Advanced Reading Practice Questions . In 1892 the Sierra Club was formed.

In 1908 an area of coastal redwood trees north of San Francisco was established as Muir Woods National Monument. In the Sierra Nevada mountains, a walking trail from Yosemite Valley to Mount Whitney was dedicated in 1938. It is called John Muir Trail. John Muir was born in 1838 in Scotland. His family name means ³moor,´ which is a meadow full of flowers and animals. John loved nature from the time he was small. He also liked to climb rocky cliffs and walls. When John was eleven, his family moved to the United States and settled in Wisconsin. John was good with tools and soon became an inventor. He first invented a model of a sawmill. Later he invented an alarm clock that would cause the sleeping person to be tipped out of bed when the timer sounded. Muir left home at an early age. He took a thousand-mile walk south to the Gulf of Mexico in 1867and 1868. Then he sailed for San Francisco. The city was too noisy and crowded for Muir, so he headed inland for the Sierra Nevadas. When Muir discovered the Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevadas, it was as if he had come home. He loved the mountains, the wildlife, and the trees. He climbed the mountains and even climbed trees during thunderstorms in order to get closer to the wind. He put forth the theory in the late 1860's that the Yosemite Valley had been formed through the action of glaciers. People ridiculed him. Not until 1930 was Muir's theory proven correct. Muir began to write articles about the Yosemite Valley to tell readers about its beauty. His writing also warned people that Yosemite was in danger from timber mining and sheep ranching interests. In 1901 Theodore Roosevelt became president of the United States. He was interested in conservation. Muir took the president through Yosemite, and Roosevelt helped get legislation passed to create Yosemite National Park in 1906. Although Muir won many conservation battles, he lost a major one. He fought to save the Hetch Valley, which people wanted to dam in order to provide water for San Francisco. In the late 1913 a bill was signed to dam the valley. Muir died in 1914. Some people say losing the fight to protect the valley killed Muir. 1.What happened first? A. The Muir family moved to the United States. B. Muir Woods was created. C. John Muir learned to climb rocky cliffs. D. John Muir walked to the Gulf of Mexico E. Muir visited along the east coast. 2. When did Muir invent a unique form of alarm clock? A. while the family still lived in Scotland B. after he sailed to San Francisco C. after he traveled in Yosemite D. while the Muir family lived in Wisconsin E. after he took the long walk 3. What did John Muir do soon after he arrived in San Francisco? A. He ran outside during an earthquake. B. He put forth a theory about how Yosemite was formed. C. He headed inland for the Sierra Nevadas. D. He began to write articles about the Sierra Nevadas. E. He wrote short stories for the local newspaper. 4. When did John Muir meet Theodore Roosevelt? A. between 1901 and 1906 B. between 1838 and 1868 C. between 1906 and 1914 D. between 1868 and 1901 E. between 1906-1907 5. What happened last? A. John Muir died. B. John Muir Trail was dedicated. C. Muir's glacial theory was proven. D. The Sierra Club was formed. E. John's family visited him.

When using a metal file, always remember to bear down on the forward stroke only. On the return stroke, lift the file clear of the surface to avoid dulling the instrument's teeth. Only when working on very soft metals is it advisable to drag the file's teeth slightly on the return stroke. This helps clear out metal pieces from between the teeth. It is best to bear down just hard enough to keep the file cutting at all times. Too little pressure uses only the tips of the teeth; too much pressure can chip the teeth. Move the file in straight lines across the surface. Use a vice to grip the work so that your hands are free to hold the file. Protect your hands by equipping the file with a handle. Buy a wooden handle and install it by inserting the pointed end of the file into the handle hole.

6.These directions show you how toA. work with a hammer B. use a file C. polish a file D. oil a vise E. repair shop tools 7. When using a fileA. always bear down on the return stroke B. move it in a circle C. remove the handle D. press down on the forward stroke E. wear protective gloves 8. When working on soft metals, you canA. remove the handle B. clear metal pieces from the teeth C. bear down very hard on the return stroke D. file in circles E. strengthen them with added wood 9. Protect your hands byA. dulling the teeth B. dragging the teeth on the backstroke C. using a vise D. installing a handle E. wearing safety gloves

