Prof. S.-I. Sou EE, NCKU Fall, 2008



• Introduction • PCS Architecture • Cellular Telephony • Cordless Telephony and Low-Tier PCS • Third-Generation Wireless Systems • Summary




• PCS systems can connect to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). • Goal of PCS:enabling communications with a person at anytime. 4 . at any place and in any terminal form.PCS • Personal Communications Services (PCS) refers to a wide variety of wireless access and personal mobility services.

++ IMT-2000 PCS .PCS Revolution Third First Generation JTACS High-tier Digit Cellar Systems TACS NMT AMPS Low-tier Telecommunication Systems CT0/1 CT2 GSM NADC PHS PACS DECT 5 Second Generation Generation Mobile Satellite JDC GSM+.

Digital Communication System-1800 (DCS1800) IS-136 TDMA based Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service (DAMPS) Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) IS-95 CDMA-based cdmaOne System 6 .Examples of Wireless Communications Systems (1/4) • High-tier digital cellular systems • For vehicular and pedestrian services Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM).

Examples of Wireless Communications Systems (2/4) • Low-tier telecommunication systems • For residential. business. and public cordless access applications Cordless Telephone 2 (CT2) Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT) Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) Personal Handy Phone System (PHS) 7 .

Examples of Wireless Communications Systems (3/4) • Wideband wireless systems • To accommodate Internet and multimedia services. cdma2000 (evolved from cdmaOne) W-CDMA (proposed by Europe) TD-SCDMA (proposed by China/Europe) 8 .

as well as wireless local area networks(WLANs) 9 . scientific. and medical (ISM)band technologies.Examples of Wireless Communications Systems (4/4) • PCS umbrella Paging systems Trunking Radio Mobile-satellite system Unlicensed industrial.

PCS Architecture 10 .

PSTN • Public Switched Telephone Network Switch subscriber loop Switch Taipei Taichung trunk Switch 11 .

PLMN • Public Land Mobile Network PLMN PSTN 12 .

The Basic PCS Architecture Public Land Mobile Network Switch for Mobile Applications Mobility Database Wireline Transport Network Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station BTS Radio Network Mobile Station 13 .

PCS Architecture • Each PCS technology has similar architectures which consists two parts: Radio Network • MS (Mobile Station) • BS (Base Station) System Wireline Transport Network • MSC (Mobile Switching Center) • The Mobility Database connected to MSC is used to track the locations of mobile station. 14 .

portable • Multi-mode handset • Also known as User Equipment (UE) in NGN 15 .Mobile Station (MS) • Handset. subscriber unit. mobile phone.

• The BS system is partitioned into a controller radio transmitters/receivers • The BSs usually reach the wireline core network via land links or dedicated microwave links. 16 .Base Station (BS) • The radio coverage of a BS is called a Cell.

GSM Antenna 17 .

GSM Base Station 18 .

Cellular Concept cluster √ √ √ cell sector √ √ √ 19 .

Duplex Technologies • Down-link: BS to handset • Up-link: handset to BS • Two duplex Technologies: FDD(Frequency Division Duplex) TDD(Time Division Duplex) 20 .

FDD Frequency A1 talks to A2 B1 talks to B2 C1 talks to C2 A2 talks to A1 B2 talks to B1 C2 talks to C1 Time 21 Down Link Up Link .

TDD Frequency A2 talks to A1 B2 talks to B1 C2 talks to C1 ... A1 talks to A2 B1 talks to B2 C1 talks to C2 ... Time 22 .....

Multiple Access Technology • FDMA(Frequency Division Multiple Access) • TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access) • CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access) 23 .

FDMA Frequency 30kHz for AMPS Time 24 .

615 ms/frame 8 time slots for GSM Time 25 .TDMA Frequency 200kHz for GSM 4.

25MHz for IS-95 20 ms/frame 32 channels 26 .CDMA (1/2) Frequency 1.

every signal is processed with PN sequence (pseudo-noise sequence).CDMA (2/2) • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) • In DS-CDMA. 27 . User signals are distinguished by different PN sequences. Faster-rate. wide-bandwidth digital signal Each PN sequence is a unique orthogonal code.

D: 01000010 • Transfer the PN to Bipolar chip sequences: A=(- D=(-1.Example of PN (1/3) • Assign PN code A: 00011011.-1) • Check: A*A=1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1=8 A*B=1+1-1-1+1-1+1-1=0 A*C=1-1+1+1+1-1-1-1=0 A*D=1-1+1-1-1+1+1-1=0 28 .1.-1) C=(-1.1.1. C: 01011100.1.1.1.-1.-1.-1.1) B=(-1.-1.-1.1.1.-1.-1.1.1.-1.-1. B: 00101110.-1.

