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The Biopolitics of Soulspepub.com
Racism, Nazism, and Plato Simona Forti
Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria, Italy
Februar0 2006 9-32 ? 2006Sage Publications 10. 1710005970580526
This essay focuses on the relationship between biopolitics and race theory. Starting from Foucault, many authors have considered totalitarian anti-Semi tism as a depravity of biologism. This essay would like to challenge this all too-simple positivist, materialist, and evolutionist picture of biopolitics in the Third Reich. It examines another "tradition" of racial theories, central to National Socialism, much closer to the revered Western philosophical tradition thanDarwinism ever was. This kind of racism presents itself as the authentic heir of that "Metaphysics of Form," which traces its roots back to classical antiquity, in particular toPlato's work. Through the analysis of some Platonist and racist texts the essay tries to point out the ambivalences that connect some of the assumptions of our philosophical tradition toNazi totalitarianism. biopolitics; race theory; totalitarianism; Nazism; Platonism; Keywords: Western philosophical tradition; relationship of body-soul
this essay is intended to be an oxymoron.' The term is generally used to describe a "politics of the body" or, to be precise, politics for the entire body of the population. The transformation of political power into biopower has often been accompanied by the dis "biopolitics" courses on race, which, from themiddle of the nineteenth century, had begun to acquire a scientific standing. Nazi totalitarianism is often considered the extreme and emblematic example of a biopolitics that legitimizes itself on the
intimately connected to the "new sciences" of like to challenge this all-too-simple positivist, in the Third Reich. My materialist, and evolutionist picture of biopolitics challenge emerges out of a reexamination of some "exemplary" texts of basis of racial assumptions, life. In this essay, I would "Nazi philosophical man's anthropology." While it is true that racism redefines identity through a system of biological propositions, reaching out to a total control over life, it is also true that race is not always, or simply, identi fied with a biological and genetic heritage. Perhaps because of an anxious ness to reassuringly bracket totalitarianism as an exception of pathology and
Through . Michel Foucault introduced into his analysis of power a new concept. according towhich it simply meant the collapse of philosophical values. less intimately connected to Darwinism.1970s. But I will also question the thesis that Nazism constitutes a sudden break in the noble history of philosophy. and it was absolutely closer central to National philo This theory was also much to the revered Western sophical tradition than Darwinism ever was." Biopower therefore started to itself from "traditional" sovereign power not just because of its all-inclusive nature. research has focused almost exclusively in the direction of an aberrant political outcome of evolutionism. More and first of all Nazism. Through the analysis of certain Platonist and racist texts Iwill elucidate cer tain ambivalences that connect some of the assumptions of our philosophical tradition to Nazi totalitarianism. and rationalism. tradition. From the end of the eighteenth distinguish sibility for the population. that of biopolitics. humanism. rather it affects directly. I. Shedding This kind of racism cannot be considered its roots back to classical light on the "idealistic" antiquity. reproduction. political power progressively as a "living mass. Itwas built around the relation ship between body and soul in amanner that throws into disarray the simple assumptions of evolutionism. the biological pro thus began to address (as an cesses of the entire population. and death. such as universalism. a simple depravity of biologism: of form" that traces is not the same as view according gen as a nec to Plato's work. It no longer concentrated on the individual and his property. I do not share the Popperian erally. through the power of the law.10 Political Theory of irrationality.' Through this concept he intended to desig nate a new configuration of relations of domination. I am not interpreting totalitarianism. This was a theory present at the beginning of the twentieth cen tury in Germany Socialism. Biopolitics and Totalitarianism In themid. My argument is that essary outcome of theWestern philosophical any attempt to establish some continuity between "our" culture and the Nazi Regime needs to be presented in amore careful and complex manner. Insufficient attention has been paid to another "tradition" of racial theories. took over respon century onward. Biopolitics object of power) life itself: birth. it also addressed directly the "productivity" of life. and in France. illness. towhich Plato's political program is in itself a totalitarian project. and Platonic It presents itself as the authentic heir of that "metaphysics in particular aspects of Nazism stating that Plato is totalitarian. and in a "positive" way.
6 it rep resents. assigned some to extinction. the life of all and one is. to a greater or lesser extent in bad faith. but rather in terms of the strength that the assumptions of race have in activating themechanisms of power. rep resents one of the most disturbing aspects of the heritage of totalitarianism and political today. in generating a device for producing collective identification. been created-ad hoc. We need to understand the various implica tions of the homogenizing tendency of biopolitical strategies. According to Foucault and many of his followers. more powerful than any other kind of communitarian rhetoric.7 Racism is not simply a body of ideas accepted by intellectuals. as it is understood by Foucault. This tendency that would does not involve an actual plan. The relationship between human life. "invested through and through. making the death of one a necessity for the life of all. The identitarian construction . to satisfy their need for "reaction" and for scientific positivization. life has become so paradoxical that it can no longer be seen in a "neutral" and "innocent" way. so to speak. The problem of racist ideology should not be analyzed in terms of its doctrinal content. the extreme and "exemplary" way in which power manages to carry out a colossal enterprise of regimentation and killing. When racism turns into and a functionalization the theoretical point of reference for a prac tice that (tomake life "productive") is able to organize in a hierarchical man ner and differentiate." the last decades many authors have skillfully "managed" the heri tage of Foucault's always made thought.Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 11 demographic Over statistics. while talking of the "law of life" and of "humanity reborn. The politics of race. no less than the Stalinist politics of classes. for Foucault. and through the various techniques of population control.3 The premise of his thoughts (which were not texts) were to be sought in a explicit in his most well-known radical reexamination of what has survived of totalitarianism in our world. and in eliminating a form of alterity that has often provided by the body and by biological life is in fact an extremely powerful identitarian identification. but it is clear that biopolitics turns out to be more effective than "traditional" sover eignty in producing a unified and compact body politic.5 the theory of race in its evolutionist ver sions has functioned as an effective vector for a "naturalization" and "biologization" of the object of power. something imply the intention ality of an independent subject and the texture of power relationships. power becomes cal valorization "state doctrine. In the name of the preservation and healing of life." it also becomes capable of carrying out an immediately politi of biology." Foucault (who had been preceded in this aspect by Hannah Arendt) is undoubtedly responsible for refining the topoi of the critical literature on racism. to include and exclude beings from the human field. including its biological aspects.4 I believe that inmany respects biopolitics.
the relationship between biopolitics. To simplify drastically. Both forms of racism can elaborate justifications for the domination of one race over another."8 II. next to evolutionary racism. that allows others to be killed. Through racism. racism alone can justify the function of the State. In ries. as itwere. it can divide the species into subgroups. and totalitarianism may be dealt with from an additional perspective. in a new and "biological" way. and in nailing the individual to his collective identity.12 Political Theory Racism therefore represents in the first place the instrument that power live (having taken over the management of life) uses to separate what must from what must die. It can. imperative: "if you want to live someone must die. Foucault and many of his followers are inter ested in the impact of the new sciences on anthropological and political per spectives. one finds. at least superficially. It ismuch more the result of a metaphys ics ofform. with the of an inevitable biological development of positivistic anthropology and with the knowledge of Mende . or in the first line. a biopower. the state functions to kill." "When you in and racism is the indispens society. This is a form of racism that aims to tran scend the limitations of biologism. Foucault does not analytically deal with the issue of why the idea of race is so effective in exalt ing differences and conflict. you have a power that is. power can deal with a population as a mixture of races. It is undoubtedly cor rect to conclude that the "discourse" on race is a rhetoric of supremacy and conflict that redesigns the contours of belonging and order. create caesurae in the biological continuum that has its new object. but they neglect the identifying force in racial theories that the images (or the forms) implied by these theories have. The Soul of Race By concentrating on the modalities of its functioning. so as to give to divisions and struggles between pure and impure human groups the force law. the end of the nineteenth "morphological" century. we can say that evolutionist racism uses race as an instrument for the naturalization of social and political history. on the other. on one hand. themultiform archipelago of racial theories that has been on the scene since their utilization. And it is abso lutely true that all theories of race are rigid in their formal definitions. become fragment. and the possibilities of flexible in their contents. rather than one of the many rivulets of social Darwinism. because flexibility multiplies race theo However. a racism. It can also carry out. in other words. in the biopower mode. as is well known. and both can be anti-Semitic. It asserts itself. that allows someone the warlike have a normalizing able precondition Once murderous the first instance.