³Old woman,´ grumbled the burly white man who had just heard Sojourner Truth speak, ³do you think your talk about slavery does any good? I don't care any more for your talk than I do for the bite of a flea.´ The tall, imposing black woman turned her piercing eyes on him. ³Perhaps not,´ she answered, ³but I'll keep you scratching.´ The little incident of the 1840s sums up all that Sojourner Truth was: utterly dedicated to spreading her message, afraid of no one, forceful and witty in speech. Yet forty years earlier, who could have suspected that a spindly slave girl growing up in a damp cellar in upstate New York would become one of the most remarkable women in American history? Her name then was Isabella (many slaves had no last names), and by the time she was fourteen she had seen both parents die of cold and hunger. She herself had been sold several times. By 1827, when New York freed its slaves, she had married and borne five children. The first hint of Isabella's fighting spirit came soon afterwards, when her youngest son was illegally seized and sold. She marched to the courthouse and badgered officials until her son was returned to her. In 1843, inspired by religion, she changed her name to Sojourner(meaning ³one who stays briefly´) Truth, and, with only pennies in her purse, set out to preach against slavery. From New England to Minnesota she trekked, gaining a reputation for her plain but powerful and moving words. Incredibly, despite being black and female (only white males were expected to be public speakers), she drew thousands to town halls, tents, and churches to hear her powerful, deep-voiced pleas on

equality for blacks-and for women. Often she had to face threatening hoodlums. Once she stood before armed bullies and sang a hymn to them. Awed by her courage and her commanding presence, they sheepishly retreated. During the Civil War she cared for homeless ex-slaves in Washington. President Lincoln invited her to the White House to bestow praise on her. Later, she petitioned Congress to help former slaves get land in the West. Even in her old age, she forced the city of Washington to integrate its trolley cars so that black and white could ride together. Shortly before her death at eighty-six, she was asked what kept her going. ³I think of the great things,´ replied Sojourner. 10.The imposing black woman promised to keep the white manA. searching B. crying C. hollering D. scratching E. fleeing 11. This incident occurred in theA. 1760s B. 1900s C. 1840s D. 1920s E. 1700s 12. Sojourner Truth was raised in a damp cellar inA. New York B. Georgia C. New Jersey D. Idaho E. Maryland 13. Isabella lost both parents by the time she wasA. twenty-seven B. two C. seven D. fourteen E. nineteen 14. When New York freed its slaves, Isabella hadA. problems B. no children C. five children D. an education E. three children 15. Her change in name was inspired byA. a fighting spirit B. religion C. her freedom D. officials E. friends 16. She traveled from New England toA. Canada B. California C. Minnesota D. Alaska E. Virginia 17. She forced the city of Washington toA. integrate its trolleys B. give land grants C. care for ex-slaves D. provide food for ex-slaves E. clean its trolleys 18. She preached againstA. smoking B. slavery C. alcohol D. hoodlums E. women having no rights 19. Sojourner Truth died atA. 48 B. 72 C. 63 D. 86 E. 88

The Galapagos Islands are in the Pacific Ocean, off the western coast of South America. They are a rocky, lonely spot, but they are also one of the most unusual places in the world. One reason is that they are the home of some of the last giant tortoises left on earth. Weighing hundreds of pounds, these tortoises, or land turtles, wander slowly around the rocks and sand of the islands. Strangely, each of these islands has its own particular kinds of tortoises. There are seven different kinds of tortoises on the eight islands, each kind being slightly different from the other. Hundreds of years ago, thousands of tortoises wandered around these islands. However, all that changed when people started landing there. When people first arrived in 1535, their ships had no refrigerators. This meant that fresh food was always a problem for the sailors on board. The giant tortoises provided a solution to this problem. Ships would anchor off the islands, and crews would row ashore and seize as many tortoises as they could. Once the animals were aboard the ship, the sailors would roll the tortoises onto their backs. The tortoises were completely helpless once on their backs, so they could only lie there until used for soups and stews. Almost 100,000 tortoises were carried off in this way. The tortoises faced other problems, too. Soon after the first ships, settlers arrived bringing pigs, goats, donkeys, dogs and cats. All of these animals ruined life for the tortoises. Donkey and goats ate all the plants that the tortoises usually fed on, while the pigs. Dogs and cats consumed thousands of baby tortoises each year. Within a few years, it was hard to find any tortoise eggs-or even any baby tortoises. By the early 1900s, people began to worry that the last of the tortoises would soon die out. No one, however, seemed to care enough to do anything about the problem. More and more tortoises disappeared, even though sailors no longer needed them for food. For another fifty years, this situation continued. Finally, in the 1950s, scientist decided that something must be done. The first part of their plan was to get rid of as many cats, dogs and other animals as they could. Next, they tried to make sure that more baby tortoises would be born. To do this, they started looking for wild tortoise eggs. They gathered the eggs and put them in safe containers. When the eggs hatched, the scientists raised the tortoises in special pens. Both the eggs and tortoises were numbered so that the scientists knew exactly which kinds of tortoises they had-and which island they came from. Once the tortoises were old enough and big enough to take care of themselves, the scientists took them back to their islands and set them loose. This slow, hard work continues today, and, thanks to it, the number of tortoises is now increasing every year. Perhaps these wonderful animals will not disappear after all.

