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an explosion, a sudden expansion of the material after initiation, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure. An explosive charge is a measured quantity of explosive material. The energy stored in an explosive material may be
y y y
chemical energy, such as nitroglycerine or grain dust pressurized compressed gas, such as a gas cylinder or aerosol can nuclear, such as fissile isotopes of uranium-235 and plutonium-239
Explosive materials may be categorized by the speed at which they expand. Materials that detonate (explode faster than the speed of sound) are said to be high explosives and materials that deflagrate are said to be low explosives. Explosives may also be categorized by their sensitivity. Sensitive materials that can be initiated by a relatively small amount of heat or pressure are primary explosives and materials that are relatively insensitive are secondary explosives.
Note: Most explosions occur while purifying or distilling mixtures. Therefore, use extreme caution before concentrating or purifying any mixture that may contain an explosive chemical (e.g., a peroxide forming chemical or perchlorate). General Storage Precautions It is important that chemical users track and dispose of chemicals before they become a problem. Proper inventory management systems can help mitigate risk to personnel and avert higher than normal disposal costs. Identify all explosive and potentially explosive chemicals in your inventory. Never store unlabeled chemicals. Before they can be shipped to a disposal site, unknown chemicals require special testing to determine which hazardous properties they possess. In some cases, an unknown chemical that is not a PEC could be classified as a PEC because its outward appearance resembles other known explosives. The handling and disposal of these chemicals costs significantly more than known chemicals. Record the opening date and the date that the chemical should be discarded on the label of chemicals that may degrade to become potentially explosive. Labels are available from EH&S or you may use the sample label on the next page. Keep explosive chemicals away from all ignition sources such as open flames, hot surfaces, spark sources, and direct sunlight. Consider designating a special area for explosive chemical use. Store explosive chemicals in an explosive magazine, and inspect areas weekly to comply with the California Fire Code.
Periodically check containers of chemicals that could become over-pressurized, like highly concentrated formic acid. Note: Release the pressure by unscrewing the cap, using protective heavy-duty gloves, chemically resistant coveralls, safety glasses, face shield, and a safety glass screen between you and the container. As part of your Chemical Hygiene Plan, make sure everyone who uses chemicals that are explosive or could become potentially explosive are thoroughly trained in safe storage methods, conditions to avoid (e.g., contamination), the hazards of the chemical, and disposal procedures.
Classification of explosive materials
 By sensitivity
 Primary explosive A primary explosive is an explosive that is extremely sensitive to stimuli such as impact, friction, heat, static electricity, or electromagnetic radiation. A relatively small amount of energy is required for initiation. As a very general rule, primary explosives are considered to be those compounds that are more sensitive than PETN. As a practical measure, primary explosives are sufficiently sensitive that they can be reliably initiated with a blow from a hammer; however, PETN can usually be initiated in this manner, so this is only a very broad guideline. Additionally, several compounds, such as nitrogen triiodide, are so sensitive that they cannot even be handled without detonating. Primary explosives are often used in detonators or to trigger larger charges of less sensitive secondary explosives. Primary explosives are commonly used in blasting caps to translate a physical shock signal. In other situations, different signals such as electrical/physical shock, or in the case of laser detonation systems, light, are used to initiate an action, i.e., an explosion. A small quantity, usually milligrams, is sufficient to initiate a larger charge of explosive that is usually safer to handle. Examples of primary high explosives are:
y y y y y y y y y y y y y
Acetone peroxide Ammonium permanganate Azo-clathrates Copper acetylide Diazodinitrophenol Hexamethylene triperoxide diamine Lead azide Lead styphnate Lead picrate Mercury(II) fulminate Nitrogen trichloride Nitrogen triiodide Nitroglycerin
y y y y y y y
Silver azide Silver acetylide Silver fulminate Sodium azide Tetacene Tetraamine copper complexes Tetrazoles
 Secondary explosive A secondary explosive is less sensitive than a primary explosive and require substantially more energy to be initiated. Because they are less sensitive they are usable in a wider variety of applications and are safer to handle and store. Secondary explosives are used in larger quantities in an explosive train and are usually initiated by a smaller quantity of a primary explosive. Examples of secondary explosives include TNT and RDX.  Tertiary explosive Tertiary explosives, also called blasting agents, are so insensitive to shock that they cannot be reliably detonated by practical quantities of primary explosive, and instead require an intermediate explosive booster of secondary explosive. These are primarily used in large-scale mining and construction operations, and in terrorism. ANFO is an example of a tertiary explosive.
 Low explosives Low explosives are compounds where the rate of decomposition proceeds through the material at less than the speed of sound. The decomposition is propagated by a flame front (deflagration) which travels much more slowly through the explosive material than a shock wave of a high explosive. Under normal conditions, low explosives undergo deflagration at rates that vary from a few centimeters per second to approximately 400 metres per second. It is possible for them to deflagrate very quickly, producing an effect similar to a detonation. This can happen under higher pressure or temperature, which usually occurs when ignited in a confined space. A low explosive is usually a mixture of a combustible substance and an oxidant that decomposes rapidly (deflagration), however they burn slower than a high explosive which has an extremely fast burn rate. Low explosives are normally employed as propellants. Included in this group are gun powders and light pyrotechnics, such as flares and fireworks.  High explosives
High explosives are explosive materials that detonate, meaning that the explosive shock front passes through the material at a supersonic speed. High explosives detonate with explosive velocity rates ranging from 3,000 to 9,000 meters per second. They are normally employed in mining, demolition, and military applications. They can be divided into two explosives classes differentiated by sensitivity: Primary explosive and secondary explosive. The term high explosive is in contrast to the term low explosive, which explodes (deflagrates) at a slower rate
Three Common High Explosives And Their Properties
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What are High Explosives?
High Explosives have powerful explosive properties, exploding at a supersonic level. They produce an explosion with a velocity ranging from 3000 to 9000 meters per second. The high explosives decompose extremely quickly. chemicals that make up When initiated by a blast or shock, the material directly decomposes, and an explosion happens almost instantaneously by chemical reaction.
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High explosives are categorized into two types:
Primary and secondary explosives.
These practical explosives are used in mining sites. and is used with a line of fuse. They are paired with primary explosives. to name a few. It . construction.. the explosion can be calculated and controlled to avoid mishap. The product. called a 'blasting cap'.Primary explosives are generally heat-sensitive. the military and in demolition applications. and demolition. Secondary explosives are less reactive to shock and friction than primary explosives. and can react quickly and devastatingly to static electricity. almost any kind of impact no matter how slight. and Properties History: Dynamite was invented by the chemist Alfred Nobel in Germany. some unstable primary explosives like nitroglycerine go as far as being untouchable due to their sensitivity. Done in this manner. Uses. dynamite has been employed in mining. or even friction can set them off. It commonly sold in the shape of sticks. For some primary explosives. In extreme cases. Diagram of a Dynamite Types of High Explosives 1. originally called 'Nobel's Blasting Powder' was patented in both England and Sweden on 1867. History. Dynamite This type of explosive material made of sawdust or diatomaceous earth as an absorbent and nitroglycerin as the explosive agent. with a primary explosive at the end acting as its charge. Since its invention. which make them less dangerous and easier to handle. for ignition when utilized.
mostly one part of diatomaceous earth. which acts as its explosive agent. or during times of civil strife. It was once said that Nobel would go down in history as a peddler of death for the many lives that were lost either accidentally. Older types dynamite have a tendency to 'sweat' overtime. Older kinds of dynamite incorporated sawdust as an absorbent. yellow-colored chemical compound. is a solid. especially in constructing railways and clearing mine-shafts.quickly gave rise to the faster development of industry and easier labor. . it was used prior to the First World was as a highly effective and lethal explosive. Properties: The properties of dynamite are primarily three parts: Nitroglycerin. from the use of dynamite. This makes the dynamite highly dangerous. Nobel became notorious for his invention of dynamite. Uses: Dynamite was also used in warfare. Mixing the nitroglycerin with absorbents made if safer to transport. Trinitrotoluene Trinitrotoluene. It is commonly used as a reagent in chemical synthesis and as an explosive material. and a small amount of sodium carbonate. Being classified as a high explosive. Story of Dynamite TNT Powder 2. TNT is a chemical compound. most commonly shortened to TNT. while dynamite is a mixture of nitroglycerin and an absorbent agent such as sawdust. meaning that nitroglycerin mixed with the absorbent starts to leak out of and crystallize around the wrapper. Most often confused as being similar to dynamite. an absorbent. since it greatly reduced the shock sensitivity.
