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ㅛ "yo" Consonants : ㄱ "g" or "k"
ㅜ "oo" or "u"
ㅠ "yoo" or "yu"
ㄷ "d" or "t"
ㄹ " r " or " l "
ㅂ "b" or "p"
ㅈ " ch "
ㅊ " ch' "
ㅋ " g' " or " k' "
ㅌ " d' "
ㅍ " p' "
Note that " ' " means the letter is aspirated, i.e a sharp sound. ㅎ+ h ㄱ+ g ㅏ+ a ㅜ+ u ㄴ= n ㄱ= k 한 han
guk 한국 pronounced HanGuk meaning Korea
Lesson 2 Double vowels ㅐ eir ㅒ yeir ㅔ ere ㅖ yere ㅘ wa ㅙ where ㅝ wo ㅞ weo
ㅟ ㅢ weou wei
you must add a mixture of consonants and vowels. right or beneath each other in order to form a word. there is no need to use a consonant at the beginning in which case ㅇ (null character) is used. ㅇ ㄹ ㄱ ㄲ ㅇ ㅇ ㄲ ㅎ ㄱ + + + + + + + + + ㅏ ㅡ ㅏ ㅜ ㅗ ㅓ ㅗ ㅏ ㅡ + + + + + + + + = ㅁ = ㅁ = ㅇ = ㅅ = ㅂㅅ = ㅊ = ㄴ = ㄱ = 아 름 감 꿍 옷 없 꽃 한 극 a rum kam kkoong ot eop kkot han guk More on constructing words A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "vertical vowel" is written with the consonant on the left and the vowel on the right ㄴ+ㅏ=나 n + a = na A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "horizontal vowel" is written with the consonant on top and the vowel underneath: ㅁ+ㅗ=모 . the following are examples of their use : - 가 = ka 갸 = kya 바 = pa 뵤 = pyo 즈 = chu 머 = meo 너 = neo 디 = ti 요 = yo 드 = tu 거 = keo 기 = ki 버 = peo 지 = chi 조 = cho 무 = mo 이=i 고 = ko 오=o 두 = too 겨 = kyeo 고 = ko 부 = pu 저 = cheo 마 = ma 나 = na 야 = ya 댜 = tya 도 = to 그 = ku When constructing a word. In some cases.Lesson 3 Use of Consonants (자음) and Vowels (모음) Vowels in the korean languages may be attached to the left. beginning with the consonant at the beginning of the word.
the final consonant. Chal Chinaessoyo may be both expressed as a question by asking how someone is.Sentence Structure and order Korean Sentence Structure and Word order In Korean the structure of sentence differ to English sentences. then you may be able to refer to them directly. vowel. ㅁ+ㅏ+ㄴ=만 m + a + n = man Lesson 4 . suggestions or commands. called patch'im (meaning "supporting floor" in Korean) goes to the bottom -. such as using their first name. Another example is the more common Annyong Haseyo. such as Kayo ( which means "to go".verb "Jon the ball kicked" "To Go" in order to do sentences There are a few words that you may add to the end of verb stems at the end of sentences. ha. and may be further emphasised by the tone of your voice. For example. In general the structure of the Korean sentences is broken down as subject .and sa. the surname always comes first which is opposite of Western Names such as Doojin Pak instead of the Korean method of Pak Doojin. Korean names consist of 3 syllables. it is possible to make these into polite sentences by adding -yo to the end of the words. An example of this would be Doojinssi Making Polite Sentences With verb stems which end in vowels such a ka-. Lee and Pak ). When you are referring to someone who you know well. questions.or floor -.m + o = mo If a syllable has a consonant. these include -yo which makes sentences polite. or "I go" or "he goes" ). However when youare introduced to someone to whom you are not familiar with. or can be a question stating that you are fine. then you would add -ssi to the end of the name. and consonant. In Korean. for example the phrase Chal Chinaessooyo literally means "Well have you been getting on?" which is the opposite from English.of that syllable. or am meeting for the first time.Grammer Korean Names In general. Lesson 5 . and -ro which means "in order to". it is the followed by a two-syllable first name. The order of the sentences for an example sentence of "in order to buy bread I am goin to the shops" is . In some cases the verb stems may in effect end in consonants in which case -uro is utilised. The first part is the Surname ( such as Kim. Verbs in the polite style can be used as statements..object .
