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1. Verb ' ' 2. ' ' 3. The subjective marker '- / 4. The topic marker '- / ' 5.

Demonstrative ' , , ' 6. Verb ' ' 7. Verb ' / ' 8. The marker '- '

'

1. Verb '

' : to be

' ' is the form which links a subject with its predicate, indicating equality or identification. If this form is attached to the noun, there can be no pause or space between it and the Noun. It is pronounced like a part of the Noun. It has two different forms '' and ''. '' is used when the Noun ends with a vowel, and '' is used when the Noun ends with a consonant.

++2. ' ' : yes

--> -->

. .

' ', which means 'yes', is often pronounced ` '. It is used as a regular response to a knock at the door, or hearing your name called, and being greeted. The opposite of ` ' is ` '. This means 'no' is used in negative replies to questions, in contradictions and denials, and as an informal reply to apologies, expressions of thanks, and compliments.

3. The subjective marker '-

'

The subjective marker `- / ' is used to indicate that the preceding noun phrase is the subject of the sentence. - is used after a word which ends with a vowel, while `- is used after a consonant. Here are some examples:

. . 4. The topic marker '/ '

While the subjective marker `- / ' indicates the subject of a sentence, the topic marker ` / ' is used to indicate the comparison of topics. If there is no connotation of comparison with another subject, this marker cannot be used. '- ' is used after words ending in a vowel, `- ' is used after words ending in a consonant. Here are some examples: . This is a pencil. . This (in comparison with other things) is a pencil. . Korean is interesting.

Korean(in comparison with other languages) is interesting.

5.

, ,

(demonstrative)+NOUN : this/these ,it/their, that/those

These are the contractions of ' , , ` and the subjective marker '- '. 5.1. , , ' ' is 'this thing.' ' ' is a demonstrative which modifies the dependent noun '- ' and it is used only as a modifier of the following noun. ' ' indicates a thing which is close to the speaker. ' ' indicates a thing which is far from the speaker, but close to the listener. It can be also used as that thing or those things already under discussion. ' ' is used to indicate a thing which is far from both the listener and the speaker. + -> 'this' (close to the speaker) + + -> -> 'that' (far from the speaker, close to the listener) 'that over there' (far from both the listener and the speaker)

5.2.

, + + + A: B: A: ? B: y

These are the contractions of ' , -> 'this' (close to the speaker) -> -> ?

' and the topic marker '-

'.

'that' (far from the speaker, close to the listener) 'that over there' (far from both the listener and the speaker) What is this? . It's window. Then, what's that? . That's blackboard.

5.3.

' ,

' can indicate persons with ' ' which means person. 'this person' (close to the speaker) 'that person' (far from the speaker, close to the listener) 'that person over there' (far from both the listener and the speaker)

'

There are no contracions when the subjective or topic markers follow , , ' like ' , , , , , '. . . This person is Anna's father and that person is Anna's younger brother.

6. Verb ' ' : not to be This word is used for making negatives. You have already studied ' ` which indicates equality or identification. The ' ' is attached directly to a noun, and is pronounced as one
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word with the noun. When you make the negative construction of ' ', the subject marker 'directly to the noun, and then followed by the negative verb ' '.
. . <---> <---> . .

' is attached

7. Verb ' / opposite verb is ` (Possesion)

' : to be/not to be '.

The verb `

' indicates existence, location or possession. The

? , . Do you have a younger brother? Yes, I have a younger brother. , . . No, I don't have a younger brother. But I have an older sister. (Location) ? Is there a desk in the classroom? , . Yes, there is a desk (in the classroom) , . . No, there is not a desk (in the classroom). But there is a chair. 8. The marker '- ' : at/in This locative marker indicates that someone or something is stationary in a place. It is attached to nouns, and followed by ' '(to be) and ' '(not to be). . There is a student in the classroom. . There is not a teacher in the classroom.

1. The marker '- ' 2. The sentence ending '- ( / ) ' 3. Making questions. '- ( / ) ?' 4. The marker ' ' 5. ' / / / / + ' 1. The marker ''

1.1. to The marker ' ' indicates a destination.

. . q
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1.2. at, in This locative marker indicates that someone or something is stationary in a place. In this case, ' ' is attached to nouns, and is followed by an inactive verb, such as ' (to be)` or ' (not to be)` .  . 2. The sentence ending '( / ) ' .

