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WOULD YOU RATHER BE AN ENTREPRENEUR “Entrepreneurs are the Driving Force of any country’s economy. They represent the Wealth of a nation and its potential to create employment.”
INTRODUCTION The events of the last three decades have been characterized by some unprecedented uncertainty that has unusual threats as well as opportunities in the socio-economic, political, technological and competitive environments of business, which has drastically transformed the frontier and landscape of the African entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship Retrenchments, Retirements, Right sizing, Restructure, Recapitalization and Re-engineering are now common features in management of both public and private enterprises. The unemployment situation in Africa and globally has gotten to a crisis level. As the students march-into the campuses to take their place as undergraduates, we should not pretend that all is well. You should be aware that the labor market is saturated and the only option open to you is to create your own job by being an entrepreneur. The starting point is NOW. As you sojourn.
The fundamental philosophy guiding the education you are about to acquire centers around “developing the man/woman that will develop his /her society. The concept is designed to inculcate into you the intelligent and intellectual consciousness of your environment to enable you maximizes your existence and potentials. It is an adaptable education that will prepare you for self-employment. The education you are acquiring now is therefore predicated on the philosophy of creating jobs, i.e. turning you from being job seekers to being your own bosses. The solution to unemployment is Entrepreneurship. But it has to be instilled into you NOW, to reactive, reinvigorate and re-orientate your individual skills, thereby converting these skills to entrepreneurial skills and also inculcating entrepreneurial habits and culture capable of transforming you into a “complete entrepreneur” who can translate his/her vision into a mission, from dogmatism to dynamism in the affairs of men/women revolving around entrepreneurialism: A departure from knowledge to empowerment A departure from a job seeker to a job provider A departure from dream to reality A departure from dependent to independent The skills and knowledge you acquiring now are built on the philosophical platform of being mentally resourceful, intellectually independent, futuristically visionary and responsibility – sensitivity to the changes demanded for the leadership role and the emerging challenges in the market place. ENTREPRENEURSHIP Entrepreneurship is the term used broadly in connection with the innovative and creative modern industrial business leaders. It is being defined by reference to the functions of an entrepreneur as the man who perceived
business opportunities and takes advantage of the scarce resources to use them profitably. It is he/she alone who directs the human and material resources in his business objective. To be an entrepreneur, one has to possess some psychological traits which are either latent and could be aroused through training or manifest which training could be built upon. Thus to qualify as an entrepreneur, it is not sufficient to be a businessman just managing an enterprise. The entrepreneur has to be an originator of profitable business ideas. The entrepreneur must possess the ability to gain command of and combine resources in a new way that will be profitable. He must be prepared to risk personal energy and financial resources to achieve unpredictable results. The practice of entrepreneurship should, be well rooted in the individual, if he/she wants to become an entrepreneur. An individual who succeeded in selling refrigerators to the Eskimos to prevent food from freezing would be an “innovator” quite as much as if he/she had developed brand-new processes or invented a new product. To sell to the Eskimos a refrigerator to keep food cold is finding a new market; to sell a refrigerator to keep food from getting too cold is actually creating a new product. Technologically, there is, of course, only the same old product, but economically there is innovation. Innovation goes right through all phases of business. It may be innovation in design, in product, or in marketing techniques. It may be innovation in managing organizations or in management methods. All these can only be achieved through entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship instills the enterprise culture into the individuals. Enterprise here is defined as resourcefulness, initiative, drive, imagination, enthusiasm, zest, dash, ambition, energy, vitality, boldness, daring, audacity, courage, get up and go.
Entrepreneurship, therefore, encompasses all the productive functions that are not rewarded immediately by regular wages, interest and rent and nonroutine human labour. It is also not investing capital funds alone. It is actually, the functions of seeking investment, production opportunity, organizing an enterprise to undertake new production process, raising capital, hiring labour, allocating resources, and creating new enterprises.
THE ENTREPRENEUR The entrepreneur is often defined as one who starts his own new and small business. Entrepreneurs are action oriented, highly motivated individual who take risks to achieve goals. Meredith, Nelson, and Neck (1991).