20.What happened first? A. Sailors took tortoises aboard ships. B. The tortoise meat was used for soups and stews. C. Tortoises were put onto their backs.

He married Anne Morrow. B. For example. Most pilots familiar with the Arctic did not believe that such a route was possible. with an overnight stop in St. having lived through aviation history from the time of the first powered flight to the first steps on the moon and having influenced a big part of that history himself. in the 1960s E. New York. to know geography only C.´ The third person would have to choose a word beginning with ³ Y. proper geographical terms D. Before you choose your own word. C. Two years later. they discovered they had landed on barely three feet of water. sports E. Nine days later. C. think about howA. What happened soon after people brought animals to the islands? A. He left college. C. most efficient route was a great curve across Canada. goodwill ambassador. state. he flew over fifty combat missions in the Pacific. B. The Lindberghs took on the task of proving that it was. Louis business leaders helped pay for the plane Lindbergh designed especially for the flight. to be a good speller 27. D. a transcontinental record. The tortoises began to disappear. Lindbergh tested the plane by flying it from San Diego to New York. he and Dr. Lindbergh served as a civilian technical advisor in aviation. 22. in the same region E.600 miles in less than thirty four hours. When did people start to do something to save the tortoises? A. Lindbergh toured the world as a U. in Mexico. in the 1400s 23. He met his future wife. Congressional Medal of Honor and the first Distinguished Flying Cross. The scientist raised the tortoises in special pens. The tortoises fought with the other animals. he joined the United States Army so that he could go to the Army Air Service flight-training school. when Lindbergh was only twenty-five years old. During the 1930s. During World War I in the 1940s. E. The last person to survive is the champion. 21. where her father was the United States ambassador. to know something about spelling and geography E. M. the person might say. What happens right after the tortoise eggs hatch? A. Louis.´ The second person has ten seconds to think of how the word ends and come up with another geographical term starting with that letter. Alexis Carrel were given a patent for an artificial heart. The first person in the group starts off by naming anything that is geographical.This game may help you withA. in the early 1900s D. they charted a new route from the east coast of the United States to the Orient. and other animals. The tortoises continued to wander freely. geography D. They flew by day and each night landed on a lake or a river and camped. Settlers brought other animals to the islands. charting new commercial air routes. B. He dropped out of the University of Wisconsin after two years to earn a living performing daredevil airplane stunts at country fairs. assured him a lifetime of fame and public attention. B. The number of tortoises began to grow. he was hired to fly mail between St. He had flown more than 3. Charles Augustus Lindbergh was more interested in flying airplanes than he was in studying. He was given awards and parades everywhere he went. The sailors use the tortoises for food. he spoke widely on conservation issues. the last word starts B.´ since the geographical term has to start with ³N. Lindbergh helped design the famous 747 jet airliner. at 7:52 A. the spelling of the first word 28. Although he was a civilian. Alaska. 30. The person trying to answer needsA. It could be a city. D. For a long time. smart you are D.000 to the first pilot to fly nonstop from New York to Paris. Anne Morrow. they landed in China with the maps for a safe airline passenger route. The answer must beA. E. Lindbergh is remembered as the first person to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. In the late 1960s. current events 26. He attended the Army flight-training school. The second participant might say. E.´ If a player fails to think of a correct answer within the time limit. D. Pigs had been all the sailors had to eat. dogs. along a coast line Charles A. M. His flight made news around the world. long the last word is E. Out of daylight and nearly out of fuel.What did Lindbergh do before he crossed the Atlantic? A. In 1919. The scientists take the tortoises back to their islands. Lindbergh took off from Long Island. The scientist encouraged the villagers to help.1927. for a major airline. or any proper geographical term. after two more emergency landings and numerous close calls. ³Norway. C. they were forced down in a small ocean inlet. Lindbergh was also working as an engineer. This feat. Louis and Chicago. In 1931. D. within the United States C. on May 20. The shortest. What happened immediately after Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic? A. The flight took only 20 hours and 21 minutes. lake. The number of tortoises began to decrease. S. He charted a route to China. they had their first serious emergency. C. S. the last word ends C. and down to China and Japan. no time limit B. river. Nine St. Louis and Chicago. Scientists took away other animals. He flew the mail between St. 29. Tortoises were taken back to their home islands. they took off from Long Island in a specially equipped small seaplane. Tortoise eggs were kept in safe containers.´Boston. The animals ate the tortoises' food and eggs. that player is out of the game. After completing his training. over Alaska. In the next morning's light. They arranged for fuel and supplies to be set out along the route.D. Even while actively engaged as a pioneering flier. B. He graduated from flight-training school. He was presented with the U. country. Scientists took away as many animals as they could. music C. Then came the historic flight across the Atlantic. He died August 1974. E. in the 1950s C. Charles and Anne Lindbergh worked for various airline companies. 25. The scientists get rid of cats. In 1935. . Near Nome. He acted as a technical advisor during World War II. On July 29. a New York City hotel owner offered a prize of $25. On September 19. He was responsible for the fuel supply for planes. history B. E. In the 1950s. He landed at Paris on May 21 at 10:21 P. in the 1500s B. What happened last? A. in New York B. 24. to ignore the last letters of words D. in 1927.