which allows it to be transported and used without much risk for accidental detonation. TNT is also employed for use in demolitions and clearing away large debris in building foundations. Radford Army Ammunition Plant currently produces the majority of TNT used by the United States Military. It is valued for general use because of its safety and stability.History. TNT is insensitive to shock as well as friction. The earliest use of TNT as a military explosive was during 1902. Uses: TNT is a comparatively insensitive explosive which enabled it to be poured while in liquid form into shell cases. The original purpose of TNT was its use as a yellow dye. mainly due to the difficulty of detonating TNT. TNT is also water-resistant. These TNT-filled armor-piercing shells would explode after penetrating the armor of the target. and Properties History: TNT was invented by the German chemist Joseph Wilbrand in 1863. which allows it to be used in wet environments. when the Germans used it as a filling for artillery shells. Uses. Production: . The use of TNT as an explosive came many years later. and because it was less powerful than other explosives at that time. TNT is still widely used by the military and by various construction companies worldwide.
spleen enlargement. and oral intake of TNT produces urine which is red in color. Breathing TNT is greatly harmful to the immune system. It is known as a carcinogen.The production of TNT is achieved in three steps. which is mixed with sulfuric and nitric acid to produce mono-nitrotoluene or MNT. As a finishing touch. as well as affect male fertility. Prolonged exposure to TNT can impair normal liver function and cause anemia. the DNT is nitrated into trinitrotoluene or TNT by the use of an anhydrous mix of nitric acid and oleum. and skin contact has been known to cause skin irritation. due to its chemical breakdown in the body. The MNT is then separated and re-nitrated to produce dinitrotoluene or DNT. making the skin appear yellow-orange in color. making it more stable for use. This removes the less stable isomers of TNT. . Properties: TNT is a toxic chemical. the TNT is then stabilized by treating it with an aqueous sodium sulfate solution. It begins with the nitrated toluene. Finally.
and seismic exploration. is an alternative to traditional dynamite. Properties: . Uses. Seismogel. tunneling. and Properties History: E. Tovex A water gel explosive. mining. Uses: The most common uses of Tovex is in construction. the formula was perfected by replacing TNT with methyl ammonium nitrate. Tovex is the only explosive developed that has not been used as an instrument of warfare. avalanche rescue.I. Inc. History.3. also known as Trenchrite. or Seismopac. with as much as 80% international oil companies using it for seismic exploration. In the late 1973. It was commercially successful. thus allowing Tovex to replace nitroglycerin-based dynamites. but proved to have problems mainly with oxygen balance and the cost of production. Trovex has been adopted for widespread use. It's lower toxicity and safer manufacture has made it the optimum replacement for dynamite. first developed Tovex in the 1960's The first attempts at making Torvex was by mixing pelletized TNT with aqueous gels. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
aluminum. But high explosives are not themselves. dynamite has been employed in mining. construction. especially in constructing railways and clearing mine-shafts. and demolition. especially over the past few decades. and roads. History. The product. High explosive weapons are highly destructive instruments which strike fear in the minds of many people. It quickly gave rise to the faster development of industry and easier labor. It commonly sold in the shape of sticks. from the use of dynamite. called a 'blasting cap'. or during times of civil strife. and coal are added to make some of the product grades cap sensitive. Types of High Explosives 1. Being classified as a high explosive. originally called 'Nobel's Blasting Powder' was patented in both England and Sweden on 1867. with a primary explosive at the end acting as its charge. Uses. Sensitized fluids and other ingredients such as sodium nitrate. Uses: Dynamite was also used in warfare.The chemical properties of Tovex is a 50/50 aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and methylammonium nitrate. Nobel became notorious for his invention of dynamite. Since its invention. it was used prior to the First World was as a highly effective and lethal explosive. . Thickening agents are sometimes used to enhance water resistance by acting as crystal modifiers. There are hundreds of beneficial applications for high explosives -it is up to governments and societies as a whole to ensure they are used peacefully and responsibily. Conclusion and Summary High explosives are most commonly employed in war. buildings. and is used with a line of fuse. Dynamite This type of explosive material made of sawdust or diatomaceous earth as an absorbent and nitroglycerin as the explosive agent. It was once said that Nobel would go down in history as a peddler of death for the many lives that were lost either accidentally. instruments of evil. high explosives benefit civilizations and the world at large by allowing faster methods of building tunnels. When used for constructive purposes. and Properties History: Dynamite was invented by the chemist Alfred Nobel in Germany.
Friction Sensitivity is expressed in terms of what occurs when a weighted pendulum scrapes across the material (snaps. The usefulness of an explosive can only be appreciated when the properties and the factors affecting them are fully understood.  Sensitivity Main article: Sensitivity (explosives) Regarding an explosive. and safety of the manufacturing operations.Properties: The properties of dynamite are primarily three parts: Nitroglycerin. . Mixing the nitroglycerin with absorbents made if safer to transport. When the term sensitivity is used. ignites. friction. Heat Sensitivity is expressed in terms of the temperature at which flashing or explosion of the material occurs. This makes the dynamite highly dangerous. or heat that is required. and a small amount of sodium carbonate. mostly one part of diatomaceous earth. Older kinds of dynamite incorporated sawdust as an absorbent. crackles. or the shock of impact would cause it to detonate before it penetrated to the point desired. The explosive in an armor-piercing projectile must be relatively insensitive. meaning that nitroglycerin mixed with the absorbent starts to leak out of and crystallize around the wrapper. an absorbent. Older types dynamite have a tendency to 'sweat' overtime. Properties of explosive materials To determine the suitability of an explosive substance for a particular use. to minimize the risk of accidental detonation. complexity. Sensitivity is an important consideration in selecting an explosive for a particular purpose. since it greatly reduced the shock sensitivity. its physical properties must first be investigated. The relative sensitivity of a given explosive to impact may vary greatly from its sensitivity to friction or heat. which acts as its explosive agent.. Some of the more important characteristics are discussed below:  Availability and cost Availability and cost of explosives is determined by the availability of the raw materials and the cost. The explosive lenses around nuclear charges are also designed to be highly insensitive. the amount and intensity of shock. this refers to the ease with which it can be ignited or detonated²i.e. and/or explodes). Some of the test methods used to determine sensitivity are as follows: y y y Impact Sensitivity is expressed in terms of the distance through which a standard weight must be dropped to cause the material to explode. care must be taken to clarify what kind of sensitivity is under discussion.