Entrepreneurs have been described as people who have the ability to see and evaluate business opportunities, gather the necessary resources to take advantage of them and initiate appropriate action to ensure success. He/She is that man/woman who sees and dreams things that never were and says “why not?” An entrepreneur is that person who is able to actualize his/her innate potentials and develop a character that is not dependent but independent. He/She is that person who undertakes the voyage of creating value by pulling together a unique package of resources to exploit an opportunity. He/She has the capacity and capability to build something from practically nothing initiating, daring, doing, achieving, and building an enterprise. They genuinely believe that they have something new to offer, either a product or a service. To them, life will remain a fantasy unless their dreams are actualized. Entrepreneurs can instill highly contagious They convey a sense of purpose and
enthusiasms in an enterprise.
determination and by so doing, convince others they are where the action is. Whatever it is – seductiveness, competitiveness, or charisma –entrepreneurs
knew how to lead an enterprise and give it momentum. The entrepreneur demonstrates a unique combination of energy, originality, and shrewdness. He/She is the main driving force in the enterprise, a master of motivation, and knows how to get the best out of people. Manfred (1997). Most importantly, entrepreneurs are the driving force of any nation; they are value- adders and represent the wealth of a nation and its potentials to generate employment. The Entrepreneur therefore includes any person who establishes and manages a business enterprise. This is the man or woman who owns a restaurant, fashion centre, boutique, bakery, tailoring outfit, beauty centre, barbering saloon, bookshop, home catering, business centre, shoemaker, car washing centre. Others are photographing, dry cleaning, video centre, telecentre, wholesale trade, coffee and teashop, hotel, producers of yortgurt, fruit juice, bottled and table water, nails, cellophane papers, etc are all entrepreneurs in the contents of this paper. They are all businesses and each has a unique contribution to make in the development of the economy.
THE CHARACTERISTICS AND TRAITS OF ENTREPRENEURS The following list of characteristics and traits provided a working profile of entrepreneurs. CHARACTER i. Self-confidence
ii. Task-result oriented
confidence, independent individually, optimism need for achievement, profit-oriented, persistence, perseverance, determination, hardworking, drive, energy initiative
Risk-taking ability, likes challenge
Leadership behaviour, gets along well with responsive to suggestions and criticisms
Innovative, creative, flexible (Openness of mind)resourceful, versatile, knowledgeable
(This list was prepared at a workshop on Entrepreneur conducted at the EastWest Centre, Honolulu, U.S.A. in 1997.
GOAL SETTING The decision is very important but the implementation is very critical. It is not the destination, but the steps toward the destination. “Where do I begin with goal setting? Goal setting is the most important foundation, a successful entrepreneur should lay. The goals will in-turn provides the required force to power success. A man is a product of his goal. Your goals should be simple, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bound. A goal is a dream with deadline. THE PROCESS OF FORMULATING GOALS 1) DREAMS/ VISION: Dreams are mental imagination of what has happened or will happen. As it relates to goal setting business, it means what happen. Dream is a function of the mind. If you have a likely to develop the right attitude and have the dream good dreams are people who set attract money and fame. Do not limit
you want to see pure mind, you are
right dream. People who
quality goals. Such people seem to
yourself by your dreams, if you dream
little but if dream big you will
set good and quality goals and achieve great things. 2) VALUES: Values here refer to ideas and belief. Wrong values produce wrong or conflicting goals and action while right values produces right goals and maximum action. Wrong values can be changed through positive living and constant producing, attention and affirmation. Since values are products of the mind, and the mind is the source of dreams and dreams lead to goals, then you must have the right values. If you have set of right values, reaching your goals should produce excitement and a sense of accomplishment. But if you have wrong values, even if you managed to reach you goals and become successful business wise, you cannot escape from the feeling of emptiness and frustration in your sober moments. However, you do not need to sacrifice achievement for values. So cultivate the right kind of value. 3) STRATEGIES: Strategies refer to the body of knowledge and tools you Strategies require full
will use to propel yourself towards your goal.
information. Sometimes, some strategies will require you to be trained in a new skill or be retrained in an already acquired skill. 4) PLANNING AND CONTROL: Goals can be attained, where there are
effective planning and control. Every action and in action are rewarded. To plan and to be in control is to choose to change a particular situation by creating a dynamic strategy to take you to your expected and given minimum resources with maximum satisfaction. Do not leave your goals out of control. The differences between those who accomplish their dreams and those who only dream of accomplishing them is planning and control.
