THE MANAGERS OF THE FUTURE AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT Introduction The strategic importance of management to corporate survival has

grown considerably in the recent time. The search for better and more efficient ways of providing goods and services has never been strong. The desire to understand the external world of the organization and learning how best to cope with change in the environment is as challenging now as it ever was. The appreciation of the importance of human skills, ingenuity, and motivation has grown, with the arrival of the Information Age. Management will be viewed as a process that is from activity viewpoint. Management from this perspective, therefore, embraces those activities, which make for effectiveness and efficiency in the process of decision- making. While the notion of management is best used to describe the body of science and theory of knowledge underlying the practice of management, managing relates to a work arrangement in which people not materials or machines are the centrepiece. In effect, by managing, we mean “the task of designing and maintaining an environment conducive to the performance of individuals working in groups to accomplish pre-determined objectives.” The task of management is carried out in the context of an organization. The organizational effectiveness is evaluated in the context of the management overriding need for flexibility in responding to change in its external and internal environment, in order to meet the competing demands of all its various stakeholders- customers, employees, shareholders, etc. Peters (1988) noted that “ five areas of management constitute the essence of proactive performance in our chaotic world : I. II. III. IV. An obsession with responsiveness to customers. Constant innovation in all areas of the organization. Partnership – the wholesale participation of and gain sharing with all people connected with the organization. Leadership that loves change (instead of fighting it ) and instills and shares an inspiring vision.

Control by means of simple support systems aimed at measuring the “right stuff for today’s environment. Management is no longer seen as the controlling factor in the workplace. Instead it is seen as a function of organizations. Its Task is to enable the organisation’s purposes to be defined and fulfilled by adapting to change and maintaining a workable balance between the various , and frequently conflicting , pressures at work in the organization. Handy (1993), summed up the new relationship very neatly. In a discussion on the role of the manger, he suggested that the key variables a manager has to grapple with are: V. I. People II. Work and Structures III. Systems and Procedures These variables cannot be dealt with in isolation but within the constraints of an environment in which Handy saw three crucial components: I. The goals of the organization II. The technology available III. The culture of the organization (its values, beliefs etc). The six factors highlighted above interact with each other, and change in one of them will inevitably lead to change in one or more others. To manage successfully is to balance these factors in a way that meets the needs of the organization at a particular period in time. Management is therefore, not an activity that exists in it’s own right. It is rather a description of a variety of activities carried out by those members of organizations whose role is that of a “manager”. The manager in this context is someone who either has formal responsibility for the work of one or more persons in the organization, or who is accountable for specialist advisory duties in support of key management activities. These activities have generally been grouped in terms of planning, organizing, motivating and controlling activities. These groupings, describe activities, which indicate broadly what managers do in practice. The groupings of management activities can be summarized thus: I. Planning: deciding the goals and objectives of the organization and mapping strategies on how to accomplish them. II. Organizing : determining activities and allocating responsibilities for the achievement of plans; coordinating activities and responsibilities into an appropriate structure. III. Motivating: accomplishing the social and psychological needs of employees in the fulfillment of organizational goals and objectives. IV. Controlling: monitoring and evaluating activities and providing corrective mechanisms. The POMC approach is a comprehensive description of the key aspects of the work of managers in practice. The future managers will be more radical and aggressive in these activities in order to ensure the future of their organizations in the “Darwinian Market Place.” The game plan now is change or extinct.