1 to n. and azide ( N3). they generally have positive enthalpies of formation and there is little mechanistic hindrance to internal molecular rearrangement to the more thermodynamically stable (more strongly bonded) decomposition products. Temperature of storage. in the context of explosives.e. but each has a high temperature at which the rate of decomposition rapidly accelerates and stability is reduced." Contrarily. affecting their stability. Reference is made to the Sellier-Bellot scale that consists of a series of 10 detonators.  Stability Main article: Chemical stability Stability is the ability of an explosive to be stored without deterioration. to differentiate between the terms thermodynamically stable and kinetically stable by referring to the latter as "inert. As a rule of thumb. are intrinsically labile with respect to decomposition. In practice most of the explosives on the market today are sensitive to the n. Kinetically. velocity of detonation can be measured with accuracy. It is perhaps best.  Velocity of detonation The velocity with which the reaction process propagates in the mass of the explosive. 10. the rate of decomposition). most explosives become dangerously unstable at temperatures exceeding 70 °C. many explosive compounds that contain nitrogen groups will rapidly decompose." It is generally recognized that certain groups like nitro ( NO2). the nitrogen atoms are already bonded to one another so there is relatively easy decomposition into Pb and N2. If exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun. which is concerned with kinetics (i. a kinetically unstable substance is said to be "labile. The chemical bonding in these compounds is characterized by being predominantly covalent in nature and thus they are not thermodynamically stabilized by a high ionic-lattice energy. Exposure to the sun. atmospheric overpressure and ground acceleration). The rate of decomposition of explosives increases at higher temperatures. . Furthermore. in lead azide. the word "stability" is a thermodynamic term referring to the energy of a substance relative to a reference state or to some other substance. stability is commonly used to refer to the ease of detonation. Today. Together with density it is an important element influencing the yield of the energy transmitted (for both. 8 detonator. Most commercial mining explosives have detonation velocities ranging from 1800 m/s to 8000 m/s. For example. these compounds exhibit a high sensitivity to flame or mechanical shock. from n. then. Pb(N3)2. However. All of the standard military explosives may be considered to have a high degree of stability at temperatures of -10 to +35 °C. Sensitivity to initiation The index of the capacity of the explosive to be initiated into detonation in a sustained manner. each of which corresponds to an increasing charge weight. It is defined by the power of the detonator which is certain to prime the explosive to a sustained and continuous detonation. nitrate ( ONO2). there exits a low activation barrier to the decomposition reaction. In the strictest technical sense. The following factors affect the stability of an explosive: y y y Chemical constitution. Consequently. where the charge corresponds to 2 grams of mercury fulminate.
cylinder expansion and air-blast tests are common to most testing programs. Static or other electrical discharge may be sufficient to inspire detonation under some circumstances. The values obtained are compared with that for TNT. air blast. and detonated at one end.  Power. but different diameters. Determination of critical diameter. In practice it is defined as the explosive's ability to accomplish what is intended in the way of energy delivery (i. A charge of specific size is detonated and its impulse (the area under the pressure-time curve) measured versus distance. The hydrodynamic theory of detonation used in predicting explosive phenomena does not include diameter of the charge. and the others support specific applications. Pressure versus scaled distance.to 50 kg charge is detonated in water and piezoelectric gauges measure peak pressure. Impulse versus scaled distance. time constant. The fragments are collected and the size distribution analyzed. A standard steel cylinder is loaded with explosive and detonated in a sawdust pit. impulse. usually of copper. This procedure requires a series of charges of the same density and physical structure. y y y y y y y y Cylinder expansion test.e. performance. and grain size. Data is collected concerning the rate of radial expansion of the cylinder and maximum cylinder wall velocity. Infinite-diameter detonation velocity. A standard amount of explosive is loaded into a long hollow cylinder. The RBE may be defined as Kx 3 RBE = Ks . and energy. Explosive power or performance is evaluated by a tailored series of tests to assess the material for its intended use. The procedure involves the detonation of a series of charges of different diameters until difficulty in detonation wave propagation is observed. for an imaginary charge of Infinite diameter. charge diameter. etc. Cylinder fragmentation. Relative bubble energy (RBE). Electrostatic or spark sensitivity to initiation is common to a number of explosives. to be fired and the resulting detonation velocities extrapolated to predict the detonation velocity of a charge of infinite diameter. This test establishes the minimum physical size a charge of a specific explosive must be to sustain its own detonation wave. Detonation velocity is dependent on loading density (c). high-velocity jets. fragment projection. Detonation pressure data derived from measurements of shock waves transmitted into water by the detonation of cylindrical explosive charges of a standard size. As a result. Detonation pressure (Chapman-Jouguet condition). the safe handling of explosives and pyrotechnics almost always requires electrical grounding of the operator. Of the tests listed below.. and strength Main article: Power (physics) Main article: Strength (explosive) The term power or performance as applied to an explosive refers to its ability to do work. underwater shock and bubble energy. A 5. This also establishes the Gurney energy or 2E.). The results are tabulated and expressed in TNT equivalent. A charge of specific size is detonated and its pressure effects measured at a standard distance. and therefore a detonation velocity.y Electrical discharge.
and velocity of detonation are reduced by inert materials that reduce the continuity of the explosive mass. which is their shattering effect or brisance (from the French meaning to "break"). cast loading.  Brisance Main article: Brisance In addition to strength. The sand crush test is commonly employed to determine the relative brisance in comparison to TNT. It is possible to compress an explosive beyond a point of sensitivity. trauzl.where K = bubble expansion period for experimental (x) or standard (s) charge. Dependent upon the method employed.  Hygroscopicity and water resistance The introduction of water into an explosive is highly undesirable since it reduces the sensitivity. and press loading. strength. Increased load density also permits the use of more explosive. bomb casings. the explosive may become more sensitive. Several methods of loading are available. an average density of the loaded charge can be obtained that is within 80±99% of the theoretical maximum density of the explosive. . This characteristic is of practical importance in determining the effectiveness of an explosion in fragmenting shells. and the like. cooling occurs. if density is increased to the extent that individual crystals are crushed. if at all. When the moisture content evaporates during detonation. High load density can reduce sensitivity by making the mass more resistant to internal friction. it is important to examine the data from several such tests (sand crush. However. the one used is determined by the characteristics of the explosive. known also as "dead-pressing". which results in an increase in the danger of handling. which reduces the temperature of reaction. Volatility affects the chemical composition of the explosive such that a marked reduction in stability may occur. and by acting as a solvent medium that can cause undesired chemical reactions. and velocity of detonation of the explosive. and so forth) in order to gauge relative brisance. including pellet loading. thereby increasing the power of the warhead.  Volatility Volatility is the readiness with which a substance vaporizes. grenades. Sensitivity.  Density Density of loading refers to the mass of an explosive per unit volume. No test is capable of directly comparing the explosive properties of two or more compounds. in which the material is no longer capable of being reliably initiated. True values for comparison require field experiments. which is distinguished and separate from their total work capacity. The rapidity with which an explosive reaches its peak pressure (power) is a measure of its brisance. strength. Brisance values are primarily employed in France and Russia. Excessive volatility often results in the development of pressure within rounds of ammunition and separation of mixtures into their constituents. Hygroscopicity is used as a measure of a material's moisture-absorbing tendencies. Moisture affects explosives adversely by acting as an inert material that absorbs heat when vaporized. explosives display a second characteristic.
25 = 7.Stability is also affected by the presence of moisture since moisture promotes decomposition of the explosive and. it can be seen that the volume of the products of explosion can be predicted for any quantity of the explosive. the molar volume of one gas is equal to the molar volume of any other gas.414 (288. This law states that at a constant pressure a perfect gas expands 1/273.  Volume of products of explosion Avogadro's law states that equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules. Explosives considerably differ from one another as to their behavior in the presence of water.15 kelvin) the molar volume of an ideal gas is V15 = 22. Based upon this simple beginning. 2. which causes the main charge to detonate. at 15 °C the volume of gas produced by the explosive decomposition of one mole of nitroglycerin becomes . the volume of the products of explosion may also be calculated for any given temperature.25 × 22. The molar volume of any gas at 0°C and under normal atmospheric pressure is very nearly 22.15) = 23.5N2 + 0. one mole of nitroglycerin produces 3 + 2. considering the nitroglycerin reaction. by employing Charles' Law for perfect gases.  Toxicity Due to their chemical structure. for each degree Celsius of rise in temperature. Since a molar volume is the volume of one mole of gas.  Explosive train Main article: Explosive train Another property of explosive material is where it exists in the explosive train of the device or system. that is. 1.5H2O + 1.15 of its volume at 0 °C. and 0. causes corrosion of the explosive's metal container.64 liters per mole Thus. C3H5(NO3)3 3CO2 + 2.25 mole of O2. Explosive product gases can also be toxic.5 + 0.5 moles of N2.4 liters of gas. all in the gaseous state.5 moles of H2O. Thus.4 = 162. Explosives based on ammonium nitrate have little or no water resistance.15/273. in addition. most explosives are toxic to some extent. Therefore.4 liters.25 molar volumes of gas. An example of this is a pyrotechnic lead igniting a booster. Gelatin dynamites containing nitroglycerine have a degree of water resistance. at 15 °C (288. and these molar volumes at 0°C and atmospheric pressure form an actual volume of 7.5 + 1. Further.25O2 the explosion of one mole of nitroglycerin produces 3 moles of CO2.
