000 82.8 100.0 84.6 74.1 Area under production annually Area (ha) % Arable land 280,000 100,000 10,000 25,000 20,000 435,000 6.5 15.9 8.3 12.5 18.2 8.1

Upland Inland Valley Swamp Boliland Mangrove Swamp Riverian Grassland Total

Source: UNDP/FAO, Land Resources Survey, 1979

Table II.1.2.2 Forest resources and their growth rates in Sierra Leone Forest type Forest regrowth Savannah woodland Closed high forest Mangrove forests Secondary forest Plantations Total
Source: GOSL, 1979

Area (ha) Estimated yield (m3/ha) 3,774,000 2.0 – 3.0 1,619,000 0.4 – 1.2 365,000 2.0 – 4.0 286,000 1.0 261,000 0.3 – 0.6 4,000 3.0 – 15.0 6,305,000

Table II.1.2.3 Estimates of potential of marine fisheries yields in Sierra Leone Type of fish Demersal Pelagic Shrimps Potential yield (mt) 55,000,000 100,000,000 3,000,000
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Cephalopods Others Total
Source: IMBO, 2000

1,000,000 21,000,000 180,000,000

II.1.3 Agricultural Systems
Crop production is the main source of livelihood in Sierra Leone for over 50 % of the country’s population. About 600,000 – 660,000 ha of the land (10 – 12 % of cultivable area) is cropped each year by about 400,000 farm families. Food production in Sierra Leone is in the hands of small-scale farmers who produce barely enough for home consumption with little or none for the market. They are generally constrained by the unavailability of necessary resources – maybe except land – but this notwithstanding, the area they can cultivate is severely limited by the amount and quality of available capital and labour. The hoe, axe and cutlass are the main implements while labour is mainly supplied by family members. The widespread use of unimproved crop varieties and animal breeds, limited use of fertilizer, coupled with unimproved cultural practices adversely affect agricultural production. The bush fallow rotational farming system predominates. Almost 80% of the cropped land is found in the uplands. All the major food crops are cropped through this system and up to 15 and more different crops (sorghum, millets, maize, fundi (digitaria), sesame, groundnuts and other grain pulses, cassava, sweet potato and vegetables) are traditionally grown in mixed stands, with rain-fed upland rice dominating. Various lowland ecologies (inland valley swamp, boliland, mangrove swamps and riverain grasslands) are also used for the cultivation of rice invariably under flooded conditions. In the lowlands the rice is grown alone since most of the other crops cannot tolerate the waterlogged conditions. In 1978/79 an analysis from aerial photographs showed about 280,000 ha of upland area under cultivation. The maximum lowland area cropped in one year has been reported to be about 170,000 ha in 1995 (MANR&F, 1996). Forms of more permanent cropping are practiced only in terms of tree crop plantations in the eastern and southern uplands of the country. Tree crop plantations in the Eastern region constitute the bulk of agricultural exports and the domestic palm oil supply. The main crops are coffee, cocoa, oil palm and kola nut followed by rubber, cashew, orange and mango. Fish Production: Fishing is carried out largely by local canoes which exploit the inshore waters and the three large estuaries in the north-west and south of the country. There are an estimated 20,000 full time fisher men operating with some 6,000 boats of different sizes and designs. The level of boat motorization is about 16 %. A variety of fishing gears are in use (Ring nets, Drift nets, Beach seines, Cast nets, Hook and line). The bulk of the fish produced by the artisanal sector is consumed locally. From before the war, the government started exploiting this resource in partnership with foreign governments and companies who are mainly providing the vessels. Fish exports from Sierra Leone are made up of fish products manufactured by industrial fishing trawlers operating offshore. Foreign-owned vessels fish in Sierra Leone waters through joint arrangements with Sierra Leonean nationals. They comprise demersal, pelagic and shrimp trawlers as well as purse seine vessels fishing for tuna and herring. The absence of home-based industrial fishing vessels and land based infrastructure and facilities to catch and process fish, limits the country’s ability to maximise benefits for this resource. Livestock production: Almost 90 % of Sierra Leone’s cattle are in the Northern Province and owned by the Fula ethnic group who represent about 5 % of the country’s population. Sheep ownership is more widespread, but goats are more widely distributed and are found all over the country. Pigs and poultry are also widely distributed. Poultry mostly comprise domestic fowl, although there are smaller numbers of Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks.
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Open grazing is generally practiced with cattle driven away in search of fresh fields by herd boys during the day and kept in wooden fence enclosures during the night. During the dry season when fresh grass is scarce, cattle are let loose for about three to four months until the rains commence and fresh grass is again abundant, then they are gathered and controlled. There is high risk of crop damage by cows during the dry season often causing conflicts among families in the villages. Cows are milked by women during the lactating period and every second day as yields diminish. The milk is processed into butter and yoghurt which they sell in nearby markets or along the road sides. Women have the responsibility for looking after calves. All the ruminants are indigenous populations of well adapted trypano-tolerant animals, while the predominant breed of cattle in the country is Ndama. Although its productivity is low, it is a hardy breed well-adapted to the prevailing ecological and socio-economic conditions in the country. Sheep breed is Djallonke and goats are West African Dwarf. Forestry: Only 5 % of the total land area is now covered by closed forest (approximately, 640,000 ha), the remainder having being converted by cultivation mainly to farm fallow scrub and to secondary forest regrowth; and in some areas, to derived savannah. The productive timber area is estimated at about 180,250 ha. The greatest potential in the forestry sub-sector is the edaphic and climatic conditions, which provide favourable natural growth rates. Saw-log-sized timber can be obtained from Gmelina arborea in about 15 years, from pines in 25 years and from local hardwoods such as Termilina species in 35 years. Agroforestry development in Sierra Leone is still in its infancy stages with various service providers assisting in providing seedlings to farmers and setting up demonstration plots including the Forest Division. Acid tolerant species such as Cassia siama, Flemningia congesta and Gliricidia sepium have been found to be suitable for alley cropping. Although alley cropping has been shown in station research to benefit the associated rice and maize crops, these benefits have not been adequately demonstrated on farmers’ fields and is therefore an unproven technology in Sierra Leone. Wood is obtained from bush fallow and mangrove forests, fish thrive in mangrove swamps, and oysters are gathered from the roots of Rhizophora, pointing to an urgent need for good agro-forestry practices in the coastal regions. Under the Gola Rainforest conservation Project, collaboration arrangements are underway to establish a working arrangement between an NGO and the forestry Division for designating certain areas as conservation areas.

II.1.4 Agriculture in the Economy (% GDP)
Table II.1.4.1 Sectoral contribution to GDP (in % GDP) Sector Agriculture Livestock Forestry Fishery Agriculture, livestock, forestry & fishery (Total) Industry Services GDP at Producers value GDP at current market prices 1991 22.5 1.8 2.6 9.9 36.7 33.8 25.5 94.6 100 1994 20.4 2.0 4.0 11.0 37.4 38.4 20.0 94.9 100 Year 1997 40.9 2.6 3.1 10.8 57.4 27.1 14.6 97.9 100

2000 40.1 1.9 3.5 9.5 55.0 26.8 14.0 94.3 100

2003 29.2 4.0 3.4 11.3 47.9 21.5 26.1 94.5 100

Source: Annual Statistical Digest,2001, Statistics Sierra Leone,

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II.1.5 Main Agricultural Produce and Secondary Products
Production of major food crops is shown in Table II.1.5.1, fish production is presented in Tables II.1.5.2 and Table II.1.5.3 while livestock production is shown in Table II.1.5.3. Since the mid 1950s, domestic production of rice, the country’s staple has been below local consumption requirement. Apart from cassava and groundnut, production of all other food crops has still not reached pre war levels. Similarly, the production of both fish and livestock are below pre war levels. Nevertheless, there is an active marketing of produce within the country and even across the borders to neighbouring Guinea and Liberia. Virtually, most of the products are marketed with very little processing if any. The only notable processing of produce is in the case of cassava, which is processed into gari, and palm fruit processed into palm oil, while groundnut is processed into groundnut paste. Rice is sold both milled and unmilled. The structure of agricultural output marketing in Sierra Leone has not changed much since the early 1990s when market reforms were introduced. Private sector firms, mainly small operators, continue to dominate the food crops marketing system. There are two main types of agricultural markets, viz. the daily community markets and periodic markets. Daily community markets are market stalls built in cities and town across the country that conduct business everyday, while the periodic markets are those that meet on a specific day or days in the week that fall on fixed days or follow some regular cycle. Most daily markets have large covered structures where agricultural commodities are sold. However, due to limited space, some agricultural produce are sold around these structures, and in adjacent streets. It is now common practice for farmers to build small sheds along major highways to sell produce particularly the root and tubers (cassava, sweet potato and yam). Palm oil is generally marketed by itinerant traders who purchase the oil from village processors and resell to retailers in urban areas. In the case of periodic markets, there are usually no now well-constructed market shelters. Traders and farmers display their produce on the ground or in makeshift booths. Table II.1.5.1 Production (mt) of major agricultural crops
Crop Paddy Maize Millet Sorghum Cassava Sweet potato Groundnut Cocoa Coffee Ginger Palm kernels Palm oil Kola nuts Source: FAO-MAFFS crop surveys, 2000, 2002 1990/91 543,700 12,300 24,000 21,000 182,000 38,800 30,000 1992/93 420,000 10,000 22,000 22,000 203,400 34,800 31,000 Year 1994/95 445,300 8,600 28,000 25,000 243,500 43,900 39,800 2000/2001 310,600 10,000 8,700 15,400 314,400 21,200 48,900 6,000 1,500 200 500 175,000 2,000 2002/03 445,033

479,454 28,446 117,000 8,000 4,500 450 1,500 245,000 3,500

Both frozen and smoked fish, mainly from artisanal fishing, follow a complex but well developed marketing system. Itinerant traders move large quantities of smoked fish to the numerous periodic markets across the country. This ensures that fish reaches all communities at affordable prices. As much as 90 percent of the fish caught by the artisanal fisheries is preserved by smoking using the traditional ovens which have been improved in fuel wood consumption and convenience to the operator. Even though the war disrupted the fish marketing system, it has picked up well after the war.
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Because of limited ice availability, shortage of handling, storage and transportation facilities, in the landing sites, fresh fish marketing is not extensive in Sierra Leone. Rather it is mainly confined within landing sites and nearby centres. Fisher folks are often compelled to reduce their selling process to low and unprofitable levels just to avoid the risk of complete loss. Table II.1.5.2 Artisanal and Industrial marine fish production in Sierra Leone
Year 1990 Artisanal 50,000 Industrial 180,000 Total 230,000 Source: MAFMR, 2002 1992 47,000 54,000 101,000 1994 47,000 18,000 65,000 1996 47,000 17,000 64,000 1998 47,000 13,000 60,000 2000 46,000 14,000 60,000 2002 53,000 14,000 67,000

Table II.1.5.3 Total fish production (mt) in Sierra Leone in 1999
Total Artisanal Total industrial catch production catch 1994/95 1,827 2,916 11,157 15,900 46,700 62,600 1996/97 1,989 2,010 6,138 10,137 46,656* 66,937 1998/99 2,155 3,662 9,752 15,569 46,420 61,989 *Including lobster and crab, cuttlefish and squid, demersal fish and other pelagic fish Source: Ministry of Marine Resources and Fisheries, Sierra Leone, 1999 Year Shrimp catch Tuna catch Industrial catch