THE NEW ECONOMY AND MANAGEMENT Businesses are operating in a globalised economy, things are moving at a nanosecond pace; our markets are characterized by hyper- competition, information technology is challenging every business and business must adapt to the empowered consumer. The new economy, in contrast, is based on the Digital Revolution and the management of information. Kotler(2003). In managing the new economy, the managers must be all out to meet customers’ needs economically and conveniently and with effective communication. The market place is changing radically because of the new economy brought about by major societal forces such as technological advances, globalization, and deregulation. These major forces have changed the landscape and frontier of management. It is now and will continue to be “business unusual.” The future managers are rethinking their strategies, concepts, and tools in tune with the new economic order and the challenges of the market place. The future managers should understand clearly that management, will increasingly have to be based on the assumption that neither technology nor end-use is a foundation for. They are invitations. The foundations have to be customer values and customer decisions on the distribution of their disposable income. It is with those that management policy and management strategy, increasingly will have to start. Drucker(2002). The principal factors involved in these are: I. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology, which has revolutionalised many of the processes by which goods and services are made available to customers. II. The increased ability of firms to compete with each other due to the benefits of new technology and a sufficiency of trained labour. III. The entry into world markets of new low- cost manufacturing firms from Asian Countries who are successfully challenging established Western enterprises. IV. The increased expectations of customers for the quality and variety of consumer goods and personal services. V. The massive improvements in world-wide communication systems, leading to better and more timely information prior to decision-making for buyers, sellers and middlemen/agents. VI. The greater inter- connected of the world’s people due to increased trade and cultural contact (eg via tourism) and by growth in air travel and transportation. The new economy would further usher in a highly turbulent business environment, which will make change not only frequent but more complex too. This will raise fundamental management issues, which the managers would have to grapple with, if they still want to

be relevant. The following are the key management issues to be addressed by the managers, as noted by Cole (1996): I. The importance of establishing a vision for the organization. II. The need to understand the external environment- customers, competitors, suppliers, technological, economic and political trends etc. III. The clarification of organizational purpose and goals. IV. The development of shared values in the organization ( ie culture). V. The construction of organization structures that permit flexibility of action, but with relative stability of core systems. VI. The development of multi- skilled flexibly deployed employees with appropriate knowledge, skills, and competence. VII. The optimization of employee contribution through job challenge and empowerment. VIII. The improvement of internal communication and decision-making channels. IX. The application of new technology to internal communication systems and office procedures as well as to production processes. X. The use of new technology to communicate more effectively with markets and individual customers. XI. The management of change in and about the organization. XII. The development of competitive advantage through customer satisfaction. XIII. The development of standards of excellence throughout the organization. XIV. The development of a global strategy in the light of international trade. These key management issues have placed managers and their organizations on the front burner, that ginger them to be more aggressive to change. To be proactive and not to react. In addition, to adapt or die- this is the strategic approach to organizational change, where the entire business architecture is restructured. It is therefore a pointer that the most important lever point and business enhancement factor any organization, large or small has available to it in today’s competitive environment to dramatically change for the better the course of events, the size of their growth, the amount of profit, revenue and competitive supremacy they achieve is to change the strategy they follow. Strategy in this context is the overarching, guiding force that the whole business is constantly moving through and to. It’s the definition not just of your business model or your purpose is trying to do and why and what it’s supposed to look like at the end. It is the choices you make about how to deploy your resources, and the choices you make about tactics-which tactics to select, and how you use them to achieve your overriding end. Abraham and Lemberg (2003). The starting point is a vision. From an operational standpoint, a vision is the decision you make about how you want your business to be in the future. And how you achieve that vision is your strategy.

SCANNING THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Change is the very essence of the environment in which a business enterprise operates. The business environment will continue to witness rapid and tremendous changes. In fact, the environment has completely reshaped the landscape of business all over the world, the less sighted companies operating in the same environment their fortunes and in the cases were faced with virtual extinction as a result of their in ability to anticipate and adapt operations to changes brought about by the latent forces at work in the society. The less fortunate companies hang precariously between survival and liquidation badly battered by the assault of change, which they failed to anticipate, and hence were unprepared. Achumba (1985). Thus, the less fortune companies are managed by change, the dynamic companies manage change, and a few outstanding companies create change itself. Yet these forces which continually modify the whole of the environmental fabric within which every business enterprise operates will become more accentuated in the years ahead, producing enormous threats for inward looking enterprises but manifold opportunities for dynamic enterprises. No enterprise, however big, can continue to hold a place of leadership unless it’s management recognizes that modern business operates in a world of galloping changes which create new problems, risks, opportunities and threats for which they have to mobilize the enterprise’s resources before such changes make their impacts felt. To do this successfully requires that the managers particularly the Chief Executives, know where their organization is going and how the organization will get there. This in turn requires a proper definition of the company’s business which will enable it to continually adapt operations to the realities of the market place, the very corner stone of survival and growth. The future managers and their organizations must be conscious of the operational environment. However, “there is need to grasp and become aware of our own premises and values, analyse the strengths and weaknesses of our paradigm in order to initiate feasible and durable solution.” What then are the different types of environment that hinder or enhance the performance of the manager? I. social, political and cultural environment

The social environment is made up of the attitudes, desires, expectation, degree of intelligence and education of people in a given group or society. The political system is a broad term, but covering essentially the forms and constitution by which a nation is governed. It consists of an interacting set of laws and regulations, government agencies and pressure groups that influence and constrain or enhance the conduct of various organization and individuals in the society.