If an explosive molecule contains just enough oxygen to convert all of its carbon to carbon dioxide. (United States spelling) also known as nitroglycerine (UK spelling).V = (23.3-Dinitrooxypropan-2-yl nitrate Manufacturing The industrial manufacturing process often uses a nearly 50:50 mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid. This is different from an aromatic nitration reaction in which nitronium ions are the active species in an electrophilic attack of the molecules' ring system. oily. Propane-1.4 l  Oxygen balance (OB% or ) Main article: Oxygen balance Oxygen balance is an expression that is used to indicate the degree to which an explosive can be oxidized. The nitro group is thus added as an ester C-O-NO2 and water is produced. a state of .3-triyl trinitrate (NG). The sensitivity. The molecule is said to have a positive oxygen balance if it contains more oxygen than is needed and a negative oxygen balance if it contains less oxygen than is needed. is a heavy. it results in runaway. trinitroglycerine.. as opposed to red fuming nitric acid) and concentrated sulfuric acid.e.3-trinitroxypropane and glyceryl trinitrate. 1. The sulfuric acid produces protonated nitric acid species. However. also known as oleum. if the mixture becomes too hot. strength. the molecule is said to have a zero oxygen balance. all of its hydrogen to water. (sulfuric acid containing excess sulfur trioxide) and azeotropic nitric acid (consisting of around 70% nitric acid. More often. the rest being water). explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. and brisance of an explosive are all somewhat dependent upon oxygen balance and tend to approach their maximums as oxygen balance approaches zero. as usual for mixed acid nitrations. this mixture is attained by the cheaper method of mixing fuming sulfuric acid. The addition of glycerin results in an exothermic reaction (i. This can be produced by mixing white fuming nitric acid (quite costly pure nitric acid in which oxides of nitrogen have been removed.25 mol) = 171. colorless.64 l/mol)(7. heat is produced).2. which are attacked by glycerin's nucleophilic oxygen atoms.2. and all of its metal to metal oxide with no excess. Other names[hide] 1. trinitroglycerin.
6 g cmí3 (at 15 °C) Melting point 14 °C. A serious problem in the use of nitroglycerin results from its high freezing point 13 °C (55 °F). as well as the plastic explosive C-4²which contains 90±92% RDX as its active ingredient.3-Trinitroxypropane Properties Molecular formula C3H5N3O9 Molar mass 227. it is a primary contact explosive (physical shock can cause it to explode) and degrades over time to even more unstable forms. The nitrator is cooled with cold water or some other coolant mixture and maintained throughout the glycerin addition at about 22 °C (72 °F). it is one of the more powerful explosives. This makes it highly dangerous to transport or use. a process referred to as drowning. a feature common in explosives. 57 °F Boiling point 50-60 °C. 287 K. then it is immediately drowned. has an emergency trap door at its base. the glycerin mixture is added slowly to the reaction vessel containing the mixed acid (not acid to glycerin). In this undiluted form. Instability and desensitization In its pure form.accelerated nitration accompanied by the destructive oxidizing of organic materials of nitric acid and the release of very poisonous brown nitrogen dioxide gas at high risk of an explosion. much below which the esterification occurs too slowly to be useful. Thus.09 g molí1 Exact mass 227. comparable to the more recent RDX and PETN. Solid nitroglycerin is much less sensitive to shock than the liquid. often constructed of iron or lead and generally stirred with compressed air.2. which hangs over a large pool of very cold water and into which the whole reaction mixture (called the charge) can be dumped to prevent an explosion. 122-140 °F (decomposes) . If the temperature of the charge exceeds about 30 °C (86 °F) (actual value varying by country) or brown fumes are seen in the nitrator's vent. Nitroglycerin IUPAC name 1.002578773 g molí1 Appearance Colorless liquid Density 1. 323-333 K. The nitrator vessel.
or impact can cause it to detonate. ointment. A supersonic wave passing through the material causes it to decompose almost instantly. therefore acting as a "smokeless powder". that no visible smoke is produced. amongst others). It was synthesized by chemist Ascanio Sobrero in 1847. pressure or when it burns. y y y y subsiding of chest pain decrease of blood pressure increase of heart rate. . and nitric oxide is a natural vasodilator. therefore dropping or bumping a container can also make it explode. Patients who experience angina when doing certain physical activities can often prevent symptoms by taking nitroglycerin 5 to 10 minutes before the activity. It was later adopted as a commercially useful explosive by Alfred Nobel USES The main use of nitroglycerin. This instantaneous destruction of all molecules is called a detonation. is in explosives such as dynamite and in propellants. nitroglycerin is used as a heart medication (under the trade names Nitrospan. Nitrostat. where it is generally called glyceryl trinitrate. The molecule contains oxygen. Nitrol. Natispray. Sobrero initially called his discovery pyroglycerine. and warned vigorously against its use as an explosive. Nitroglycerin is a high explosive which is so unstable that the slightest jolt. working under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Turin. when it explodes great energy is released as the atoms rearrange to form new molecules with strong. and NitroMist). orthostatic hypotension These effects arise because nitroglycerin is converted to nitric oxide in the body by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. and Tridil. and carbon in weak bonds. It is extremely unstable. In medicine. Transderm Nitro. friction. It is the speed of the decomposition reaction which makes it such a violent explosive. stable bonds like N2 and CO. Nitro-Dur). transdermal patches (Trinipatch. It is used as a medicine for angina pectoris (ischaemic heart disease) in tablets. Nitroglycerin is an oil that may explode with heat. Nitroglycerin has an advantage over some other high explosives. or sprays administered sublingually (Nitrolingual Pump Spray. solution for intravenous use.History Nitroglycerin was the first practical explosive stronger than black powder. nitrogen. and the destructive blast results from the rapid expansion of hot gases. by tonnage.
Headaches are the most prominent side effect of nitrate therapy Triton Other names[hide] 2. benzene. 2.4. Trotol.13 g/L (20 °C) Solubility in ether. headache. is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. A solid block after being poured into a casing. Tritone. .4.5-trinitrobenzene Properties Molecular formula C7H5N3O6 Molar mass 227. Trinitrotoluene IUPAC name 2-methyl-1. 2. or more specifically. A drop in blood pressure can be accompanied by weakness or dizziness. Tritolol. but it is best known as a useful explosive material with convenient handling properties. painful urination and increased bowel movements. Trilite.Side effects The side effects of nitroglycerin include lack of sexual desire. This yellow-colored solid is sometimes used as a reagent in chemical synthesis. acetone. Loose "needles".3.654 g/cm3 Melting point 80. Tritolo. TNT. The explosive yield of TNT is considered to be the standard measure of strength of bombs and other explosives.35 °C Boiling point 295 °C (decomposition) Solubility in water 0. Trinitrotoluol.6-Trinitromethylbenzene Trinitrotoluene famously known and abbreviated as TNT).6-trinitrotoluene. Trotyl.4. this substance was noticed to be capable of inducing a violent headache. Tolite. flakes or prills before melt-casting. Patients are often told to sit or lie down during and immediately after taking nitroglycerin to reduce the risk of low blood pressure. Trinol. pyridine soluble .13 g/mol Appearance Pale yellow. Density 1. Shortly after the invention of nitroglycerin.6-Trinitrotoluene.