connected with a teleological view of history (either progressive or regressive). and itmarks the emergence of a new kind of rhetoric. is that of allowing the transformation of the enemy into an animal.'1 Race. . One of the "truth effects" of this evolutionary racism. biology. so as to guarantee the continuing tion of part of the demos into a ghenos and changing transforma and to transform ghenos into (descent) race. as a biological datum. cockroaches.10 In his writ ings. based on the scientific discourses of medicine. criminology.9 The "naturalization" of the enemy allows one to oppose him with the strength of a natural necessity. and psychopathology. and bacte ria. in the name of the struggle for life and for sur the separation between pure blood and infected blood. between the species to be protected and strengthened and those on the way to extinction. leeches. Outside thismedical-scientific and post-Foucaultian context. The images of the parasite and of the infective agent there fore take the place of the traditional metaphors of ferocity. The entire range of human history is seen as a conflictual expression of these characteristics. and cold disinfection. which classifies along a continuous grading the different degrees of humanity. genocide remains unportrayable and impracticable. Georges Vacher de Lapouge represents evolutionary racism in its strictest and most exemplary form. in turn. just as one carries out sanitary disinfections. the theory of race fits in perfectly with the thousand vival. In other words. It is only the biologistic formula tion that makes acceptable. the enemy as a parasite or infective agent requires instead amethodical. race. the struggle concerns not so much wolves and lions (bearers of a powerful and no less "dignified" enmity) but rather fleas. transforming biopolitics into zoological politics. "Spirit" itself and moral aptitudes are all interpreted as the result of a given racial heritage. This is accompanied erosion of the "classical" representation of the enemy as a barbarian or sav age beast. aseptic.Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 13 lian laws that are. While "animalization" is beastlike and emotional. is therefore an indicator of the animal nature of man. is considered the determining factor of peo ples and therefore of individuals.While the enemy as ferum (wild beast) must be captured or killed. In France. From this perspective. demography. which expresses itself in somatic features. it enables classification of the different degrees of humanity along a spec by the trum that includes animals and human beings. It therefore turns out to be a sort of materialistic monism whose classifications must remain ductile. Persecution can therefore be orga biologization nized as a planned and systematic enterprise to heal the political body. is detached and scientific. We know that the Nazi imagination is peopled by cold images inwhich extermi nation is presented as amatter of prophylaxis. In other words. according to Foucaultian logic.
" but rather "image-intuition-idea. and affirms rather a kind of monism in which soul and race are in an iron bond. There is no shortage of pre-Nazi and Nazi ideologues who manage to the picture of the relations between biopolitics." In this form of is subordinated to a sort of Platonic idealism. that is. If "the soul is race seen from almost undistinguishable inside. but rather an essence that could be reached through the power of intuition. a theory that knows perfectly well that the effectiveness of race lies in its mythical and "transfiguring" force. There race and which. that believes much more in the strength of a self-conscious myth than in scientific discourse."' 4 Alfred Rosenberg will express a similar position. as a sudden break in its interesting and produc on evolution European culture and its spiritual values." on Christianity. positivist materialism The subordination is provided by the concept of Weltanschauung. there is the problem of why. drives twentieth-century politics at least as far as National Socialism to its extreme consequences." "race is the soul seen from the outside. some figures of "heretical" Italian fascism. both in Der Mythus des XX: Jahrhunderts and Gestalten der Idee. an excessive concentration on the ideological role of biological laws has led to neglecting (if not exactly ignoring) an alternative interpretative approach that is equally important. This last issue is one that dominates pre-Nazi and Nazi theory and thatman ages to influence Evola. However. "Those who belong to a totally pure race feel it continuously. Furthermore. from each other. and it especially the soul-body relationship that these theories assume. For example. This approach concentrates analyzes on the "morphological" theories of race. one should need to intervene in any outcome."'6 . that emerges such as Julius is therefore another vector from the theories of together with the other one. the emphasis might thus becoming first and foremost an of the human to theories that anti-Semiticdoctrine. biologization on the totalitarian functionality inadvertently appear to provide comfort interpret totalitarianism. is con This is a racism that derives from a "metaphysics of form".14 Political Theory year-old theme of the Jew as a parasite. racism. marked by biologistic tive aspects. But not many scholars have recognized had already made a point of stressing that race was not Stewart Chamberlain complicate an object of scientific knowledge. racism. a hermeneutical racism. 12 Despite approach that focuses exclusively ary theory leaves some problems unsolved.'3 Houston itarianism. which In a fierce attack does not mean "theory. a theory cerned. which for him is identical to the dualism between soul and body. and total this point. Rosenberg refuses the traditional dualism between spirit and matter. that refers much more to Plato than to the laws of genetics. if the "struggle for life" is a natural and historical law.
in opposition to Chris tian dualism. taken as data ascertained through the objectivity of observation). the people who have given form to their soul. soul. race is the external form of a given soul. Myth must therefore manage to provide identity through a fig ure." in the figure. in the form. organize." The "of a dream image" with which we in the projection to achieve amythical is not outside of us. Language. type. Nature is now a mythical power. finds its freedom in the "Gestalt. if it is not to remain something abstract. if itmanages to circum scribe. however. that is. by itself. The Aryans of antiquity are the Greeks. and of soul all relate to a notion of myth. and dream are indissolubly connected. and make concrete a form. the soul is free if itman ages to carry." "Up to now. despite its specificity. The concept of idea. by matter and by nature.Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 15 The supreme spiritual value for a race is to achieve the perfect form of its somatic features. Myth. set a perimeter around the indeterminate in a figure. in other words. of the soul of the people. But one must note that in this case nature and matter are not the objects of a discourse that aspires to a scientific status (that is. Myth differs from a narrative reconstruction temporal beginning. Myth. a type. an Idea. one might say in this context that the type. Type is in fact the realization of "incarnated" identity that has reached its form and been delin eated by the dream: The type is simultaneously themodel and the realization. have an aes tic form. the "idea" and the "formation" of identity. of type. and make it visi ble. The absolute identity of what he calls "absolutes without the divinities of religions and the subjects of philoso view. Germany "today" is drawing upon the true Ger to "dream its own dreams. To adopt a more familiar philosophical lexicon. a true and proper "form.""7The strength of myth lies in carry ing out a "shaping of the form": an identification that opposes the abstract and universal. must be nourished by blood and soil. the disembodied limits". who have produced the Darstellung (representation) or the Gestaltung (configuration) of their race in the absolute delimitation of artis art does not." the Volk has identity. has the transcendental function of making a body visible. the soul. phy. of the type. is insufficient to generate an identity: That pertains to logos. Rosenberg of origins in that the latter projects a to denounce the naivety of never ceases "The those who believe they can return to the origins of German mythology. a sort of impersonal force that dreams itself according to its types. The soul. of allowing it to present itself in time and space. In other words. religion of Wotan is dead and must die. beginning never managed power of myth consists identify. For Rosenberg's Greek-Aryans . because this shape is nothing other that the expression of the realization of the truth of the idea. in an incarnated configuration. In Rosenberg's man myth. rather it is the dream inwhich we see ourselves. In the same horizon.