There are several kinds of speech style in the Korean language and three styles will be dealt with in Novice 1. They are the informal polite speech style, formal polite speech style and the plain speech style. Each speech style is determined by the formality of the situation and the personal relationship of the individuals involved in a dialogue. Both the formal and the informal polite speech styles are used when people want to be polite, but the formal polite speech style is used in a formal situation and the informal polite speech style in an informal situation. The plain speech style is spoken when a superior talks to an inferior in age or is used between close friends. The study of the informal polite speech style will be done first in this lesson and the other two speech styles will be introduced later. The informal polite speech style is most widely used in Korea. Speakers can use this style when they wish to talk politely, but informally, in any situation. The sentence ending which makes the informal polite speech style has three forms.
(1) ` ' form : This is used when the last vowel of the verb stem is ' ' or ' '

; ; ; ;
(2) ` ' form :

+ + + +

--> --> --> --> --> --> (Contraction) (Contraction)


' and ' ' cases.

This is used after any other last vowel of the verb stem except for the ' ; + --> ; ` (3) ` ' form : ` verb. ; + : ; + + --> --> --> --> --> --> This is used after a ' + + --> -->

(contraction) (contraction) (contraction)

** The verb form like , , is called the infinitive form. The verb stem is made when ' ' is omitted from the infinitive form and many verb forms are made by adding some patterns to this verb stem.

3. Making questions.'- ( / ) ?' It is very simple to make an interrogative sentence in Korean. There is no subject-verb inversion as in English. You can make Yes/No question with rising intonation at the end of the sentence. For wh-questions, you should use interrogatives such as ' (where)` and ' / (what)`. . ? ? . ? ? 4. The marker
the objective marker '- /

There is a chair beside the desk. Is there a chair beside the desk? Where is the chair? This is beer. Is this beer? What is this?
The marker '- ` means 'also' or 'too'. This can replace the subjective marker '- / ', and

: also/too
`.

. . . . 5. The pattern ' / / / / : beside/in fromt of/behind/on/under


location such as '

There is some beer. There is some beer too. I will go. I will go, too. + '

Words that indicate directions and locations. Combined with markers indicating

`, they are used for locations. . There is a cat beside the desk. . . . . There is a cat in front of the desk. There is a cat behind the desk. There is a cat on the desk. There is a cat under the desk.

1. Adverb ' ' 2. Adverb ' ' 3. The marker '' 4. The objective marker '- / ' 5. The pre-ending '- / / -'

1. Adverb '

' : do not

The abverb '

' is used to express the negative and means 'do not'. ' ' is put before the verb.

. . 2. Adverb '
denial and refusal.

' : want to do but can not . .

The adverb ' ' is used with action verbs, and means impossibility or strong

3. The marker '-

' : at/in,from

The marker '-

' has two meanings. One is 'at' or 'in' indicating the place where

an action takes place. Another meaning is 'from', indicating a starting point or cause.

. . 4. The objective marker '/ '


The marker '- / ' is attached to a Noun to indicate the direct object of a transitive

verb. '- ' is used after a vowel while ' ' is used after a consonant.

. . 5. The pre-ending 'to exist.

-'

This is used to indicate an action which took place in the past or a condition which used

(1) - When the final vowel of the verb stem is ' , ', it takes ': . + -> : : :
(2) ,

-'

+ + +

. -> -> ->

. . . -> -> . (contraction) . (contracion)

When the final vowel of the verb stem is any other vowel like ' ,

', it takes '- -'.

: : q : :

+ + q+ +

-> . -> -> -> q

. . .-> . . (contraction)

(3) - When the verb is a '

' verb, it takes '-

-'.

: : q :

+ + q+

-> . -> ->

. -> . -> . ->

. (contraction) . (contraction) . (contraction)

1. The pattern '2. '' 3. The marker '- ' 4. Counting unit 5. Irregular verbs ' ' 1. The pattern 'The pattern This pattern examples: . ? ?

'

' : would like to (do)/want to (do) is used to indicate the desire of the subject and is used with action verbs and . is used with first person statements and second person questions. Here are some . . (I) would like to buy an apple. (I) would like to drink a cup of coffee. (I) would like to go to Korea. Would (you) like to see Anna? Where would (you) like to go?