. Towards the end of the nitration. TNT neither absorbs nor dissolves in water. Control of nitrogen oxides in feed nitric acid is very important because free nitrogen dioxide can result in oxidation of the methyl group of toluene. and then carefully nitrated with a mixture of fuming nitric acid and sulfuric acid. 2. Subsequent to nitration. TNT melts at 80 °C (176 °F). it was exempted from the UK's Explosives Act 1875 and was not considered an explosive for the purposes of manufacture and storage. it is stable compared to other high explosives.Preparation Industrially. TNT is one of the most commonly used explosives for military and industrial applications. allowing it to be poured as well as safely combined with other explosives. TNT is stabilized by a process called sulphitation. which reduces the risk of accidental detonation. TNT is synthesized in a three-step process. Its potential as an explosive was not appreciated for several years mainly because it was so difficult to detonate and because it was less powerful than alternatives. which allows it to be used effectively in wet environments.4. washed with a dilute solution of sodium sulfite and then recrystallized from alcohol. the DNT is nitrated to trinitrotoluene or TNT using an anhydrous mixture of nitric acid and oleum.and dinitrotoluene isomers. washed with dilute sodium bicarbonate to remove oxides of nitrogen. and is so insensitive that in 1910. In the laboratory. the mixture is heated on a steam bath. The MNT is separated and then renitrated to dinitrotoluene or DNT.6-trinitrotoluene is produced by a two step process. where the crude TNT is treated with aqueous sodium sulfite solution in order to remove less stable isomers of TNT and other undesired reaction products. The rinse water from sulphitation is known as red water and is a significant pollutant and waste product of TNT manufacture. with cooling to maintain careful temperature control. A nitrating mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids is used to nitrate toluene to a mixture of mono. toluene is nitrated with a mixture of sulfuric and nitric acid to produce mono-nitrotoluene or MNT. In the final step. It is valued because of its insensitivity to shock and friction. TNT can be safely poured when liquid into shell cases. First. far below the temperature at which it will spontaneously detonate. The trinitrotoluene is separated. This reaction is highly exothermic and carries with it the risk of runaway reaction and explosion. Additionally. The nitrated toluenes are separated. History TNT was first prepared in 1863 by German chemist Julius Wilbrand and originally used as a yellow dye. but the diluted sulfuric acid can be reconcentrated and reused. Nitric acid is consumed by the manufacturing process.
5-Trinitro-1.3. Blood and liver effects.5-Trinitrohexahydro-s-triazine cyclonite. 500 g. and TNT is listed as a possible human carcinogen.3. There is evidence that TNT adversely affects male fertility. hexogen." People exposed to TNT over a prolonged period tend to experience anemia and abnormal liver functions. . Consumption of TNT produces red urine through the presence of breakdown products and not blood as sometimes believed Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine Other names[hide] RDX 1.5-triazacyclohexane 1. causing the skin to turn a bright yellow-orange color. spleen enlargement and other harmful effects on the immune system have also been found in animals that ingested or breathed trinitrotoluene. which resulted in their acquiring the nickname "canary girls" or simply "canaries. Examples of explosive blends containing TNT include: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Amatex Amatol Ammonal Baratol Composition B Composition H6 Cyclotol Ednatol Hexanite Minol Octol Pentolite Picratol Tetrytol Torpex Tritonal Safety and toxicity TNT is poisonous. and skin contact can cause skin irritation.g. 1. During the First World War. it is more commonly encountered in synergistic explosive blends comprising a variable percentage of TNT plus other ingredients. munition workers who handled the chemical found that their skin turned bright yellow.Although blocks of TNT are available in various sizes (e. 250 g.3.000 g ).
produced about 15. . gunpowder. It is stable in storage and is considered one of the most powerful and brisant of the military high explosives. the combined explosives could have produced a blast forty times greater than that of a devastating car bomb.000 long tons (15. 5.5 °C.3 USE RDX is a nitrate explosive compound (Turley and Brewster 1987) that can be utilized as a propellant. 2009). History RDX was used by both sides in World War II. It was also believed to be the explosive in the 2010 Moscow Metro bombings.82 g/cm3 Melting point 205.RDX.S. phlegmatizers or desensitizers. crystalline solid.In its pure. As an explosive. The U. RDX had the major advantages of possessing greater explosive power than TNT used in the First World War. RDX Properties Molecular formula C3H6N6O6 Molar mass 222. and requiring no additional raw materials for its manufacture. an initialism for Research Department Explosive. 507 K. or high explosive depending on the initiation type (Boileau et al. synthesized state RDX is a white. RDX was main component used for the 2006 Mumbai train bombings. 453 °F Terrorism Ahmed Ressam. the al-Qaeda Millenium Bomber. it is usually used in mixtures with other explosives and plasticizers. 402 °F Boiling point 234 °C. used a small quantity of RDX as one of the components in the explosives that he prepared to bomb Los Angeles International Airport on New Year's Eve 1999/2000.100 t) per month.000 long tons (7. is an explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications. 479 K.000 t) per month during WW II and Germany about 7.12 g molí1 Appearance Colorless crystals Density 1.
50mL glass beaker. LEAD PICRATE PROCEDURE: C6H3N3O7(aq) + PbO(s) => PbC6H2N3O7(s). Common military uses of RDX have been as an ingredient in plastic bonded explosives or plastic explosives. RDX is one and a half times more powerful than TNT and is easily initiated with mercury fulminate (Lewis 2007). and 5. 1. It forms a yellow colored liquid. composition C-4. Army 1978c).1% polyisobutylene. spatula. which have been used as explosive fill in almost all types of munition compounds (Gibbs and Popolato 1980. It is than filtered and washed with Methanol until the residue from the wash is colorless. Lewis 2000. to which an equal amount of Lead Monoxide is added. Heating at 100C for 2 hours is reported to increase the product's stability. Confined deflagration transits easily into detonation (DDT) which makes this product suitable for use in detonators and/or blasting caps. Lead Monoxide Methanol.Lead Picrate forms into a yellow/rust colored powder once it has been dried. glass rod. and torpedoes (HSDB 2009. RDX can be used alone as a base charge for detonators or mixed with another explosive such as TNT to form cyclotols. back to front: Picric Acid. flame. Lead Picrate has thus formed. Sax and Lewis 1989.6% motor oil. it deflagrates violently with a bright yellow flame and large amounts of lead metal vapor are released. and friction. Stokinger 1982). mines. Here all the chemicals used in the synthesis are seen. and formerly as an occasional rodenticide (HSDB 2009). As a military explosive. Civilian applications of RDX have included use in fireworks. HSDB 2009). On burning. Shortly after the mixture begins to boil a reaction takes place which thickens it. another explosive.The product is sensitive to shock (2cm fall from a 2 kilogram block causes detonation in 50% of the attempts (Urbanski).3% 2-ethylhexyl sebacate (Turley and Brewster 1987). have been the chief ingredients in approximately 75 products (U. Combinations of RDX and HMX. As an explosive.RDX has both military and civilian applications.S. Boiling is continued until the solution becomes a thick emulsion. as it converts it from monohydrate to pure lead picrate.The picric acid is dissolved in Methanol and heated until no solid remains. as a heating fuel for food rations (Turley and Brewster 1987). The plasticized form of RDX. The filtrate is than allowed to dry. in demolition blocks. . which produce a bursting charge for aerial bombs. 2. contains 91% RDX. The methanol is heated further until boiling commences and stirring is maintained. from left to right.
It occurs as a mineral niter and is a natural solid source of nitrogen.melting point boiling explodes at 270 °C --table key point Lead Picrate molecular mass density 663.41 g/mol 2. Solubility in water 133 g/L (0 °C)360 g/L (25 °C)2470 g/L (100 °C) Solubility slightly soluble in glycerol. ammonia soluble in ethanol .831 g/mL sensitivity very high chemical formula explosive velocity estimated cost Pb(C6H2(NO2)3O)2 .109 g/cm3 (16 °C) Melting point 334 °C Boiling point 400 °C decomp. Properties Molecular formula KNO3 Molar mass 101. H2O 4400 m/s $?. Its common names include saltpetre (saltpeter in American English). from Medieval Latin sal petræ: "stone salt" or possibly "Salt of Petra" and nitrate of potash.103 g/mol A ppearance white solid Odor odorless Density 2.00/g Vesta powder Potassium nitrate Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula KNO3.