Paideia. One may refer. There is one author in particular who provides us with an exemplary identifying directly of theWestern philo instance of the way inwhich some conceptualizations I am referring here sophical tradition were used by Nazi pseudometaphysics.21 in the context of Stefan George-Kreis. III. we find in his monumental work. Plato as Guardian of the Race This form of Platonism undoubtedly runs through the political culture of but one should keep in mind the role assigned to German Romanticism.23 With and explicitly the ideal of the Platonic state with the the exception of Hildebrandt's work. to the people. to the way work of Kurt Hildebrandt. as awork of art. and in offer Rosenberg (but not only it happens. to Hans F. and customs."." but rather as a work whose goal is living reality. education by one of the greatest scholars of classical Greek philosophical culture of all time. Some of Gunther's books (by no means as brutally . for example." As him) the opportunity for amythical soul. as and realization of the racial Type. K.. with thematerial Plato provides themythical power of an idea of a not only political body that is achieved the material in a living work of art.16 Political Theory thetic value..20 Although he was eventually forced to leave Nazi Germany.22 Other authors of that period. The soul of the German itself in the Type. go so far as Third Reich. to be composed offered by language. traditions. Platon: Der Kampf des Geistes um die Macht (1933). but also with provided by blood and soil. as a fully achieved form of theGerman an identification people realizes itself by incorporating the race."'8 Ger many must repeat the Greek achievement of giving life to the political body. sinister affin ities with the pre-Nazi and Nazi Platonic interpretation. "the formation of a superior humanity . In the introduction to the first edition of this book. Gunther. more specifically. but they are extremely interesting as examples of the way inwhich a philosophical outline can be transformed and deformed so as to become a sort of "catechism" and an incentive to action. Werner Jaeger. which Plato himself did not succeed in creating and carrying out to its extreme consequences. in the blood. these are propagan dist books devoid of any scholarly value. such as Bannes and Gabler. Through the ideas of Plato one may experience the Type. an end in itself: "it is an organic art that generates life. Plato and his philosophy identification of Germany with the great est culture that ever existed. that can succeed in preserving and propagating its physical and moral This kind of Platonic heritage is perfected in a "nationalistic" type. we can find statements that emphasize the value of Platonic philosophy not as a "set of abstract ideas.
politics. tion in the ideal. For Gunther the textual references to Plato are especially to Book V of The Republic. there is a clear desire to separate their to being from the more formalistically dualist Plato (susceptible "Christianised"). and the vulgate of the period. we find the idea that the ancient Hel lenes represented the highest example of the "Nordic character.24Texts such as Gunther's are valuable. The Socialist would have owned were entitled. and philosophy. and his modem and nonhumanity. influenced by lain. so to speak. it expresses only the excitability that leads it to transgression and to lying. and Gobineau-are adapted to a peculiar "eugenic" requirement that is pre sented as being totally derived from Plato. Once again. and by his warrior virtues. providing a vast public with an introduction to racial theory. that also dissatisfied at a horizontal for participa level. Ammon. Humanitas tioned. who does not make any concessions to those "earthly bod ies" inwhich the soul has themisfortune of landing.25 Darwin auctoritates-Vacher de Lapouge. ismarked by a strong individuality.26 In Gunther and in these other authors (who do not match the anti-Chris tian violence of Rosenberg's writings). the Greek original potentiality of true European culture. by his as a doer and producer. by his Fuihrergeist. The Nordic man. features. the conditions two books of Gunther in the soul. Galton. itmust finally give shape to Platonic anthropology.Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 17 and mechanically propagandizing managed as the books of Bannes and Gabler. and Salic. so that itwill not repeat the errors that led to the decadence of the great Greek civilization. The classification of European peoples into races is not very original. with any classification that merely humanity clarifying posits Gunther is too. This race-and first of all the Jewish race-is lacking in a deep and profound creativity. and The Laws. in the Type. by abilities it follows the taxonomy of Chamber Dinaric. loyalty to his group. because they seem to address the crucial question: What is human for the Third Reich? The answer provided is much simpler than those put forward by Rosenberg. These features assume their full rele vance when contrasted with theOriental Mediterranean race. as narrated in Phaedro. indeed bring back to life in a "still more authentic" form. Baltic. He. by the qualities of his judgment. The Statesman. These are unions of specific somatic and psychic of course. Plato must now act as a warning toGermany. gradations between argues in a "transcendental" manner. Western. since it shuns work and effort. almost any good National tively. Oriental. respec is barely men and Platon als Hiiter des Lebens." which was later corrupted through a widespread interbreeding of peoples. The German people must revive. nor as in the immedi esoteric as Rosenberg's) to acquire awide audience ately pre-Nazi and Nazi periods. For the Nazi anthropologist (as we Plato shall see) the Platonic ideal that coincides with the perfect exemplar of . The main races are Nordic.
indissoluble and always identical to itself. unlike the thought of Sophists. "enlightened" rationalism and consoling "chthonic" irrationalism. is related to "the divine. This racial idealism presents itself as a "metaphysics of form". but rather with the superior value of racial identity achieved through a process of purifi . according to which Plato's "knowl edge and experience have assisted him in all his educational and political projects."30 Plato." if spiritual puri fication coincides with a biological selection. idealism and nihilism. of form and matter. In other words." and in which the blond image of divinity (that is. in a clear-cut way. of the science of race and racial hygiene. being good and being beautiful) take the step from idea to reality. and at the same time "operative. In fact. Itwants Indeed. these polarities that oppose.27 Beauty inextricable connection and goodness are part of truth once they become real or "embodied. True phi losophy is therefore thatwhich reestablishes order in the chaotic." This is the Kalokagathia between the Third Reich must cess of selection. democratic city and gives form once again towhat is shapeless. to be a biological and factual datum. uniform. soul. of the Gestalt. spiritualism and material and biologistic attitudes very easily drift into ism. "Hellenophile" view-goes well beyond Darwinism of the perfect racism-by identity of body and no means a minority of the to achieve a "monistic ontology" perfect identity of ideas and reality. cannot be taught. rational. was not concerned with the life of the individual. which Athens is oriented toward action. grotesque as that may be. it is a matter of race. immortal. naively or instrumentally. but rather a Platonic idea that gives shape and brings order to the chaotic world of appearances. transmitting the ideal into a humanity made pure and perfect by the pro of individual perfection These preliminary points show already how easily one may dispose of the polarities of the so-called posttotalitarian humanitarianism. so in practice he has promoted all that nowadays represents the ker nel of knowledge about genetics. with the choice of an elite that becomes "transparently Nordic. the Greek ideal of the in which may be reflected. pseudoscientific idealism. we find that everything con firms the "Nordic essence" effectively in the political of the Greek philosopher. selects purity out of the of races that is the true cause of decadence. in and Sparta had lost the flower of their Nordic youth. his thought."28 Returning toGunther's 1928 book on Plato. Race thus becomes a phe nomenon perceived by our senses as an expression of the soul that.18 Political Theory human being is attainable.29 The Nazi Plato knows that virtue mixture Plato's work is very attentive in selecting the passages from anthropologist that justify his own thesis. to use the "classical" formulation. according to the words of Phaedo. in fact. to intervene crisis brought about by the Peloponnesian War. Race is in fact not assumed.
rather their relationship becomes a literal identity: Justice is the health of the ghenos. which makes to its purity. being deter Nazi Platonists' mined by the idea of life. Let us try atten tively to follow Gunther here. necessary for reaching the One. and the elimination make matrimonial abnormal and deformed. and if. according longer distinguish perspective between toGunther? To clarify this.32 Guinther supports his claims with a long sequence of quotations that allows him to make explicit what he takes to be the Platonic political project. as amere eugenic reading of Plato's work. Their read ing is not entirely unconnected with the letter of Plato's text. the (individual body's) health-medicine connection and. We may start by observ ing that the emphasis on Plato's "monism" is used by Gunther as ameans of canceling. or more pre cisely. of a noumenon. the body. It cannot be denied that The Republic seems to offer a change of compared to some of the earlier dialogues. but rather becomes the external.Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 19 from a process of cation that. the treatment of infants. True politics is therefore eugenics: of the regulation. is indistinguishable cleansing. in Gunther's philosophy. the difference between. that is. so politics implies medicine.3' To allow the best to prosper and to suppress the worst is already legislation. the justice-politics nected in a metaphorical sense. As Kallipolis implies health." the body to be preserved will not be the indi vidual body. He can therefore conclude that the consists in the good and virtuous manage and protect it from threats it vigorous for Plato the criterion thatmust guide political "ethical" objective of the politeia ment of the people's life. and attaining the state of health is the expression of the truth of justice. Gunther's monism is built on a system of dual separations and oppositions that reestablish and start a selective mechanism and that transform the selec tion into a true dialectical process of askesis. pro gressively eliminated the links that connected it to the tomb-body. which are ekloghe.33 of the soul. at least the Aryan body. and medicine expresses itself politically as the ability to a people just through selection. the expression of the eternal soul of the race. But what is life for Plato. according to Nazi anthropological monism. interpretation of this change is less simplistic than itmay at first appear. according to Plato. the body of the race. expression of interi ority. must be immortal. but the body of the ghenos. through philosophical askesis. If-as Phaedo admits-the soul. Justice and health are no longer con other. the polis is "man written in capital letters. where the soul-body dualism placed true life in the soul that. in common with all Nazi anthropology. . is not to be tran scended. and if. one can no the life of the immortal soul and the life of the mortal body. phenomenal. by playing on the two meanings both synonyms of theGerman of the Greek termAuslese (election and selection). on one hand. on the connection.