Prior to the civil war, live cattle were transported from Guinea and producing areas in the Northern Province to Freetown and other parts of the country where they were slaughtered and the meat sold in markets or road side stalls. Presently, as a result of the drastic reduction in the livestock population during the war, most of the cattle consumed in Sierra Leone come across the border from Guinea into the cattle market at Gbindi in the Koinadugu District. Sierra Leone based traders by the cattle and transport the live animals to the consumption centres. Itinerant traders buy small ruminants from communities and sell in the urban centres. Pigs and poultry are produced mainly in the urban centres where markets are more readily available. Table II.1.5.4 Estimated livestock in Sierra Leone Livestock Cattle Sheep Goats Chicken Ducks Pigs 1995/96 141,100 152,600 252,000 196,000 Year 1997/98 128,300 138,200 229,200 178,200 1999/2000 28,800 12,850 7,785 345,000 18,000 52,000

Source: Animal Production unit, DAF, 1999

II.1.6 Main Export Markets
Sierra Leone’s export base is narrow, and is dominated by a few mineral and agricultural products. Minerals (mostly diamonds, with small quantities of rutile bauxite, and gold) provide the bulk of export earnings. The total export earnings for the first half of 2005 amounted to US $ 78.48 million and the main contributor to total earnings continued to be diamond, which contributed US $ 69.20 million, representing 88.2 percent of total export earnings during that period (Bank of Sierra Leone, 2005). The bulk of diamonds from Sierra Leone are exported to Belgium
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Cocoa and coffee form the bulk of agricultural exports from Sierra Leone. Over the years, small quantities of palm oil, piassava, ginger, kola nuts, tobacco, in addition to fish, has been exported. Coffee and cocoa are mostly exported to Britain together with ginger and tobacco before the war. Earnings from coffee exports amounted to US $227.4 thousand during the first half of 2005 while cocoa export receipts were estimated at US $ 4.26 million (Bank of Sierra Leone, 2005). Fish was formerly mainly exported to Russia. Presently industrial fisheries, through trans-shipment arrangements, predominantly undertake fish exports to undisclosed destinations. After a very long break, ginger export has resumed. The Cotton Enterprises exported a consignment of dried ginger to Holland in March 2006. The government is also giving strong support to various initiatives to export cassava products particularly chips and pellets. The cassava product exporters are targeting the China and the European Union markets. The Sierra Leone Produce Marketing Board (SLPMB) was established with the objective of providing favourable arrangements for the producers of export crops, but it became a state monopoly (purchasing produce mainly through buying agents) and monopoly (as it was solely responsible for the export of agricultural produce). The dominance of SLPMB over the internal marketing of agricultural products was curtailed in the late 1980s when marketing of these products was opened to private sector competition. Subsequently, a number of private companies and agencies (including farmer organizations) have purchased cocoa, coffee and palm kernel and ginger from producers for export. Prior to the war, the private operators in the export crop trade bought the produce at premium process relative to what the SLPMB paid for these commodities and were therefore able to out-compete the SLPMB (private operators usually paid about 20 percent more than SLPMB). However, it is not clear what prices the few companies that are active now pay for the little produce available, and there seems to be no agency directly overseeing their activities to help maintain quality standards, as well as ensure that producers get a fair price. This is clearly an area that needs strengthening and government support to ensure transparency and protect the interests of farmers. Agricultural commodities (mostly cocoa and coffee with small quantities of Piassava, fish products and tobacco) account for about 14% of the GDP. Table II.1.6.1 Nature and value of exports from Sierra Leone ( Le ‘000)
TOTAL EXPORTS 2000 Agricultural Exports Coffee Cocoa Piassava Fish and shrimps Kola nuts Palm kernel Others Mineral Exports Diamonds Rutile Re-exports MERCHANDISE IMPORTS Food Beverages and Tobacco Crude Materials Mineral fuels and Lubricants Animal and Vegetable Oils Chemicals Manufactured Goods Machinery and Transport Equipment 386 908 123 5 11 Period Jan – June 2004 3,711.8 3,655.8 2.3 53.7 7,093.4 July – Dec. 2004 10,952.4 145.9 10,795.2 3.3 8.0 3,801.6

180,568.3 191 7,320.0 371,898.2 86,950.8 12,593.7 8,684.4 131,693.8 3,338.3 21,435.8 36,256.0 53,300.1

160,783.8 3,314.5 403,148.5 67,106.9 17,550.0 11,848.3 124,249.5 1,929.5 26,040.4 50,120.3 84,967.7
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TOTAL EXPORTS

Period Jan – June 2004 July – Dec. 2004 Other Imports 17,645.2 19,335.9 Trade balance (173,204.9) (224,296.2) Foreign Reserves (Million Leones) 172,998.39 327,800.67 Source: Bank of Sierra Leone, Annual Report and Statement of Accounts, 2004 2000

II.1.7 Trade Agreements that include Agriculture
Table II.1.7.1 Agriculture related trade agreements No. Agreement 1 WTO (World Trade Organization) 2 EBA (Everything but Arms) 3
4 5 6

AGOA (African Growth Opportunity Act)
Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAAPD) Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Cotonou Agreement

Parties United Nation countries United States Government European Union
Africa Union West African States Africa, Pacific Caribbean, and

Year January 1, 1995 March 5, 2001 April, 2004
2002 May 1975 April 1, 2003

II.1.8 Sectoral Policy Related to Agriculture, Fisheries and Forests
II.1.8.1 Exchange and interest rate policies Increasing agricultural exports and reducing food imports both depend critically on the exchange rate, as well as the efficiency of price transmission to farmers. During the period from mid-1970s to the end of the 1980s restrictive import licensing system; rationed foreign exchange, administered setting of the exchange rate characterized Sierra Leone’s trade and payments regime. Wide disparity prevailed between the official and market exchange rates, which was a reflection of the shortage of foreign exchange and overvaluation of the domestic currency. By the end of the 1980s it was evident that the extensive government interventions and discriminatory allocation of policies were hurting the Sierra Leone’s economy. On the advice of the IMF and World Bank, the Government of Sierra Leone in 1989 began to implement a Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), which sought to establish fiscal and monetary discipline, liberalise and open the economy and create an enabling environment in which the private sector could thrive. The immediate result was that the domestic currency depreciated sharply in 1990, and continued to depreciate each year, between 1990 and 2000. The SAP ushered in the liberalisation of markets and removal of subsidies and price controls. This coincided with a relatively large budget deficit due to emergency defence spending and the payment of arrears on foreign and domestic debt that resulted in a short term burst in domestic prices, sending inflation rates soaring to 102 and 117 % in 1990 and 1991 respectively. Prices rose sharply in 1997 following the AFRC coup, and again in 1999 after the rebel incursion of Freetown. However, since then, relatively stable exchange rate, sound fiscal management, combined with low effective demand have resulted in low inflation rate of – 2.8 % in 2000, 3.4 % in 2001 and –3.1% in 2002. II.1.8.2 Agricultural taxation and tariff policies The key features in the Income Tax Act and Tariff Regime with relevance to agriculture for import duties are:
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• • • • • • • •

lower duty rate of 5 % on raw materials and inputs, capital goods and social products including all basic educational materials, pharmaceutical products for primary health care and agricultural machinery; import duty rate of 20% for immediate and 30% for final goods as defined in the tariff; duty draw back system for imported inputs for all exports; elimination of export taxes for export-oriented industries; zero duty rate on imports of raw materials for industries with a market share of 60 % or more for that product; sales tax rate of 20% on all imports, except capital goods; a domestic sales tax of 20 % on domestic output. however, companies with turnover of less than Le 200 million are exempt from paying domestic sales tax on outputs, these companies are instead required to pay sales tax on only imported inputs; import duty on rice is 15 %.

For income tax they are: • • • • • • • • a reduced corporate tax of 35 % is payable by all companies; income earned from rice farming is exempt from tax for a period of 10 years from the date of commencement of the activity for both incorporated and unincorporated businesses; the threshold for income tax on employment income is Le 1 million, while the top marginal rate of tax for employees, the self-employed and property owners is 35 %, which applies to most smallscale farmers; payment of payroll tax for foreigners currently ranges from Le 250,000 – Le 1 million;. the amount of investment allowance to be deducted from business income is 5 % of the cost of the relevant asset; repatriation of after tax profits or dividends is subject to the payment of withholding tax of 10 %; repatriation of original loan or interest payment thereon, known-how fees and other services at the exchange rate prevailing at the time of repatriation; a capital allowance deduction is allowed for depreciation of a taxpayer’s depreciable assets.

The most significant effect of the tariff regime is an excise tax on imported fuel of 50 %, the landed cost of petrol and 41 % for diesel. This affects tradable costs of all inputs, as well as marketing and processing costs. Materials directly related to the production in all the sub-sectors (crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry), however, face few import duties. Speciality machinery (tractors, and appliances, harvesters, veterinary drugs and implements) can be imported at a lower duty rate of 5 %, compared to 50 – 100 % for luxury cars. On the protection side, rice is subject to 15 % import duty. With the present negotiations for a common external tariff harmonization for the ECOWAS and UEMOA regions, government would no longer be able to influence tariffs on both agricultural inputs and outputs. What about rural related post conflict social and economic recovery policies? II.1.8.3 Post conflict social and economic recovery policies: Sierra Leone’s post economic, social and political rebuilding needs stem primarily from decades of economic mismanagement, wide spread corruption, inefficient state control over economic and political activity, lack of investment in critical economic and social areas and a decade long devastating civil war, which also severely constrained the Government’s ability to sustain any reforms (Government of Sierra Leone, 2005b). The government of Sierra Leone formulated an Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (IPRSP) in 2001. The IPRSP reflected Government’s priority to address the challenges of transition from war to peace ant the first assessment of actions needed to achieve this objective. The IP RSP aimed at rebuilding the country while addressing the causes of the war, through a responsive poverty reduction programme and pro-poor economic growth.
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The National Recovery Strategy (NRS) was prepared and launched in 2002 on the basis of detailed district assessments and local recovery plans. The NRS focused on (a) the consolidation of state authority and peace building; (b) promotion of reconciliation and enforcement of human rights; (c) facilitating resettlement and reintegration and rebuilding communities; (d) facilitating access to previously inaccessible areas and expediting service delivery; and (e) stimulating economic recovery. The NRS constituted the combined efforts of the Government and its development partners particularly the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) and UNDP. The strategy was people-cantered, seeking community empowerment and participation. It was seen as a bridge between emergency humanitarian assistance and longer-term development challenges. Both the IPRSP and the NRS were successfully implemented during 2001 – 2004. With the full support of the international community, considerable progress was made in restoring security and consolidating peace throughout the country. A National Social Action Programme, implemented by the National Commission for Social Action (NaCSA) was launched with the intention to rebuild the social and economic capital at community level. The entire country is now accessible to Government and development partners, while business and consumer confidence has been substantially strengthened. The IPRSP and NRS resulted in sustained recovery of the economy with real GDP expanding from 3.8 percent in 2000 to 6.5 percent in 2003 (Government of Sierra Leone, 2005b). To consolidate these gains, the Government is fully embracing bold economic and structural reforms aimed at sustaining economic recovery and improving public financial management and service delivery. Major sector reforms are at an advanced stage and progress has been made in strengthening accountability and transparency, anti corruption, monitoring of service delivery and devolution of government authority to local councils through the following Acts: • • The Anti-Corruption Act, 2000: Being an Act to provide for the prevention of corrupt practices and for related matters. The National Commission for Privatisation Act, 2002: Being an Act to establish the National Commission for Privatisation to be responsible for the privatisation and reform of public enterprises, to amend certain laws relating to public enterprises and to provide for other related matters. Investment Promotion Act, 2004: Being an Act to promote and attract private investment both domestic and foreign for the development of production and manufacturing activities, to improve exports and provide employment opportunities, and generally to create an environment conducive for investment and to provide for other related matters. Local Government Act, 2004`: Being an Act to consolidate with amendments, the law on local government, and to provide for the decentralization and devolution of functions, powers and services to local councils and for other matters connected therewith. Public Procurement Act, 2004: Being an Act to establish the National Public Procurement Authority, to regulate and harmonise public procurement process in the public service, to decentralise public procurement to procuring entities, to promote economic development, including capacity building in the field of public procurement by ensuring value for money in public expenditures and the participation in public procurement by qualified suppliers, contractors, consultants and other qualified providers of goods, works and services and to provide for other related matters. The Lands Commission Act, 2005: Being an Act to establish the lands commission to be responsible for granting rights to use state lands vested in the State, to regulate the use to which public lands are to be put and to provide for other related matters.