In the process of food preservation. potassium nitrate has been a common ingredient of salted meat since the Middle Ages. Even so. NH4NO3 (aq) + KCl (aq) NH4Cl (aq) + KNO3 (aq) Potassium nitrate can also be produced by neutralizing nitric acid with potassium hydroxide. KOH (aq) + HNO3 KNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) Uses Potassium nitrate is mainly used in fertilizers. saltpeter is still used in some food applications. This reaction is highly exothermic. but its use has been mostly discontinued due to inconsistent results compared to more modern nitrate and nitrite compounds. Potassium nitrate is an efficient oxidizer. easily obtained as a sodium-free salt substitute. such as charcuterie and the brine used to make corned beef. where he first described the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes). Potassium nitrate is also one of the three components of black powder. Production Potassium nitrate can be made by combining ammonium nitrate and potassium hydroxide. made with a mixture of sucrose and potassium nitrate. All three give cured salami and corned beef their characteristic pink hue. along with powdered charcoal (substantially carbon) and sulfur. Sodium nitrate (and nitrite) have mostly supplanted potassium nitrate's culinary usage. as they are more reliable in preventing bacterial infection than saltpetre. When used by itself. as a source of nitrogen and potassium ± two of the macro nutrients for plants. which produces a lilac flame upon burning due to the presence of potassium. it has an NPK rating of 13-0-44. It is therefore used in amateur rocket propellants and in several fireworks such as smoke bombs. where it acts as an oxidizer. It is also added to pre-rolled cigarettes to maintain an even burn of the tobacco.History of production The earliest known complete purification process for potassium nitrate was outlined in 1270 by the Arab chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa alManasib al-Harbiyya ('The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices'). NH4NO3 (aq) + KOH (aq) NH3 (g) + KNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) An alternative way of producing potassium nitrate without a by-product of ammonia is to combine ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride. .
or even molasses. and civil construction: it accounts for an estimated 80% of the 6. 2.000. In practical use. or in more recent times. as it accelerates the natural decomposition of the stump. ANFO is composed of approximately 94. but sometimes kerosene. It is a tertiary explosive consisting of distinct fuel and oxidizer phases and requires confinement for efficient detonation and brisance.g. Nitromethane is one of the most effective fuels used in this sort of explosive.000 pounds (2.5 to 3 quarts of fuel oil per 50 pounds of ammonium nitrate. The normal ratio recommended is 2 U. Its sensitivity is relatively low. It is by far the most widely used explosive in coal mining. the aforementioned gases are the only products. The oil used is most often No. metal mining. or diesel fuel. In practice. When detonation conditions are optimal. The oxidizing. ANFO ANFO (or AN/FO. Chemistry ANFO under most conditions is considered a high explosive. it decomposes through detonation rather than deflagration and with a high velocity. It is also commonly used in the heat treatment of metals as a solvent in the post-wash.7% FO by weight.000. quarrying. and blasts produce moderate amounts of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).Potassium nitrate is the main component (usually about 98%) of tree stump remover. coal dust. for ammonium nitrate / fuel oil) is a widely used explosive mixture. In an ideal stoichiometrically balanced reaction. where it is also known as a fertilizer bomb... . quarts of fuel oil per 50 pounds of ammonium nitrate (80 ml/kg). as a treatment agent for the paper used to make the cartridges.3% AN and 5. It also sees service in improvised explosive devices. water solubility and low cost make it an ideal short-term rust inhibitor. The basic chemistry of ANFO detonation is the reaction of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) with a long chain hydrocarbon (CnH2n+2) to form nitrogen.7×109 kg) of explosive used annually in North America.e. one or two sticks of dynamite. Tovex or cast boosters of TNT/PETN or similar compositions) to ensure reliable detonation. it generally requires a booster (e. a slight excess of fuel oil is added. such conditions are impossible to attain.S. carbon dioxide and water. as underdosing results in reduced performance while overdosing merely results in more post-blast fumes. 2 fuel oil. as historically used. i. Potassium nitrate was used to ensure complete combustion of paper cartridges for cap and ball revolvers.
2 diesel fuel that powers their vehicles. This restriction is primarily because it is an attractive and simple component used in the production of fertilizer bombs. The most notable properties of emulsions are water resistance and higher bulk density. the former contain approximately 20% air. or industrial grade ammonium nitrate. 2 diesel fuel. AN prills used for explosive applications are physically different from fertilizer prills. AN is highly hygroscopic. however. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. the term ANFO specifically describes a mixture of solid ammonium nitrate prills and No. 2 fuel oil makes it ideal. AN is also water soluble. In most jurisdictions. the low volatility and cost of No. 2 fuel oil). Finely powdered aluminium can be added to ANFO to increase both sensitivity and energy. although heating oil (No. These versions of ANFO which use prills are generally called explosives grade. In the mining industry. Many mines prepare ANFO on-site using the same No. readily absorbing water from air. may cost less than No. which is nearly identical.) In this form. These voids are necessary to sensitize ANFO: they create socalled "hot spots". The density of individual prills is about 1300 kg/m3. It is dangerous when stored in humid environments. considerable effort must be taken to dewater boreholes. it has a bulk density of approximately 840 kg/m3. while the density of pure crystalline ammonium nitrate is 1700 kg/m3. Many fuels can theoretically be used. In many countries its purchase and use is restricted to buyers who have obtained the proper license. search Ammonium nitrate . the most commonly used are emulsions. or glass air bubbles to create these voids. as any absorbed water interferes with its explosive function. Other additions include perlite. The popularity of ANFO is largely attributable to its low cost and high stability. chemical gassing agents. low density. this has fallen out of favor due to cost. They differ from ANFO in the physical form the reactants take. When used in wet mining conditions. Other explosives based on the ANFO chemistry exist. Ammonium nitrate From Wikipedia. ammonium nitrate need not be classified as an explosive for transport purposes. 2 fuel oil (heating oil.Industrial use Ammonium nitrate is widely used as a fertilizer in the agricultural industry. it is merely an oxidizer.
052 g/mol Appearance white solid Density 1. 210 °C decomp. .725 g/cm3 (20 °C) Melting point 169.6 °C Boiling point approx.IUPAC name[hide] Ammonium nitrate Properties Molecular formula (NH4)(NO3) Molar mass 80.
cooled. the excess water is evaporated to an ammonium nitrate (AN) content of 95% to 99. Ammonium nitrate is used in instant cold packs. Ammonium nitrate Production The processes involved in the production of ammonium nitrate in industry. and it has also been used as an oxidizing agent in explosives. The Haber process combines nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia.The chemical compound ammonium nitrate. The prills or granules may be further dried. the nitrate of ammonia with the chemical formula NH4NO3. is a white crystalline solid at room temperature and standard pressure. a very popular explosive. The AN melt is then made into "prills" or small beads in a spray tower. After the solution is formed. this is done using anhydrous ammonia gas and concentrated nitric acid. depending on grade. It is commonly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. as hydrating the salt is an endothermic process. The acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid gives a solution of ammonium nitrate: HNO3(aq) + NH3(g) NH4NO3(aq) For industrial production. It is the main component of ANFO. although chemically simple. are technologically challenging. or into granules by spraying and tumbling in a rotating drum. typically at about 83% concentration. . These prills or granules are the typical AN products in commerce. part of which can be oxidized to nitric acid and combined with the remaining ammonia to produce the nitrate. including improvised explosive devices. Another production method is used in the so-called Odda process. This reaction is violent and very exothermic. and then coated to prevent caking.9% concentration (AN melt).