In Korean.ayo if the last vowel ends with -a or -o Consonant Stem . Doojin-hago shinae-e kayo meaning 'I am going to town with Doojin'. (In English) (in Korean) I I (optional) go to the shops bread buy . then the "in order section" is next. Vowel stem . or "its over there" Issoyo on its own can mean "I have/he has" Opsoyo means "I dont have" or "I havent got" In a shop When addressing a shop keeper or waiters.restructured as "bread buy-in order-to the shops go" In Korean unlike English. However in the case where the verb stem ends in vowel. and on what you are talking about. soju hana chuseyo meaning "soju one give me please". whereas Korean is 'me-with'. such as na-do (me-too). attached to chu-.oyo In context the oppposite of iss. it is only for the referral of a man. thus forming the ending -oyo. Using 'and' In Korean. the word for and is -hago.Asking for things There Are / There is The Korean verb which means either "there are" and "there is" is issoyo ( 있 어요 ) They are dependent on the context in which you use them. Uses of the verbs chogi issoyo means "it exist over there". we would say 'with-me'. it is the opposite. the subject of the sentences is optional like "I". However if it were to be used in a formal way. such as -ayo. which is then followed by "the place you are going". and for younger woman agassi is used for young women. we use -a or -o. Koreans use ajossi literally meaning uncle. but is used as a general word when addressing someone in a shop. we use a particle which comes after a noun that it relates to. * The construction can only be used in verbs involving 'going' and 'coming' and cannot be used with other verbs at the end of sentences. For example we would say.with the inclusion of o and the polite particle -yo. In English. For females the word ajumma meaning aunt is used. Lesson 6 . this is a particle so when it is to be used it must be attached to a noun. For example.yo Consonant stem . The stem of the verb is iss. Ordering with numbers When asking for 'one' item we say 'hana' which is said after you have selected the meal you wish to order. for people over 35-ish.which literally means "there isnt" or "there arent". which means "give me please" . The particle hago can also mean with such as.is ops. in Korean it would be 'burger-hago chips. The word chuseyo utilises the polite word stem -yo. when you say 'burger and chips'.in-order to in-order -to buy bread shops to go The Konglish for this sentence in Korean would be na-do ppang sa-ro kayo (I-do bread buy-in order-to go). The word hago becomes part of burger.
. It is not possible to a Korean persons first name. when you want to address men politely. or she maybe reffered to in a similar English terminology such as Misesu Han(Mrs Han). On the other hand it may be used as a question Kuraeyo? meaning "is it like that?". but -ieyo when B ends on a consonant. EG soju-nun (as for soju). Lesson 8 . shillye hamnida (excuse me). this literally means teacher. and may be used as a statement such as "it's like that". whereas -un is attached to a vowel. you will have to use special verbs called copula. which is comprised of the verb stem shille ha-. Addressing Korean women. when you use the ssi. if you want to describe A is B .. containing the ending -jiman which means but. for example. or Yoo SangHyun-ssi.. Asking a person In Korean. "is near") nor can it be used to say "is a certain way" (i. one would use the word songsaegnim attached to their surname or full name.More on Grammar -hamnida and -jiman In Korean.for example "Are you Mr Han". such like SangHyun Songsaegnim. you cannot say Yoo-ssi.. shillye-jiman (I'm sorry but.Lesson 7 . in Korea women do not take their husbands surname when they get married. "is happy"). this copula is present at the end of a sentence. It cant be used to say "is located in"(is underneath". In Korea. . Using Copula to describe "this is that" In Korean. For example if Mrs Han is married to Mr Kim. it is possible to add polite endings to verbs. it makes As for Business or As for me. songsaengnim-ieyo (is teacher) soju-eyo (is soju) IMPORTANT to note that in Korean the copula is only used to describe when this "is equivalent to". Ottaeyo means is how?. Songsaengnim-un (as for teacher). Describi ng how things are Korean possess words which mean "is a certain way". and the verb ending hamnida (note this is the formal style). one would say Yoo Songsaegnim or with the full name Yoo SangHyun Songsaegnim. but would rather say SangHyun-ssi.Korean Names and Topics In Korean.. there is a special verb which may be used in the event where you want to ask someone if they are someone. by adding -un or nun. and behaves a little differently to ordinary verbs.) which is a abbreviation of the verb and stem shillye ha-jiman .. If you want to say A is B(like "This is a Korean book"):A B-ieyo (or B-eyo) this Korean book-ieyo It is obvious that you would use -eyo when B ends in a vowel. used in attachment to place emphasis on what is being talked about. -nun is attached to a noun. then she may referred to as Kim songsaengnim-puin (Kim mrwife). as in: songsaengnim ottaeyo? ( How is teacher ? or What is teacher like? ) saob ottaeyo? (How is business? or What is business like?) Kuraeyo literally means "it is like that". "it is". Korean has a special particle. "really?" or "is that so?". For example. There is also the verb and stem.e "is red". "thats right".. For that same reason.