The color of the hot liquid wasA. Lindbergh helped design the 747 airline. Hebrides C. before they worked for an airline B. Heimma 39.The village is located on the island ofA. This procedure is much easier. after World War II D. But the town did not die that easily. at the top E. Heimaey D. seven hundred years E. however. throatsearing cloud of smoke and gas erupted into the air. before he was forced down in an ocean inlet D. In July. Now the new homes of Heimaey are warmed from water pipes heated by molten lava. Vestmannaeyjar B. from top to bottom B. mark offA. at the bottom 37. The eruption continued for six months. the last reading of the month The village of Vestmannaeyjar. fire continued to shoot from the mouth of the looming volcano. When you have finished reading the meter. and within twenty-four hours almost everyone was ferried to the mainland. Its street lamps still burning against the long Arctic night. But then the agony of the island began in earnest. The Lindberghs mapped a route to the Orient. red E. Helgafell. gray 40. Flaming ³skyrockets´ shot up and over the houses. on the smaller dial B. the number of units recorded B. repair a water meter E. ground C. and one is smaller than the other. when visiting his parents 32.These instructions show you how to ± A. seventy decades 42. the total figures D. sky E. always record the figure the pointer has just passed. Black cinders fell that were the size of__ . others had burst into flames as the heat ignited their oil storage tanks. in the far northern country of Iceland. Charles finally was given an honorary degree from college. mountains B. however. It is located on the island of Heimaey. The constant shriek of escaping steam was punctuated by earsplitting explosions. They dug out their homes. He married Anne Morrow. He was given the Congressional Medal of Honor. after he worked for an airline C. ocean 41. One January night in 1973. be prepared for outside employment 35. especially if any of the dial hands are near the zero mark. all the zero marks E. 31. The Icelanders are a tough people. the pointer is approaching C. when he was thirty 33. Always read the meter dialsA. from right to left C. Black. before he took off from Long Island B. install a gas meter D. Some houses had collapsed under the weight of cinders. it is not imperative to read the smaller dial since it only registers a small amount. When did Charles meet Anne Morrow? A. Helgafell E. fountains of burning lava spurted three hundred feet high. was violently erupting! Luckily. the pointer has just passed D. 34. turn the dials of a meter C. As time went on. yellow D. accustomed to the strange and violent nature of their Arctic land. from the large dial to the small dial 36. The island's volcano. orange B. Read the dial at the right first. When did the Lindberghs map an air route to China? A. is as bright and clean and up-to-date as any American or Canadian suburb. mark off the number of units recorded. from left to right D. after he received the first Distinguished Flying Cross E. before Charles worked with Dr. The island's volcano had been inactive forA. As the dial turns clockwise. E. sea D. As you read the first dial. the town lay under a thick blanket of cinders. They found tons of ash covering the ground. record the figures A. C. If the meter has two dials. eye-burning. When finished. silent for seven thousand years. E. B. the once pleasant village of Vestmannaeyjar took on a weird aspect. All that could be seen above the ten-foot black drifts were the tips of street signs. seventy years B. the island's fishing fleet was in port. householders were shocked from their sleep. the people of Heimaey Island returned to assess the chances of rebuilding their homes and lives. This liquid was coming from the ± A. when the eruption ceased. baseball-size cinders rained down. Continue recording the figures on the dials from right to left. What event happened last? A. An evil-smelling. seven thousand years C. Always read the meter dials from the right to the left. Scientists and reporters arrived from around the world to observe the awesome natural event. seven thousand months D. just off the mainland. As in a nightmare. Lindbergh flew fifty combat missions. Lindbergh patented an artificial heart. Read the next dial to the left and record the figure it has just passed. from the small to the large dial E. They even used the cinders to build new roads and airport runways.D. Dials on water and gas meters usually indicate the amount each dial records. In some backyards red-hot liquid was spurting from the ground. read a meter B. Carrel C. D. black C. while designing the 747 E. Lighting the whole lurid scene. 38. and a river of lava flowed down the mountain. the figures on the small dial C.