Tense and negation are expressed in the verb ' '. . (I) wanted to eat pizza. . (I) don't want to eat pizza.

2. '' : imperative Sentence ending '' is one of the sentence endings which can be used for indicating polite questioning in the Interrogative(?) and polite order(command) in the Imperatives(). This ending is more polite than the sententce ending '.' (1) '?' This form implies respect of the speaker for the subject of the sentence, but the answer to this ? must be when referring to the yourself in the first person. ? Do you go home? , . Yes, I go. (2) '.' This form means 'Please do something' when referring to the second person. . Please give me an apple. . Please meet Anna.
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3. The marker '- ' : per,for,by,at,in You have already studied this marker '- ' which indicates static location in lesson 2. This marker '- ' is used to indicate the time that something takes place and proportion. . I meet Anna at 1 o'clock. . 1,000 . ? Interrogatives With Numbers How much What time How many y What day How many kinds ? ? ? y ? ? How much for this? What time is it now? How many do you want? What day is today? How many colors are there? I go climbing on Monday. I bought that book for 1,000won. How much is this apple for one?

4. Counting unit (1) There are various counting units in the Korean language. ' ', which means 'piece, item, object', is widely used when counting things and ' ', which means 'person', is used when counting persons. ' ' and ' ' are also used when counting persons, but ' ' is the polite form and shows respect for the persons counted. These counting units do not occur as independent words, but are connected to numbers. The Korean numbers are used with these units, for example ' , ', and ' , ', and the name of things or persons should precede these expressions. five watches seven books ten students eighteen teachers Several Korean numbers are changed when they used with counting units. Korean Numbers Number + counting unit , , , , , ,
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, , ,

, , . .

, ,

, ,

Give me one apple. I have three children.

Other counting units will be introduced later. Both Chinese and Korean units are used according to the counting units. (2) Both Korean and Chinese numbers are used when speaking about time is said. Here are some examples: 04:40 K.N : C.N.

Korean number +

(o'clock) one o'clock ten o'clock

Chinese number +

(minutes) fourty minutes thirty minutes Let's meet at 1:30. . (' . ' is used often as thirty minutes) The class ended at 10:05.

5. Irregular verbs ' ' (1) When verbs ending with ' ' meet the vowel, ' ' is omitted. Most verbs ending in a final vowel ' ' of the stem are irregular. ( )+: + => : to write,to use,to be bitter,to put on(a hat) ( )+: + => : to be tall ( ) : to rise ( ) : to turn off . I am writing a letter . . . . I wrote a letter. I have to write a letter. My brother is tall ' is used if the vowel before ' ' is other

(2) '' is used if the vowel before ' ' is ' ' or ' ', 'vowel except ' ' and ' '. - irregular verbs + '' ( )++ => : To be busy :
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( ( ( ( ) ) )

: to be hungry : to be bad : to lock : to be painful . Today I am busy. . . I was busy this morning. Because I was busy, I couldn't go. ' => => (To be pretty) (to be sad)

( ( ( (

irregular verbs + ')+: ) ) ) :

: to be happy : to be sad

1. The pattern '- ( / ) 2. The pattern '- / / 3. The marker '' 4. ' / '

' '

' (1) On it's own, ' ' means 'to see.' The pattern '- ( / ) ' is used 1. The pattern '- ( / ) to convey meanings such as 'someone tries doing something ( to see how it will turn out) or 'someone does something to see (how it will turn out).' . Please try on these shoes. . . Please try to call. Please wait here.

(2) With past tense form. it can be used to express experience as well as the meanings mentioned in . I have been to Korea. . I have met Melanie.

2. The pattern '- / / ': someone(or something) looks (appears, seems...) This pattern conveys meanings such as likeness, resemblance, or similarity. when attached directly to the stems of adjectives. The past tense form of this pattern is '- / / .'
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is after verb stems having ' / ' is after verb stems having other vowel ' / ' is after verb stems having '' . The clothes look small. . . Korean food looks delicious. He looks happy.

3. The marker '' : more than The comparative marker '' (more than) is attached to a standard of comparison (which is usually the second noun) when both items of comparison are mentioned. It is often accompanied by '- ' which means 'more'. ( ) Korean is more difficult than English. . ( ) . ( ) Dogs are bigger than cats. . Today is cooler than yesterday.