mercury fulminate or potassium chlorate became widely used in primers for self-contained rifle and pistol ammunition. Preparation Mercury(II) fulminate is prepared by dissolving mercury in nitric acid and adding ethanol to the solution. Later. the calcium sulfate generated is quite insoluble. but this salt is even more unstable than mercury fulminate. lead styphnate and tetrazene derivatives. In addition. less toxic and more stable over time: lead azide. supplies of which can be unreliable in wartime. none of the compounds which replace Hg(II) fulminate require mercury for their manufacture. For the reaction with calcium nitrate. Those are non-corrosive. has a different atomic arrangement. and may be filtered off. The crystal structure of this compound was only determined in 2007.Ammonium nitrate is also manufactured by amateur explosive enthusiasts by metathesis reactions: (NH4)2SO4 + 2 NaNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + (NH4)2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2 NH4NO3 2 NH4NO3 + CaSO4 Sodium sulfate is removed by lowering the temperature of the mixture. mercury fulminate has been replaced in primers by more efficient chemical substances. mercury fulminate quickly replaced flints as a means to ignite black powder charges in muzzle loading firearms. but it is known to weaken with time. it can even explode under water. during the late 19th century and most of the 20th century. Hg(CNO)2. It is mainly used as a trigger for other explosives in percussion caps and blasting caps. Today. It is highly sensitive to friction and shock. Mercury(II) fulminate Mercury(II) fulminate. Since sodium sulfate is much less water-soluble than ammonium nitrate. even at room temperature. First used as a priming composition in small copper caps after the 1830s. Silver fulminate can be prepared in a similar way. It was first prepared by Edward Charles Howard in 1800. though its formula is identical. is a primary explosive. Mercury fulminate has the distinct advantage over potassium chlorate of being non-corrosive. it precipitates. the cyanate and fulminate anions are isomers. Mercury(II) fulminate . Mercury(II) cyanate.
More than 4 grams will usually detonate when ignited. the reaction is much slower and produces more monomeric organic peroxide than the reaction with a strong acid catalyst. and shock. TCAP) is an organic peroxide and a primary high explosive.Acetone peroxide Acetone peroxide (triacetone triperoxide. peroxyacetone. Due to significant strain of the chemical bonds in the dimer and especially the monomer. It is not easily soluble in water. or tri-cyclo. A tetrameric form was also described. He was the first chemist to use inorganic acids as catalysts. they are even more unstable than the trimer. It is susceptible to heat. but under proper conditions the cyclic trimer is the primary product. TCAP generally burns when ignited. Acetone peroxide is notable as a high explosive not containing nitrogen. reforming as larger crystals of the same peroxide. Completely dry TCAP is much more prone to detonation than the fresh product still wetted with water or acetone. C9H18O6) obtained by a reaction between hydrogen peroxide and acetone in an acid-catalyzed nucleophilic addition. it is still a very dangerous primary explosive. The instability is greatly altered by impurities. but despite this. In 1900 Bayer and Villiger described in the same journal the first synthesis of the dimer and also described use of acids for the synthesis of both peroxides. He was also the first researcher to receive a patent for using the peroxide as an explosive compound. friction. the trimeric form slowly sublimes. TATP. It takes the form of a white crystalline powder with a distinctive acrid odor. The dimer (C6H12O4) and open monomer are also formed. It is more stable and less sensitive when wet. History Acetone peroxide was discovered in 1895 by Richard Wolffenstein. In mildly acidic or neutral conditions. unconfined. It can be prepared using tin(IV) .[ Chemistry "Acetone peroxide" most commonly refers to the cyclic trimer TCAP (tri-cyclic acetone peroxide. At room temperature. in quantities less than about 4 grams. smaller quantities might detonate when even slightly confined. This is one reason why it has become popular with terrorists. It is normally fairly stable when pure. as it can pass through scanners designed to detect nitrogenous explosives. The oxidation that occurs when burning is: 2 C9H18O6 + 21 O2 18 H2O + 18 CO2 Tetrameric acetone peroxide is more chemically stable (heating to 120°C for 4 hours).
or a chelator such as EDTA is added. Nitrogen trichloride can form in small amounts when public water supplies are disinfected with monochloramine. pungent-smelling liquid is most commonly encountered as a byproduct of chemical reactions between ammonia-derivatives and chlorine (for example. y y y y Richard Reid of al-Qaeda targeted the December 22. It is also believed that TATP was used as the explosive in the 7 July 2005 London bombings. TATP is relatively easy to make and has been used in various terrorist acts. or sparks. 2007. oily. In pure form. homemade TATP was found during the arrest of eight suspected alQaeda collaborators in Copenhagen. NCl3 is highly reactive. This yellow. acetone peroxide has earned the nickname "Mother of Satan" among certain Islamic militant groups. friction. Nitrogen trichloride Other names[hide] Trichloramine Agene . It has the same effect as that of tear gas. homemade TATP was found during the arrest of seven suspected terrorists in Vollsmose. Due to its high susceptibility to accidental detonation by shock. in swimming pools between disinfecting chlorine and urea in urine from bathers). 2006. a neighborhood in the Danish city Odense. also known as trichloramine. On September 4. but has never been used as such.chloride (without acid present) as a catalyst with up to 40% yield if radical inhibitor such as hydroquinone. Nitrogen trichloride was trademarked as Agene and used to artificially bleach and age flour. 2001 American Airlines Flight 63 with a bomb concealed in his shoe with a TATP trigger. and at given levels it can irritate mucous membranes. Denmark Acetone peroxide Nitrogen trichloride Nitrogen trichloride. On September 5. is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3.
Like ammonia. In 2006. and organic compounds. in what they call the pool chlorine hypothesis.Nitrogen(III) Trichloroazane Trichlorine nitride chloride Preparation and structure The compound is prepared by treatment of ammonium salts. The Pauling electronegativities are very similar for nitrogen (3.16). -40 °F . being sensitive to light. Pierre Louis Dulong first prepared it in 1812. NCl3 is a pyramidal molecule. 233 K. respectively. inducing him to hire Michael Faraday as a co-worker. and the Cl-N-Cl angles are 107°. An explosion from NCl3 blinded Sir Humphry Davy temporarily. NCl3 + 3 H2O NH3 + 3 HOCl  Safety Nitrogen trichloride is a dangerous explosive.  Reactions The nitrogen in NCl3 is often considered to have the -3 oxidation state and the chlorine atoms are considered to be in the +1 oxidation state.76 Å. Belgian researchers reported a possible link between NCl3 and rising numbers of childhood asthma cases. Most of its reactivity is consistent with this description. Nitrogen trichloride is hydrolyzed by hot water to release ammonia and hypochlorous acid. as an alternative to the hygiene hypothesis with a closer causal link. Properties Molar mass 120. and lost two fingers and an eye in two separate explosions. NH2Cl and NHCl2.04) and chlorine (3.365 g/mol Appearance yellow oily liquid Density 1. The N-Cl distances are 1. heat.635 g/mL Melting point -40 °C. such as ammonium nitrate with chlorine: 4 NH3 + 3 Cl2 NCl3 + 3 NH4Cl Intermediates in this conversion include chloramine and dichloramine.
Boiling point 71 °C. PCl3 Immiscible Octanitrocubane Octanitrocubane (molecular formula: C8(NO2)8) is a powerful high explosive that. In addition. is shockinsensitive (not readily detonated by shock). This increase in power is due to its highly expansive breakdown into CO2 and N2. and both the chemical itself and its decomposition products are considered non-toxic. CS2. as well as to the presence of strained chemical bonds in the molecule which have stored potential energy. the stateof-the-art military explosive as of year 2000. Octanitrocubane was first synthesized by Philip Eaton (who was also the first to synthesize cubane in 1964) and Mao-Xi Zhang at the University of Chicago in 1999. CCl4. The octanitrocubane molecule has the same chemical structure as cubane (C8H8) except that each of the eight hydrogen atoms is replaced by a nitro group (NO2).Small amounts have been synthesized in the laboratory. octanitrocubane produces no water vapor making it less visible. but not enough for performance testing as an explosive. with the structure proven by crystallographer Richard Gilardi of the United States Naval Research Laboratory. 160 °F Solubility in water slowly decomposes Solubility soluble in benzene. 344 K.13 g/mol Density 1.98 g/cm3 Explosive data Shock sensitivity Low Friction sensitivity Low . chloroform. like TNT.Octanitrocubane is thought to have 20 25% greater performance than HMX (octogen). Octanitrocubane Properties Molecular formula C8N8O16 Molar mass 464.