• •

The Sierra Leone Government’s poverty strategy is also set within the overall vision of the country’s longer term development agenda articulated in the VISION 2025 document which identifies the key objectives that need to be attained for Sierra Leone to leave conflict behind forever and provide a better life for its people. VISION 2025 was developed through consensus, to guide the development efforts for the foreseeable future. The strategic areas of focus chosen which must become the basis for plans and policies for the country are to:
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• • • • • •

attain a competitive private sector-led economic development with effective indigenous participation; create a high quality of life for all Sierra Leoneans; build a well educated and enlightened society; create a tolerant, stable, secure and well managed society based on democratic values; ensure sustainable exploitation and effective utilisation of our natural resources while maintaining a healthy environment; and become a science and technology driven nation.

Although noticeable achievements have been made in implementing the PPRSP and NRS over the immediate post-conflict years, poverty reduction still remains a major challenge for the Government and the people of Sierra Leone. On the other hand, new possibilities and opportunities have emerged that would allow the country to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the widest participatory manner. Therefore, the Government has prepares a more comprehensive poverty reduction strategy that builds on the gains of the IPRSP and the NRS, whilst striving to achieve the MDGs and other socioeconomic indicators. The PRSP thus considers a number of short to medium term challenges: it proposes actions that should not only impact immediately on the living conditions of the people but also lay a solid base from which to address the long-term causes of conflict and poverty. The major challenges are promoting food security and job creation through • achieving high and sustained broad based economic growth, particularly in rural areas where agricultural development and increased food production are central • providing essential social and economic services and infrastructure to the poor and • improving governance.

II.2 Socio-Economic Profile
The population of Sierra Leone grew from 3,515,000 in 1985 to 4,976,871 in 2004 with a sex ratio of 100.6 and average household size of 5.6 (Table II.2.1.1).

II.2.1 Demographics
Table II.2.1.1 Population by administrative region and sex
Administrative region East Province Kailahun District Kenema District Kono District Northern Province Bombali District Kambia District Koinadugu District Port Loko District Tonkolili District Southern Province Bo District Bonth District Moyamba District Pujehun District Western Area Rural District Urban District Sierra Leone Males 592,655 172,710 247,979 171,966 821,356 195,345 127,767 124,578 212,319 161,347 517,383 219,545 67,057 122,366 108,415 460,604 82,643 377,961 2,391,998 Females 589,215 184,465 242,450 162,300 920,570 211,047 142,609 141,105 240,700 185,109 555,062 229,416 72,548 136,140 116,958 473,687 87,164 386,523 2,538,534 Sex ratio 100.6 93.6 102.3 106.0 89.2 92.6 89.6 88.3 88.2 87.2 93.2 95.7 92.4 89.9 92.7 97.2 94.8 97.8 94.2 Average house hold size 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.7 6.7 6.6 7.3 6.1 6.9 6.6 5.9 5.9 5.5 5.7 6.3 5.7 5.6 5.7 6.0 Special population 9,669 1,015 7,519 1,135 3,627 1,998 86 75 727 741 20,212 14,707 82 2,404 3,019 12,831 4,442 8,389 46,339 Total population 1,191,539 358,190 497,948 335,401 1,745,553 408,390 270,462 265,758 453,746 347,197 1,092,657 463,668 139,687 260,910 228,392 947,122 174,249 772,873 4,976,871 50

Source: CSO, 2004

According to the Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), up to one million Sierra Leoneans were temporarily displaced throughout the conflict period. Many of these were displaced for extended periods of time and were never formally registered. According to the IDP census in February 2001, a total of 247, 509 were formally registered IDPs -126,959 in camps and 120,631 in host communities (OCHA, 2001). Resettlement of formally registered IDPs commenced in April 2001 and was completed in December 2002. Nearly all 220,000 formally registered IDPs have been resettled (OCHA, 2002). A total of 309,528 Sierra Leoneans were officially recognised as refugees in neighbouring West African countries. Repatriation of Sierra Leonean refugees commenced in September 2000. As at August 2002, a total of 194,636 refugees had been repatriated and resettled in their homes and an estimated 114,622 officially recognised refugees were still to return to Sierra Leone. Hence, as at September 2002, a total of 410,258 formally registered IDPs and refugees had resettled in their homes (UNHCR, 2002). There was spontaneous return of refugees and IDPs after the May elections in 2002, signalling the gradual return of peace in the country. However, there are still apparently IDPs and refugees who no longer wish to return to their original homes either because of better conditions in their new settlements or have no place to go to since their settlements had been totally destroyed. There are presently two major camps near the capital city Freetown with displaced persons unwilling to return to their original settlements. Their number is swollen with other city dwellers that have joined them and such communities are swelling. It is even alleged that armed rubbers are harboured among these communities making it difficult for the police to track them. The Governments up coming Peri-Urban agriculture project is expected to target some of these people and provide them avenues for income generation. Following the conclusion of the disarmament and demobilisation programme in February 2002, excombatants had been reintegrated, and virtually all Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and refugees resettled (Government of Sierra Leone, 2005 b). A total of 72,049 ex-combatants were officially disarmed (Ministry of Agriculture, 2003). All ex combatants were given the opportunity to enlist for various skills training programmes including carpentry, masonry, agriculture, driving etc. At the end of their training they were provided with starter kits to practice the skills they had acquired. A good number opted to geo back to schools and colleges. The many development programmes including road building, and agricultural development projects are expected to engage a good number of these ex combatants. The truth and Reconciliation Commission recommended reparations for the war victims. In determining the categories of beneficiaries for the reparations programme, the Commission first considered victim who have become vulnerable as a result of having suffered human rights violations. Subject to practical limitations relating to state resources the Commission recommends that the following list of victims be considered beneficiaries of the reparations programme: amputees and other war wounded, victims of sexual violence, children and war widows (Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2004). Table II.2.1.2 Age distribution of population in 1985
Age (Year) Under 5 5–9 10 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 34 35 – 39 40 – 44 45 – 49 50 – 54 Sex Male 293,000 270,000 185,000 162,000 123,000 127,000 101,000 99,000 73,000 70,000 54,000 Total Female 286,000 263,000 162,000 182,000 150,000 157,000 120,000 101,000 74,000 59,000 50,000 579,000 532,000 346,000 344,000 274,000 284,000 221,000 199,000 148,000 130,000 104,000
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Sex Male 55 – 59 41,000 60 – 64 40,000 65 & over 108,000 Not stated All ages 1,746,000 Source: Central Statistics Office, Freetown, 2001

Age (Year)

Total Female 33,000 38,000 95,000 1,770,000 74,000 78,000 203,000 3,516,000

Table II.2.1.3 Functional age groups as % of projected total population in Sierra Leone
Category Age group 2000 2005 Young child 0–4 18.1 17.6 Child 5 – 14 26.8 27.0 Youth 15 – 24 18.9 19.2 Elderly 65 + 3.1 3.1 Source: Central Statistics Office, Freetown, 2001 2010 16.9 26.9 19.6 3.1 Years 2015 15.9 26.5 20.0 3.1 2020 14.4 25.9 20.5 3.2 2025 12.7 24.6 21.0 3.4

II.2.2 Literacy Level and Languages
The provision of basic education and increasing access, especially in the rural areas, are still key challenges for government in most rural communities in the country. At 31 percent, Sierra Leone’s adult literacy rate is one of the lowest in the world. According to a survey result presented in Table II.2.2.1 18 percent of adult females (above 18 years) can read English, compared to 35 percent for adult males; while 20 percent of female adults and 37 percent of male adults can do written calculations. The SLHIS, 2003/04 survey also shows that 2.3 percent and 1.4 percent of males and females attended adult literacy classes, respectively. The reasons for not attending literacy classes for both males and females include non availability, large number of household chores (8 % males and 16 %) and lack of caretakers for children. By and large for the foreseeable future, the local languages have to be recognised as a significant medium of communication if desired audiences are to be reached. This is particularly crucial in the case of farmers who are mostly illiterate. The pidgin English Creole is the lingua franca of Sierra Leone. It is widely spoken in every corner of the country and therefore a key medium of communication. There are thirteen tribes in Sierra Leone. The major tribes are Mende, Temne, and Limba making up more than half of the population (about 60 %). Each of the remaining tribes make up about 2 – 6 percent of the population. The Mendes are the dominant tribe in the South and East of the country while the Temnes and Limbas reside in the North with the Temnes dominating. On the National radio – The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service (SLBS), news is broadcast in Mende, Temne, Limba and Krio. These languages are also taught in Secondary schools and students have the option to choose which one they want to learn. The local language teaching programme is schools is fraught with numerous problems, primarily the lack of qualified teachers to teach the languages coupled with the lack of appropriate textbooks and teaching materials. Table 11.2.2.1 Literacy level by gender (%)
Sex Child 5.4 Male 5.2 Female Source: GSL, 2005 Read in English Youth 34.8 31.7 Adult 35.2 17.8 Can do written calculations Child Youth Adult 18.1 50.9 37.1 18.8 4.5 19.7

52

II.2.3 Access to Services
During the 2000/2001 academic year, there were a total of 2,704 primary schools in Sierra Leone and it was only in the Western Area that Private Schools existed (Table II.2.3.1). In all the regions, the male population was greater than that of females particularly in the Northern Province, while the gap was closest in the Western Area. Most of the teachers were unqualified and the national pupil to teacher ration was 1:37, ranging from 1:23 in the Western Area to 1:46 in the Eastern Province. A similar picture prevails in the Secondary Schools (Table II.2.3.2) and Teacher training Colleges (Table II.2.3.3). The data reveals that the prevalence of high pupil to teacher ratio and unqualified teachers is higher in the Provinces compared to the Western Area. Government’s recent drive to encourage children to go to school has also created the unintended effect of overcrowding even in urban areas. However, the World Bank funded SABABU Education Project has constructed many schools all over the country including very remote areas. Unfortunately, the turn out of qualified teachers is not in tandem with the availability of space and enrolment of children. Equally challenging is the provision of facilities at junior secondary school level to meet the growing demand from children successfully completing primary education in all parts of the country. Not all chiefdoms in Sierra Leone presently have junior secondary schools to meet the needs of children desiring to continue at that level. The inadequate number of qualified teachers for all the basic and tertiary levels, the poor state of science teaching, and the absence of ICT in the majority of secondary schools are major concerns for human resource development and capacity building. Higher learning institutions also face considerable resource constraints, leading to shortages of essential personnel for science and technology teaching, applied agricultural research and extension, and health care. The present conditions of service are far less conducive to attract qualified personnel who are out of the country to return to Sierra Leone. This state of affairs has negative effects on the country’s ability to sustain the fight against poverty. Table II.2.3.1 Primary School enrolment- 2000/2001
Region/District Number of Schools Government Private Total 215 150 83 275 279 1002 Boys Number of Pupils Girls Total 18,714 13,996 1,882 13,771 28,368 76,731 47,450 38,443 4,267 34,665 73,855 198,680 Number of Teachers Qualified Unqualified Total 772 251 76 484 898 2,481 523 319 128 621 634 2225 1,295 570 204 1,105 1,532 4,706

