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is conserved. Where does the second law come in? One way is when heat flows. Heat flows in response to a temperature gradient. If two points are in thermal contact and at different temperatures, T1 and T2 then energy is transferred between the two in the form of heat, Q.

Heat Transfer and The Second Law

page 1

© Neville Hogan

The rate of heat flow from point 1 to point 2 depends on the two temperatures. ˙ Q = f(T1,T2) If heat flows from hot to cold, (the standard convention) this function must be such that ˙ Q > 0 iff T1 > T2 ˙ Q < 0 iff T1 < T2 ˙ Q = 0 iff T1 = T2

Heat Transfer and The Second Law

page 2

© Neville Hogan

In other words. T1 – T2 plane. Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 3 © Neville Hogan . the relation must be restricted to 1st and 3rd quadrants of the ˙ Q vs. —see example later.T2 NOTE IN PASSING: It is not necessary for heat flow to be a function of temperature difference alone. Q T1. .

Therefore ˙ ˙ ˙ Q = T 1 S 1 = T2 S 2 Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 4 © Neville Hogan .HEAT FLOW GENERATES ENTROPY. FROM THE DEFINITION OF ENTROPY: dQ = TdS Therefore ˙ ˙ Q = TS IDEALIZE THE HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS: Assume no heat energy is stored between points 1 and 2.

NET RATE OF ENTROPY PRODUCTION: entropy flow rate out minus entropy flow rate in.S 1 = Q /T2 . —due to the restrictions on the relation between heat flow rate and temperature ˙ (Q > 0 when T1 > T2 etc.) THEREFORE THE NET RATE OF ENTROPY PRODUCTION IS NEVER NEGATIVE.T2) /T1T2 Absolute temperatures are never negative (by definition). Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 5 © Neville Hogan . The product of heat flow rate and temperature difference is never negative. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ S 2 .Q /T1 = Q(T1 .S 1 ≥ 0. ˙ ˙ S 2 .

FURTHERMORE... Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 6 © Neville Hogan . This requires either ˙ a perfect thermal insulator (Q = 0) or a zero temperature gradient (T1 = T2). zero entropy production requires zero heat flow. In a heat transfer process. NOTE IN PASSING: Many processes other than heat transfer also generate entropy —see example later. These two constraints on the heat transfer process —non-negative entropy production —zero entropy production iff zero heat flow are consequences of the second law of thermodynamics.

A COMMON MODEL OF CONDUCTIVE HEAT TRANSFER: heat flow rate is proportional to temperature difference (sometimes called Fourier’s Law) For an insulated rod conducting through it ends kA ˙ Q = l (T1 .T2) where A is area l is length k is thermal conductivity WHAT TYPE OF NETWORK ELEMENT DESCRIBES THIS PHENOMENON? Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 7 © Neville Hogan .EXAMPLE: CONDUCTIVE HEAT TRANSFER THERMAL CONDUCTION: flow of heat from one body to another through direct contact.

ASSUMING AN IDEAL HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS (no heat energy is stored between points 1 and 2) ˙ ˙ ˙ Q = T 1 S 1 = T2 S 2 From the model above (Fourier’s Law) we get two constitutive equations. Rewrite this relation in terms of efforts.THE MODEL RELATES POWER FLOW TO EFFORT.T2) /T1 kA ˙ S 2 = l (T1 .T2) /T2 Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 8 © Neville Hogan . displacements. etc. flows. kA ˙ 1= S l (T1 .

THE TWO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS ARE COUPLED ˙ ˙ S 1 = S 1(T1. THE EQUATIONS RELATE EFFORTS (TEMPERATURES) AND FLOWS (ENTROPY FLOW RATES) — this is a two-port resistor.T2) ˙ ˙ S 2 = S 2(T1. The bond graph symbol is T1 dS1/dt T2 dS2/dt R Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 9 © Neville Hogan .T2) This is a two-port element.

g.NOTE: Absolute temperatures are never negative.T2)(1/T2 – 1/T1) kA ˙ 2-S1= ˙ 2 S l (T1 .S 1 = l (T1 .T2) /T1T2 ˙ ˙ S2-S1ε0 —This is as required by the second law. THIS SIMPLE TWO-PORT RESISTOR —adds entropy production behavior to our models —ensures the second law is satisfied Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 10 © Neville Hogan . kA ˙ ˙ S 2 .. but either (or both) of the two ˙ ˙ entropy flow rates S 1 and S 2 may be negative—e. —The constitutive equations automatically satisfy the second law. when T2 > T1 However. the net entropy production rate is never negative.

T1 and T2: absolute temperatures. (Stefan-Boltzmann Law) ˙ Q = σ(T14 .T24) σ: radiative heat transfer coefficient.EXAMPLE: RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER THERMAL RADIATION: the flow of heat from one body to another without direct contact. A SIMPLE MODEL OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER heat flow rate is proportional to the difference of the fourth powers of the temperatures. Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 11 © Neville Hogan .