and therefore an ontological issue. precisely. Plato him us not to feel any pity in killing "a reassures us-encourages self-Gunther soul which is naturally bad and incorrigible. This is the race."37 is a problem that comes to complicate the perfect corre At this point there spondence between soul. given its defective nature." to the eternal life of the soul. which." whatever appears to be bad must be elimi nated. and biological as a Type is an achievement. to "true life. which is. to the masses unconcerned with of young people who of nature. acquires attribute to the necessity to nature: so accommodating Measured against the the ideal Type and so uncaring of the individual life. The glance future. in his Seele und Rasse. Similar individual cases. This is the spirit of theNordic race. itself if the its full expression itself and grows-in only if the life of the life of the Type prospers."35 Plato's heritage may therefore be picked up (through a blood contiguity which also is a contiguity of the spirit) only by Germany. The death sentence is therefore related to the purification of the race and to the health of the polis: a conception "that adheres to Greek thought as it does to Roman and Germanic thought. the race Far from being amaterial. The medieval Church has dangerously inculcated in Western man the idea that the body belongs to the domain of sin. and falsely distinguished Jew. because nobody can escape from his own body.39 tries to clarify the confused exas peration of those who all too often come across human beings whose somatic spirit of the Levantine . "For the Hellenes there was nothing spiritual which did not affect the body. a given. F. This is an elimination that has the value of an ethical duty. rotten body. and type: It is that of the tall. Gunther refers to this issue. or class issue. kinds of selective the unworthy. carried out through the selection that promotes the process of adaptation to the Idea. in a weak. in this book and else where. but rather an opposition of pure and impure. extends the movement of approximation toward an infinite duration. an expression of the Type.36 There is no escape from the soul of the race. natural. because is always directed for his people all they allow the separation of the healthy from to totality. datum. body. which knows that the distinction between noble and nonnoble is not a social.20 Political Theory Life is the firm union of body and soul. which and grow. The form here fixes the features of the soul and the somatic characteristics system of correspondences. L. Clauss. maintains in a univocal "must prosper. to descendents are as yet unborn: that imperturbability of the that we to thus Plato." and which ghenos can achieve (the race) prospers. maintain other words." a soul which can express itself only. educational. who. "Plato advocates tests. nothing corporeal which did not also affect the soul.38 but it is dealt with more extensively by a dear friend and colleague. blond."34 "total psycho-physical ideal. because it is lustful and devoured by insatiable passions. purification as a normative ideal.
of theOne and Eter nal Soul. Once again Plato "operative" consequences shows us that "once one starts to propose a physical and spiritual model for one's own people. while in reality are not at all racism is therefore soul. to assume a bodily 4' form. Thanks to Plato." because it participates in the idea of man.42 This is how a Volk is created. Gunther seems to conclude. has such superior value. the only state that will be able to call itself "good" will be the state that. in life as in art. The theory of morphological forced to introduce an incongruent element into itsmetaphysics: The Jewish and uncon that is often unconscious an oscillation race ranges-with being the bodily expression of a low. based on a common origin from Nordic stock.43 The human greatness . it does not have a soul of its own)." So the ideal of the Kalokagathia lowered to the level of a norm of individual behavior.Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 21 features seem to belong part of the Nordic to theNordic racial type. what ismost noble. as some proponents of "provincial National Socialism believe. for all healthy. This is because only selection will enable "the beautiful and the good. It proposed European Union on a racial basis. Hence one need not oppose oneself to humanism. to finally realize the truth of the Idea. between race and people. to suppress. in the racial amalgam from which this Volk has emerged. will also become guardian and creator of an increase in superior life. a certain form of life and spiritual conduct to which it corre in the sponds. and prosperity."40Every education proceeds through a form of selection. But the in either case will be the same. between people and nation. well-ori of that people-that ented spirits.Becoming Human Humanitas is the title of a booklet published in 1937 thatwas to become a sort of Bible or basic text of the theoretical circle inside the SS. amere appearance that does not cor respond to any idea (in short. IV. to become true. and often trolled-between evil soul. the contradictions between body and soul. This text obsessively returns to the theme of German-Hellene brotherhood. "nowadays" incar nated by the German people. cowardly." but rather achieve its original meaning. culture finally become authentic the The superior values of Hellenic cannot be moment they are "embodied." It is the duty of the Nordic spirit. The life that can appropriately and finally define itself as "human. one chooses. once and for all. By and large one will have to choose the human type-present represents. education. in past history as in the pres racial composition ent. National Socialist Ger many will live to the end its original and authentic meaning. of the Type. and being amere simulacrum. located in Central Europe in the Neolithic age. not content with being the guardian of laws and borders.
and it becomes at some points inGunther's philosophy a Kantian noumenon. Indogermanic again towards the racial ideal of the strong. "thanks to an uninterrupted process of selection.22 Political Theory that has developed. which exalts the individual in his mediocrity. It demands firmness.46 Authentic eroded in its noble meaning of a hymn to life by (Entnordung) and degeneration. "The idea of humanitas corresponds to the same Indogermanic ideal of the noble man who inHellas. and will always be. by pursuing high moral goals that pertain to the single. Beyond all the monstrous philosophical and philo phenomenalizing logical simplifications that regularly come out of Gunther's writings. espe cially Jews. tall and forehead with a frank and straight glance. The Platonic between man."45 Stoicism tries to give Humanism a direction opposed to the laws of life. The Helle It demands the victory of man over the process of de-Nordification nistic-Germanic is aristocratic: any lowly tendency that is in him. contempt for utilitarian values. And to this inner dignity and nobility there corresponds a brave and proud body: theNordic upright." of decadence. The value of humanitas lies in this greatness. in amore strictly selective context.47 Humanitas is therefore the ideal of a Nordic purity that can always be improved. a model to be . in the name of the abstract man who does not exist. soul. prove to be those of life itself. the ideal representative of the Nordic race. in fact tried to pervert humanism into a doctrine of brotherhood and equality. isolated man. who pretended to be Hellenes and Romans. True Humanitas "is a duty to carry out. But Nazism-unlike philosophies of the these absolutes. pro duced the two conceptions when it is transformed correspondence of eugeneia and kalokagathia. spirituality "In the Hellenic directs itself once value of humanitas. just as those of the original Indogermans. of the historical possibility of "embodying" past-offers them. whose values. "The falsification of Humanism place in the epoch of the Late Roman world: the immigrant Levantines. it is the Platonic ideal. and polis is perverted and is debased as in an empty humanistic ideal. world humanitas that is increasingly is progressively concept in general and of racial interbreeding: it is indif is a culture of "reac a reaction to a surrounding de-Nordified and degenerate. of the life which wants to assert itself and grow. to avoid the ancient contempt of foreigners. noble and beautiful man. if analyzed attentively. and in his abstractness. there is a stringent logic in the discourse on Humanitas as Kalokagathia to be renewed. over any physical or hedonistic slackening. Hellenism tion. a sense of measure. and a sense of reserve." This value is lost into an ideal of individual perfection."44 start ing from exemplary families inGreece and Rome is. Roman made true and fortified by racial selection. ferent to the health of the ghenos. took his isolation."48The German people have the duty to return to theGerman context the idea of Humanitas. a high and wide type with blue eyes and blond hair.