cosmic B. an age of great marine and terrestrial exploration. the police kept working D. the television kept broadcasting 44. A 21. one of these ships was exploring the topography of South America in search of a water route across the continent. days E. so fewer sailors were privileged to gaze at that first panorama of the Pacific Ocean. C 29. discussion C. none of the above 2. Magellan named this passage the Strait of All Saints. he offered to serve the future Emperor Charles V of Spain. D 27. B 23. C 26. none of the above 3. C 15. B 42. Later Magellan became involved in an insular conflict in the Philippines and was killed in a tribal battle. D 40. mental D. hours C. weeks B. A 35. entanglement B. A 38. D 11. This volcanic eruption lasted for six ___. A 13. B 36. B 41.The sixteenth century was an age of great ___exploration. D 14.A. many of Magellan's men died of starvation and disease. A 43. B 16. A 5. but today we know it as the Strait of Magellan. D 44. B 9. D 3. with no precipice at the edge. pebbles C. negotiation D. After he was dismissed from service to the king of Portugal. baseballs B. Questions 1-7. D 10. C 39. 1519. A. A papal decree of 1493 had assigned all land in the New World west of 50 degrees W longitude to Spain and all the land east of that line to Portugal. years Answer Key 1. but he became involved in the quagmire of political intrigue at court and lost the king's favor. B 25. D 32. B 28. This ship sank. months D. A. B 30. common man E. Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition to sail around the world. In the sixteenth century. Those who remained crossed the meridian we now call the International Date Line in the early spring of 1521 after ninety-eight days on the Pacific Ocean. B 33. During those long days at sea. Magellan lost the favor of the king of Portugal when he became involved in a political ___. street lamps kept burning E. As a young Portuguese noble. D 8. C 2. C Reading Comprehension Practice Questions 1. One ship deserted while in this passage and returned to Spain. Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships. D 24. problems E. hail-stones 43. On September 20. A. The Pope divided New World lands between Spain and Portugal according to their location on one side or the other of an imaginary geographical line 50 degrees west of Greenwich that extends in a ___ direction. 1. B 7. C 34. C 17. . C 37. C 4. the radio kept broadcasting C. Only one ship and seventeen sailors under the command of the Basque navigator Elcano survived to complete the westward journey to Spain and thus prove once and for all that the world is round. footballs E. C 12. B 19. but the remaining four ships searched along the southern peninsula of South America. Despite the eruptionA. More than a year later. buses kept running B. B 6. golf balls D. D 31. land C. Finally they found the passage they sought near a latitude of 50 degrees S. D 20. C 22. Magellan offered to prove that the East Indies fell under Spanish authority. he served the king of Portugal. A 18.