) mashi.. Using Korean sentences with but.( eat ) mok-jiman ( eats. There are lots of verbs where you may attach -jiman onto. we would say :cho-nun songsaengnim-i anieyo ( I am not a teacher ). but. By doing this. but ... The topic particle.Using Negative Copula's Negative Copula In Korean.. as for me ( na-nun ). so you will need to think carefully. this is switched back to the topic particle...( do ) ha-jiman ( does... is similar to that of the english "As for". the subject particle is used. it is quite different to how we would speak in English.We would use -iseyo. Lesson 9 . For a sentence .) ha..... or attach -ga to the end of nouns which end in a vowel. and simply add this to the end of a phrase. I love shopping as for mum (ma-nun). but.. For example. on subjects in sentences. have ) it-jiman ( has. you must always use issoyo as a verb such that:hakkyo-ga kogi issoyo ( the school is over there ).. Answeri ng questions with Yes and No in Korean This is a tricky aspect of the Korean language. I do like it" or "Yes i dont" As you can see.. We have previously seen that shillye hamnida and the equivalent shillye-jiman mean "Excuse me..) .. but later on in a conversation..but.) sa.it can be confusing at first. Han songsaengnim-iseyo? ( Are you Mr Han?) Hangungmal songsaengnim-iseyo? (Are you the Korean Teacher?) Subjects and topics of Korean sentences In Korean.. the subject in this case would be The man. songsaenim-i ( teacher ) or maekju-ga (beer) give emphasis on each of these subjects in a sentence.but. and is best used in order to compare two things.( is/are... For instance. when you are trying to say something is not something else. For example. when a subject is mentioned for the first time. she hates it. it is possible to give emphasis.( go ) ka-jiman ( goes.but" or "I'm Sorry.( drink ) mashi-jiman ( drinks. here are a few of them:ka.... we attach -i to the end of nouns which end with consonants..) iss...but...( buy ) sa-jiman ( buys. Where is it? When asking where something is in Korean. For example: Question in English = "Do you like Korea ?" Answer in English = "Yes I do like it" or "No i dont" Answer in Korean = "No. When saying 'A is not B'. it is also possible to say (X-subject) odi issoyo? When answering a Where is question. you would say (X-subject) odieyo? However. "The man kissed the dog".... On the other hand. we use the negative copula anieyo.but. hanguk hakkwa-ga anieyo ( Not the Korean department )...) mok.." ..
and the sino korean when used to count minutes. you would say kidariseyo (Please wait !!). but. or you might use it in Soju chom chuseyo ( Please give me the Soju ). it takes on the effect of please..becomes issuseyo anj.becomes kidariseyo iss. -seyo is used when the verb stem ends in in a vowel.becomes anjuseyo If you want to request someone to wait for you. chom may be used to soften up requests by making it more polite. For instance.when making requests.anj. for example if you say . the first set are known as pure Korean numbers.000 shibil shibi shipsam shipsa shibo shimnyuk shipch'il shipp'al shibku iship 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 ishibil ishibi ishipsam ishipsa 21 22 23 24 ishipku samship 29 30 Lesson 11 Using -seyo Making requests more polite The polite honorific -seyo can be used to make requests more polite. for example the pure korean numbers are used when counting hours.becomes haseyo kidari. kong il i sam sa o yuk ch'il p'al ku ship saship kuship paek ch'on man 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 40 90 100 1000 10..becomes mashiseyo ha. Examples of these are:mashi.(sit ) anj-jiman ( sits. It is most frequently using in relation to chu. when you use chom in a request immediately before the verb at the end of the sentence. The use of these numbers depends on the context in which it is used. the word chom is used to mean "please". Lesson 10 Numbers and Counting In Korean there are two sets of numbers which are used when counting.. As you can see. The use of -seyo means that you have a special respect for the person.) Note that for the word iss-jiman the double ss is re-written to itjiman Using polite requests In Korean. and -useyo is used when the verb stem ends in a consonant. however do not mistake it to mean the same as the English word for please for all occurances.. for example Han songsaengnim chom pakkwo-juseyo( Can I speak to Mr Han ). and the other are Sino-korean which is based on the chinese numerals.