One may be part of it through purification. enclosed in a rigid and inevitable system of correspondences. the Idea. man is in other words the expres sion of the soul of the race.. but very widely read." This is theMacroanthropos who will start the ascending path of the synagoghe. as descendents of those Germanic peoples who belonged to the same race of the Hellenes. striving for perfection. And this is the point: Jews are by and large simulacra. and from them meaning arises for us. intended Platonically as "Man written in capital letters. a differ ent soul. respectively . This will happen through the selection of the material through which the people are made and through the purging of those bodies that are the expression of an evil soul. or of those bodies that only simulate the Type and that try to falsely insinuate themselves into the limbs of the great body of the race. Nordification. not all individuals are born human. It is difficult to read without emotion what Emmanuel Levinas was writ ing in the same years in which the members of the new Humanitas were invoking the ideal of Aufnordnung. a conception which is the knowledge of the best blood thatmust be increased and of the worst blood for which one cannot wish many descendants. which is at the same time always and already the return to the One. in short..Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 23 reached . through selection. and the Type. ends with Gunther's small. an aristocratic conception . can achieve in relation to the individual "body of earth" inwhich it has ended up. True humanity does not con cern all and sundry. Jews are not simply a different Type."50 In other words.. that seem to fit in well with the idea of the inside and the outside. if provided with a rational part. Nazism is pagan. of an inferior race: They are the anti-Type par excellence."49 The lesson (Lektion) of Humanism is selection Humanitas (Selektion). an ideal of racial and marital selection. or at best unable to participate in a soul of their own. because only a conception that distinguishes between the best and theworst can preserve true ethics and ideals. in the soul of the ghenos. One has to be part of true humanity: the Idea. It consists more in the Stimmung (spiritual dis soul and body as the two sides. such as inBook V of The Republic. For him. because paganism does not consist so much in the negation of the spirit or in the ignorance of the one God. that together determine the Type. the Platonic process of ascending toward the idea. treatise on the following statement: "Mihi natura dedit leges a sanguine ductas (Nature gave me laws driven by blood). It is not the "still Socratic" Plato who appeals to the Nazis of Gestalt metaphysics. It is the Plato who appears to reduce the soul are in fact passages. that is to say impure bodies because deprived of a soul.. and in The Statesman. There in The Laws. These are words to be written on the tombstone of the Greek and Roman worlds. But it is not the path that each individual soul. the process of approximation and of conforming to the idea.5"Solidly connected. body dualism. the Soul.
getting it used to the sight of dead bodies. and it is amere In a speech that was not intended for public circulation.55 carries out a systematic enterprise of redefining human Nazi "idealism" Himmler ity. spirituelle de 1 'antisemitisme. The new concept of humanitas thus decrees the inability of a part of humanity to reach the level of being part . The Jew is. The Jew is trapped in his own Judaism through his own body. in reality. untrustworthy.52 Judaism is provisional. exhorted the SS to carry out their duty until the end. into a fatality from which one cannot escape. and it is facilitated in this by a literature of treatises that. and not only for Levinas. to "nail himself' body and soul to Judaism. of the spirit that feels itself to be always somewhere else. someone who takes advantage of everyone. is apparently in situating the soul and the Gods to itself. He is not only the expression of a corrupt. is portrayed as the changeable being par excellence. 54 he tries to point out the paradox of Hitlerism for having put Jewish conscience in a situation that is absurd and without precedent for it. in one God. This is a paradoxical situation. has no soul or form of his own.24 Political Theory position.53 Or once again. But he is "nailed" by National Socialist "idealism" precisely on this aspect: He is changeable because he ismimetic. used to the disquiet of never being at home with himself. if one thinks of the treatises and a thousand-year-old wandering iconography that portray the Jew as the individual by definition. his body is not part of the Idea. he who. have always been dead bodies. He Seelengestalt. the Jew can is differ of what tells us. impure. appearance. Hitlerism had therefore transformed the destiny of being-a-Jew. He exhorted them to fortify their soul. composite. He assumes the features of others to insinuate himself in the bodies and in the nations towhich he does not belong. partially through Plato's texts. to erode it bacteria or as a virus-so from the inside. The supporters of the new and "original" humanitas make clear the reasons for this mimesis and for the nomadic existence of the spirit and of the body. that is why he becomes the man of the universal abstract. a simulacrum. from the French in the nineteenth century onwards had achieved high levels of rhetorical violence. Because these dead bodies. probably This is not because of exterminationhe does not yet imagine it-but for having forced the Jew. a liar. They have finally reached their ontological truth. but because in that sufficient it believes is antipaganism. and he ismimetic because he is duplici tous. used to always escaping somewhere else. Here is the stereotype of the parasite as as to better undermine Nordic humanity. He is the one who he is Seelenlos He has no is Gestaltlos because (Soulless). Levinas does not mention it. from the Roman poet Martial to Woody Allen. not because not fail to see everywhere the traces of what in L'essence ent from himself. mood) world which Levinas of being enclosed. often Platonically. and lowly soul.
with its being Seelenlos and Gestaltlos. a tomb. But the transcendental aspect of any corruption is change. It will not be approximation enough. his kind of brain. with his hands. to transform the impure enemy into a dead body. below the level of an ani mal. would have had to renounce change and time. a universal body. and which perhaps is still with us). mythical strength-it which expresses an eternal soul. whose health and justice imply victory over every agent of pathology and corruption. sums up the essence of theWest. a creature which appears to be of the same species as the human species. to achieve reality. and only in this way. but which came originally from further afield. But in fact he belongs to another. therefore. into a great and glorious corpse. never present. finally. to be eternal. and I am not alleging in the least that twentieth-century National Socialism in particular. Even the glorious body of the soul of race. bodies are the mirror of the soul. But what then is this biopolitics. or even to prove that that body has always been a soma. become one single body. If. that comes to terms with its lack of essence. the semblance of a man who has features similar to those of a man. that is to say. there is a dead body that finally expresses itself as such. So. his feet. then bodies must. through a process of and purification. this creature of nature. in other words. on one side. Within this creature there is a chaos of savage. time. In a word.Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 25 published of the idea. according to the idea of the eternal life of an immortal Nordic soul. because of his spirit. Conclusion this true heart of totalitarianism. or at least of the Nazi totalitarian system? One might describe it as a form of poli tics dominated by thewill to transform individual lives into one single life. quite different species: a horrible creature. of his soul. there is a great uncorrupted body that expresses a pure soul. unbridled passions: an unlimited will to destroy. but who is situated. carried out by the most primitive appetites. totalitarianism. and if true souls participate in a single great soul. as required by the metaphysics of form (ametaphysics not only present in a current of SS thought. This iswhat a propaganda text in 1942 by the SS says about the Jews: "The sub-human being. a container for a life less soul."56 V. with his eyes and his mouth. a shameless infamy. On the other side. itwould have had to transform itself. nor even of the relationship between body and that of one of its conceptualizations . To ensure that the body is finally fully participating in the soul of the race-the Nordic idea that sweeps through history with its will be necessary to reach the eternal Aryan body.
man's land from which it emerged. (Paris: Gallimard. della vita (Torino: Einaudi. Heller. Esposito. but it can be conceived of as a fragment of a general deconstructive operation on our history. A. of form. Biopolitics. Undoubtedly thinkers who put themselves knowingly at the service of this strategy who are for these consequences. France. Securite. 2004). Feh6r and A. the many who have dealt with biopolitics sovrano et les camps (Paris: Albin (Mayenne: J. L'epreuve Le corps de e la nuda vita (Torino: Einaudi. Cours au College Idem.. et democratie 2003). from this perspective. 2. Race taking Foucault also A. Professor Vegetti about this new version. which in some form continues today. (Paris: Gallimard. raped. volume la societe" 1976) de la sexualite. This history. to use Foucaultian terms. (Eds. to think "against ourselves" tury has done. Arendt. 1 would Cambiano. 3. Hurley (New York: Viking. 1996). de la biopolitique. And we must aspects. Naissance 2004). Biopolitics contributions connecting Among sacer Le XXe that readdressed it to the heritage The Politics of Hannah (Vienna: European Centre. 2003)]. 1994) was trans. La democratie (Stanford: Stanford (Paris: La Dispute. and actually used by totalitarianism. R. An analysis of Nazism certainly cannot be conceived merely as a list of accusations against our tradition of thought. de au Cours territoire. Lane. Foucault. Idem.). R. La fabrique. 1998). We must have the courage as the best philosophy avoid any comforting to admit that of the twentieth cen view. 2003. "II faut defendre (London: Allen 1977-1978 de France. . among others. includes a relationship between body and soul that derives from (and at the same time is the purpose of) a metaphysics this. like to thank. nor isGerman philosophy as a whole. 1995). Michel.26 Political Theory soul does this. Idem. segments of our tradition have been taken to extremes. Idem. population. after having threatened the survival of Western loses entirely its viral character and disappears forever in the no trajectories. But Gunther certainly is. But I do believe (and with that it is all too comforting to believe that it) totalitarianism it the racial theory that supports and strengthens is an aberrant pathology civilization. (Paris: Gallimard. Plato is not responsible. responsible Notes 1. as a starting point. See of the Body. 1978)]. D. The Psychic Protezione Life of Power e negazione 1997). 1: La volonte'de savoir(Paris: Gallimard. Socialist Cavarero. Homo l'ennemi. among the first and the issue of biopolitics. truth effects. College of sexuality. Butler Immunitas. S. 1997) [Society must be defended. immunitaire Hyperviolence Press. Agamben. Heller. See M. and Professor Mario (some of the leading Italian scholars I am greatly racism. Brossat. A preliminary Filosofia Platonic Francesco politica fessor Giuseppe version of this essay was published as "Biopolitica Adriana delle anime" Pro on to in in 3. recognizing that. I:An Introduction. University 2002). trans. Puntscher Riekmann 1996). "parodied". They have therefore it is only those had. Iwould indebted philosophy) Ingravalle for their suggestions for an exchange allowed me of ideas on National also like to thank him for having to have access to some texts that are in practice unavailable most libraries. IIpotere siecle and Nature (Wien: European Centre. 1978-1979 Idem. F. Histoire [The History Macey. du desastre. see G.