5) DOCUMENTATION: Goals should be stated in writing. It should be written. The art of putting down a goal on paper is a great step towards achieving them. The only way to keep track of a flying thought, aspirations, and inspiration-goals is by writing them down immediately. The moment an idea is written down, it becomes a plan of action. You can always refer back to it; see whether you are on course or off course. VENTURE IDENTIFICATION Anyone who wants to become an entrepreneur, it is important to have An understanding of the kind of needs he wants to meet and the resources available to him. You have to Generate Venture Ideas and convert these ideas into a real venture for implementation to realize your goals. The first step, therefore, towards being an entrepreneur is venture identification or generation. I have identified a lot of Ventures that you might undertake which require little or no start up capital. See Okpara (2000) Entrepreneurship text and cases pp 373-378. The list is however not exhaustive. I sincere appeal to you and your inner-self to start thinking now and let’s get started, no matter how small the venture to bring out the entrepreneurial ability in you. PREPARING A BUSINESS PLAN The take-off in becoming an entrepreneur is the discovery of viable venture ideas and subsequently committing the idea into ventures. However, many ventures fail because they were launched on a very weak foundation devoid of a business plan. To minimize venture mortality rate, it is absolutely necessary for potential entrepreneurs to prepare a detailed business plan to assess the feasibility, desirability and viability of the venture. The business plan,
therefore, aids in taking a decision. Deciding whether to accept or modify or reject the project in the light of its evaluated merits and demerits. A business plan is a written document prepared by the entrepreneur, describing the goals and objectives of the venture along with the steps necessary to achieve those goals. The plan must be flexible, as forecasts and objectives change as new bits of information and better experience emerge. The main content of a business plan are summarized thus: a. Management b. Manpower requirement c. Product or service d. Market and marketing e. Operational details f. Production process g. Financial analysis h. Profitability analysis i. Evaluation of the venture. The plan should be as brief and concise as possible giving all the necessary information without boring a potential investor. Figures and data must not be confusing. SOURCES OF FINANCE
In the course of my job, I have asked a lot of people this question – why haven’t you started a venture of your own? Their immediate answer is: I have no CAPITAL. That is to say, he/she has no money to fiancé his or her venture. But I tell you, what people actually lack is the venture idea, i.e. what to do with the available finance. If you give some people fifty thousand naira to start a venture of their choice now, a lot of them may loose their sleep for the next one month, rolling from one side of the bed to the other, making unnecessary consultations, thinking of what to do with the money. Therefore, a well-
conceived venture is halfway financed. I advise you get to know what viable venture you will start and behold, the money is just waiting for you. We strongly believe that the problem most times is not lack of capital but lack of ideas. To finance a venture idea, the first principle of investment should be applied. That is never to borrow money to start a business. If you don’t borrow, you will take charge of your business from the start. Never mind to start small, and thereafter, seek opportunities for a growth and expansion. Our advise is “ Think Big, Start Small.” To borrow at the onset is to negate God’s plan for your life not to be a borrower. We borrow at times because we want the easy way out. We don’t want to start from nothing to something. Dare to start on your capital and watch your business grow to millions of Naira. My friends, all you need is the idea and belief in yourself that you can make it and you will make it. The following are some specific ways you can generate part or all the finance you need to start your business. 1. Personal Savings 2. Selling shares to friends 3. Selling off equity holding in companies
4. Doing odd jobs Odd jobs often provide a humble start. In order words, you may have to do some jobs, for which you are not trained or which may be beneath your status. If you can raise minimum capital from this kind of job, then you can move into your desired business. I tell you, God will not despite the days of your small beginning. Try it, it is more honorable than borrowing or beggaring from friends or relatives. It is dignifying. These are people who through odd jobs, have met rich people who because of their diligence at such odd jobs, rendered assistance to them. 5. Suppliers’ credit 6. Equipment leasing 7. Family support 8. Friends support 9. Government financial assistance 10. Borrowing. Borrowing should be the last option, we do not believe in borrowing as a good way of starting business. However, we recognize that is one of the means of raising capital to finance business.-start ups. Be warned. Make sure that you understand carefully the terms of borrowing to be contracted. Ensure that as much as possible, the terms are favourable to you. Many ventures collapse at the point of borrowing the fund. Consider the terms of borrowing carefully before you go-ahead to borrow. friends, fiancé companies, banks, etc. Sources of borrowing include relatives,