Cultural environment embraces whatsoever that shapes people’s basic beliefs, values and norms. People absorb almost unconsciously, a world- view that defines their relationship to themselves, others institutions, society at large, nature and the cosmos. II. Government Government environment consists of delineation of local and state government boundaries, and stabilities of government policies at various levels, government personnel, as well as government itself. III. Technological and Natural Resources Technology has drastically modified and reshaped human destiny especially since the beginning of the 20th century. It has contributed to the increasing progress in the medical fields, agriculture, industrial production, transport, and communication. It has also impacted negatively on the physical environment Management could not, therefore be indifferent to events occurring in the technological environment which include the accelerating pace of technological change, unlimited innovational opportunities, high research and development budgeting and regulation of technological change. The natural resources environment is closely related to technological environment and is influenced by the availability of certain raw materials, cost of energy situation, level of pollution and government intervention in natural resource exploitation and management. IV. International Environment. Certain things place at any point around the globe could often impact on organizational performance in another part. These things may be as varied as social, political and economic including wars, progress in global democratization, intense competition in the world market for exportable, regulations of international trade through the world trade organization, extent of regional economic integration. Therefore, international development may make or mar organizational plans and expectations. It behooves managers\entrepreneurs, therefore, to be aware of the international environment in a world that is increasingly becoming a global village. V. Population This environment refers to population growth, compendium of birth rate and death rate, varying age structures, features of family and non- family households, geographical shifts in population, the level of education of the populace, male and female categorization. VI. Economic Environment

This environment is the most common and consists of a set of variables including real income measured in terms of the gross domestic product, inflationary pressure, saving and credit availability, domestic and external public debt patterns , exchange rate of the national currency, consumer expenditure patterns, monetary and fiscal policies, as well as socio- economic infrastructure. Consequently, management and leadership for optimum results would entail systematic scanning of the environment, identification of the unfolding strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to the organization and making strategic adaptation to achieve desired goals and objectives.

THE FUTURE MANAGERS Organizations are presently passing through an upheaval, which has being described as the “Information Age” That is all institutions and all values are undergoing a major transformation. Consequently, business managers need to be strategic in outlook. They need to have a vision of the larger world around them, and some understanding of their role in it. Perhaps it is too much to claim that we are in an “axial age” of the same dimensions; but it is certainty true that the old order changeth and no man knows “what great best slouches towards Bethlehem to be born.” The dissolution of the old world order, the shifts of economic power, the waning of the gods and ideologies, the deep changes in law, custom and public expectation at home and abroad –all these events press in upon us. In addition, they have their practical consequences for business managers. Today’s managers are not prepared; they are cut napping by the environmental and societal changes. They are surprised by events and forces that escaped their attention until it becomes too late and generate into crises. Managers, today face daily the problem of making strategy for a world that is twenty years away. Where shall out resources be allocated? What technologies shall we invest in? What markets? What countries? How shall we structure our organizations? How shall we train and develop our workforce? These questions must be faced at every level of the organization where general or even functional management is involved, for no business and no function is unaffected by the changes of this information age. Managers of the future will also have to be broader persons intellectually. It is not enough to know how to make more widgets at less cost. The modern business organizations operating in a complex environment. To understand