Gutmann (eds. On this topic see S. Moser Press. bridge. H. Hottois. Shiva. V. 1976-1988. which conceptual Press. 1987). Taguieff.). Lafilosofia in particular A. (M. the be. inContinental David. Bemasconi (Malden. B. (New York: Oxford Philoso et University phy. The Origins see S. colonizzazionedelle coscienze (Milano:Feltrinelli. 1996). MA: 1991). 256: "The more inferior species live. has in fact demonstrated therefore address once and for all that political See the extremely in Foucault. 405-456. Forti. Totalitarianism different forms. life from side to side. Negri. Hasumi "Pouvoir p. cittadinanza Burgio. Bodei. over everything [Paris: Gallimard. J. Iwill be able to proliferate" be defended. reflect on the conditions of a power that may address and each of us. 4. L'invenzione delle razze. it tends to have a total and precise Dits et in other words. 1999). 2001). and A. Foucault. to continue in the sense of all power.). Laterza. experiences" Starting from the "problem" and Stalinism. R. (Bloomington: Indiana University personali. on the topic. Press. Forti. vast. discussion. Essais Bodies: Determinations of Self in Immune System of nature (New et biopolitique (1989) cyborgs. Taguieff. A. (Rennes: Empire L'eta Edi (Cam della J.) Color Conscious.-A. The direction of the possibility to penetrate that is. La civilta in Europa. 1995). would past two decades antiracism.). Le corps de l'ennemi. Foucault. 255). Taguieff. "without any shadow of doubt" control to that political power has a totalitarian vocation. writings which of Totalitarianism devoted and in particular the part devoted is extremely intensely its topoi. Essai Les fins de l'antiracisme of K. In totalitarismo (1951). e la teoria della liberale (Roma-Bari: and the extremely razza. in P. (Roma-Bari: 2003). A. more whole. I over the See P. pp. P. et savoir" (1977). della cittadinanza 3. (ed. R. Destini 1999). Anti-Semitism. Race andRacism Press. "Society Must individuals I-as Iwill be Defended. Arendt. Lecorps tions ENSP. more abnormal sur l'envers des concepts the fewer degenerates (Paris: Ellipses. MA: Blackwell. Foucault. on the deconstruction in its simple polar opposition of the commonplaces to racism of racism. See also to biopolitics 2000) Harvard University emphasized and in R. Studi su razzismo e revisionismo (Roma: Manifesto takes the term On the use 2001 and to Libri.-B. Discourse The Biopolitics in Haraway. Foucault were Nazism on various occasions that the "so-called research program totalitarian on power. de philosophie (eds. 2001. Appiah contained sur le racisme et ses doubles (Paris: Edition Michalon. della and A. Paturet. the as a Iwill are eliminated. 2001)." p. 2004). be. that had started off his entire Foucault states. P. 2002). 7. Biopolitics bioetique (Paris: Vrin. see also the The (ed. Haraway.). 8. and Racism. but also those of a facile (Paris: Gallimard.-A. For a strictly philosophical of Race (Princeton: University (ed. 6. of Postmodern Simians. Boxill. Il discorso (Torino: Einaudi. G. Racisme antisemitisme. 2001). Race and A. See Costa. ncrits II. to refer to the paradox and on the history of total domination of the concept. La force du prejuge'. inK. lucid chapter Storia in Idem. like to refer at least to the work of P." p. 383])." in Foucault. it has been demonstrated "La securit6 et l'Etat. 2001). Sante publique. Appiah Princeton S. Cook University include comprehen sive bibliographies Political Morality Race. (Bloomington. Press. the references Du biopouvoir inM. political interesting Dits et in its and inter ncrits II.). 2003).Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 27 D. 1998). Contemporary this heritage. a species there will be in the species and the more vigorous rather than individual-can (Foucault. and women: The reinvention York: Routledge. IN: Indiana Essai de philosophie (eds. The bibliography to theories of race and to racism who has been working reproduces 1995). difronte all'estremo gave to S. Bemasconi. of his research was. has managed thought should Foucault philosophical view which 5. Brossat. storico. I. while distancing himself from liberal theories of totalitarianism. Laterza. Hardt a la democratie and A. . totality. that is common toNazism and Stalinism.-A. 399. Civitas. the stronger "Society must die out.
Wilson Center Toward Press. rather than to Darwin. especially pp. (Wien: Manz. Nationalist see especially. Die uiber das Gesetz Staatsidee reprinted 1909). instead 1996). which forces of a people. Britain. Die Grundlagen Chamberlain. Sci there is no a des the of to a pure race link with in contact with the deep that forge collective but intuition is. Lukacs. (Leipzig: 1898). first of all the promis . Lacoue-Labarthe and J. de Gobineau. G. countries 1926).Son role social (1899) (Bologna:Forni. part iv (on H. Eine Untersuchung later as Der Idem.G.-Anst. 11. Bourgeois. (Washington. Stewart Chamberlain.For example. sociales. role. Positive Soziologische (Graz: soziologische Leuschner& Lubensky. Vacher Les selections the best-known Idem. 32-138. PolitischeAnthropologie: eine Untersuchung der uberderEinflussderDescendenztheorieaufdie LehrevorderpolitischeEntwicklung Volker (Eisenach-Leipzig: Thuiringische Verl.L'Aryen. especially to my that end up in Nazism. Il totalitarismo. the future theories of race. authors (Paris:Fontemoing. 12. vol. Gobineau.LudwigWoltmann. but lived for much of his life in Germany. S. On for example. 1907). L. If race can be recognized Race is a destiny of "today" through intuition.Die soziologische Erkenntnis. Mosse. Darwin's and social sciences. in racial (1887) For a history of racial theories. approach mythe Labarthe.. Rassenkampf: Grundriss der der (Innsbruck: und Staat. l'art et la politique 14. but also the earlier book by P. of Reason in Forti. the various Brossat. DC: The Woodrow "rediscovered" Cours 1985) and I. played of Reality For an Le a 13. that puts the individual ence is not indispensable. see the classic (New York: H. remains a very particular and the decline of superior case because civilizations.28 Political Theory 9. Rasse 1875). who from the race. Fertig. that is close L'imitation Heideggeri the chapter on the mythical P. The race is the force that animates expresses race is a fact that is incontestably roots. I. In German-language Sociologie Staatenbildung Untersuchungen F. Lacoue 1985). Editions the fact that in the strands 1980). A. 1903). Fertig. The History of Species text for the biological Late nineteenth-century of races takes it as its starting point the study by G. Lehre von menschlichen Wechselbeziehungen (Leipzig:Brockhaus. Nancy. was de Lapouge. See. de l'Aube. 10.271-72. Le corps de l'ennemi. (1899) (Muinchen: was born in the nation in to a du des modernes (Paris: Aubier-Flammarion. and Man. Jahrhunderts who was Wagner's 1940).DerZerstorung der Vernuft(Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag. pp. Chamberlain) the theory of evolution and Fascist origins Perceptions of National Socialism. by the other "current" libre de science politique theories. nazi (La Tour-d'aigues: 1991). The Nordic They must perceptible. forms of reasoning: Men who belong from which immediate are called is the original to revive never lose sight of this blood he belongs. son-in-law. A. the Final Solution: Race. on the regression that will Origin rapidly "overtaken" by an attitude and archaeological to be see in the struggle of races the possibility (1858) became anthropology an essential of a triumph of the fitter races. 1896). 1999]). of European cul interpretations of racist totalitarianism as the collapse ture. chapter VII. Mosse. the best racial characteristics through intuition. Idem. des 19. Houston Bruckmann. were of His [New York: H. one cannot escape. L. 1892). a History of European Racism of an Idea in the West to some extent.Gustav Ratzenhofer. 1977). and Idem. evident: everyone to see one's identity. For him it is impossible the single individualities allows to separate and that is exalted Belonging He refers to Gobineau the figure of the hero. 1980]. proof and complicated relationship. Press. Soziologie. See G. Brockhaus. theory of evolution. Lafiction 1988). the purer and more peoples oppose "Asiatic" the heritage racial promiscuity.-L.1954) (The [London: Merlin Masses analysis. (Innsbruck: are Ludwig Gumplowicz. but only on the basis of historical pessimistic conclusions. (Paris: C. politique.Hannaford. Idem. see the final chapter Destruction recognizes minor (New York. need to have scientific tiny that is all the more race to which ancient Indo-Europeans. Human Races Essai de l'inegalite des races humaines (1853-55) (The Inequality it anticipates reflections. Wagner.