누가 갑니까? 예문~ . The watch is expensive. 제가. 커피를 마십니다. and 누구. The strawberry is delicious. . 너.. There is not a pair of glasses. Grammar 2 을/를 조사. "-을" --> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant. 네가 갔니? 제가 가겠습니다. 네가. add 이 2.] 1. the -ko is utilised by being added to the end of the verb stem. Particles which come after a noun shows 'subject' are: -께서. When 이/가 is attached at the end of '나. -(에)서' 등이더 있다. "-를" --> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a vowel. -pshida is attached onto verb stems ending in a vowel. Here are some examples:Umryosu mashipshida ( Lets have a drink ) Lesson 12 .. add 가 보기~ 1. 너. .. 저.Grammar 1 + 2 Grammar 1 이/가 주격 조사. 교과서: 교과서 + 를 --> 교과서를 참고~ 구어에서는 생략되거나 모음 뒤에서 '-ㄹ'만으로 줄여 쓰기도 한다. Koreans use -(u)pshida ( literally means lets do). and 누가. 사과: 사과 +가 --> 사과가 참고 '나. 영화를 보고 커피를 마셨어요. [Object particle.' the words change into '내가. I read a newspaper. I drink a cup of coffee. etc. 명사 뒤에 봍어서 주어를 나타내는 조사로는 '-께서. 안경이 없습니다. . it may be omitted or abbreviated into '-ㄹ' after a vowel.. 시계가 비쌉니다. notice that when it is used. "-가" --> 선행 명사가 모음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a vowel. 책: 책 + 을 --> 책을 2. 딸기가 맛있습니다. [ In spoken language.' 내가 가요. 네가. There is a pencil.hansongsaengnim-i hakkyo-e kaseyo . .연필이 있습니다. Making Suggestions When making suggestions. ( But you are also showing special respect for him ). "-이" --> 선행 명사가 자음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a consonant. 저. add 을 2. For example you may say. . and this can be added to a verb stem. 신문을 봅니다. 누구' 뒤에 붙으면 '내가. What you want to do ? Koreans use -ko ship'oyo which literally means want to. --> "영활 보고 커필 마셨어요. 누가'로 된다. 명사에 붙어서 동사의 '목적어'를 나타낸다.] 1. [Subject particle. add 를 보기~ 1. as you may have guessed. 책상: 책상 + 이 --> 책상이 2. cho-nun mok-ko ship'oyo which means I want to eat." 예문~ . Comes after a noun and shows the "object" of the verb. and -upshida is attached to verbstems ending in a consonant. -(에)서. 제가.you are saying Mr Han is going to school.
. I buy an eraser. 자우개를 삽니다. I swim. . 수영을 합니다..
복습도 합니다. a hyphen can be used. they are romanized as g. 사과를 먹습니다. + 수박을 먹습니다. 선생님을 만납니다. [ The movie is interesting. When ㄱ. 신문도 읽습니다. too] . ㄹ. [ I prepare the lessons. 소설책도 재미있습니다. they should be romanized as k. Example: 밥 (rice) would be bap. When ㄱ. ㄹ. too] . '-에게도. [ I meet a teacher. 역시'의 의미를 나타내는 보조사. ㄷ. I meet a friend. 예문~ . + 노트가 있습니다. 03.'] [Similar to 'also. p. too' May be attached to the end of other particles as in '-에게도 and -과도. -와/과도' 처럼 다른 조사 뒤에 붙기도 한다. -----> 책이 있습니다. too'] 보기~ 1. 예습을 합니다. b. ㅂ are found directly before a consonant. 책을 읽습니다. The novel is interesting. t. To avoid confusion of syllables. ------> 사과를 먹습니다. 02. it should be romanized as shi. When ㅅ is followed directly by ㅣ. '또.Grammar 3 + 4 Grammar 3 도 조사. 수박도 먹습니다. 노트도 있습니다. [ I read a book. ㄷ. too] . 05. 또한. [Particle with the meaning of 'also. If a character has a romanization with letters separated by an "/". r. 04. r. Example: 다시 (again) would be dashi. ㅂ are found directly before vowel. 영화가 재미있습니다. too] . d. I read a newspaper. that is what the letter should be romanized as the final letter when found at the end of a syllable. 친구도 만납니다. 책이 있습니다. Lesson 13 .Rules: 01. I go over the lessons. 2. Example: 후에 (after) would be hu-e.