When the standard of comparison is omitted, ' '('more) is used. . This is better. . . 4. / : the most are made by putting the word ' . . . . Korean is more difficult. I like apples more. While the comparative marker is attached to nouns, superlative sentences / ' before adjectives, noun modifiers or adverbs. That one is the prettiest. This is the smallest pencil. He teaches best of all. (He is the best teacher.) Anna is the biggest.

1. The pattern '-( ) 2. The Marker '' 3. The Marker '' 4. The Marker '' 5. The plain speech style 6. Irregular verbs '- ' 7. irregular verbs '- '

'

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1. The pattern '-( )


going to take place in the future.

' : will

This pattern is used in the first or second person to express an action which is

(1) -

: If the verb stem ends in a vowel. , ? Anna, what will you do tomorrow? . I will move tomorrow. : If the verb stem ends in a consonant. ? Will you have lunch now?

(2) -

, 30 . No, I will have it in 30 minutes. If the subject of the sentence is the 3rd person pronoun, this pattern indicates likelihood or probability. 2. The Marker '' : all the way up to attaching to nouns of place or time. ? . . 3. The Marker '' : from (when) This marker '' indicates goal of the time and place,

How far are you going? I am going as far as City Hall. Please come by nine o'clock.

The marker '' indicates a movement away from a certain place or time. It is much more commonly used for time than place. For place, the marker '' is better. 9 12 . ? . . 4. The Marker 'movement.

I study Korean from nine to twelve. What time does class begin? (From what time do you begin class?) Do this first. Read from here.
' is attached to place nouns and indicates a starting point of

' : from

The marker '-

Anna came from Australia.

LA New York ? Is it far from LA to New York ? You have studied this marker '' denoting dynamic location. If someone does something at a certain place. this marker designates the location. Let's review it. . I study at Sogang University. . I eat Korean food at a korean restaurant. 5. The Plain Speech Style You have already studied the formal and informal polite speech style. Now you will study the plain style (in Korean ) which is used among truly close friends, to a social inferior, or
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when talking with children. There are several ways to form the plain speech style. 5.1. The easiest way to form the plain speech style is to just attach '- / / ' to the verb stem. It is very similar to the formation of the informal polite style which is formed by the ending '- / / '. If you drop the '- ', you will get the plain speech style. ? ----> ? . ----> ( ) ----> ! .

!---->

! <a little awkward>

The sentence ending of the four types of sentences are the same, but they are differenciated by intonation. If the predicate has the construction 'Noun + ? ? ----> ----> ', the ending '? ? ' is used.

5.2. First, two kinds of endings can be used for the interrogative '- ' and ' / / '. There aredifferences in nuance between the two. The ending '- / / ' is used among close friends, and the ending '- ' is used to a social inferior. ? ? ----> ? ----> ?

? ? ----> 5.3. Second, the propositive ending '- ' is used more frequently in colloquial conversation. ! Let's go to swimming. 12 ! ! ! Let's meet at 12 o'clock. Let's meet in the evening. Let's go to drink.

5.4. The imperative is formed with the ending ' / / ' . However, its use is restricted and it is not commonly used among close friends. ! Be quiet ! ! ! ! Get out of here ! Come quickly ! Throw it to me ! ' when followed by a

6. '- ' Irregular verbs The final consonant '- ' of the verb stem changes 'vowel, but it does not change when followed by a consonant.
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(to listen): (to ask): (to walk):

+ + +

---> ---> --->

. . .

. . . .! However ' u . . There is another pattern 'interchangeable with 'u (u . . / ' to close, ' . ' to receive and ' .

I listen to the music now If you really don't know, ask me. I walked a lot yesterday. Don't ask me. ' to believe are not irregular verbs. Please close the door. I received a letter from my friend. I need map and camera. I study Korean and English these days. ' is '.

' which means 'together', 'with' or 'along with'. This '- / ' and ' ' can be dropped in both '- / ' and ' I went on a trip with my friends. ) . I had a discussion with my teacher. I live with my younger brother.