. Production HMX is more complicated to manufacture than most explosives and this confines it to specialist applications. the name has been variously listed as High Melting eXplosive. are more powerful. although a number of newer ones. HMX is used in melt-castable explosives when mixed with TNT. with a nitro group attached to each nitrogen atom. Additionally. HMX is also used in the process of perforating the steel casing in oil and gas wells. paraformaldehyde and ammonium nitrate.100 m/s RE factor 2. Nitrolysis of RDX is performed by dissolving RDX in a 55% HNO3 solution. also called octogen.5. High-velocity Military eXplosive. followed by placing the solution on a steambath for about six hours. tetrahexamine tetranitramine. or octahydro1. in the form of polymer-bonded explosive. The pathway that is created allows formation fluids to flow into the wellbore and onward to the surface.5. The HMX is built into a shaped charge that is detonated within the wellbore to punch a hole through the steel casing and surrounding cement out into the hydrocarbon bearing formations. chemically related to RDX. HMX was first made in 1930. It may be produced by nitration of hexamine in the presence of acetic anhydride. is a powerful and relatively insensitive nitroamine high explosive. which as a class are referred to as "octols".3.Explosive velocity 10.7 HMX HMX. HMX is used almost exclusively in military applications. Its molecule is an eight-membered ring of alternating carbon and nitrogen atoms. Her Majesty's eXplosive. In 1949 it was discovered that HMX can be prepared by nitrolysis of RDX. RDX produced using the Bachmann Process usually contains 8±10% HMX. including as the detonator in nuclear weapons. including HNIW and octanitrocubane. and as a solid rocket propellant.7-tetrazocine. Like RDX. polymer-bonded explosive compositions containing HMX are used in the manufacture of missile warheads and armor-piercing shaped charges. it is one of the most potent chemical explosives manufactured. or High-Molecularweight rdX.  Applications Also known as cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine.7-tetranitro-1. Because of its high molecular weight.3.
solid Melting point 276-286 °C Explosive data Shock sensitivity Low Friction sensitivity Low Explosive velocity 9100 m/s RE factor 1. nitroglycerin has an extremely high sensitivity to friction. also known as detonation velocity or velocity of detonation (VoD). Determination of the shock sensitivity of a material intended for practical use is one important aspect of safety testing of explosives.) At least four other impact tests are in common use. of which one of the more common is the Rotter Impact Test with results expressed as FoI (Figure of Insensitivity. Julius-Peters KG is a notable German company which manufactures testing apparatus for these tests. For instance. while various "gap tests" are used to measure sensitivity to blast shock.91 g/cm3. The data listed for . A variety of tests and indices are in use.155 g/mol Density 1.HMX Properties Molecular formula C4H8N8O8 Molar mass 296. Friction sensitivity is an approximation of the amount of friction or rubbing a compound can withstand before prematurely exploding. Explosive velocity.70 Shock sensitivity is a comparative measure of the sensitivity to sudden compression (by impact or blast) of an explosive chemical compound. is the velocity at which the shock wave front travels through a detonated explosive. meaning that very little rubbing against it could set off a violent explosion.
Penta refers to the five carbon atoms of the neopentane skeleton. it forms a precipitate. or together with nitrocellulose and plasticizer as thin plasticized sheets (e. a polyol. the force produced is focused on a much smaller area. PETN was used by the German Army in World War I. and the pressure is massively intensified. It is used to compare an explosive's effectiveness relative to TNT by weight only. is the nitrate ester of pentaerythritol.66. increased charge diameter. penthrite (or²rarely and primarily in German²as nitropenta). PETN residues are easily detectable in hair of people handling . as in practice it is difficult to measure. Wigand by nitration of pentaerythritol. such as in an artillery shell. corpent.6 kg of PETN or 1. with a relative effectiveness factor of 1. Unconfined velocities are often approximately 70 to 80 percent of confined velocities. This results in explosive velocity that is higher than if the explosive had been detonated in open air. it would take 0. This enables engineers to substitute one explosive for another when they are calculating blasting equations that are designed for TNT. The crude can be recrystallized from acetone to give processable crystals. C(CH2OH)4 + 4 HNO3 C(CH2ONO2)4 + 4 H2O PETN is manufactured by numerous manufacturers as a powder about the consistency of fine popcorn salt. History Penthrite was first synthesized in 1891 by Bernhard Tollens and P. For example.a specific substance is usually a rough prediction based upon gas behavior theory (see Chapman-Jouguet condition). also known as PENT. The production of PETN started in 1912. when it was patented by the German government. Primasheet 1000 or Detasheet). factor is a measurement of an explosive's power for military demolitions purposes. if a timber cutting charge requires 1 kg of TNT to work. In this reaction. and increased confinement Relative effectiveness factor or R.25 kg of ANFO to have the same effect. It is one of the most powerful high explosives known.g. PENTHRITE Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). PENTA. Explosive velocity is increased with smaller particle size. If the explosive is confined before detonation. PETN is most well known as an explosive. TEN. Explosive velocities are always faster than the local speed of sound in the material. Production This compound is produced by reaction of pentaerythritol with concentrated nitric acid.E.
can penetrate up to 5 inches (130 mm) of armor.it. some residues remain present even after washing. pentaerythritol mononitrate and pentaerythritol. though unsuitable for higher calibers Medical use Like nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate) and other nitrates. so dropping or igniting it will typically not cause an explosion (at atmospheric pressure it is difficult to ignite and burns relatively slowly). a 50/50 blend with TNT. in this form it is used in some cannon shells up to 30 mm caliber. It is rarely used alone. but is more sensitive to shock and friction than other secondary explosives such as TNT or tetryl. used in the M9A1 (bazooka) rockets. It is often phlegmatized by addition of 5 40% of wax. The XTX8003 extrudable explosive. PETN is used in a number of compositions. used in the W68 and W76 nuclear warheads. The heart medicine Lentonitrat is nearly pure PETN. It is more difficult to detonate than primary explosives. but can be stored without significant deterioration for longer than nitroglycerin or nitrocellulose. The highest residue retention is on black hair. It is a major ingredient of the Semtex plastic explosive. Under certain conditions a deflagration to detonation transition can occur. but primarily used in booster and bursting charges of small caliber ammunition. in upper charges of detonators in some land mines and shells. a shaped charge of 8 ounces (0. pentaerythritol dinitrate. Monitoring of oral usage of the drug by patients has been performed by determination of plasma levels of several of its hydrolysis products. Explosive use The most common use of PETN is as an explosive with high brisance. and as the explosive core of detonation cord.23 kg) of pentolite. or by polymers (producing polymer-bonded explosives). a silicone rubber. is a mixture of 80% PETN and 20% of Sylgard 182. PETN is also used medically as a vasodilator in the treatment of heart conditions. in plasma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Pentaerythritol tetranitrate . It is also used as a component of pentolite. PETN is the least stable of the common military explosives. These drugs work by releasing the signaling gas nitric oxide in the body.
14 g mol 1 Appearance White crystalline solid Density 1. 286 °F Boiling point 180 °C. 356 °F (decomposes above 150 °C) Explosive data Shock sensitivity Medium Friction sensitivity Medium Explosive velocity 8400 m/s (density 1.Properties Molecular formula C5H8N4O12 Molar mass 316.66 IUPAC name[hide] [3-Nitrooxy-2.org .77 g/cm3 at 20 °C Melting point 141.7 g/cm3) RE factor 1. 453 K.softmedia Ch.3 °C.2-bis(nitrooxymethyl)propyl] nitrate Sci-toys Wikipedia Globalsecurity News.ic. 414 K.ac.uk Scribd Cryptome.