˙ Q = 0 iff T1 = T2 ˙ Q > 0 iff T1 > T2 ˙ Q < 0 iff T1 < T2 NOTE: This is a case in which the heat flow rate can not be expressed as a function of the temperature difference alone —as advertised above.This model satisfies the restrictions on the relation between heat flow rate and temperature difference. Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 12 © Neville Hogan .

T24)/T1 ˙ S 2 = σ(T14 . PROCEED AS BEFORE: Assume an ideal heat transfer process (no heat energy stored between points 1 and 2) ˙ ˙ ˙ Q = T 1 S 1 = T2 S 2 Again we get two constitutive equations ˙ S 1 = σ(T14 . these two constitutive equations are coupled and describe a twoport resistor T1 dS1/dt T2 dS2/dt R Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 13 © Neville Hogan .TO FIND CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR THIS PROCESS.T24)/T2 As before.

T24)(1/T2 – 1/T1) Expand this expression ˙ ˙ S 2 . ˙ ˙ S2-S1ε0 —as required by the second law. the constitutive equations guarantee non-negative net entropy production.S 1 = σ(T12 + T22)(T1 + T2)(T1 – T2)(1/T2 – 1/T1) = σ(T12 + T22)(T1 + T2)(T1 – T2)2/T1T2 ε 0 Because absolute temperatures are never negative. Net entropy production rate ˙ ˙ S 2 . when T2 > T1 However.˙ ˙ As before.S 1 = σ(T14 . Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 14 © Neville Hogan .. net entropy production rate is never negative.g. either or both individual entropy flow rates S 1 and S 2 may be negative—e.

we represent relations between quantities as operations on variables.CAUSALITY AND THE SECOND LAW CAUSAL ANALYSIS — INTRODUCED EARLIER — IS AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF PHYSICAL SYSTEM MODELING.g. the integral causal form is preferable for an energy-storage element. The choice of which variables may be used as input and which as output is not arbitrary.g.. The definition of an element may prohibit some choices. Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 15 © Neville Hogan . e. There may be a “natural” preference for some choices. To model physical processes. e. its constitutive equation may have no inverse..

THERE IS A RELATION BETWEEN CAUSAL FORMS AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. the heat transfer constitutive equations have temperature inputs and entropy flow rate outputs on both ports. Regarded as assignment operators. T1 dS1/dt T2 dS2/dt R —”conductance” causality (effort in. flow out) (rather than “resistance” causality) THIS CAUSAL FORM SATISFIES THE SECOND LAW DUE TO (a) the constitutive equations and (b) the sign-definiteness of absolute temperature. Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 16 © Neville Hogan .

temperature out) T1 dS1/dt T2 dS2/dt R Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 17 © Neville Hogan .THE ALTERNATIVE CAUSAL FORMS DO NOT HAVE THIS OBVIOUS RELATION TO THE SECOND LAW. For example: Re-consider the model of conductive heat transfer change one port to a “resistance” causal form (entropy flow rate in.

Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 18 © Neville Hogan . The second equation suggests that temperature T2 may be ˙ ˙ infinite if S 2 = –kA/l or negative if S 2 < –kA/l Those values of temperature would have little physical meaning.A little algebra shows the corresponding constitutive equations to be: ˙ S1= ⎛kA⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ ˙ ⎛ S2 ⎞ ⎜S + kA⎟ ˙ ⎝2 l⎠ T1 T2 = ⎛kA⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ kA ˙2 + S l ˙ The first equation suggests that entropy flow S 1 is independent of temperature. That seems odd—we usually think of entropy (and heat) as flowing in response to a temperature gradient.

These problems might be solved by restricting the value of the input entropy flow rate. THE NET ENTROPY PRODUCTION RATE IS ˙ S22 ˙ ˙ S2-S1= kA ˙2 + S l ˙ This equation suggests that net entropy production may be negative if S 2 < – kA/l — that would violate the second law. ˙ S 2 > –kA/l Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 19 © Neville Hogan .. ACCORDING TO THESE EQUATIONS..FURTHERMORE.

3. 2. — not with the rest of the system. the constraint should be associated with the element used to model heat transfer. Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 20 © Neville Hogan . We don't know a-priori which other elements in a system generate the input entropy flow — it is not clear where to apply the constraint. Even with that constraint. ˙ 1.THAT WOULD BE UNSATISFACTORY. this form still suggests that entropy flow S 1 is independent of temperature — that does not facilitate insight. The constraint on entropy flow rates is due to the physical properties of heat transfer. If our model is to reflect our understanding of the physical process.

In contrast. this is the only causal assignment which will guarantee that the resistive multiport will satisfy the second law by virtue of its own constitutive equations. entropy flow rate outputs) satisifies the constraints of the second law through the constitutive equations of the resistive multiport element itself.) Heat Transfer and The Second Law page 21 © Neville Hogan . (Analogous to the preferred integral causal form for an energy storage element. the “conductance” causal form (temperature inputs. Thus there is a “natural” preference for the conductance causal form for an entropy-producing multiport resistor. In fact.

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