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The Physics of Ultrasound. The Principles of Ultrasound Diagnostic Equipment. Image Processing.
The Physics of Ultrasound
The term ultrasound refers to acoustical waves above the range of human hearing (frequencies higher than 20000 kHz). Ultrasound waves are vibrations or disturbances consisting of alternating zones of compression and rarefaction in physical medium such as gas, liquid, or solid matter. It will be studied the following:
Frequency Velocity Generation Reflection Beam pattern Resolution
Frequencies lower than 20 Hz are Infrasound and frequencies higher than 20 kHz are called Ultrasound Diagnostic ultrasound equipments used ultrasound frequencies in the range of approximately 1 MHz to Ultrasound 10 MHz 0 20 Hz Infrasound 20 kHz 1MHz 10 MHz Audible sound Diagnostic Ultrasound 4 .Ultrasound Frequency Humans can hear only a limited rang of frequencies (Audible spectrum). The frequency range of audible sound is approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
Velocity of ultrasound waves The table shows velocity of ultrasound waves to each material of human body The average velocity in human body is about 1530 m/sec. this average velocity will be significant in the study of equipment principles. which will be explained later Material Air Blood Brain Fat Soft tissue Kidney Liver Muscle Skull bone Water Velocity m/sec 330 1570 1540 1450 1540 1560 1550 1580 4080 1480 5 .
Generation of ultrasound waves Piezo-electric effect: Transducer without any voltage applied If we apply voltage in pulses the transducer will expand and contract By applying this voltage in very quick pulses we can vibrate the transducer and produce the ultrasound wave If any external forces is applied to the transducer a voltage is generated This phenomena is called piezo-electric effect Ultrasound waves Transducer ~ Voltage Ultrasound waves 6 .
Voltage-ultrasound conversion In the practice high voltage pulses of about 100 V are applied to the transducer The transducer converts the voltage pulses into the ultrasound waves. which my be transmitted into the human body Transmission Pulses Transducer Object Voltage Transducer Ultrasound waves 7 .
Voltage-ultrasound conversion When the ultrasound waves reach an object they are reflected back to the transducer The reflection echoes are then converted by the transducer into voltage to be used as reception signals Reflection Echoes Transducer Object Voltage Transducer Ultrasound waves 8 .
Voltage-ultrasound conversion 9 .
S. wave Reflected U. Acoustic impedance: Transmitted U. wave Z = ρ ∗C Z A = ρ A ∗CA Penetrated U.S.S. Z B = ρ B ∗ CB At the border of different structures some of the Z A = ρ A ∗CA transmitted waves are reflected back according to the acoustic impedance different between two Z B = ρ B ∗ CB structures.Ultrasound reflection Ultrasound waves transmitted in the human body. wave Z: Acoustic impedance ρ: Density C: velocity 10 .
00043 1.6 1.7 7.66 1.52 11 .S.Acoustic impedance The table shows acoustic impedance of each material in the human body The average impedance is about 1.8 1.6 1.62 1. waves are reflected from the different structures Material Air Blood Brain Fat Soft tissue Kidney Liver Muscle Skull bone Water Acoustic impedance 0.6 Acoustic impedance of each material is different from each other and that is why U.38 1.62 1.
the ultrasound beam is transmitted in a straight line in the near field then begins divert from a certain point in the far field as shown above.Ultrasound beam pattern As it shown above. This is called an unfocused beam If there an acoustic lens on the transducer surface the ultrasound beam will be focused and convert as a certain point called the focal point We can say generally the focused beam can obtain a clearer image. Near field far field Near field Lens Focal Far point field 12 . if there no acoustic lens on the transducer surface.
which influence the diagnostic image quality these are axial and lateral resolution Resolution can be defined as the ability of the equipment to distinguish two separate objects ΔX ΔY D Transducer ΔX: Axial resolution ΔY: Lateral resolution 13 .Resolution They are two major parameters.
S. High frequency A-Mode display Low frequency 14 . beam is shorter than the distance between the two objects.Axial Resolution Axial resolutions describe resolution in the axial direction Axial resolution is determined by the U. beam use a short wave length as is shown above we can distinguish two separate objects which are based closed together in line in axial direction.S. wave length and frequency If the U.S. This is because wave length of the U.
the higher the axial resolution High frequency A-Mode display Low frequency 15 . this is because the wave length is longer than the distance between the two objects Because a higher frequency main a short wave length. S.Axial Resolution If the U. frequency. we can say generally: that the higher the U.S beam uses a longer wave length as shown below. we can not distinguish two separate objects.