7. '- ' Irregular verbs Some verbs of which the verb stems ends in the final consonant '- ' are irregular. When the final consonant '- ' of the verb stem is followed by a vowel, it changes into ' '. The vowel which follows the verb stem is usually ' ' except for some verbs like ' ' and ' '. When the final consonant '- ' of the verb stem is followed by a consonant, it does not change. -> -> (to be pleasant) + (contraction) (to be glad) (to be cold) (to be difficult) (to be hot) (to help) (to be pretty) + + + + + + -> -> -> -> -> -> . -> -> -> . . . -> -> . .

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1. The pattern '-( ) ?' 2. The Propositive '-( ) ' 3. The Connective '-( ) ' 4. The pattern '-( ) ' 1. The pattern' -( ) ?' Shall we(I) ~ ?/Will it be ~ ? The pattern '-( ) ?' is used to express inquiring about someone's opinion, view or appraisal on a certain matter or fact with the action verb. In this case, the subject of the sentence is always the first person, singular or plural. ? Shall we meet there? ? What shall I do? ? Because we are late, shall we go by airplane? When used with the adjectives, or with ' (to exist)' or ' (to be)', the subject of the sentence is the third person, and it express doubt or polite denial. ? Will Korean be interesting? (or You say Korean is interesting ?) ? ? 2. The Propositive '-( ) . . . . . 'Will this one be better? Will the library be over there? (Do you think the library is over there?)
This form is used to expressing the subject's suggestion ' nor with adjectives.

' : let's --(propositive)

with the action verbs and the verb of existence '

'. It cannot be used with '

Let's go quickly. Let's study Korean. Let's stay here. Let's go by train. Let's meet this weekend.

.' is used after verb stems ending in a consonant. ( )+; '.' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel. ( )+

. '

In plain speech style( ), with children and sometimes with close friends you can use the form 'instead of '- / / '. Drop the '- ' of the informal polite speech style ending '- / / '. Here are some examples; . Let's go quickly.
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. . . . 3. The Connective '-( ) ' : in order to

Let's study Korean. Let's stay here. Let's go by train. Let's meet this weekend.

The connective '-( ) ' is used to express the purpose of the subject's action and is followed by either ' '(to go), ' '(to come) or their compounds, or any verb which indicates movement, such as ' '(to go and come regularly). . I went to a bookstore (in order) to buy a book yesterday. ( ) ? . . I came to the park (in order) to exercise. Shall we go for a swim? Tom will come (in order) to play.

As you see the above examples, '- ' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel or the consonant ' '. On the other hand, '' is used after verb stems ending in all consonants except ' '. Tense and negation are expressed with the verbs or , but not in the verb connected to '-( ) '. Anna went to buy a book. . Anna didn't go to eat. 4. The pattern '-( ) ' : I will do -This form is used for expressing the speaker's intention or plan or promise. It is used with action verbs as well as with the verb , but not with adjectives. . I will do it. . . . I will wait (for you) over there. I will go tomorrow. I will help you.

1. The pattern '2. The pattern '3. The pattern ' / / 4. '- ' irregular verbs 1. The pattern' -

' / ( ' )'

' : want to do -, would like to '.

This pattern `-

' is used to express desires

in third person subject statements and questions with all verbs and `

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? . ?

Where does Anna want to go? Anna wants to go to home. What does Andy want to eat? . Andy wants to eat Bulgogi.

Tense is expressed in the verb `

', such as ` ' ? Where did Mina want to go ? She wanted to go home.

Negation is expressed in the verb ` ,

' with `', such as ` ? Did Mina want to go home ? . No, she didn't want to go home.

'.

2. The pattern '/ ' : One knows (doesn't know) how to do sth This pattern is used to express the knowledge or lack of knowledge of a technique or process of doing something. ( ) ? Do you know how to drive ? , , y ,y ,y . . ( . . )? Yes, I know how to drive. No, I don't know how to drive. Do you know how to play the piano ? Yes, I know how to play. No, I don't know how to play. `. I knew how to play the piano. (But, now I don't know how to play.) I didn't know how to play the piano. (But, now I know how to play.)

The Tense is expressed with the verb ' / y . ( y .) y ( 3. The pattern ' / / y ( )' . .).