Northern Province Bombali District 215 0 Kambia District 150 0 Koinadugu District 83 0 Tonkolili District 275 0 PortLoko District 279 0 Total 1002 0 Southern Province Bo District 303 0 Bonth District 139 0 Moyamba District 173 0 Pujehun District 159 0 Total 774 0 Eastern Province Kono District 110 0 Kailahun District 227 0 Kenema District 301 0 Total 638 0 Western Area Urban 171 21 Rural 94 4 Total 265 25 SIERRA LEONE 2679 25 Source: Ministry of Education Planning Unit, 2001

28,736 24,447 2,385 20,894 45,487 121,949

303 139 173 159 774 110 227 301 638 192 98 290 2704

40,718 11,175 26,660 16,542 95,095 11,114 2,087 53,922 67,123 19,689 20,068 39,757 323924

29,323 9,833 21,960 13,545 74,661 6,265 1,679 36,459 44,403 16,598 18,138 34,736 230,531

70,041 21,008 48,620 30,087 169,756 17,379 3,766 90,381 111,526 36,287 38,206 74,493 554,455

1,371 299 615 163 2448 210 815 972 1997 1942 514 2456 9382

563 329 627 619 2138 166 96 131 393 435 359 794 5550

1,934 628 1,242 782 4,586 376 911 1,103 2,390 2,377 873 3,250 14,932

Table II.2.3.2 Secondary School enrolment – 2000/2001
Region/District Number of Schools Number of Pupils Number of Teachers

53

Government Private Northern Province Bombali District 20 3 Kambia District 12 0 Koinadugu District 6 0 Tonkolili District 17 0 PortLoko District 14 0 Total 69 3 Southern Province Bo District 39 1 Bonth District 5 0 Moyamba District 16 0 Pujehun District 6 0 Total 66 1 Eastern Province Kono District 15 0 Kailahun District 18 0 Kenema District 23 0 Total 56 0 Western Area Urban 38 6 Rural 10 0 Total 48 6 SIERRA LEONE 239 10 Source: Ministry of Education Planning Unit, 2001

Total 23 12 6 17 14 72

Boys 3,419 539 4,428 3,719 12,105

Girls 2,415 189 2,372 3,628 8,604

Total 5,834 728 6,800 7,347 20,709

Qualified 485 251 30 410 304 1,480

Unqualified 80 319 24 337 39 799

Total 565 570 54 747 343 2,279

40 5 16 6 67 15 18 23 56 44 10 54 249

9,101 1,023 1,437 970 12,531 4,291 333 8,502 13,126 23,077 5,754 28,831 66,593

5,397 1,126 774 185 7,482 2,311 424 4,694 7,429 15,965 1,547 17,512 41,027

14,498 2,149 2,211 1,155 20,016 6,602 757 13,196 20,555 39,042 7,301 46,343 107,620

485 61 141 315 1,002 150 198 275 623 537 150 687 3,792

74 35 38 322 469 55 10 7 72 117 15 132 1,472

559 96 179 637 1,471 205 208 282 695 654 165 819 5264

Table II.2.3.3 Student enrolment in Teacher Training institutions – 2000/2001
Higher Teacher Certificate Institution Teacher certificate Male Female 264 220 Primary Male Female 64 68 54 84 51 45 302 Secondary Male Female 401 237 128 22 154 74 119 169 1045 20 20 17 33 349 Bachelor in Education Male Female 227 77 16 243 1 78 Totals Male 628 456 633 254 599 480 3,050 Female 314 310 324 255 228 349 1,780 Grand Totals 1884 1532 1,914 1,018 1,654 1,658 9660

M.M.C.C. PortLoko Teachers College Makeni Teachers 273 250 206 College Freetown Teachers 107 151 73 College Bunumbu Teachers 292 159 172 College Bo Teachers College 211 271 100 Grand Total 1,147 1051 615 Source: Ministry of Education Planning Unit, 2001

The state of health of Sierra Leone’s population significantly deteriorated during the war years (1991 – 2002) with life expectancy at birth declining to 34.3 years in 2002 from 42 years in 1990. The proportion of the population undernourished in 1999/2001 was estimated at 50 percent, compared to 46 percent in 1990/92. In Sierra Leone, the health care delivery system is characterised by a plurality of health service providers with the government accounting for about 70 percent. The general population utilisation rate of health care facilities is estimated at 0.5 percent contacts per capita per annum, implying that only one-half of the population attends a health care facility once a year. Physical distance to health care facilities and the unavailability of drugs represent a major barrier to accessing health care. Less than half of the population is estimated to have sustainable access to affordable drugs. the percentage of births attended by skilled personnel is estimated at 24 percent. Table II.2.3.4 Distribution of Health Facilities (January, 2000)
Administrative Division Population (1997) ‘000 CHC CHP Clinics MCHP Miss Other Total G D&E Hospitals M P&I Total

Northern

54

Province Bombali District 410 15 12 38 4 5 74 Kambia District 229 14 0 13 3 1 31 Koinadugu District 222 8 13 14 0 2 37 Tonkolili District 301 8 12 48 3 3 74 PortLoko District 383 16 20 34 4 0 74 Total 1,545 61 57 147 14 11 290 Southern Province Bo District 429 14 18 30 2 3 66 Bonth District 125 7 9 11 2 3 32 Moyamba District 323 10 13 34 3 3 63 Pujehun District 139 10 12 18 0 1 41 Total 1016 41 52 93 7 9 202 Eastern Province Kono District 497 13 28 17 2 6 66 Kailahun District 281 13 29 6 3 6 57 Kenema District 420 15 33 28 2 7 85 Total 1198 41 90 51 7 19 208 Western Area Urban 1020 6 2 3 2 53 66 Rural 250 10 2 6 1 7 26 Total 1270 16 4 9 3 60 92 SIERRA LEONE 5,029 159 203 300 31 99 792 CHC=Community Health Centre; CHP=Community Health Post, MCHP= Maternal and Child owned, D&E= Govt. under Defence and Education, P&I=Private and Industrial

1 1 1 1 2 6

0 0 0 0 0 0

2 1 1 1 2 7

0 0 0 0 1 1

3 2 2 2 5 14

1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 3

0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

1 1 1 0 3 0 1 4 5

0 1 1 0 2 7 1 4 12

2 3 4 1 10 8 4 9 21

6 2 1 6 15 3 0 1 0 4 9 2 2 6 19 22 4 17 21 64 Health Post, M=Mission Clinic, G=Government

According to the 2004 HDR of the UNDP, about 57 percent of the population had access to improved drinking water in 2000. Data from the 2003 Pilot Population Census show that majority of households (43 %) depend on rivers/streams, and another 26 percent on ordinary wells for water supply. Small proportions depend on mechanical wells (12 %), public taps (12%), tap in compound (6 %) and pope indoors (1 %). The majority of people in rural areas rely on water collected from rivers, pools, shallow wells, springs and swamps, all of which are often polluted and serve as the main sources for contracting typhoid, cholera, dysentery, worms and parasitic diseases. The problem of water is compounded by the lack of long term maintenance and/or destruction of existing facilities in may rural and urban towns during the war. The sanitation situation is also unsatisfactory. Nationwide 83 percent of households use pit latrines, buckets, bush and rivers/streams as their sanitation systems for waste disposal. Hardly any rural village has adequate pit latrines, posing serious health and environmental problems for the communities. In the urban areas, sanitation problems arise mainly from poor systems of solid waste disposal. It is a common practice for many households to dispose of refuse by dumping on roadside, in drainages or in backyards. the problem has been further compounded by the increasing rate of urbanisation coupled with the inadequate infrastructure and services for solid waste disposal. Table II.2.3.1 Access to services in Sierra Leone
Service % age of population Access to health services 40 % Access to safe water 57 % Access to sanitation 66 % Infant mortality rate 165/1000 Maternal mortality rate 1,800/100,000 live births Life expectancy (2002) 34.3 years Sources: 2004 Pilot Sierra Leone Population and Housing Census and UNDP HDR, 2000

There has been inadequate supply of electricity in the capital city Freetown and all major towns in Sierra Leone since the early 1980s following the global increase in oil prices in the late seventies coupled with progressive mismanagement of resources and bad governance. Up till the seventies, there was a 24-hour supply of electricity in the capital city and all the district headquarter towns in the country. There was an extension of electricity supply to some big towns neighbouring some of the district headquarter towns but the rural areas were not supplied with electricity.
55

Total installed capacity of the National Power Authority (NPA) decreased from 49.8 MW in 1996 to 40.2 in 2000 (Table II.2.3.5). About 83 percent of all households use kerosene as the major source of fuel for lighting. Electricity serves as the main source of light for only 8.5 percent of households and these are mainly in urban towns (Pilot Census, 2004). The supply of electricity is rationed in the capital city Freetown with an average monthly supply of 5 – 10 days for the majority of households. Most households and businesses have generators that provide electricity. This situation has increased the demand for fuel and increased the running cost of businesses with severe price consequences on consumers. The Bumbuna dam in Northern Sierra Leone with a capacity of 50 MW has been under construction for over two decades. It is expected to be completed in 2008 and solve the chronic shortage of electricity in Freetown and the Northern provincial headquarter town of Makeni. The Dodo dam in Eastern Sierra Leone supplies electricity to Kenema and Bo during the rainy season while a thermal plant in Bo supplies electricity to both towns during the dry season. A new thermal plant has been commissioned in the district headquarter town of Pujehun and there are plans to install a thermal plant in Makeni. The availability of adequate and regular electricity will go a long war in encouraging investors to invest in Sierra Leone. Table II.2.3.5 Electricity generation in Sierra Leone
Installed Capacity (MW) National Power Authority Others Electricity Generated (KHW ‘000,000) National Power Authority Others Distribution (NPA) Consumers Domestic (‘000,000) Commercial (‘000,000) 1996 49.8 14.4 Year 1998 40.3 14.4 2000 40.2 14.4

114.2 -

82.3 -

132.8 -

27.3 7.2

24.1 5.9

28.5 6.5

Sales (KWH ‘000,000) Domestic 27.3 Commercial 7.2 Industrial 19.2 Street lighting Total units sold (000,000) 53.6 Value of sales (Le’000,000) 5,300 Source: Central Statistics Office, Freetown, 2001

18.1 4.4 17.0 0 39.5 6,611

32.3 9.7 38.8 0 39.2 10,326

II.2.4 Rural – Urban Drift
The 2001 projection of rural-urban drift predicted a continuing drift of the rural population to urban areas (Table II.2.4.1). The urban areas continue to attract the rural people particularly youths. This trend is fuelled by the growing disparity in the development of the rural and urban areas with the former not receiving due attention. The attraction of youths to urban areas has had serious consequences on agriculture by the continuing reduction in the supply of labour. Apart from the direct search for other jobs in urban areas, the increasing declining in soil fertility and consequent low crop yields is discouraging youths to cultivate the soil. This is pointing to the need for appropriate interventions in soil and crop management to ensure high and sustainable yields that will increase farmers’ income. The war which caused the displacement of about one million people (about one quarter of the population) compounded this problem. Most of the displaced population has already been resettled either to their original homes or elsewhere while some have stayed in the urban areas and are gainfully engaged. The drift to urban areas and even outside the country which was a growing phenomenon even before the war has in a way also helped many families to survive through remittances to families left behind against the
56

strong faith in the extended family system. During the war most people who fled to neighbouring countries depended on family members who had earlier left the country and were working in Western countries. This situation further buttressed the fact that there is need for some members of the family to emigrate to other countries as an insurance against future difficult situations. This is clearly underlining the urgency to improve the economic situation in the country particularly the rural areas so that people can be gainfully employed. It has been observed that most of the people involved in peri-urban farming are either directly displaced people who no longer wish to return to their original homes or youths who have gone to these urban areas but cannot find jobs other than agriculture related ones. The government has already recognised the importance of peri urban agriculture and an African development bank (ADB) project is being finalised to support peri urban agriculture around the city of Freetown and other major towns. Table II.2.4.1 Projected rural and urban population in Sierra Leone
Area 2000 2005 2010 Urban 2,171,000 2,725,000 3,376,000 Rural 3,228,000 3,440,000 3,637,000 % urban 40.2 44.2 48.1 Source: Central Statistics Office, Freetown, 2001 Years 2015 4,112,000 3,802,000 52.0 2020 4,900,000 3,909,000 55.6 2025 5,698,000 3,943,000 59.1