S. the higher the lateral resolution. If the U. Generally speaking: the narrow the U.Lateral Resolution Lateral resolution describes resolution in the lateral direction If the U.S. A A B B far field Displayed Near field Convergence Divergence Object size A B A B 16 . beam is narrow the displayed object size will be a closer to the actual size so lateral resolution is better.S. beam is wide. beam. the displayed object size may be bigger than the actual object size so lateral resolution is poor. as shown in the top figure.
This table shows the relationship between frequency, resolution and penetration In general, the higher the U.S frequency the higher the resolution and the lower the penetration. Conversely , the lower the U.S frequency the lower the resolution but the higher the penetration. To determine a wide range of diagnostic requirements we need a wide range of U.S. frequencies That is why there is a wide selection of probe frequency for studies of different organs. Frequency Resolution Penetration Low Poor Good High Good Poor
The principles of ultrasound diagnostic equipment
Ultrasound Equipment Display Mode Electronic Focus Two Dimensional Scanning
Principles of ultrasound equipment
Ultrasound Equipment: U.S diagnostic equipment uses a pulse reflection system
T-Delay Pulse generator
Digital Scan Converter
S. which will entire the patient. probe touches the patient skin surface U. beam When the U. then the T-delay line circuit applies appropriate delay time for each transmitted pulse for electronic focusing of the U.S. and are reflected back by the intern structures. T-Delay Organ Pulse generator 20 . waves.Principles of ultrasound equipment Pulse generator: A pulse circuit generate a high voltage pulses.S. waves are transmitted to the patient The delayed high voltage pulses are applied to the piezoelectric transducer elements They produce the U.S.
Then the receiver circuit amplifies the mixed echo signal from the R-delay line Organ R-Delay Receiver 21 .Principles of ultrasound equipment The reflected echo signals are received by the same probe Then they are input into the R-delay line circuit to compensate for the transmission delay factor of the pulses and mix the echo signals.
C Digital Scan Converter Organ TV-monitor 22 . The result is real time imaging R-Delay Receiver D.S.C So that the image data is thought enter the frame menu and read sequentially out in a format suitable for display on TV-monitor.Principles of ultrasound equipment In new equipment the echo signals are produced using a digital scan converter D.S.
S diagnosis Muscle 2.S.9 As a general rule U.8 If absorption is very high the Kidney 1 U.3 is not restructures containing 13 gas or structures hidden behind Skull bone Water 0.002 bon such as lung.Absorption This table shows the absorption Material Absorption at of MHz U.9 Note that absorption in air and Fat 0. waves in each 1 MHz dB/cm material Air 12 Absorption is measured in Blood 0.6 skull bone is very high as shown in the table Soft tissue 0. stomach and brain.S waves can not pass through Liver 0.2 decibels per centimeters (dB/cm) Brain 0. 23 .
S. is about 13 μsec as shown 24 .5 μsec to travel from the probe transducer to a target 1 1 cm cm below the skin as shown 13 μ sec Soft tissue An additional 6.S. wave to return to the probe transducer As a result the total time taken for 1sec :1530 m ≡ X :1 cm ⇒ the U.S. wave will take about 6. X = 1530 ∗ 100 cm = 6.S. wave to be transmitted 1 and received to and from a target.5 μsec is required for the U. in the human body is about 1530 m/sec Pulse Echo At this velocity an U.5 μ sec which is 1 cm from the transducer.Relationship between Depth and Time The average velocity of U.
transmission timing and reception period are determined by rate pulse The rate pulse allows a reception period of up to 260 μsec.Relationship between Depth and Time The U.S. This 260 μsec translate to distance of about 20 cm depth in the human body So we can say generally that the maximum scanning depth is limited to this 20 cm Pulse Depth [cm] Depth time 1 cm = 13 μsec 260 μ sec 25 Echo .
imaging. Here we will take about 3 of the most common modes.S.Display Mode We will explain some of the display modes for U. they are: 1) A-Mode 2) B-Mode 3) M-Mode 26 .