the environment and fulfils the responsibilities of stewardship that are expected of managers of today, something more than technical competence is required. Managers of the future will have to feel comfortable in the world of ideas-well- read, articulate, and capable of relating business responsibilities to the wider stream of human experience. The managers of the future should have the capacity and capability to think strategically about the business. Management is still more of an art than a science, but the managers who fly by the seat of the pants will find themselves outclassed. Much that passes for long-range planning in business today is little more than a projection of experience, with perhaps a soupcon of wish-full fulfillment. Real change management involves a careful, analytical examination of all the major factors that enter into the business process-and the external factors and probably of greater importance than the traditional internal factors. Social obstacles, political constraints, and competitive counter pressures must be anticipated. Issues must be surfaced. Alternative futures must be imaginatively constructed. Alternative plans must be prepared to match the contingencies. Moreover, hard choices must be must be made, because investments made today will determine the character of the enterprise for years to come. It almost goes without saying that managers of the future will have to be much more sensitive to their social responsibilities. Business is rightly expected to act not only in the shareholders’ interests, but also in the interests of the entire stakeholders. Today’s managers may have found it hard to take such matters seriously, but future managers must take into account public expectations, social and political awareness and moral obligations that quickly become law if they are ignored. The future managers must be more open, more forthcoming, more including managing information. They must be able to swim as comfortably in the societal waters as their predecessors swam in the waters of technology and finance. A corollary of this is that managers of the future will of necessity have much greater political sophistication. Like it or not, government is becoming an ever more pervasive factor in economic life. It is no exaggeration to say that for most managers, the main problems-the main obstacles to achieving their business objectives-are external to the organization, and are determined in the arena of public policy. Therefore, business managers are obliged to become students of public affairs. They must learn how to hold their own in public debate, and know their way around in government. The managers of the future will have to be more global-minded. Presently, China and India are the emerging “superpower” in business; the Western powers are already jittering and making counter moves to checkmate them. We are witnessing the emergence of an interdependent world economy. Preparing tomorrow’s managers to think in global terms is not only a challenge to teaching, but even more a challenge to academic research. Business management today is in need of thoughtful, analytical, and creative academic research to guide its efforts in adapting to a world economy whose

shape is at present dimly seen. Adaptation too late, or failure to adapt at all because of lack of vision, could be fatal to business organizations in a world in which planned economics and government are becoming more forces to curtail. On the other hand, timely warning of trends and proposal of new patterns of organization, investment and, management could enable business organizations to adapt in time not only to survive, but also to help build a new social and economic architecture structured around the needs and liberties of the whole of humankind. Managers of the future will need intellectual breadth, strategic capability, global mindedness and, above all, the capacity to keep their poise amid bewildering change. They have to be highly creative and innovate in order to remain in business. In summary, the characteristics of the future managers, who are change agents are as follow: --- Curious --- Seek challenges --- Enjoy challenges --- Optimistic --- Able to suspend judgments --- Comfortable with imagination --- Sees problems as opportunities --- Sees problems as interesting --- Problems are emotionally acceptable --- Challenge assumptions --- Doesn’t give up easily: perseveres, work hard. The future managers should know that the falling trade barriers and the resulting access to new markets demand a global out look. Business organizations face competition from an expanding number of players. Traditional organization structures often have built – in problems that make them inflexible and slow to respond- deadly sins in the fast- paced global economy. Competitive organizations are necessarily flatter, flexible, responsive, and dynamic. They put decisions in the hands of the employees dealing with their customers, and they learn from their mistakes. They are obsessed with service and improvement. Any practical approach to change acknowledges the realities of the workplace and the abilities and attitudes of the people who work there. Understand that it is the individuals in your workforce who will be driving the change, and that leadership is about navigation. It in not about who is at the wheel, who gets a window seat or who owns the car. CHANGE MANAGEMENT Change typically results as a reaction to specific problems or opportunities the organization is facing based on internal or external stimuli. While the notion of “becoming more competitive” or “becoming closer to the customers” or “becoming more efficient” can be the motivation to change, at some point these goals must be transformed