Poliakov. and inept as Negroes. Freda. p. 1933). statements can be found in Ernst See also Rosenberg's Ehre Gestalten der Idee (Miinchen: Verlag. indeed. See Hoheneichen A. Nancy in genetic and P. formation of a world weltanschauunlich" it is the creation according struggle the idea of the cre in a world ator of form is precisely domination: and exploited must incarnate 20. 1934). des griechischen de Gruyter.Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 29 cuity that Judaism has brought. The Ideas of Greek Culture Nationalsozialismus pp. one of the most widely to have extensive and were des deutschen read authors of the Nazi reprinted. Hildebrandt. Volume Jahrhunderts. The main em. W. 23. Verlag. civilization. sees subsequently Ar. razza (Milano: Hoepli. In Italy this strand is followed di dottrina 1938) and Idem. [London: Le mythe aryen (Paris: (The Aryan Myth. is. Also (Padova: Edizioni (Milano: Hoepli. read and widely the following: Kampf (Berlin itwas di as the 1933) and Idem. 17. Inmito del sangue Lo Stato secondo di Ar.. p. Hitlers Platon und Der by Julius Evola. formation. 219. Kampf. 1933 Der antagonist of Indo-European peoples. states: image. Paideia. und Antike 21. 22. Platons Leipzig: della Socialist Hitler des Geistes (Berlin: Bondi.Der Mythus.1936). Gabler. 6. of for incarnating the lifetime of its modem 18. in fact. Paideia. realization to which 1938 of [1925-28]) its own is [seen] (p. threat to European 15. it is aworld by Aryans: "The weltanschauunlich is not just any enterprise The Weltanschauung of the entire public (Berlin: W. link Plato's circulated The most widely (Berlin-Leipzig: de Gruyter.Volkisch-politischeAnthropologie (Leipzig: Armanen-Verlag. und Campe. is. Guinther was defined important solid doctrinal often the early by Adriano of race in the twentieth were many theories of Gobienau. as he who would He have reforged success 24. Official (Munchen: Hoheneichen in Hitler's Mein 1971) Krieck. E.Rosenberg. not of the individual coincide). quotations from pp. of its Anschauungen" Jaeger. und Platon there are many writings de Gruyter. ancient and mod they represent II (Mtinchen: and Blut und a Jews are not as passive Mythus des XX. the rare "philosophers" Socialist the importance creates of this nonbiologistic and naturalistic version of National Lacoue-Labarthe with the absence 19.. Lacoue con Der Mythus. The Aryan will have to be much more that has become Aryan. Rosenberg. 680). Hans K. up by F. Romualdi (and even earlier. L. its "spiritual" understand appears most expression aspect of the soul. the Aryan. A. Losemann. 506). to the und 1934) (Paideia: V. Howard 1974]) is essential." p. trans. who recognize 14. Platone. by Evola) century.Similarpremises can be found Calman-Levy. Labarthe are among Der Mythus. 1996). 22. 16. Verlag. K.) 1933). philosophy include 1932 and 1934 movement. Rosenberg. Der Kampf [New York: Oxford University (Hamburg: Hoffmann um die Macht which 1945). 1936). giustizia Evola Sintesi Staat(Berlin-Leipzig: de Gruyter. of Plato in mind soul. For "National racism that is interested not so much Hellas. requires a total overturning (p. political Kampf as in a copy identity (Munchen: the that finally throughout Lehemans and rightly stress that this obsession trol. 448. 2001). treaties on race: Rassenkunde . Menschen subjected life itwill have to be a world it therefore Formung itself absolutely. On the Aryan myth. (Padua: Edizioni the body I lupi azzurri phenomenological (stirpe). but of the soul of the race form of its somatic this Aryanized features and of Plato. Platon. 1-20. F. but rather in reproducing and Nancy of a German the truth of the original. followed 1934). which states that the soul is "race seen from the inside. Fuhrer 1942). Rosenberg. era. see also 1977.-L. a type is connected thinlers. Die according to its points of view. Hoheneichen NSDAP ). J. that matter Mein Socialism Verlag. the Jewish people. Press.. Jaeger. Keeping polemic. For Evola. one may (1945) as the in a the supreme value for the race is the perfect (which must anti-Platonic better Karl Popper's His Open Society and its Enemies to take seriously theoretician organism the interpretation that these authors gave. and his works he published destined In the 1920s. Bannes. Between National J.
the thing they in the souls of children. print runs of more des Lebens. 3-29. pp. calamity . Mohr. The Republic. Race and German 1933). RassenkundeEuropas (Mtinchen: LehemannsVerlag. B. as true: the fact that through des Lebens. Gunther. and promoted they must of. an organic 1929). Verlag. need people with Gunther trained Levantine Greekness should philosophise! nature died" type we require. with 26. These from those groups either god tells them. passages to be the worst Cambridge: Cambridge the mixture how Plato considered for a people "Because the toughest. des Lebens. (Muinchen: Lehemanns two books were copies. Gunther. it [philosophy]. nos always 30. his nature deserves. Platon . you are parent. of pure blood men of a "We didn't want bastard. 535. Griffith. 29. Gunther and eth to support p. 17 and 20 times.000 pp. while then comments Plato must have of a reality which we. 22-28. is borm with of bronze or iron in him. should in inherited values p. Phaedo. all of you of those of you who to god made you. copies the (and which in almost all German in an abbreviated called Volksguinther. translates both ghenos quoted by Gunther tively. Idem. any children is a prophecy. occasionally god gives a silver child may be borm from a golden silver parent. translating beautiful it in the following should way: of pure ancestry should be chosen. or a golden child from a instruction If of the time you will father children all related.30 Political Theory Volkes (Muinchen: Lehemanns was present Verlag. or illegitimate. (Tuibingen: J. als Hiiter als Hiiter 78c-80c.' they are themost our story will tell them. Voegelin. C. reprinted households 16 times in more than 100.Rassenkundedes Jtidischen Volk (Muinchen: Lehemanns work was already at Berlin University. is the compound amixture in society recognition. to the to seeking that corre legit also then takes up Republic. p. Rasse see P. usurped (Gunther. look for noble spond to the human imate philosophers" ble the best-looking. But when were be auxiliaries. Humanitas Platon als Hiuter des Lebens Verlag. Giunther. p. 244. which valuable. and likewise should keep their most any type from any other type. K. 25. reprinted. the most but men and for a polis. Platon 27. Gunther's anthropology of eugenics.. und Staat Health. iswhy des Lebens. There or bronze becomes University of "races" differing deal with extent individuals Press. als Huiter des Lebens. He used silver for those who were but because important and iron and bronze for the farmers and the rest of the skilled workers." The current English-language (535b). that the end of the city will trans. Verlag. driving him out to join the skilled to the position of guardian come when the other hand. a natural "We must choose the most reads as follows: and as far as possi p. 1928). up. 2000). but also those who have the natural qualities translation the bravest philosophers taking it [philosophy] steadfast. On gold or silver should be given that of auxiliary. the Sophists the Nordic soul of in racial research. We wanted not only must we and virile character. 1989). 29. 30.000 version. 36). their own child workers feel no kind of pity for born with a mixture of or to iron him. Most 415: "'You are all brothers. but give him the position or farmers. way: the awareness spirit. On the eve of the National component of the movement. In addition. we "only men talent for this kind of education" on this passage have acquired to accept the power als Hitter of have in the following in some way the Hellenic (535a) Plato. it is possible. als Hiiter Republic. On his role in the history Between National Unification 1928). of the same type as yourselves. Plato. F. These than 120. respec andNazism (1870-1945) (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press. The passages his thesis are especially in the city. 1922). limit oneself of a noble and virile character. in the "philosophy Politics Socialist He rise to power. taught social Social On the role of Gunther of National ism". (Munchen: Lehmanns 1937). He bastards must bravest not and. he used amixture of gold in the creation fit to be rulers. Platon 28. Weindling.. The first and most of these metals the rulers is that the thing that they should be is the best guardians careful eye on. One confirm for Gunther its guardian" (Plato. H. see E. T. Gunther. Guinther.Republic. Platon Platon as Rasse.