ENTREPRENEURIAL PHILOSOPHY “The biggest asset to sustaining entrepreneurial ability is a positive attitude. In addition, determination, experience, persistence, and just plain handwork are essential to being a successful entrepreneur” (Meredith, Nelson and Neck, 1991). Success or failure as an entrepreneur depends on your willingness to accept responsibility for your own work. You must learn a great deal about yourself if you intend to pursue goals which are compatible with what you most want in life. Your power comes from your own actions rather than the actions of others. Even though the risk of failure is always present, entrepreneurs take risk by assuming responsibility for their actions. Failure must be accepted as a learning process- as a stepping-stone and not a stumbling stone. Some
entrepreneurs succeed only after experiencing many failures. Learning from experiences will help to channel your action to obtain more positive results and success will result from persistent efforts. Drucker (1978) maintains, “The better a man is, the more mistakes he will make for the more new things he will learn. I would never promote a man into a top level job who has not made mistakes and big ones at that. Otherwise, he is sure to be mediocre. Worse still, not having made mistakes, he will not have learned how to spot them early and how to correct them.” Remember Abraham Lincoln, one of the greatest Presidents that ever ruled the United States of America. Take a look at his number of failures, yet he
emerged as a shining star at the end. Chief Obafemi Awolowo, reminded us that the making of a great man is not in his not falling, but in raising each time he falls. We should however not plan for our failure.
Pursue goals related to your skills and abilities- Accept yourself as you are and try to emphasis your strengths and play down your weaknesses. If you pursue these goals honestly and aggressively, you are likely to achieve positive results. Being goal oriented will bring out your best qualities. Engage in activities, which are important to you and which you do best and find joy in doing. Most people do not recognize the broad scope they have for determining their actions. Achieving perfection is an ideal in attaining a goal but it is a realistic objective for most entrepreneurs. Acceptable results are more important than perfect results. Trying to achieving perfect result for one’s goal over too long a time will only prevent your personal development. There must be an air castle before the ground (real) castle. It must be noted that men who have a wide grasp of intellect and firmness of decision are always positive. They know what they want and never waiver. They decide upon a course of action and then pursue it without hesitation. Entrepreneurs are great men who accomplish great things. These great
accomplishments do not come by unusual straining of an exhausting output of mental and physical energy. Such minds as these are self-contained self relent, and self-confident. They do not seek out every friend or acquaintance they choose to meet and ask his opinion or advice in regard to their plans. They simply look over the matter and study it carefully, as a skilful General studies his plan of the battle around before he leads his army to action and then they conquer.” In an address in Washington, Theodore Roosevelt said I wish to see in the average (Nigeria) American citizen the determination not to shrink back when temporarily beaten in life, as
each will be now and then, but to come up again and wrest triumph from defeat. This is the secret of all brave and noble life that ever lived. Write it in your heart that there is no success worth the name outside of what a man achieves through his own effort. To vary the language, the three great essentials to success is mental and physical, labour and practice, patience and perseverance, but the greatest of these is perseverance. We look at life from the wrong end of the telescope and everything looks narrow and small to us. Most people seem to think that life is a great grab-bag into which they should thrust their hands and take out as much as possible without putting in anything. There could not be a greater mistake, for we shall find that we get out of life just what we put into it. “Do it now” is the motto of every successful man. WHY YOU SHOULD WORK FOR YOURSELF “The greatest barrier to success is the fear of failure.”- Eriksson. Being your own boss is the path to prosperity and job security in life. However, it is important to work for others, first to gain experience, where this is possible and available, and secondly to save some funds to take-off. However, the idea of working for others too long usually slow down the pace of personal development and prosperity, Recall, that some of the poorest people in the world are the poorly paid workers. The take home pay hardly takes them home. The hardworking entrepreneurs most times live in abundance of profit and affluence. Employers do not adjust salaries in the same proportion as the