into the specific impacts on processes, systems, organizational structure or job roles. This is the process of defining “the change.” Change Management is the process, tools and techniques to manage the people- side of change to achieve the required business outcome. Change management incorporates the organizational tools that can be utilized to help individuals make successful personal transitions resulting in the adoption and realization of change. Ultimately, the goal of change is to improve organization by altering how work is done. Change Management supports moving an organization from a current state (how things are done today), through a transition state to a desired future state(the new processes, systems, organization structures or job roles defined by “ the change”).Change Management focuses on the people impacted by the change. Effective change management requires the understanding of various aspects of implications of change and then to set all the actions that need to take place to implement change. Understanding the implications of change is of high importance as an old aphorism says… ”…the surgery was completely successful but unfortunately The Patient died.” The change will always be the surgery, whether wanted or unwanted, but the purpose of change is to ensure the long survival of the organization. The future managers must have change management in their “management kit.” They must study change and its various manifestations to successfully deal with it and be ahead of it or else we may be swept by the tidal, tectonic changes sweeping every nation, every industry, and every organization. The linearity that marked the past will no longer apply to the futures. Globalization and the rise of new zones of intense economic and consumer activities will breed the need for organizations that are big enough to capitalize on different opportunities but small enough to be nimble in response to local requirements. According to Kotler,Al Ries and Trout(1999) that really translates into a multitude of new niche markets of consumers, whose behaviour is largely unknown. Today’s organizations have their tails on fire. We are now operating in a “Darwinian market place” where “the law of the jungle” prevails. We are into a dog-eat-dog game, where the game plan is the survival of the fittest. To be relevant in tomorrow market, the management and the organization should abandon yesterday. They should immediately free resources from being committed to maintaining what no longer contributes to performance, and no longer produces results. In fact, it is not possible to create tomorrow unless one first slough off yesterday. To maintain yesterday is always difficult and extremely time-consuming. To maintain yesterday therefore always commits the organization’s scarcest and most valuable resources-and above all, its ablest people-to non-results. Yet to do anything different- let alone to innovate- always runs into unexpected difficulties. It therefore always demands leadership by people of high and proven ability. In addition, this people are committed to maintaining yesterday, they are simply not available to create tomorrow. Management must create tomorrow through

change management to maintain the organization as a “going concern.” In addition, to continuous improvements in the operations of the organization and its relevance in the market place. They lead to new processes. They lead to innovation. They lead to new businesses. Eventually continuous improvements lead to fundamental change- effective change management. The big challenge in creating tomorrow is not predicting tomorrow. There is not a single future out their waiting to happen. The challenge is not to predict which of those potential futures will actually materialize. Instead, the goal is to try and imagine a future that is plausible. There are some boundary conditions that management and the organization must understand, like what is going to happen to lifestyles, technology, regulation, competition etc. Those are the edges of the canvass, and what management paint on the canvass is a product of their own imagination. The management and the organization must harness the discontinuities- the things that are driving change. Change is about the only constant in today’s highly competitive business environment. The old organizational structures can no longer compete in this NEW ERA OF BUSINESS. Tomorrow’s organizations must be flatter, more flexible, highly responsive, empowering, dynamic entities if they wish to prosper. THE RULES FOR AN EFFECTIVE CHANGE MANAGEMENT One thing you will notice in his book, 29 Leadership Secrets from Jack Welch- Former CEO OF General Electric, an effective change manager. He is always saying things like: “These were our real secrets.” Jack Welch outlined the following rules as a success factor in building an effective change management: I. The mindset of yesterday’s manager – accepting compromise, keeping things tidy – bred complacency. Tomorrow’s leaders must raise issues, debate them, and resolve them. They must rally around a vision of what a business can become. Change, before it is too late. Accept Change. Business Leaders who treat change like the enemy will fail at their jobs. Change is the one constant, and successful business leaders must be able to read the ever-changing business environment. Begin with a vision. Nothing changes without a clear vision of where change is supposed to lead. The boldest vision may be the best vision. Let your employees know that change never ends. Teach your colleagues to see change as an opportunity- a challenge that can be met through handwork and smart. Be ready to rewrite your agenda. Welch always encourages his managers and employees to be prepared to re-examine their agenda and to make changes when necessary. Emphasize vision, not supervision. Managing less let managers think big thoughts and come up with new ideas to benefit the business.