II.3

Media and Telecommunications

II.3.1 Newspapers and periodicals
Table II.3.1.1 Newspapers in Sierra Leone

Newspaper African Champion

Ownership Private

Awareness Times Awoko

Private Private

Concord Times Democrat Exclusive

Private Private Private

For Di People Independent Observer

Private Private

Circulation Monday, Wednesday and Friday: 1500 copies/day Monday – Friday 1000 copies/day Monday – Friday 2000 copies/day Monday – Friday 2000 copies/day Monday – Friday 2000 copies/day Monday – Friday 2000 copies/day Monday – Friday 2000 copies/day Monday – Friday 2000 copies/day

Address/Internet 1 Short Street, Freetown

Telephone 076-664-420

24 Garrison Street, Freetown www:awarenesstimes.com 47 Percival Street, Freetown

030-321001 232-22-224927

51 Krootown Road, Freetown 14 A George Street, Freetown 11 Regent Road, Freetown

229199/224745 232-22-228103 076-662-739

1 Short Street, Freetown 1 Short Street, Freetown http:/www.slcgg.org/Sierra Leone News Online/Independent Observer Faculty of Pure and Applied Science Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone jasredwood@yahoo.com

232-22-228869 076-608-194

Journal of Pure and applied Science

Faculty of Pure and Applied Science

232 22 221330

Once a year

57

Newspaper New Citizen

Ownership Private

New Vision

Private

Peep Pool Salone Times

Private Private Private

Standard Times

Private

The Post New storm Sierra News

Private Private Govt.

The Independent The News

Private

Private

Circulation Monday – Friday: 1500 copies/day Monday – Friday : 1500 copies/day Weds and Friday Weds and Friday Monday, Wed & Friday :1500 copies/day Monday – Friday: 1500 copies/day Weds and Friday Weds and Friday Monday – Friday; 1500 copies/day Monday – Friday: 1500 copies/day Weds and Friday

Address/Internet 7 Wellington Street, Freetown

Telephone 228693/229856

29 Rawdon Street, Freetown

076-681-408

28 Savage Street, Freetown 1 Short Street, Freetown 16 Upper Freetown Brook Street,

232-22-240066 232-22-226864 232-22-226800

2 A Ascencion Town Road, Freetown 31 Garrison, Freetown 1 Sani Abacha Street, Freetown Wallace Johnson Street, Freetown slena_news@yahoo.com 8 Lamina sankoh Street, Freetown 29 Rawdon Street, Freetown

232-22-229634

232-22-223357 232-22-228811 232-22-228893

076-684-043

232-22-227466

There is an FM radio station in each of the Administrative Districts in Sierra Leone. Most are Government owned. The national Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service (SLBS) use to cover the entire country but the coverage has dwindled after the Short Wave machine broke down and an FM machine was installed that effectively covers only the Western Area. Installation of FM radio stations in each of the District headquarters with capacity to cover the respective districts has enabled the transmission of the National SLBS to broadcast to the nation by linking up with these stations. These stations also produce and broadcast programmes specifically targeted to their district audience. There is a huge advantage in broadcasting in the local languages of the district. In all these stations news is broadcast in English and the local languages. Local music is also promoted at these stations. These stations therefore provide a great opportunity to communicate and pass important messages including agriculture related messages to the people. The effective use of these stations will definitely impact positively on the welfare of the entire populace. The increasing ownership of portable radios in most villages is a clear indication of the impact of these radio stations. These stations have been very effective in announcing meetings and important events in the districts. Hitherto, the traditional story tellers often with important moral messages travel from village to village and tell stories to crowds gathered in central location at night when children would be asleep. It is now common practice for these professional story tellers to be heard during the day on radio. Important discussions often in local languages are held at these stations. Table II.3.1.2 Broadcast media (Radio) in Sierra Leone
Radio Station Believers Broadcasting Network * Citizen F.M. * Address 11 Pademba Road, Freetown Kissy, Freetown Telephone 232-22221425 076-602-911 Coverage Central Freetown Far east of Broadcast hours/day 6 hrs 6 hrs
58

Eastern Radio Kiss 104 * Life Venture * Nongowa Radio** Radio Bintumani** Radio Democracy * Radio Maria* Radio Mankneh* Radio Morka* Radio Trinity * SLBS – Freetown ** SLBS – Kailahun** SLBS – Kenema ** SLBS – Bo** SLBS - Makeni** SLBS – Koidu** Sky 106.6 * United Nations Radio V.O.H. 96.2 * Voice of Islam * * Private radio station ** Government owned

Foniko, Kenema 20 Kissy town Road, Bo 3 Soldier Street Nyandeyama, Kenema Kabala Town 7 Waterloo Street, Freetown Azolini Highway, Makeni Makeni Moyamba Old Railway Line, Freetown New England Ville, Freetown Kailahun Town 1 Dama Road, Kenema Dambala Road Magburaka Road, Makeni Koidu Town 159 Circular Road, Freetown Hotel Mammy Yoke, Freetown 18 Oneil Street, Freetown Kissy

032-320-379 232-22224803

Freetown Kenema town Southern Province Central Freetown Kenema Town Kabala Town Western Area Bombali District Makeni Town Moyamba town Central Freetown Western Area Kailahun District Kenema District Bo District Bombali District Kono District Western Area Entire Country Western Freetown Western Area

17 hrs 6 hrs 14 hrs 12 hrs 19 hrs 14 hrs 14 hrs 12 hrs 6 hrs 24 hrs 17 hrs 17 hrs 17 hrs 17 hrs 17 hrs 20 hrs 24 hrs 24 hrs 6 hrs

232-22229465 076-604449 076-608404 076-648094 241127/24170 8 076-643323 076638420 076-694502 076-680502 232 22 223136 295206/29500 0 228309/22995 0 076624423

Table II.3.1.3 Broadcast media (Television) in Sierra Leone
Station Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service TV ** ABC TV * * Private TV station ** Government owned Address New England Ville, Freetown Leister Peak Freetown Coverage Western Area Western Area Broadcast hours 6 hrs 6 hrs Telephone 241127/241708

II.3.2 Telecommunication Services
The mobile phone technology has revolutionalized communication in Sierra Leone like in most developing sub-Saharan countries. The government owned Sierratel with land line facilities has been degenerating over the years. The service has been extremely poor with no increase in the number of lines to cater for the growing number of customers and frequent disconnections due to technical faults that are not repaired in time. Most times therefore the phones are not working. It was therefore no surprise that the mobile phones captured customers away from Sierratel. There is a growing demand for the mobile phone service as the coverage to parts of the country continues. Most people are now using mobile phones as house phones. The mobile phones presently
59

have a much wider coverage than Sierratel. Interestingly, many people in coverage areas including rural people with relatives abroad are using mobile phones to communicate with their relatives. You no longer need to go to Freetown or the Provincial headquarter town to communicate with relatives in other parts of the country or abroad. Apart from the urban areas there is significant coverage of rural areas. The mobile company Celtel is providing information on prices of basic commodities, transportation, and their coverage areas which is becoming an important source of information to subscribers. Also the mobile phones have made it very easy to contribute to talk shows on radio. The availability of small portable generators has made it possible to charge phones even in remote villages. The only draw back in the more widespread use of mobile phones is the high cost of the recharge cards. It is, however, expected that with the increasing number of companies which is creating competition and the improvement in electricity which is blamed by the companies for the high running cost, the costs will eventually reduce and be made more affordable. Also, the cost of mobile receivers is gradually becoming affordable by the grate majority of people. A lot of people staying abroad and are in need of frequent contact with their relatives are sending had sets for them together with some allowance to buy recharge cards just to keep connected providing an opportunity to always contact them. There is widespread knowledge of the existence and use of mobile phone networks as a result of aggressive campaigning on FM radio stations which now cover all parts of the country. People in areas that are not yet covered go to the nearest coverage area to make calls. The currently leading mobile company Celtel provides handsets at key locations with signal for use by the general public who do not have handsets. The increasing use of the mobile networks is encouraging the companies to extend to as much of the country as possible in a bid to capture more customers. The indications are that mobile phones will be very crucial in the development of Sierra Leone. Table II.3.2.1 Telephone and Mobile
Name Address Cost of 3 min local call Le 810.00 No. of individual subscribers 50,000 Coverage

Africell (mobile) private Sierratel (land line) Celtel (mobile) Commium (mobile) Datatel Milicom (mobile)

Bathurst Street, Freetown Water Street, Freetown Main motor Road, Wilberforce 30 Wilkinson Road, Freetown Lamina Sankoh Street Pultney Street

Capital city and 42 % of other urban areas Capital city and 25% other urban areas Capital city and 85% other urban areas Capital city and 75% other urban areas Capital city only Capital city and 25 % other urban areas of of of

Le 200.00 Le 3,060.00 Le 990.00 150,000 80,000 80,000 50,000

of

Source: Promotions leaflets and personal interview Table 11.3.2.2 Telephone messages Item No. of Telegraphic messages forwarded No. of international telephone calls International calls duration (minutes x 1000)
Source: Central Statistics Office, Freetown, 2001

1998 4000 1,421,000 4435

Year 1999 1000 1,970,000 11,680

2000 1000 2,385,000 6,977

II.3.3 Computers and the Internet
60

The exact number of computers in the country is not known. Computers have largely replaced the typewriter in almost all government and private offices. The universities together with most secondary and primary schools in urban areas are using computers. There are four Internet providers: Sierratel – a government parastatal and three private companies Datatel, Limeline and Iptel. There were 150 internet subscribers in 1998 and the number shot up to 800 in 1999 (CSO, 2001). There are no current figures but it is envisaged that the number has increased tremendously against the background of a very rapid growth in telecommunications in Sierra Leone. There is a growing number of internet cafes in Freetown, with at least 15 cafes and the Provincial Headquarter towns of Bo, Kenema and Makeni with about 5 internet cafes each. Broad band connectivity is at the moment very expensive and only used by embassies and International NGOs. Initial connection costs about US$ 10,000 with a yearly subscription of about US $ 5000. Sierratel charges Le 150,000 for initial connection and a monthly subscription of Le 62,000.00; while Datatel charges Le 350,000 for initial connection and Le 90,000 for 2 hours; 150,000 for 4 hours, etc. The internet cafes charge Le 5,000.00/hour in Freetown and Le 8,000.00 in the Provinces. There is grater internet contact between individuals and institutions in Sierra Leone with the outside world than within the country. This could be accounted for by the lack of connectivity by partner institutions and individuals. This is, however, expected to increase as more and more people and institutions become connected and with increasing awareness and reduction of costs. Students, researchers, NGOs and businessmen frequently search the web for required information. Undoubtedly, this is expected to grow with time as connectivity extends outside the capital and electricity supply becomes regular and stable. The regional ministry headquarters, NGOs, business concerns, Schools and private individuals in the regions would greatly welcome internet connectivity to communicate and search for information. Table II.3.3.1 Telephone messages Item No. of Telegraphic messages forwarded No. of international telephone calls International calls duration (minutes x 1000) Internet connection – No of customers
Source: Central Statistics Office, Freetown, 2001

1998 4000 1,421,000 4435 150

Year 1999 1000 1,970,000 11,680 800

2000 1000 2,385,000 6,977 NA

61

ANNEX III. PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS

62

Annex III.1 List of Institutions Involved In Agriculture and Rural Development in Sierra Leone
No. 1 Name of Org ABC Development Name of Contact Dr Foday Suma Position Executive. Director Country Director Head of mission Director Director Org Address 25 Sanders Street Town Freetown Tel 76600756 223951 2 3 Action Aid Sierra Leone Action Contre la faim Mr Tennyson Williams Mr Fredric Malardean Mrs Mbalu Sesay Rev. K. Wellington 36 A Freetown Road 60 B Cape Road Aberdeen 4 A king Harman Road Newton village Freetown Freetown 231392 224820 76601723 242108 224716 221409 76709560 233425 273069 233426 263339 233340 234445 76644196 239073 76601576 Freetown Freetown 30208616 INGO NNGO RU RU INGO INGO RU RU PP Education Health Fax Type of organisation Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 NGO Role 1 RU Role of organisation Role 2 Role 3 TR FS Role 4 Health

4 5

Action for Dev. Sierra Leone Adopt A Village Community Development Association Adventist Development Relief Agency Africa International Mission Services AFRICARE

Freetown Newton

NNGO NNGO

RU RU

EX EX

Education Education

6

Mr Prince Cummings Rev. Amadu Kamara Mr Patrick Mwangi

Country Director Executive Director Country Rep.