56. Even for Hitler. I. ff. und Seele. to us that it is necessary us. thought has been a thought of selection: and men who will never be able to be as an "idealist and educator. a neo Pardes. see Gunther. will be removed (Plato. Precisely "a selection to practice a selec 41. race. 1968 (to my knowledge. K. or of any deformed pp. betrayed human values unpublished In this book he "'Classical' lan longer interested though that after 1933. breeding. 348-351. p. herds. pp. Gunther. des Lebens." due to unregulated theWest. to social and educational qualities of peoples. R. Platon als Hater des Lebens.French translation Mein EindruckvonAdolfHitler. 37. 70 (italics p. with a Levantine he had to adapt to this fanaticism that Lenin how else could he have saved the German als Hiuter des Lebens. Plato was precisely so.1968). Mon Platon Platon Platon Platon for the present Temoignage situation of urbanised masses. whereas p. L." except Plato was absolutely one species spoke of animals to distinguish truth: the hereditary best manner. for he reckons spent on bodies less and unending ruin. p. character. G. 36. 35. Bury [London: Heinemann. The children of inferior parents. he expressed himself with a burning. Gestalt des Juidischen Volk. eine Einfuerhrung in den Sinn der leiblichen LehmannsVerlag.Thiswas his last work before his death. Gunther. Mon Temoignage sur Adolf Hitler. ed. Iwould a sense of measure and of reflection-no in contempt. Clauss. on September remarked human mattered in swaying situation: dignity of 25. but not the children we can make of the worst. (Mtinchen: 40. Hitler fundamental Indeed. much that attaches systems. Gunther. F. 157-58). fanaticism. people from the mass p. to proclaiming also proclaimed (Puiseaux: in the original). is expressed the true Hellenic cherished values by peoples Indo-European He was guages-which in self-assurance. 40) added). even Plato's if their bodily the one to have suggested appearance may mislead tion between men who may be part of the Idea or archetype. p. 1951]. is a truth of which aware. This importance to the economy. as is right" a flock any kind. a thorough purge be made himself a Platonist. p. the Jewish 38." mixture. say that he held these values crowds. vol. Gunther. almost oriental he may have been appropriate had inflamed?" 34. will to each group of animals and the well-bred the appropriate purge-which sound from the unsound. of 1990. In addition Kantian. shepherd or cowherd. should bring up the in should have sex with for the worst men and the worst women it should be the reverse.. 735b-c: "In dealing with born to the other group. According cratic chaos to Gunther and other "Nazi Platonists. F. 72. Socrates and Plato faced the demo that was ultimately dominates This was the same lack of regula to the forms that of so tion that "nowadays" of government. Gunther. sur Adolf Hitler. the former under his own care. so that in the Republic but in reality and Glaucon and how to breed them in the from another talking of how Gunther's among human beings. For a detailed 39. als Hater als Huter als Hater analysis Rasse of des Lebens. Gunther. 42.. and to send off the latter to other that his labour could be fruit to and souls that nature and ill-nurture have combined is sound and clean both in habit and body-whatever in the existing Gunther herd" (Plato. on the other hand. pp. Laws. and that bring ruin on a stock which the class of beast-unless 33. And also Laws. Socrates they were to "all sorts of points of view. Rassenkunde (Gunther. 32. We children of the best. des Lebens. Republic. it until he first applied from sight into some secret and hidden place. while keeping if itwere from the ill-bred. 459-460: used to demonstrate "the best men thesis include especially the best women those contained as often as possible. Ibidem. that prevents unregulated . 80. 1933).Forti / The Biopolitics of Souls 31 31. is to separate never attempt to look after the or the keeper of horse or any such animals. 40. of humanitas: of himself Editions See H. The passages Republic. if the quality of our herd is to be as high as species the it .
celibate with the Stoic conception of the and his of this gave rise to the rigid scholar who Ages hereditary. Humanitas. Levinas. 45. now and J. Billig. Gunther. nazis Traces. over the centuries. (1938). 1950). tra filosofia 2001. 109-111. Humanitas. we read: "In this world-which de Maimonide. remained in Rome. 24. 28. et realisations (Paris: Paris du Centre. through the Danube and into Italy. vol. Gunther. 51. Forti is a full professor of history of political Orientale. 22. body and soul are one thing. Suhrkamp. in Billig. Humanitas. through interbreeding population was by the beginning increasingly and African Empire) slaves (who represented the Indo-European types. iswell known. Gunther. of that virtue that makes See Gunther. Gunther. 30. works del Piemonte Italy. an ideal which and in theModern age contributed to the extinction Gunther. philosophy in the political research science depart Hannah and of at the Universita philosophy. Milan). p. Laurent. 54. which amajority of the Roman by Mediterranean of Greece p. Editions 55.C. Traces. Text quoted et le genocide." to preserve p. 47. and II totalitarismo of the Coordinating on The Politics (Roma-Bari. originatingfrom (or or reconstruction Indo-European: a region between who moved course and the Vistula valley and extending north up to Oslo and Anatolia. Sloterdijk. Levinas. Editore. Humanitas. Simona ment political Arendt Laterza. in J. V (1982). E. As this is a thesis that iswidely shared dur and that returns inmany the Rhine other books. 49. p. 2003). Quoted pp. caste considered themselves From as the dominating this emerged with Asian in relation to the indigenous language: of the invaded countries." "L'actualit6 L'essence de l'antisemitisme et le genocide. p. Humanitas. the pagan in Levinas. vital and brave energies. in Greece of the race of of Indo-Europeans Indogermans Aryans). all related to one another. de Maimonide" (polemically no less than ironically). pp. Levinas. published and History International Politica She is also editor of the Italian edition of Hannah Arendt's a member Network Science Foundation unpublished Committee European of the European Democratisation. inwhich p. 46. and Italy. These P. Humanitas. Humanitas. was stock of Northern represent replaced and Levantine the greater part of the current population 44. Plans now in Levinas. de i'humain inwhich 52. E. ing that period pp. ff. 88. 10. Gunther. his seriousness severity. 53. Franco Angeli. (1935). Activity and coeditor of the political-philosophical journal Filosofia and of Arendt's . Newsletter. 37. from Germanic to ancient the Indo-European from Latin Indian. 99 suffices to itself. Gunther. which is self-sufficient is trapped. 50. These peoples populations to Greek. als Hiuter des Lebens. 1999) both by La fur den Menschenpark selon Platon "L'actualite (Frankfurt: 2002). Humanitas. 97-100. This is the mythic-historical around 2000 B.32 Political Theory but allows with the expression of the idea of the complete is an expression Platon man. spirituelle L'Allemagne p. 24. p. V (1982). 30. coupled. p. many and Italy the idea of humanitas in theMiddle p. 31 (italics added). 18. of Gunther's 43. 56. vol. Her main 1996) area is contemporary Her main publications e politica (Feltrinelli include Vita della mente e tempo dellapolis: (Milan. "When world. L'Allemagne p.." up an ethical order in harmony The "pure conforming" the cosmos. Greece. mesure interpretations Regeln appear to be discussed (Paris: Vrin. Then. Gunther. 48.
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