Managers lead with vision. Managers must persuade others to implement through the force of vision. VIII. Provide an atmosphere, a climate, a chance, a meritocracy, where people can have the resources to grow, the educational tools are available, they cad expand their horizons, their vision of life. That is what companies ought to provide. IX. Have, or have the capacity to develop, global brains and global sensitivity, and be comfortable building diverse global teams. Stimulate and relish change; do not be frightened or paralyzed by it. See change as opportunity, not just a threat. X. Demonstrate, always with infectious enthusiasms for the customers, the 4-E’s of GE leadership: the Personal Energy to welcome and deal with the speed of change, the ability to create an atmosphere that Energizes other, the Edge to make difficult decisions, and the ability to consistently Execute. XI. Create values that are consistent with the organization vision. Values should reflect the vision, culture, and goals of the organization. Make sure there is room to maneuver. Core values should be constant, but strategies may need to change with the competitive environment. XII. Make searching for new ideas a priority of every employee. In today’s competitive environment, organizations cannot afford to leave anyone out. Reward employees for sharing knowledge. Find a way to reward managers and employees for sharing ideas and putting best practices to work at every level. XIII. Nourish dignity. The most important thing a leader does- treasure and nourish the voice and dignity of everyone. XIV. Get the most out of your employees. Each employee should be “Stretched” to the maximum. Set stretch goals and then push to exceed them. If people do not reach those goals. Fine – as long as they have truly tried to stretch. Push for the impossible. Instill in your employees the idea that they should go beyond ordinary goals. XV. Tackle quality head-on. Do not rely on other company initiatives or strategies to tackle the problem of quality to make sure that your products are your customers’ only actual value choice. Quality can be just as important as price, features and so no. Welch (2003) summed up thus: We want to be more than that. We want to change the competitive landscape by being not just better than our competitors are but by taking quality to a completely new level. We want to make our quality so special, so valuable to our customers, so important to their success, that our products become their only real value choice. There is no company in the world that has ever been better positioned to undertake an initiative as massive and transforming as this one. Every cultural change we have made over the past couple of decades positions us to take on this exciting and rewarding challenge.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The world around us has transformed like never before. We are living in a very confused time, because the forces that gave structure and shape to our lives are disappearing. It has now become a worn out cliché to talk about “change” and its resultant effects in organizations- “The old order changeth, yielding place to the new order.” It is the “Information Age,” Today business world is operating in a highly turbulent environment, which makes change not only frequent but more complex too. However, it is certain, that future managers will do things that are even more different from what today’s managers do. And they will do them quite differently to reshape their organization and to cut the fudge. The future managers should embrace the inevitability of change and comprehend the incomprehensible. Change is the only constant factor in the management equation. Cardinal Newman noted “to live is to change, to live a long life is to change many times,” There are examples of organizations in different parts of the world who made fortunes by capitalizing on opportunities engendered by change. Drucker(1975) identified three types of organizations. Those that make things happen, those that watch things happen and those that wonder what happened. Achumba (1985) amplified Drucker thus: less sighted organizations are managed by change, the dynamic ones manage change, and the outstanding ones create change. However, the basic stages in an effective change management include defining the current state of the organization, determing what has to be done and creating a coherent plan for the change, deciding how to do it and obtain results, monitor achievement and success and expect new development. The future managers should design suitable framework for change management by evolving techniques, which could assist in assimilating and adapting to changes. The future managers as change agents should not only be customer driven, they must be market driven. Every business must cut the fudge and rethink strategies to change policies and practices, bringing the organization’s behaviour into line with the new realities of its environment, with new core competencies to be developed and acquired. To be in touch with the market and environment, the future managers have to radically change the theory of their business. They have to shift the” organization’s centre of gravity.” However, change if properly managed, may result in fortunes. Otherwise, it may lead to missed opportunities and frustrations. One who ignores change does so at its own peril. Nevertheless, for many the peril would come sooner than rather than later. Hence, what is needed is a change management, balancing continuous on going change at one level and preparing for future changes and challenges at another level. Effective management of change then requires implementation. This is the stage where broad visions are converted to strategies and detailed plan, goals are defined and responsibilities are assigned. The systems and processes of an organization must revolved around the strategy. Strategy is what defines the structure, processes, hierarchy, and people in the

organization. Effective change management can result in a change being converted to excellent opportunity else, change can be a threat to disaster. The future managers should be highly proactive and position themselves as “Agents of Change.” They should be nurtured to become mentally resourceful, intellectually reinforced, enterprisingly self-dependent, futuristically visionary and responsibilitysensitive to the changes demanded for the leadership role. In accordance with the paradigm shift, they would mature to the needed departure from dogmatism to dynamism, knowledge to empowerment, and from form to skill by becoming intelligently conscious of their environment and knowing how to maximize their existence and potentials through unparallel ingenuity, creativity, and innovation. Effective change management is quite consistent with the spirit and letters of the new economy and should therefore facilities greater efficiency in the use of and allocation of resources and if effectively entrenched, the managers would be will prepared and equipped to delight the customer and remain competitive in the new economy.

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