97 A Off Main Motor Road 108 City Road 145 Wilkinson Road

Freetown

INGO

CHU

RU

Education

7 8

Freetown Freetown

NNGO INGO

CHU

RU RU

EX Child Protection

9 10

11 12

Agency for Community Development Agricultural Production Extension & general Services Albert Joyle Relief Agency Foundation Ameener Agricultural Development Project Ansarul Development Services

Mr James Miller Mr Colade Thorpe

Director Executive Director Executive Director National Programme Officer Country Director Executive Director Director

Sembehun, Bagruwa 7 Fisher Drive, Cockle bay, Aberdeen 23 Percival Street 51 Bai Bureh Road, Kissy Kissy Dockyard

Sembehun Freetown

NNGO NNGO

RU RU EX Education

Mr Andrew Akinsoji Mr Gibrilla A. Kamara Alhaji Tamba Kamara Mr T.M.B. Ngaujah Mr Gaspard Ngevao

13

Freetown

221658 33317794 032-397 221235 76708582 223198 76687393 221376

NNGO

MSQ

RU

EX

Education

14 15

Association for Community Development Initiative Association for Peoples Empowerment (APEM) Association for Rural Dev. Association for Sustainable Community Development Baptist Convention Sierra Leone Bo/Pujehcun Development Associate Campaign for Collective Development

4 Neneh Street 36 Kaitibi Street

Bo Bo

NNGO NNGO

RU RU

EX EX Education

16 17 18 19

Mr Alie B. Forna Dr Ken Gomoh Mr. Limoley Mr S.K. Foyoh

Executive Director Executive Director Admin. Officer Programme Director Executive Director

21 Liverpool Street 223 Bai Bureh Road 33 Garrison Street Taiama Highway

Freetown Freetown Freetown Bo

NNGO NNGO NNGO NNGO CHU

FS RU RU RU FS EX EX Child

20

Mr Samuel A. Goba

102 Tinkonko Road

Bo

76643679

NNGO

Advocacy

63

No. 21

Name of Org CARE International, Sierra Leone CARITAS Germany CARITAS Makeni Catholic Organisation for Relief and Development Catholic Relief Services (CRS) Center for Media Education and Technology Children Integrated Services

Name of Contact Mr Nick Webber

Position Country Director

Org Address 35&35A Wilkinson Road 8 Howe Street 22 Wilkinson Road 22 Wilkinson Road 29 Kingherman Road 41 Main Motor Road Congo Cross 10C Upper Melon Street, Wellington

Town Freetown

Tel

Fax

Type of organisation Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 INGO

Role 1 RU

Role of organisation Role 2 Role 3

Role 4

234227 234280 234228 76865099 233760 233919 233760 233919 236093 234030 264525 76615386

22 23 24 25 26 27

Regional Representative Mr Thomas B. Turay Director Mr Joseph B. Turay Mr Brian Gleeson Mr David TamBayoh Rev. Hassan Mansaray Programme Officer Country Dir. Executive Director Director

Mr Siggy Janssen

Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown

INGO NNGO INGO INGO NNGO NNGO

CHU CHU CHU CHU

RU RU RU RU TR RU Education Peace IN EX Media Education Child Protection Human TR Education

Education

28 29

Christ Evangelical Rural and Community Development Christian Aid

Mr Sahr Emmanuel Bona Ms Kadi Jumu

Director Advocacy Officer National Director Programme Director National Director Director

17 Pa Morlai Field 8 Kosie Williams Street, Aberdeen 132 Wilkinson Road Freetown

290466 273049 76605579 236206 236205 76651597 222919 224439 76624367 235563

NNGO INGO

CHU CHU

RU RU

Education Education Advocacy

30

Christian Children’s fund

Mr Daniel E. Kaindaneh Mr Daniel Y. Lakoh Mr Robert T. Jawara Mrs Maria M. Jalloh

Freetown

INGO

CHU

RU

FS

Child sponsorship TR Education Education

Education

31 32 33

Christian Community Development Programme Christian Extension Services Community Action for Development Programme and Services Community Action for Rural Development Community Action for Rural Empowerment Community Biodiversity Action Network Community Empowerment & Development Agency Comm. Mobilization for Poverty Alleviation & Social Services Community Programme for Women Concern with the Development of Women Affected by the War Concern World wide

1 Short Street 100 Off Main Motor Road 6 C Old Railway Line, Tengbeh Town

Freetown Freetown Freetown

NNGO NNGO NNGO

CHU CHU

RU RU RU

FS TR FS

34 35 36 37 38 39

Mr S.L. Gandi Mr Mohamed Mansaray Mr Denis Jusu Mr M.E. Jalloh Mr Abubakar Koroma Mr Wendy Melville

Project Manager Programme Officer Administrative Officer Project Coordinator Programme Manager Programme Coordinator Director Country Dir.

85 Main Sewa Road 22 Kawusu Street 13 F Off King Marman Road 51 Mahei Boima Road 13 A Regent Road 102 Fadika Drive Congo Cross 8 Howe Street 20 Johnson Street Aberdeeen 59 Spur Road

Bo Bo Freetown Bo Freetown Freetown

33363576 76642583 76655408 241488 76640564 221388 235603 76602327 229077 273012 273177 233519 76699561

NNGO NNGO NNGO NNGO NNGO NNGO

RU RU RU FS RU RU TR Education FS

40 41

Ms I Kamara Paula Connolly

Freetown Freetown

NNGO INGO

RU RU

TR Education

42

Cooperazione Internationale

Mr Andrea Ferrero

Country Dir.

Freetown

INGO

RU

Advocacy

Human Rights

64

No. 43 44 45

Name of Org Cotton Tree foundation Council of Churches in Sierra Leone Evangelical Fellowship - Sierra Leone Family Aims

Name of Contact Mr Michael Kamara Mr Sahr Salia Mr Foday khabenge

Position Director Sec. General Sec. General

Org Address 20 Bolling Street Kingtom 4A Kinghaman Road 35 Circularr road

Town Freetown Freetown Freetown

Tel 76713731 240568 226854 226870 220640 76628543

Fax

Type of organisation Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 NNGO NNGO NNGO CHU CHU

Role 1 RU RU RU

Role of organisation Role 2 Role 3 FS TR Education TM Education

Role 4

Advocacy

46

Mr Alhassan KabiaKargbo

Programme Coordinator

6 Charlotte Street

Freetown

NNGO

RU

Education Child protection

47

Finnish Refugee Council

Mr Mohamed R. Bah Ms Hawa Sesay

Programme Coordinator Director

116 Tikonko Road

Bo

320148 76707836 76688806 233032 76660376 33377208 233415 233521 76626253 76707417 76684977 76767820 240215 240809 30251838 76683187 76745348 76711964 223504 223380 76604983 223473 76605729

INGO

RU

Education

48

Fombo 11 Womens Development Association Food Housing and Agricultural Agency FORUT

18 John Tucker Street

Makeni

NNGO

RU

Social welfare

49

Mr Edward Dumbuya Ms Lucinda Amara

Executive Director Director

4 Lightfoot Boston Street 24 E Main Motor Road, Congo Cross 61 Musa Street 40 Dundas Street 55 Siaka Stevens Street Bo-Kenema Highway 57 John Street

Freetown

NNGO

RU

50

Freetown

INGO

RU

Human Rights

51 52 53 54 55

Foundation for Integrated Development Sierra Leone Friends of Africa Relief and Development Agency Friends of Sierra Leone/Europe German Agro Action Grassroots Gender Empowerment Movement Hands Empowering the Less Privileged Helen Keller International

Rev. Edward M. Mansaray Mr Harry Yokie Mr Osman Sesay Mr Joachib Schroder Ms Cecilia Decker

Executive Director National Director Director Head of Project Director

Bo Freetown Freetown Bo Freetown

NNGO NNGO INGO INGO NNGO AS-W

RU RU RU RU FS Education Education

56

Ms Zainab I.M. Sheriff Ms Marian Bangura

National Director Program Manager Prog. Director Direcor

48 B Charles Street

Freetown

NNGO

RU

FS

57

38 Liverpool Street

Freetown

INGO

RU

58 59

Hope - Sierra Leone Institute of Agricultural Research Integrated Rural Agric. Community Development Project International Islamic Youth League International Medical Corps

Mr Mohamed Kandeh Dr A. Jalloh

51 Robert Street Old Agriculture Building Tower Hill 1 Buedu Road

Freetown Freetown

NNGO iarsl@ GOV sierratel.sl NNGO

RU RD

Peace building EX

TR

60

Mr Lahai bockarie

Regional

Kailahun

RU

Social welfare

61

Sheikh Ahmed Kanneh Mr Robert Duncan

Executive Director Country Director

7B Portloko Road

Lungi

76603010

NNGO

MSQ

RU

62

6 Wilberforce Valley

Freetown

236005 233793

INGO

RU

65

No. 63

Name of Org Islamic Action Group

Name of Contact Sheikh A.B. Kowa

Position Executive Director Programme Manager Coordinator National Coordinator Secretary Country Director Director Programme Coordinator Director Permanent Secretary Coordinator Coordinator

Org Address NTC Compound

Town Bo

Tel 76659411 76659070 229661 76746423 420409

Fax

Type of organisation Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 NNGO MSQ

Role 1 RU

Role of organisation Role 2 Role 3 Education

Role 4

64 65 66 67 68

Kailahun District Development Foundation Kenema District Development Agency Kenema District Rehabilitation and Development Agency Koinadugu Women Vegetable Farmers Life for Relief and Development

Mr Steven Boaki Mr Mohamed Gbondo Mr Moigula Senesi Mr. M.S. Marrah Haja Miniatu J. Konneh Dr G. Jalloh Mr David Suale Mr Ahmid Kamara Mr Haroun Mansaray Ms Yatta Samah Ms Victoria Ndomahina Mr A.S. Lebbie Prof. Edward R. Rhodes Mr Murray lamin Mr B.A. Massaquoi

Old Agriculture Building District Council Building 2A Boima Road 20 Bankolia Road 39 Lightfoot Boston Street 26 Main Motor Road 60 Sir Samuel Lewis Road 12 Bathurst Street Youyi Building, Brookfields How for do Park Old Agriculture Building, Tower Hill 37 Finnon Road Old Agriculture Building, Tower Hill Old Agriculture Building, Tower Hill Youyi Building, Brookfields 29 Main Motor Road, Brookfields 73 Old Railway line