increase in profit. Salary increase are not tied to the inflation rate. The workers bear the burden. Absolute job security is only enjoyed by those running/managing their own ventures. There is no fear of being sacked. They can therefore, plan effectively on their income and their time. You are completely independent and have liberated yourself from slavery. There is no one to tell you what to do, how to do it, when, where, or for whom. Come let’s celebrate your freedom before your success. Being an entrepreneur reduces your suffering and eventually eliminates your poverty. Everyone needs the necessities or comfort of life such as good cars, good accommodation, good food, and healthy living. Nobody can do all these for you but yourself. Having a business of your own will provide opportunity for profit, which can be used to meet these needs. What about income security after retirement? A good pension plan will
automatically guarantee your income after retirement. See how pensioners and retirees are being treated. Your value and dignity will be held in great esteem. You will be bequeathing a great legacy to your children and family members, where their future and the future challenges would be accomplished - a great family business that will act as training ground for your children and behold they are now ready to take-over as great managers of men and materials. You will also enjoy enhanced status in the society as an employer of labour, you will be respected everywhere as a value adder. You will be seen as contributing to the upliftment of humanity. And your good work will not go un-rewarded by men and by God.
The above factors are not exhaustive but provide sufficient information to Encourage you to take the decision of having your own business as early as possible, ie being an entrepreneur. THE SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES DEVELOPMENT
AGENCY OF NIGERIAN (SMEDAN) In its continued search for a solution towards a vibrant and virile micro, small, and medium enterprises sub-sector, and to entrench the-sector into the main stream of the Nigerian economy, the administration of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo established the small and medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) in 2003. The Agency however started operations in 2005. The Agency is a “one stop shop” for nursing and nurturing micro, small, and medium enterprises in Nigeria. Consequently, the Small and Medium Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) has since inception been in the forefront of promoting and developing Micro, small and medium enterprises and entrepreneurs. The enterprises and entrepreneurs have continued to manage and grow their businesses. Through mind-blowing innovative concepts, they continue to stretch the frontiers and landscapes of their individual’s enterprises, and accordingly, they are capturing a bigger slice of their target markets and establishing themselves as points of reference in this sub sector. SMEDAN is now the voice of the MSMEs in Nigeria. THE ROLE OF SMEDAN-OUR INTERVENTION AND STRATEGY Conscious of our mandate and the strategic position we occupy in fostering a viable and vibrant MSMEs in Nigeria. The Agency is prepared and ready to collaborate with other government agencies, states and chambers of commerce,
Universities and other institutions objectives.
in the realization of their goals and
Our intervention strategy centre on the following areas: I. Source, Process and Disseminate Business Information
We create and regularly update databank on MSMEs, raw materials, markets, available local technologies/machinery, and prototypes. II. Policy Development
Formulate and ensure due approval and implementation of an MSMEs policy for Nigeria, conduct impact assessment studies and use same to recommend improvements in policy intervention and conduct regular stakeholders’ fora. III. Establish Business Support Centres and Business Information Services(BSCs and BISs) The centres provide the following services: --- Model business-planning skills --- Mentoring Professional services such as Accounting, Financing, and Book-keeping --- Industrial Dynamics and Technology Assessment ---Legal and taxation advisory services --- Demonstration models to private sector service providers --- General business consultation
Capacity Building and Promotional Services
--- Vertical linkage of MSMEs with large enterprises --- Organisation of MSMEs into clusters and co-operatives to enhance their productivity and have easier access to factors of production, --- Arrangement/facilitation of trade and technology exposition --- Provision of market support information system --- Encouragement and facilitation of new investments in designated priority areas in each state of the federation V. Establishment of Industrial Parks
SMEDAN, through public-private sector partnership, is facilitating the establishment of Industrial Parks and Regional MSMEs Development Centres. Each park comes with industrial buildings, and offers MSMEs the following facilities on a cost-sharing basis- security, electricity, water, buying centres, service providers, petrol station, and capitalintensive technologies. VI. Enhance MSMEs Access to Finance
Liaise with financial institutions to harness and pool resources for utilization by MSMEs. Assisting in sharpening their business plans for possible financial assistance from Micro-finance banks and development banks. Constantly liaise with other institutions for the establishment and operation of MSMEs Credit Guarantee Scheme.