D=1.0) 29 .Example of PN (2/3) • If 4 MSs want to transmit A=1. then BS will receive S2 =A*1+B*1+C*(-1)+D*1 =(-2. C=1.2. C=0. B=1.0.-2.-2. then BS will receive S1=A*1+B*1+C*1+D*1=(-4.0. B=1.-2) • If 4 MSs want to transmit A=1.0. D=

2. 1. 1.2.-1.-2.0.-2.1.-2) * (-1.1.-1.0.-1) = 1/8 * (4+0+2+0+2+0-2+2)= 1 1/8 * C*S2 = 1/8 * (-2.1.0.Example of PN (3/3) • BS will receive from MS C 1/8* C*S1 = 1/8 * (-4.1.-1) = 1/8 * (2-2+0-2+0-2-4+0)= -1 • -1 means “0” • BS will receive from MS A A*S1=A*(A*1+B*1+C*1+D*1)=A*A*1+A*B*1+A*C* 1+A*D*1=8*1+0+0+0=8 30 .-2.-1.- * (-1.1.0.

Spread Spectrum Correlation Process Recovered Data Signal Data Signal Received Signal + Wideband Interference W Hz Direct Sequence Spread Direct Sequence Despread 0 f : Desired Signal : Interference 0 f 0 f 31 .

Cellular Telephony 32 .

NTACS (1993) • C450 33 . JTACS (1988).1G Cellular Telephony • Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) • Total Access Communication System (TACS) • NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) 450/900 • NTT (Nippon Telephone & Telegraph) .

Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) (1/2) • Analog FM radio for voice transmission • FSK modulation for signal channels • FDMA • FDD • Total 50 MHz=824-849 MHz(down-link) + 869894 MHz(up-link) 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies • 30kMHz spacing 34 .

There are about 50 channels per cell. 35 .Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) (2/2) • Frequency reuse scheme for radio communication 12-cell cluster using omni-directional antennas 7-cell cluster using three sectors per BS 4-cell cluster. 6-sector design in Motorola AMPS system. • EIA/TIA IS-41 standard for roaming management.

2G Cellular Telephony • Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) • EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System • EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System • Japanese Digital Cellular (JDC) in Japan 36 .

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) (1/2) • “Digital” cellular system Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) and European des Postes et Telecommunications (ETSI) • TDMA/FDD • 935-960 MHz for Downlink • 890-915 MHz for Uplink • 200 kHz for RF channel spacing • Speech coding rate 13 Kbps 37 .

multiparty services 38 . group addressing.Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) (2/2) • Frequency carrier is divided into 8 time slots Every pair of radio transceiver-receiver supports 8 voice channels. • GSM Mobile Application Part (MAP) for roaming management • Digital switch can provide many applications: Example: point-to-point short messaging. call waiting.

EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System (1/2)
• Digital AMPS (DAMPS), American Digital Cellular (ADC), or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA), IS-136 • The successor to IS-54 • The same spectrum used by AMPS
3 times of capacity of AMPS

• TDMA/FDD • 30 KHz frequency spacing


EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System (2/2)
• 2 types of channel usage:
Full-rate: use 2 timeslot for a voice channel Half-rate: use 1 timeslot for a voice channel

• Digital switch can provide many applications:
Example: point-to-point short messaging, broadcast messaging, group addressing, private user groups

• IS-41 standard for mobility management


EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System (1/2)
• Qualcomm cdmaOne in USA since 1996 • Korea in April, 1996.





25 MHz channel bandwidth User signals distinguished with different codes MSs links to many BSs during phone calls. and 10 times of AMPS. A shared 1.EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System (2/2) • CDMA/DSSS for the air interface. No cell plan question GPS for synchronization of BSs • Interference-based capacity (soft capacity) The capacity of IS-95 is 3-6 times of IS-136 system. • IS-41 for core network • Advanced Radio Resource Management 42 .

6 kps FDD FDMA CDMA 869-894 JDC 日 FDD FDMA TDMA 810-826 Region Duplex MAC 825-845 824-849 824-849 940-956 Carrier Channels Speech rate Channel bit rate 30kHz 1 10 kps 30kHz 6 FDD FDMA TDMA Downlink (MHz) Uplink (MHz) 870-890 935-960 1805-1880 890-915 1710-1785 200kHz 8 13 kps 270.8 kps 25kHz 3 11.95kps 48.833 kps IS-136 美 FDD FDMA TDMA 869-894 IS-95 美.韓.25MHz 32 8 kps 1228.Comparison of Cellular Systems System AMPS 美 FDD FDMA GSM DCS1800 歐.2 kps 42 kps 43 .

Cellular Characteristics • The characteristics of the cellular system: Support high mobility Large coverage area High transmission power of BS and handset High signal process power (for handset) Low voice quality High network complexity • Microcell is developed for: Low transmission power Low base station cost Increase capacity 44 .