Freetown Kenema Kenema Kabala Freetown

NNGO NNGO NNGO AS-W

RU RU RU PS-P RU TM Education Social welfare Animal husbandry Education Health PS-M

225006 76768812 231704 273471

NNGO

69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

Livestock Extension and General Services Lutheran World Federation Magbema Cashew Farmers Association Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security Moa woma Rural Women's Association Movement for Children and Women in Need Moyamba District Development Agency The National Agricultural Research Coordinating Council National Association for Farmers of Sierra Leone National Extension Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security Network Movement for Development and Justice New Harvest Development Office Ngoyella Agriculture & Rural Development Organization Organization for Research & Extension of Intermidiate Technology Pa Santigie Conteh Farmers Association Pakkas Community Development Agency

Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown Kenema Freetown Bo Freetown

NNGO INGO NNGO GOV CHU

RU RU RU PP AS-W AS-Y RU RU RU PP

EX

PS-P

76646313 76663954 76679111

NNGO NNGO NNGO

Education Child Protection TR Education RD

Chief Executive

77 78

79

Mr Abu Brima

Secretary General National Extension Coordinator National Coordinator Development Coordinator Director Executive Director

Freetown Freetown

222197 224439 cenarcc@ GOV sierratel.sl 224708 228368 NNGO 76747894 GOV

AS-F

RU EX

IN

Freetown

229937 76644314 32583 76648094

NNGO

RU

Advocacy

Education

80

Rev. M.B.L. Kamara

Bo

NNGO

RU

Education Health

81 82

Mr Steven Jannah Mr Bernard A. Conteh Barrat

Lower Banta Chiefdom 48 Wellington Street

Gbangbatoke Freetown 224948

NNGO NNGO

RU RU FS Education

83

Mr Alfred Conteh

Chairman

11E Williams Street

Freetown

76603749 76613976 267783 76629466

NNGO

RU

Health

84

Sheik Jalloh

1 Agric Lane

Bo

NNGO

RU

Health

66

No. 85

Name of Org Partnership Action for Community Empowerment Peoples Property Foundation

Name of Contact Mr Vandi A. Dauda

Position Programme Manager Executive Director

Org Address 48 Adelade Street

Town Freetown

Tel 240519 76664566 220754 76603977

Fax

Type of organisation Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 NNGO

Role 1 RU

Role of organisation Role 2 Role 3 Education

Role 4

86

Ms Alice M. Braima

8 Circular Road

Freetown

NNGO

RU

Education Env. Protection

87

Praise Foundation

Mr Bashim L Bangura

Executive Director

19 Dambala Road

Bo

32320443 76677288

NNGO

CHU

RU

Child protection

88 89

Promoting Initiatives for MicroEnterprises Development Rehabilitation and Development Agency Rice Research Station Rofutha Dev. Association

Mr George A. Dambo Mr Augustine Robinson Mr. E.Y. Koroma Mr Aruna R. Kroma

Programme Manager Director

125 Bai Bureh Road, Brima Lane 201 Bo-Tiama Highway Old Agriculture Building, Tower Hill

Freetown Bo

76714256 76639791

NNGO NNGO

FS RU Health

90 91

Ag. Director Programme Coordinator Admin. Officer Coordiantor Programme Manager Sec. General Executive Director Deputy Vice Chancellor

Freetown 263590 30213616 76773806 76711583 223361 240044 76633845 76618848

rokupr@ GOV sierratel.sl NNGO

RD RU

EX Health

TR

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

SCIE 1 Blood International Salima Farmers Association Save Heritage and Rehabilitate the Environment Save Humanity Organization Save the Youth School of Agriculture, Njala University The Future in our Hands The HAIKAI Foundation

Mr M. Sesay Mr Musa S. Kanyako Mr. Saccoh Mr Ibrahim C. Sarple Mr Mustapha Rogers Dr A.K. Lakkoh

136 Bo-Kenema Highway 27 Mikailu Street 3C Lamina sankoh Street 107 Jomo Kenyatta Road 19B Hannah BenkaCoker Street New England Ville 9 Bathurst Street

Bo Pujehun Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown Freetown Makeni

NNGO NNGO NNGO NNGO NNGO GOV NNGO AS-Y

RU RU FS

FS

Education

Advocacy Social welfare RU TR RU RU RU RU RD FS Education EX TR EX Education

Ms Hawa Turay Ms Betty Bailir Mr Mathew Momoh Rev. Bob S. Kpakra Ms Doris C. Kargbo

Director Coordinator Program Manager Development Officer Managing Director Director Head of Mission

17 Rawdon Street 19 Sander Street 10 Howe Street 31 Lightfoot Boston Street 9 Lunsar Road

76607815 221833 76627004 76603353 76639386

NNGO NNGO NNGO NNGO NNGO CHU AS-W

100 The People Agenda for Poverty Alleviation 101 UJIMA for Africa Development 102 United Methodist Church Development Office 103 United Program for Women in Agriculture Rural Dev. And Social Services 104 United Rural Women’s Association 105 War Child Holland

RU RU PS-P TM

Ms Zainab Y. Magnani Mr Meghan Mac. Bain Cardine Davies

13 Zainab Drive 20B Thailand Drive Babadorie 29 Walpole Street 39 A-C Freetown Road Lumley

Freetown Freetown

273201 239206 239208 226382 230725 230156

NNGO NNGO

AS-W

RU RU

TR Health

106 West Africa Cash Crop 107 World Vision

National Director

Freetown Freetown

NNGO INGO

RU RU

Education Child sponsorship

67

No.

Name of Org

Name of Contact Ms Adeline Kargbo

Position President

Org Address 9 Kargbo Street

Town Mile 91

Tel 30202905 76608084

Fax

Type of organisation Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 NNGO AS-W

Role 1 RU

Role of organisation Role 2 Role 3

Role 4

108 YOMABANG Women’s Development Association

68

Key - Type and Role of Institution Type (tick) no more than three AS-F AS-W AS-Y BNK CCI CHU EDU GOV NGO PRV REG STA TE OT Farmers’ association (includes co-ops) Women’s association Youth association Bank or credit institution Chamber of commerce and industry Church-based group Educational institution Government department / ministry Non-government organisation Private enterprise, company Regional organisation or network Statutory body State enterprise Other (define)

Role (tick) as many as are applicable EX IN FS PP PS-E PS-M PS-P PS-S RD RG RU TR TM OT Extension and outreach Information services Financial services Policy and planning Exporter (fresh, frozen and dried produce) Manufacturer (e.g. tannery, bottler, refiner, roaster) Producer (e.g. commercial farm, fishing company) Supplier (e.g. chemicals, seeds) Research and development Regulation (compliance, standards) Rural Development Training (tertiary and vocational level) Trade and marketing (include development) Other (define)

69

Annex III.2 List of Key Institutions
Name of Institution Objective/mission statement Field of specialisation Cotton Tree Foundation To improve farmers’ income and status and contribute to the Sierra Leone economy Training of farmers and processors, supply of inputs and marketing of produce (ginger, groundnut, sesame and pepper). 10 (Manager, Monitoring Officer, Account/Admin, $ extension staff and 3 secretaries) Fakunia and Gbangbatoke – Moyamba District and Makomp – Portloko District Le 85,000,000.00 (Eighty five million Leones) – (€ 23,224) Shares and loans Importation and distribution of improved ginger and supervision of production • Marketing of ginger 1,291 farmers in Fakunia and Gbangbatoke 250 farmers in Makomp None • • • • •

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites

Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Ministry of Agriculture and Food security – Agricultural policy guidelines, concessions Njala University – Technical assistance in crop production Land and Water development Division – Technical assistance in crop production, land suitability AGRIMAX Commodities, Holland – Acts as broker and provides technical specification for products, identify markets and tests products. Personal contacts Internet Ministry of Agriculture and Food security Njala University Land and water development Division AGRIMAX Commodities, Holland Sources of equipment Transportation Conferences and meetings Waste utilization Equipment Trained personnel Literacy level of farmers and processors high cost of Internet
70

Name of Institution Why institution selected as key

Cotton Tree Foundation One of the leading private institutions that are linking production with processing and marketing. Enabling farmers by providing loans and much required market for their produce.

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialisation

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors

Catholic Relief Services (CRS) The fundamental motivating force in all activities of CRS is the Gospel of Jesus Christ as it pertains to the alleviation of human suffering, the development of people and the fostering of charity and justice in the world. • Agricultural initiatives to improve production and marketing • Education • Maternal and child health • Shelter assistance 139 Freetown, Kenema and kabala US $ 4,470,167 • CRS Private funds • Office of US Foreign Development Assistance • UNHCR/UNICEF/WFP • UNDP • US Department of Defence • World Bank/National Commission for Social Action (NaCSA). • USAID • US Government – Internal Transport and Storage Handling • Agriculture – Restoring production for vulnerable rural household consumption; Rehabilitation and Resettlement support to communities; Farmer Field Schools • Health and HIV/AIDS – Reconstruction of rural health infrastructure; Training Traditional Birth Attendants, • Food aid • Shelter reconstruction • Peace building • Refugee camp management • 4972 farming households in northern and eastern Sierra Leone • 500 Traditional Birth Attendants • 17,000 rural Sierra Leoneans – Strengthen community awareness of maternal and child health • 55,935 – Food for work (75% men and 25% women) • 7,000 refugees
71

Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated)

Name of Institution Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

Catholic Relief Services (CRS) None •

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management

Why institution selected as key

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security – Policy direction, identification of operational areas • Njala University – Technical assistance • FAO – Sharing of field experience • Institute of Agricultural Research – planting materials and technical advise • CIAT – Learning alliance • Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security • Njala University • FAO • Institute of Agricultural Research • CIAT Information of patenting • Centralization of information, field staff need to be well-informed and have ready access to information. • No qualified personnel to handle documentation. One of the leading international NGOs that has been involved in agriculture and rural development for a long time and covers a relatively wider area and activities including education, peace building and human rights than other NGOs.

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Institute of Agricultural Research
To develop and disseminate appropriate crop varieties, production, processing and utilization technologies that will increase farmers’ crop yields, income, nutritional status and general well being without any adverse effect on the natural resource base.

Field of specialisation Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites

Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors

Research and Development, Extension and Training 250 (30 Scientists, 50 technicians and 170 support staff) Kenema in the east, Njala and Moyamba in the south, Makeni, Kabala and Rokupr in the North Le 2,032,656,427 – (€ 555,371) • Government of Sierra Leone • IAEA • International Foundation for Science

72

Name of Institution Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

Institute of Agricultural Research • Crop Improvement • Crop Management • Outreach • Food and Nutrition improvement 450 farm families in the country Spore magazine, SDI, Training courses, consultants, publications • • • • • Ministry of Agriculture and Food security – Receive funds, supervision and feed with research results. Njala University – Associate scientists and lecturing IITA – Collaborative research, exchange of germplasm, training NGOs – Training, supply of planning materials National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone – Feed back from farmers; while IAR provides improved planting materials and training for farmers International Foundation for Science – Receive research funds and technical advise International Atomic Energy Agency – Equipment and training Rice Research Station – Collaborative research

• • •

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management

Why institution selected as key

• Internet • Personal contact • CTA – SDI, Publications • FAO- Publications, AGORA, • IITA – Publications, • Waste utilization • Grading Systems • Advances in appropriate ICT • Lack communication specialist • Inadequate equipment • Not connected by Internet to main station • Disparity in level of ICT with partners One of the two research institutions in the country that has the mandate for research on all major food crops grown and consumed in Sierra Leone with the exception of rice. This institution strongly links research and extension following the model of its predecessor the Adaptive Crop Research and Extension (ACRE) Project.