Presently, the Agency has signed MoU with over 15 MFBs that cut across the country. Just last week we also signed an MoU with NERFUND for the disbursement of the N2 billion facility to MSMEs. VII. Networking We are collaborating with Trade Groups, NGOs, Government Ministries and Agencies, Research and Technological Institutions and
Multilateral/Donor Agencies etc to create a dynamic network of stakeholders in the development of MSMEs sub-sector of the economy. VIII. The National Policy on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises We have recently emerged with a policy geared towards the development of MSMEs in Nigeria in a structured and efficient manner. implementation is being awaited. IX. Entrepreneurship Development Programmes The
We have trained many Entrepreneurs in our various programmes tailored towards the required needs of the beneficiaries. --- Faith base initiatives --- Women Entrepreneurship Development Programme --- Youth Entrepreneurship Development Programme --- General Entrepreneurship Development Programme --- Corpers Entrepreneurship Development Programme --- Public Service Entrepreneurship Development Programme
--- Cluster Entrepreneurship Development Programme XX. Seminars, Conferences and Workshops
We have over the years organized seminars, conferences, and workshops to sensitize the public towards being their own bosses as well as inculcating the spirit and culture of entrepreneurialism among the students, youths, and women. XXI. Trade Fairs and Trade Exhibitions We have since inception organized various MSMEs trade fairs and exhibitions to create markets. CONCLUSION It is time for change. Time to realize that Governments on their own cannot provide us with permanent secure jobs and growing standard of living. Time to accept that the solutions to our problems lie in our hands. We need to foster the spirit of self-reliance and determination to take charge of our future. Intelligent, Imagination, and Knowledge are essential skills, but only effectiveness converts them into results. By themselves, they only set limits to what can be attained. There are many areas in our nation today screaming for attention. In my mind l see a new nation with a lot of opportunities, but you have to dream, plan, and work to turn it into reality. Only those who make moves make waves. Now is the right time to ponder to this amazing discovery-the discovery that the critical success factors for building a successful business venture are astonishingly simple. It is not a matter of complicated manoeuving and does not involve huge sums of capital. It is the will and not the wallet that matters most. All you need to do is to rediscover yourself and know thyself. Plan the
work and work the plan; if you fail to plan, you plan to fail. Decide now on your goals. Take a bold step and start a venture today. Being an entrepreneur requires total self-submission to ones will. You have to take pride in whatever you do and give it everything you have. Invest your will and commitment to your course as much as you invest in yourself. Never be discouraged, be bold, and develop a lion heart (courageous) until you attain what your heart desires. Dream big, “aim at the sun, and you may not reach it, but your arrow will fly far higher than if aimed at an object on a level with yourself.” Entrepreneurs are achievement-oriented ; they possess high levels of energy and great degrees of perseverance and inauguration, which combined with a willingness to take calculated risk. They convey a sense of purpose and determination and by so doing, convince others that they are in absolute control and on the right course. The entrepreneur demonstrates a unique combination of energy, originality, and shrewdness. They are highly creative and innovative and are doggedly determine to succeed. To them
nothing is impossible, they exist to empower themselves to success.I implore you to engrave your name in stone where nothing can erase it. Transform yourself and convert your dreams into reality by being an entrepreneur! As there is no time to ponder again, it is decision time and let us gets started. We will continue the discussion in your private jet.