When the verb ' ' and its respectful counterpart ' '(to give) are used in the pattern '- / / ( )', it expresses the speaker's request for something or offer to do something for someone else. ' ' is used for a request or offer to a social equal or inferior. ? . . Would you be kind enough to help me ? (Will you help me ?) Please read this for me. I will help you.(to an inferior)
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' ' is used when the speaker makes an offer or request to a social superior, or in any situation when the speaker wants to be polite. ? Shall I help you ? . . I will help you. Please read it for Anna.

4. '- ' irregular verbs 1. When ' ' of the verb stem is followed by the vowel '- ' and preceded by the vowels '- -' or '- -', it is changed into ' '. And the consonant '- ' is added to the preceding syllable. ( not to know) ( to be fast) ( to be different) . . . --> --> -->

I don't know English well. The plane is fast. The phone number is different. -' or '-

2. When ' ' of the verb stem is followed by the vowel '- ' and preceded by any other vowel than '', it is changed into '- '. Then the consonant '- ' is added to the preceding syllabel. Sing a song. ( to sing): . ( to bring up): ( to press): , . , ? I raised a puppy when I was little. Do you want to open the door? Then press here, please.

1. The ending '- / ' 2. The pattern '-( ) / 3. The connective '-( ) ' 4. The pattern '' 5. The connective '-( / / ) ' 6. Honorific system 7. '- ' irregular verbs 1. The ending '/ '

'

People use this formal polite speech style when they speak to strangers, casual acquaintances,

superiors, their elders, and social inferiors in formal situations.

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1.1 The formation of present tense The declarative verb form is made by attaching '- / the verb stem and '- / ?' must be attached to the verb stem to make the interrogative verb form. '/?' is used after verb stems (or the honorific infix - -) ending in a vowel and ' / after verb stems ending in a consonant. : + / / ? : + / Thank you I feel good / ?

' to ?'

1.2 The formation of past tense The declarative form is formed by attaching '- ( / ) ' to the verb stem and the interrogative form is made by adding '- ( / ) ? to the verb stem. The declarative form is made the same way as the past tense of the informal polite speech style. ' / ?' is attached to '- / / ' instead of ''. : + / ? (contraction) / ? : + / + / ? / . ? . / ? / (contraction) (contraction) ?

The music concert was good yesterday When did the class end? I was tired yesterday. ' to the

1.3 The formation of future tense The declarative form is formed by attaching '( ) verb stem and the interrogative form is made by adding '( ) ?' to the verb stem. : + . : + . . . I will wake up early tomorrow. Just leave it. It will be O.K.

1.4 The formation of the imperative form The imperative verb form is made by attaching '( ) ' to the verb stem. '' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel and ' ' after verb stems ending in a consonant : + . : + . . Come on in.
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Read the next chapter.

2. The pattern '-( ) / ' : can/cannot do, be able to do/not be able to do The pattern / / is used with verbs and indicates ability,capability,possibility or permission. (1) ; It is used when the verb stem ends in a vowel: Infinitive Form Formation Inflected Form ( ( ( (2) ) ) ) +++/ / / / / /

; It is used when the verb stem ends in a consonant: Infinitive Form Formation Inflected Form ( ( ) ) / ++/ / / / / / ' are combined with the final verb

( ) The past tense form `- / / '

+/ -' and the future tense form `-

3. The connective '-(

' : 'if, when ...'

The connective `-( ) ' can be used with any verb or adjective and indicates condition and/or stipulation. While in English a dependent clause which is introduced with 'if' can either precede or follow the main clause, in Korean the dependent clause precedes the main clause. '- ' is used when verb stem ends in a vowel or the consonant '- ' and '' is used when verb stem ends in all consonant except '- '. . If the movie is interesting, I will see it.

Sometimes, the word ` condition. .

. If it rains, let's not go. ' is used at the beginning of a conditional clause as a signal of the , If you meet him, give him my regards.

4. The pattern '' : don't do On it's own, the verb ` ' means 'to stop, to cease, to quit.' So the pattern '` preceded by an action verb expresses prohibition or dissuasion. This pattern is always used as a negative imperative sentence or a negative propositive sentence. . Please don't go to school.
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. . . . .

Please don't go to bed late. Please don't leave now. Don't cry. Let's not take a bus. Let's not meet him today.