Grammar 6 에 셈을 세는 단위 명사와 결합하여 단위나 셈의 '기준'을 나타낸다. . . 냉장고: 냉장고 + 에 ---> 냉장고에 [위치: place] 2. -----> 만 원에 여섯 개입니다. 2. '강조'의 뜻으로 쓴다. However. 옷은 비쌉니다. .000 won by the set. "은" ----> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant.이천 원입니다.여섯 개입니다. There is not a dictionary. the clothes are expensive. add "은" 2. or by'] 보기~ 1. it shows the subject of the sentence or may be used to show 'contrast' or 'emphasis'. '때'를 나타낸다. [ The tie is cheap. 지금 은행에 가요. It costs 40. 도서관: 도서관 + 에 ---> 도서관에 [방향: direction] 예문~ . 우유가 가게에 있어요. it's cold in winter. 일 주일에 두 번 갑니다. I read a book at night.Grammar 4 은/는 조사. 사전은 없습니다. [Added to the unit noun which counts numbers. 가족이 교회에 있어요. 아침: 아침 + 에 ---> 아침에 [때: time] 3. [ Topic particle. .버스가 느립니다. .] [Similar to 'a. ] 1. direction or time'. I go twice a week. . add "는" 보기~ 1. However. I go to the bank now. My family is at church.] [ Similar to 'in/at or to' ] 보기~ 1. the subway train is fast. ] . per. [ There is a book. 예문~ . [Locative particle. ] . '위치'나 '방향'. [ The bus is slow. 명사나 부사. "는" ----> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in vowel. [ It's hot in summer. adverbs. There are 10 students in a class. 옷 한 벌에 4 만원입니다. though.책이 있습니다. I read 20 pages per hour. 장소나 시간 명사 뒤에 쓴다. However.넥타이가 쌉니다. it shows the 'standard' of the counting or unit. 겨울은 춥습니다. 한 그롯 -. 다른 조사나 어미에 붙어서 문장의 주제임을 나타내거나 '대조'. 한 시간에 20 페이지를 읽습니다. Used after place or time noun and shows 'location. 밤에 착을 읽어요. 우유: 우유 + 는 ---> 우유는 예문~ . -----> 한 그롯을 이천 원입니다. 물: 물 + 은 ---> 물은 2. Attached to nouns. Lesson 15 . 지하철은 빠릅니다.Grammar 5 + 6 Grammar 5 에 위치격 조사. 한 반에 10 명입니다. ] . 만 원 -.여름이 덥습니다. Milk is in the shop. ] Lesson 14 . other particles or endings.Family Members .
형 .손위 형제 자매 Older Sister .동생 .장모님 .어머니 .아저씨 .uh muh ni Mother in law .아줌마 .unni (If the speaker is female) Older Brother .shi ah buh ji Father in law .oppa (If the speaker is female) Older Sister .친척과 관계된 호칭 Older Woman .ajussi (Uncle) Elderly Woman .ajumni (aunt) [Polite] Older Woman .jang in uh reun Dad .shi uh muh ni Mother in law .시어머니 .장인어른 .ajumma (auntie) [Less Polite] Older Man .hara buh ji (Grandpa) [Less Polite] Father .umma Mother .jang mo nim Siblings .오빠 .아빠 .Relative Titles .할머니 .dong saeng (Regardless of speaker's gender) .아주머니 .엄마 .누나 .언니 .hal muh ni (Grandmother) [Polite] Elderly Man .hyung (If the speaker is male) Younger Sibling .시아버지 .nuna (If the speaker is male) Older Brother .할아버지 .아버지 .ah buh ji Father in law .appa [Informal] Mum .