Principles of A-Mode A-mode display gives information about the distance between tissue boundaries e. to measure organ thickness If we observe an iconoscopes display.g. let the vertical direction be the time or depth axis and let the horizontal direction be the amplitude of the received signal wave This display method is called Amplitude Mode or just A-Mode 0 A-Mode Amplitude-Mode Depth [cm] Amplitude 27 .
Principles of B-Mode The B of B-Mode stands for brightness Shifting the position of U. transmission and reception results in scanning Echo signals received and then go to intensity modulation so that across sectional image can be displayed on CRT Using this display method we can see internal structure I a patient study Width [cm] Intensity modulation ⇒ B-Mode Brightness-Mode Depth [cm] 28 .S.
This display mod is useful for studying moving targets such as inertial mitralvalve The transducer position should remain fixed when using this mode.Principles of M-Mode Here we illustrate M-Mode. while the display mode used customarily screened in a movement code scrolling Scrolling allows movement of the valve to be displayed as Intensity an image modulation Time [sec] M-Mode Motion-Mode Depth [cm] 29 . The M of m-mode stands for motion.
Principles of M-Mode 30 .
B and M-Mode 31 .A.
wave That the transducer elements are not driven at the same time. pulse will be driven from transducers 1 and n then transducers 2 and n-1 and so on Delay line circuit Delayed Transducer pulses Array 1 2 Input pulses n-1 n Focal Point 32 .S. the first U.S.Principles of Electronic Focus In actual practice a block of transmission elements are driven for transmission each U.
beam to convert at a focal point and that is called Electronic focusing The distance of the focal point from the probe is determined by the delay time between transmission pulses. 33 .S.Principles of Electronic Focus This sequential driving causes the U.
where they are a phase corrected and mixed together. T-delay line Delay Time Transmission Same Transducers Reception Delay Time R-delay line Mixed Echo 34 .T&R-Delay Line For transmission a pulses input to the Input pulses transmission delay line The transmission delay line generates a delay time between pulses to achieve a desired focusing distance For reception the echo signals are input to the reception delay line.
B-Mode Scanning Method Next we will explain some of the types of B-Mode scanning Here we will explain the two most common scanning modes They are: Linear scanning Sector scanning 35 .
scanning beam is produced by simultaneously driving a block of several transducer elements.S.Principles of Linear Scanning In practice many tiny transducers called transducer elements arrayed in straight line The U. Pulses Generator n 3 2 1 Transducer Array 36 .
image is produced from the information gathered between each switching interval of the U.S.Principles of Linear Scanning The block is new to across the links of the elements array by electronic switching This effect moving the scanning beam across the links of the transducer One scanning line of the U. beam Pulses Generator n 3 2 1 Transducer Array 37 .S.
Linear Scanning On the left hand side is the probe and the shape of the beam On the right hand side is the display format of linear scanning The advantages of linear scanning are a large field of view at shallow regions of the body and easier identification of skin orientation Probe This is the actual B-Mode real time image display of linear scanning Beam shape 38 TV Display Format .
Principles of Sector Scanning For sector scanning all the transducer elements are used for transmission and reception Pulse Generation T-delay line Delay time Transducer Array 39 .
beam is changed by the delay time between transmission pulses as shown Pulse Generation T-delay line Delay time Transducer Array 40 .Principles of Sector Scanning The angle of the U.S.
Sector Scanning On the left hand side is the probe and the shape of the beam On the right hand side is the display format of sector scanning TV Display Format Probe Shape The advantages of sector scanning are: a large field of view at deep region of the body and a small skin contact area 41 .
waves to a very small acoustic window such as between the ribs to exam the heart as shown This is the actual B-Mode real time image display of sector scanning 42 .S.Sector Scanning Therefore the sector probe can transmit U.
Image Processing STC Dynamic range Echo enhancement Combination focus 43 .
S. waves attenuated gradually through absorption as they penetrate the human body This mains that echoes reflected from near the skin surface will be stronger than echoes reflected from deep regions of the human body The STC or sensitivity time control can be Transducer used to compensate for this difference in echo signals strength from shallow to deep regions Received as shown Echo As echo strength Gain decreases over distance. gain of the STC signal for different depth can be increased independently. so that the echoes all have the Compensated Echo same strength penetration Gain compensation 44 .Sensitivity Time Control (STC) The transmitted U.