Low-Tier PCS 45 .

Examples of Low-Tier PCS • Cordless Telephone. Second Generation (CT2) • Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT) • Personal Handy Phone System (PHS) • Personal Access Communications System (PACS) 46 .

Second Generation (CT2) (1/2) • Developed in Europe since 1989. • 40 FDMA channels • 32-Kbps speech coding rate • TDD • The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW CT-2+ CT-3 CT-1 CT-1+ CT-2 47 .Cordless Telephone.

both handoff and call delivery are OK. 48 . Second Generation (CT2) (2/2) • No handoff in CT2 • No call delivery in CT2 • In CT2+.Cordless Telephone.

• 32 Kbps speech coding rate 49 .Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT) (1/2) • Published in 1992 • TDMA/TDD • 12 voice channels per frequency carrier • Sleep mode is employed in DECT to conserve the power of handsets.

Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT) (2/2) • DECT is typically implemented as a wirelessPBX connected to the PSTN. • Dynamic channel allocation • Time slot transfer • Seamless handoff • Dual mode: DECT + GSM 50 .

1 MHz = 300 KHz × 37 channels (home/office) • 1906. offices.Personal Handy Phone System (PHS) (1/2) • Developed by Research and Development Center (RCR).1 MHz = 300 KHz × 40 channels (public system) 51 .1-1918. Japan 1993 • Telecommunication services for homes. and outdoor environment • TDMA/TDD • 4 multiplexed channels/frequency carrier • 1895-1906.

700 hours standby time. handset < 10mW • 32 Kbps speech coding rate • Dynamic channel allocation.Personal Handy Phone System (PHS) (2/2) • BS: 500 mW. 64kbps wireless data • Dual mode: PHS + GSM 52 . • Dedicated control channels • Sleep Mode • J100: 7 hours talk time.

• TDMA • 8 voice channels/frequency carrier • Both TDD and FDD are accommodated.A.S. U. 53 . • The highly effective and reliable mobilecontrolled handoff (MCHO) completes in less than 20 msec. • PACS is designed for wireless local loop and PCS.Personal Access Communications System (PACS) • Developed at Telcordia.

台灣 TDD FDMA DECT 歐 TDD FDMA TDMA Frequency (MHz) Carrier Channels Speech rate Channel bit rate 864-868 1880-1900 PHS 日本 TDD FDMA TDMA 1895-1918 PACS 美 FDD FDMA TDMA 1930-1990(down) 1850-1910(uplink) 300MHz 8 32kps 384kps 100kHz 1 32kps 72kps 1728kHz 24 32kps 1152kps 300kHz 8 32kps 384kps 54 .Comparison of PCS Systems System Region Duplex MAC CT-2 歐.

Low-tier PCS Characteristics • The characteristics of the low-tier system: Low transmission power Long talk time Small coverage area Large no. of base station Low transmission delay High voice quality Low mobility Low network complexity Low cost 55 .

Characteristics of Cellular and Cordless Low-Tier PCS Technologies Systems Cell Size User Speed Coverage Area Handset Complexity Handset power consumption Speech Coding Rate Delay or Latency HIGH-TIER CELLULAR Large(0.5-35 Km) High(<=257Km/hr) Large/Continuous macro cells High High (100-800mW) LOW-TIER PCS Medium(50-500 m) Medium(<=96Km/hr) Medium and picocells Low Low (5-10mW) micro CORDLESS Small(50-100m) Low(<=48Km/hr) Small/Zonal picocells Low Low (5-10mW) Low (8-13Kbps) High (<= 600ms) High (32Kbps) Low (<= 10ms) High (32Kbps) Low (<=20ms) 56 .

Third-Generation Wireless System 57 .

IS-136.Generations of Wireless Systems • First Generation System: AMPS Analog voice calls • Second Generation Systems: GSM. and low-tier systems Digital speech with low-bit-rate data services • Third-Generation: Better system capacity High-speed and wireless Internet access (to 2Mbps) Wireless multimedia services (audio and video) 58 . IS-95.

Bit rates dependent on distance Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) backbone Wideband CDMA (DS-CDMA FDD). SCDMA and cdma2000 (multi-carrier FDD) for air interface 59 .Third-Generation Wireless Systems • 2.5G: GPRS and EDGE Bridge 2G into 3G • The new features for 3G includes High bit rates. QoS.

3G Revolution 2G America IS-95A IS-136 2.5G IS-95B cdma2000 1x 3G Cdma2000 3xMC ? 1xEV-DO EDGE 1xEV-DV Europe GSM GSM GPRS UMTS UMTS/ HSDPA Japan PDC P-PDC W-CDMA 60 .

Summary • PCS Architecture • Cellular Telephony • Cordless Telephony and Low-Tier PCS • Third-Generation Wireless Systems 61 .

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