73

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialisation Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature) How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

Livestock Extension and General Services To improve animal health for higher production and increased income for farmers in Sierra Leone Animal health and production, training and extension 8 (2 doctors, 4 technicians, 2 secretaries) Makeni and Kabala Le 35,000,000.00 - (€ 9,563) • Irish Aid • Government grant Rabies vaccination Training in animal hygiene • Cattle farmers: 250 • Poultry farmers in Freetown: 25 • Pet owners: 100,000 None • • • • • • • • •

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management Why institution selected as key

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security Njala University Ministry of Agriculture and food Security Njala University Development and funding programmes Conferences and meetings Equipment sourcing Low ICT level of clients Small business and no specialised communicator The only NGO involved exclusively in animal husbandry and covers a significant area of the country. It is also actively involved in training and extension.

Name of institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialisation Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors

Magbema Cashew Farmers Association Increase and popularise the production, processing and marketing of cashew nationwide to improve the well-being of farmers and the overall economy of Sierra Leone. Training, cashew production and marketing 25 Kambia District Le 300,000,000.00 (Three hundred million Leones) – (€ 81,967) • Shares • Government grant
74

Name of institution Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

Magbema Cashew Farmers Association • Community Cashew Production • Processing and marketing of cashew • Training of farmers in cashew production 2,500 farmers None •

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management Why institution selected as key

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security – Support for funding • National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone – Representation of farmers • Commonwealth – Funding for processing factory • Radio • Exhibitions • Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security • Meeting with farmers • Development and funding programmes • Conferences and meetings • Waste utilization • Integrated pest management • Equipment sourcing • Low ICT level of clients • No specialised communicator A major umbrella NGO involving smaller community-based organizations (CBOs) engaged in cashew production. The umbrella NGO has facilitated the establishment of a cashew processing plant and is now engaged in market development and promoting the products of members.

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement Field of specialisation Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken

Mua woma Rural Women’s Association To empower women through training, financial support and advocacy to be self sufficient Micro credit, Training and Advocacy 15 Kenema Le 300,000,000 (Three hundred million Leones) – (€ 81,967) Saudi Arabia Fund USA Consortium • • • Micro credit Training in crop production Marketing of produce
75

Name of Institution Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

Mua woma Rural Women’s Association Rural women in the Kenema district - 2500 None • • •

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

• • • • •

Ministry of Agriculture and food security – Technical advise in agricultural production. Ministry of Development – sources of funding National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone – advocacy, Radio Personal contact Meeting with farmers

Main information needs not satisfied

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management

Why institution selected as key

Funding opportunities Training opportunities for members and management • Underdeveloped communication documentation unit • Inadequate computers • Lack of electricity • Literacy level of members • Inadequate expertise in communicating with rural people A major women’s organization championing the cause of its members to improve their welfare through profitable agricultural activities.

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialisation

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites

Movement for Children and Women in need To empower women and provide educational support for children so that they can actively participate in activities that will benefit them and society. Empowering marginalised women and handicapped children through micro credit and skills training. 13 Freetown Upper Bambara Chiefdom, Kailahun District • Magbema Chiefdom, Kambia Chiefdom Le 71,000,000.00 (Seventy one million Leones) – (€ 19,399) • •

Annual budget

76

Name of Institution Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors

Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated)

Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature) How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Movement for Children and Women in need • Canadian Fund for local initiative through CARE International • Lilian Foundation – Netherlands • DFID • Internally generated funds • Child protection • Agricultural Production • Educational support • Women in need - 200 (war widows, single mothers and the aged ) • Children - 500 (Handicapped, Orphans and street children) None • • • • •

Main information needs not satisfied

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management

Why institution selected as key

CARE-SL : Funding sources Ministry of Development: Ministry of Health: CARE-SL : Funding sources Ministry of Health: Required health interventions in project areas and opportunities for collaboration • Development and funding agencies • Conference and meetings • HIV/AIDs guidance and counselling • Inadequate equipment • Level of literacy of clients • ICT level of clients • No trained document specialist • Space for expansion This organization uses agricultural among other activities to empower marginalised and handicapped women and children. This is a unique role that stands out among all the other involvements of NGOs in the country.

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialisation Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors

National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone Coordinate farmers’ effort to feed the nation on home grown food, satisfy consumers and skilfully manage the environment. Advocacy, Training and coordination 26 Districts, Wards, Chiefdoms all over the country Le 400,000,000.00 (Four hundred million Leones) – (€ 109,290) • Sierra Leone Government • Membership dues • Grants
77

Name of Institution Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications

Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management

Why institution selected as key

National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone • Food Production • Membership drive • Advocacy and lobbying • Sensitization • Government of Sierra Leone • Farmers nationwide • Agro businessmen Members have attended seminars organised and/sponsored by CTA – Information and communication Technology seminar in Accra, Ghana and biotechnology workshop in Freetown Sierra Leone. Currently CTA is facilitating linkage with the national farmers association in Liberia. • Research Institutions: IAR, RRS and Njala University, - training and technology • Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security: Provide grants, technical information • Regional Organizations: ECOWAS, ROPPA: Support attendance at regional meetings and provide information on regional developments • Research institutions: Scientists through publications and annual work programme reviews • Radio • Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security: National Extension coordinator and Director General • Integrated pest management particularly Control of grasshoppers. • Development and funding agencies • Conferences and meetings • Patenting – intellectual property rights • Inadequate equipment • Untrained personnel in communication and documentation • Literacy level of members The umbrella organization for all farmers’ associations in Sierra Leone. It is the official link of farmers to the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security and ultimately to the Government of Sierra Leone.

Name of institution Objective/mission statement

Agricultural Information and Communication Unit (AICU) Coordinate the effective dissemination of agricultural information for the benefit of farmers and the entire nation.
78

Name of institution Field of specialisation Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken

Agricultural Information and Communication Unit (AICU) Training and Extension 18 (Professional 2, Technical 11 and clerical 5) Bo, Makeni and Kenema Le 85,000,000 (Eighty five million Leones) –(€ 23,224) Government of Sierra Leone • • • • • • • • • • Decentralization popularization Sensitization on food security Periodic discussion programmes on radio and TV Farmers: 450,000 farm families Researchers: 150 Students: 2,000 Non governmental organizations: Processors and manufacturers: 200 Spore magazine and publications

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated)

Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management

Why institution selected as key

Research Institutions (IAR, RRS) and Njala University: Provide extension for dissemination • FAO: Provide publications • National Association of farmers of Sierra Leone: Extension documentaries • Research institutions (IAR,RRS) and Njala University • CTA • International research Institutes (IA,WARDA) • FAO • JICA • Training opportunities in communication and documentation • Equipment sourcing • Patenting • Inadequate equipment • Inadequate and not adequately trained personnel • Lack of Internet access This is link o f the Government of Sierra Leone through the Ministry of Agriculture and food Security to the farmers. It also provides feed back to the government and links farmers with research.

79

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement Field of specialisation

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors

Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

Rice Research Station Research and development • Rice improvement • Rice management • Research Extension Liaison • Farmer Training 260 (35, Scientists, 60 Technicians, 165 support staff) Blama, Makeni, Rotifunk Le 2,115,381,551 (€ 577,973) • Government of Sierra Leone • WARDA • IAEA • Sierra Leone Brewery • Rice breeding • Participatory varietal selection • Rice management • Nerica multiplication 450,000 farm families Spore magazine, training courses and publications • • • • • WARDA: Fund projects and collaborative research IRRI: collaborative research International Institute for Plantains and Banana (INIPAB): collaborative research IAEA: Fund projects and collaborative research IAR and Njala University: Staff exchange, sharing of literature, provision of germplasm, and inputs in annual work planning WARDA: Annual reports and bulletins International Institute for Plantains and Banana (INIPAB): Newsletters IAEA: IAR and Njala University: Annual reports, newsletters and briefs. Development and funding opportunities Waste utilization

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

• • •

Main information needs not satisfied

• •

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management

Why institution selected as key

• Inadequate equipment • Inadequate trained personnel • No Internet coverage at main station • Level of literacy and diversity of farmers. One of the two research institutions in the country with mandate to conduct research on the country’s staple food rice.

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Name of institution Objective/mission statement Field of specialisation Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors

School of Agriculture, Njala University Manpower development, research and community development Training, Research and Extension 320 N/A Le 8,000,000,000.00 (Eight billion Leones) – (€ 2,185,792) • Sierra Leone Government • Commercial services • Fees • Research grants • B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degree programmes in various disciplines • Staff development • Access courses • Commercial production of livestock • Secondary School population • Workers in search of higher degrees Spore magazine, training courses and publications IDRC: Research grants Canadian Cross Roads: Research grants University of Illinois: Books FAO: FAO publications IITA, IRRI, WARDA, CIAT, ICRISAT: Annual reports and bulletins • IAR, RRS: Staff exchange, provision of planting materials and supervision of students • Internet • FAO: AGORA, AGRIS • IITA, IRRI, WARDA, CIAT, ICRISAT: Annual reports and bulletins • IAR, RRS: Annual reports and conferences • Patenting • Basic science • Waste utilization • Meetings and conferences • No information management system to facilitate routing of information • No adequate personnel in ICT • No available fund to access broad band connection. The nation’s agriculturists are trained at the school of Agriculture, Njala University (NU). NU therefore plays a significant role in agricultural development in Sierra Leone. • • • • •

Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management

Why institution selected as key

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ANNEX IV. LIST OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED
No. 1 2 3 4 5 Name of Institution Cotton Tree Foundation (CTF) Catholic Relief Services (CRS) Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) Livestock Extension and General Services (LEXIS) Magbema Cashew Farmers Association (MCFA) Mua Woma Rural Women Association Movement for Women and Children in need National Association of Farmers of Sierra Leone Agricultural Information and communication Unit Rice Research Station School of Agriculture, Njala University (NU) Name and designation of person interviewed Dr Osman Bah, Director, 23 Bolling Street , Freetown Mr Oscar Marota, Head of Agricultural Programme, CRS, 29 Kingherman Road, Freetown Mr Moses J. Tucker, Head of Training, Communication and Publicity , IAR, Njala, PMB 540, Freetown Dr Gudus Jalloh, Director, , 26 Main Motor Road, Freetown Mr Hamid A. Kamara, Managing Director, c/o Land and water development Division Building, Tower Hill, PMB 187, Freetown Ms Yata Sama, Coordinator, How for do park, Kenema Ms Victoria Ndomahina, Coordinator, First Floor, old agriculture Building, Tower Hill, Freetown. Mr Santigie Conteh, Public Relations Officer, Second Floor, old agriculture Building, Tower Hill, Freetown. Mr Alusine Sesay, Head of Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, Youyi Building, Brookfields, Freetown. Mr Edward Y. Koroma, Acting Director, RRS, Rokupr, PMB 736, Freetown Alhaji A.N.T. Deen, Chief Librarian, School of Agriculture, Njala University (NU), PMB Freetown.

6 7 8 9

10 11

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ANNEX V. REFERENCES
Government of Sierra Leone. 2005a. Agricultural Sector Review and Agricultural Development Strategy – Vol. 1. 241 pp. Government of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Government of Sierra Leone. 2005b. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper – A National Programme for Food Security, Job Creation and Good Governance (2005-2007). Government of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security (MAFFS). 2003. 2002 Sierra Leone Chiefdom Vulnerability Assessment. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). 2001. Internally Displaced Census, 2001. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). 2002. Internally Displaced Persons Database, 2002 Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). 2004. Witness to Truth: Report of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission Vol. 2. United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR). 2002. Situation as of August 9, 2002 (SLE and LBR refugees and returnees in West and Central Africa)

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