Okpara F. O (2000) Entrepreneurship: Text and cases. Enugu-Nigeria: Precisions publishers Ltd Okpara F. O. (2002) “Why you should be an Entrepreneur” Being a paper presented at a sent forth Denies organized by the 1997 set of Graduating students of the centre for Distance learning and continuing educationUniversity of Abuja – Nigeria. November, 22. At Royalton Hotel Garki, Abuja Nigeria. Okpara F. O (2000) “The Making of an Entrepreneur” being a Paper presented at the Entrepreneurship forum organized by the Entrepreneurship club, University of Abuja-Nigeria Okpara F. O. 2002 “From paid Employee to an Entrepreneur: Making the Transition Possible.” Being a paper presented at the Civil Service Week. Organized by the Senior Civil Service Association at the Radio House – Abuja. Okpara F. O. (2001) “Building Tomorrow’s Entrepreneurs” Being a Paper Presented at The Entrepreneurship Club, University of Abuja – Nigeria
Okpara F. O. (2002) “Developing the Man/Woman that will Develop His/Her world: The Successful Entrepreneurs” Being a paper presented at the Management week organized by Nuambs, University of Abuja chapter. Okpara F. O. (2002) “Entrepreneurship Development: Being an Entrepreneur” Being a Paper Presented at an Entrepreneurship Lecture, Organized by the Centre for Entrepreneurship Development and Small Business Management, Abuja, Nigeria. Okpara F. O. (2003) “Entrepreneurial skills Development: Starting and managing your own Business Venture Successfully.” Being a paper presented at an Entrepreneurship Lecture, Organized by the Centre for Entrepreneurship Development and small Business Management, AbujaNigeria. Okpara F. O (2001) “How to Start Your Own Business Successfully” Being a paper presented at an Economic Forum Organized by IMO State University, Owerri – Nigeria Okpara F. O. (2003) “Being your own Boss Great Businesses you can start with Little or No capital” Being Lecture Delivered at a Lecture series organized by the federal poly technic Nasarrawa – Nigeria Okpara F. O (2004) “Traits and characteristics that make a successful Entrepreneur” Being a lecture developed at a management forum organized by NUAMBS, University of Abuja – Nigeria. Okpara F. O (2004) “Entrepreneurship and wealth creation, being a paper Presented at a seminar organized by Lead Consultants – Abuja, Nigeria.
Okpara F. O. (2005) “Motivation for the Entrepreneur”Being a paper presented at a workshop to enhance the capacities of the officers to effectively deliver Entrepreneurship training and to provide business advisory /supervisory services to NDE beneficiaries. Organized by the National Directorate of Employment Abuja – Nigeria Okpara F. O (2005) “Generation of Business ideas /Opportunities.”Being a paper presented at a workshop to enhance the capacities of the officers to effectively deliver Entrepreneurship training and to provide business advisory /supervisory services to NDE beneficiaries. Organized by the National Directorate of Employment Abuja – Nigeria. Okpara F. O. (2006) “Why Aren’t you your own boss” Being a lecture delivered at the Entrepreneurship club, University of Abuja – Nigeria Okpara F. O (2006) The Practice of Entrepreneurship. Enugu: Precision Publishers Ltd Bridge, S.O; Neilk and Cromie, S. (2003) Understanding Enterprise, Entrepreneurship and Small Business. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Drucker P. F. (1985) Innovation and Entrepreneurship London: Pan Books Meredith G. G; Nelson, R.E and Neck, R.A (1991) The Practice of Entrepreneurship. Lagos: University Press Peterson, M. A (1996) The Complete Entrepreneur New York: Baneri’s Educational series Inc.
FGN(2008) National Policy on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. SMEDAN (2010) Long-term Strategy Plan
25 SMEDAN (2006-2009) Annual Report Resman Associates Ltd (2008) “A Final Report on a Study of the Informal Sector of the Nigerian Economy, for SMEDAN.” FGN(2003) Small and Medium Scale Industries Development Agency (Establishment) Act” Adelaja, M.A.(2003-2007) SMEDAN Scorecard