5. The connective -( / / ) : so, because The connective `-( / / ) ' is used to indicate cause or reason. In this case, it is mostly used with adjectives and ' '(to go), ' '(to come), ' '(don't have) etc. in declarative and interrogative sentences. That is, `-( / / ) ' cannot be used in imperative and propositive sentence, where another connective '-( ) ' is used. (This connective will be explained later.) . I was tired, so I took a rest at home. . I was busy, so I couldn't go.

Korean has two types of honorifics. 6. Honorific system (1) One type is expressed by combining `- -' with verbs, indicating and respect on the part of the speaker for the person spoken to. The honorific form is made by inserting '-( ) -' between the verb stem and the endings like - ( / ) , ,, ,? or ? '- -' is used when verb stem ends in a vowel and '-' is used when verb stem ends in a consonant. + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + .

There are also special honorific verbs indicating respect for the person spoken to. These honorifics are used when the person deserving respect is the subject of the sentence. Plain Form Honorific Form Meaning to eat to sleep to exist, to be to be sick

.
? ?

Help yourself. Is Mr.Kim there? Is your mother seriously sick ?


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(2) The other way is to use respectful verbs. They are special words used by the speaker to express his own humility and, simultaneously, show his respect for the person with whom he is speaking. These honorifics are used when the person deserving respect is the object of the sentence. Plain Form Honorific Form Meaning to give ( ) / to ask/to tell to see/to meet / / to take/bring someone to somewhere

If you learn these honorific/respectful forms, you can handle most of the honorific/respectful expressions 7. '- ' irregular verbs The final consonant ' ' of the verb stem is dropped when it is followed by the endings which begins with the consonants '- ,- ,- '. (to live) ? Where do you live? (to know) (to sell) (don't) . . ? I know the person well. What they sell at the store? Don't come in.

1. The pattern '-( ) 2. The marker '' 3. The marker '' 4. Pre-ending ' ' 5. The pattern '-( ) 6. '- ' Irregular verbs

'

'

' : intend to The pattern `-( ) ' is used with verbs(including 1. The pattern '-( ) ` '). This pattern is used to indicate a subject's intention. However, this pattern is restricted to first and second personal pronouns. The third personal pronoun will be dealt with in detail later. ` ' is used if the verb stem ends in a vowel. `1 1 . ' is used if the verb stem ends in a consonant. . I intend to go to the theater. . I intend to be in Seoul for about 1 month. I intend to study from 1 o'clock.
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I intend to eat bulgogi. ' verb.

The negation is expressed in the main verb which has `-( ) ', not with the ` . I don't intend to buy that book. (= .) However tense is expressed in the main verb. It will be dealt with in detail later.

2. The marker '' : to (person) This marker '' is used for indicating the receiver of an action or the one whom something is done or exists. ? To whom did you give a book? u . ? I gave it to my friend. To whom did you write a letter? . Mellanie has Anna's key. . Please ask the teacher. This marker '' is used for indicating the source or

3. The marker '' : from (person) starting point of an action.

? . ?

From whom did you hear that news ? I heard from my mother. From whom did you get a letter ? ? From whom did you receive that present?

4. Pre-ending '- -' : guess/conjecture This pre-ending - - is used for expressing the speaker's conjecture or supposition or for asking intention of the person spoken to in a polite request. . I think you will be busy these days. . ? I think he/she was beautiful. What will you eat?

5. The pattern '-( ) ' : after doing something On it's own, the noun ' ' means 'later'. The pattern '-( ) ' is used to express 'after something happens' or 'after something happened'. It is used only with verbs. Tense and negation is expressed in the main verb. . Let's meet after class finishes. u . . I will do that task(job) after meeting my friend. Please come over after you call.
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? After we finish supper, what shall we do? However, if the subject of the two clauses (the main clause and the dependent clause which is introduced with this pattern) is the same, this pattern cannot be used with the verbs ' ' (to go) / ' come) and their compounds. . (awkward/never used) u . (awkward/never used) ' when followed by a

'(to

6. '- ' Irregular verbs The final consonant '- ' of the verb stem changes into 'vowel, but it does not change when followed by a consonant. (to listen): (to ask): (to walk): . . . . However ' u ' to close, ' . + + + -> -> -> . . .

I listen to the music now. If you really don't know, ask me. I walked a lot yesterday. Don't ask me. ' to receive and ' ' to believe are not irregular verbs. Please close the door. . I received a letter from my friend.

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