Sensitivity Time Control (STC) STC 45 .
a greater range of signal intensities can be displayed 46 . image The dynamic range actually uses a wide band operational amplifier In the figure we can see the amplification factor of the amplifier Here the strength of the signal is too great to be displayed at this dynamic range If we have a larger dynamic range.Dynamic Range Dynamic rang of the image is defined as the center of request strongest echo signals which can be displayed The dynamic range control is to adjust the display range of the U.S.
Dynamic Range By changing the amplification factor the range of the output echo signals is changed as shown Here the dynamic range has been increased to cover the highest signal strength If dynamic range is too wide. observation of the image becomes difficult because the image contents to many similar signals If the range too narrow. contrast increases but too narrow range will increase areas of intense darkness or brightness as signals beyond the ranges are lost 47 .
Dynamic Range output Display Limit Output Echo 0 Time DR UP Input Time Input Echo 48 .
Dynamic Range output Output Echo 0 Time DR UP Input Time Input Echo 49 .
S.E) Echo enhancement is to enhance the definition of the U. both edges of the square wave can be enhanced as shown in the top figure The practical application of echo enhancement is to enhance the borders of internal structures in diagnostic images as shown below The higher membrane enhancement liver select the greater the enhancement Output Input Echo Enhancement Circuit Image Image 50 .Echo Enhancement (E. image If for example a square wave is the input to the echo enhancement circuit.
Principles of combination focus Combination focus has multiple focal points to narrow beam width from shallow to deep regions The first U. pulse is focused in the near field The reception data from the first pulse in the near field is told in the digital memory After that the second U. S.S. pulse is emitted focusing in the far field Then the near and far field reception data are combined by the digital memory And so on the TV monitor we see a higher resolution image in both. the shallow and deep regions using the combination focus 51 .
Principles of combination focus Near Focus Far Focus Combination Focus Focal Point Focal Point Depth [cm] 52 .
5 MHz to 9 MHz Length from 20 to 60 cm Applications: Abdomen.Types of Ultrasound Probes Linear Array: frequency range app. from 3. GYN. OB. Breast. Musculoskeletal) Convex array: frequency range app. Urology Micro-convex: Application: Pediatrics 53 . from 5 MHz to 13 MHz Length from 30 to 60 cm Applications: (Small Parts). (Orthopedics.
Multi-Plane TEE-Transducer 54 .Types of Ultrasound Probes Phased array: frequency range app.0 MHz and an image plane rotation between 0 and 180 deg.0 to 8. from 2 MHz to 8 MHz angle from 60 to 90 cm Applications: cardiology (heart) Adult Pediatric Multi-Plane TEE-Transducer: with a frequency range of 4.
Endorectal Endoscopic / Mini-probes frequency range app. from 5 MHz to 10 MHz Endocavity frequency range app. from 5 MHz to 10 MHz Application: Endovaginal.Types of Ultrasound Probes Fingertip / Intraoperative frequency range app. from 5 MHz to 20 MHz 55 .
That person will hear a pitch lower than the pitch heard by a person standing still Likewise. someone moving toward the whistle will hear a higher pitch Doppler effect 56 . such as a whistle experiences.Doppler Effect The Doppler effect is simply what someone moving away from a source of sound.
which contains blood flowing with a velocity of u m/s. have a frequency. fr. and echoes generated by moving reflectors in the blood. Δf. θ. The difference between these two frequencies. for instance. Their signals can therefore be fed through speakers so that this sound 57 can be heard . e. at any instant.g. is related to the velocity of the flowing reflectors throught the following equation: where v is the velocity of sound in the medium. towards a blood vessel. The transducer emits ultrasound waves of frequency.e. So. the equation above reveals that the frequency differences will be in the audible range of sound frequencies.Doppler Effect The diagram shows a Doppler transducer placed on the skin and aimed at an angle. 0-15 kHz. fo. red blood cells. i. when ultrasound with a frequency in the range 2-10 MHz is applied in medicine to detect blood flowing in arteries (where typical velocities are 0-5 m/s).
Doppler Effect Using Doppler effect to measure blood flow An ultrasonic blood flow meter 58 .
Types of US Doppler Technique Pulsed-wave Doppler (PW Doppler) Continuous-wave Doppler (CW Doppler) Color Flow Imaging (CIF) 59 .
Types of US Doppler Technique Block diagram of a Doppler system U. S T&R Phase Detection Frequency Analysis FFT Frame Memory DSC Color Flow Imaging Monitor Video Recorder VCR 60 .