on the other side of the mountain. Portugal E. friendly B. One of Magellan's ships explored the ___ of South America for a passage across the continent. A. troubled B. easterly D. Dejectedly B. Marie was stunned by this horrible misfortune and endured heartbreaking anguish. she displayed a brilliant mind and a blithe personality. Marie was fortunate to have studied at the Sorbonne with some of the greatest scientists of her day. Worried C. She became disgruntled. Determined to receive a higher education. Curie's feeling of desolation finally began to fade when she was asked to succeed her husband as a physics professor at the Sorbonne. Pierre and Marie's amicable collaboration later helped to unlock the secrets of the atom. envious 10. Although Marie Curie eventually suffered a fatal illness from her long exposure to radium. Early the next morning.The Curies' ____ collaboration helped to unlock the secrets of the atom. Despondently she recalled their close relationship and the joy that they had shared in scientific research. Meanwhile. lighthearted C. Tearfully D. A. coast B. wretchedness D. worried E. Marie had a bright mind and a __personality. A. Mount Vesuvius. 79. Sorrowfully 13. A. none of the above 5. misfortune B. ambition 14. one of whom was Pierre Curie. A. imaginary circle passing through the poles B. A. completely burying the city and filling in the harbor with coagulated lava. answer not found in article Questions 8-14 Marie Curie was one of the most accomplished scientists in history. cinders. sorrowful E. a French university. There was little warning of the coming eruption. she discovered radium. She was the first woman to be given a professorship at the world-famous university. when she learned that the university in Warsaw was closed to women. answer not available 6. she felt___. challenged authority B. disappointed D. an element widely used for treating cancer. Marie and Pierre were married in 1895 and spent many productive years working together in the physics laboratory. although one account unearthed by archaeologists says that a hard rain and a strong wind had disturbed the celestial calm during the preceding night. humorous D. where her father was a professor of physics. stone and ash rained down on Pompeii. Marie was born in 1867 in Warsaw. inland C. north and west 4. A.A. Imaginary line parallel to the equator C. anger C. chemistry 9. industrious E. competitive C. Poland. behaved D. A. body of land with water on three sides D. Pierre. Even though she became fatally ill from working with radium. the volcano poured a huge river of molten rock down upon Herculaneum. the ships crossed the ___ now called the International Date Line. The equator C. A. north and south B. she had dedicated herself to science and to revealing the mysteries of the physical world. Together with her husband. Marie ___ by leaving Poland and traveling to France to enter the Sorbonne. Her great exuberance for learning prompted her to continue with her studies after high school. area D. was distressed E. At the early age. depressed D. A short time after they discovered radium. The fact that she had two young daughters to raise by herself greatly increased her distress. where she earned her master's degree and doctorate in physics. annoyed C. Madrid 7. strong B. mountain range C. Happily E. however. Sparks from the burning ash ignited the combustible . The passage was found near 50 degrees S of ___. has received much attention because of its frequent and destructive eruptions. land mass E. border E. In the spring of 1521. crosswise C. courteous D. hopeless B. Her ____ began to fade when she returned to the Sorbonne to succeed her husband. 8. a volcano located between the ancient Italian cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. coastline B. Four of the ships sought a passage along a southern ___. she never became disillusioned about her work. disturbed Questions 15-19. physical features D. A. answer not available in article 12. strange E. disappointment E. Spain D. Pierre was killed by a horse-drawn wagon in 1906. showed intelligence C. worried C. The volcano had been inactive for centuries. D. south east E. When she learned that she could not attend the university in Warsaw. she defiantly left Poland and in 1891 entered the Sorbonne. In 1911 she received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for isolating radium. A. The most famous of these eruptions occurred in A. Marie Curie was never ____. islands E. none of the above 11. _____she remembered their joy together. Greenwich B. and studied uranium and other radioactive substances. Regardless of the consequences.

the Armada. The Armada was ___ on one side. Over the years. To satisfy his ambition and also to retaliate against England's theft of his gold and silver. bottled B. Scientist who study animal behavior E. however. answer not available 23. isolated E. The two battles left Spain vulnerable. C. A. strong C. Scientist who study atmospheric conditions C. The Spanish fleet met the smaller. In anger the king sent an enormous army to defeat Athens. Darius. Philip intended his fleet to be indestructible. Although the Spaniards made a valiant effort to fight back. Scientist who study oceans B. is one of the most famous events in history. while the Armada lay at anchor on the French side of the Strait of Dover. A. On August 7. unrestricted growth C. defeated. alone D. much as a zoologist dissects a specimen animal. Though these raids were on a small scale. scientist have concluded that the eruption changed large portions of the area's geography. Philip recruited many ___soldiers and sailors. In addition to building new warships. Religious differences also caused conflict between the two countries. and the Armada drifted out into the North Sea. Philip was convinced that his Armada could withstand any battle with England. faster. The martial Armada set sail from Lisbon. King Philip began to build his fleet of warships. A. Scientist who study ash D. able to float B. A. By strengthening the brittle bones with acrylic paint. Answer not available in article 19. purified D. territory D. Scientists analyzed data about Vesuvius in the same way that a zoologist ___ a specimen. the wind shifted. independent D. able to condense 17. For instance. open to change B. A. Blocked on one side. England. In Athens. able to evaporate D. A. These heavy gases were not buoyant in the atmosphere and therefore sank toward the earth and suffocated people. photographs D. he marshaled one hundred and thirty sailing vessels of all types and recruited more than nineteen thousand robust soldiers and eight thousand sailors.Sir Francis Drake added wealth to the treasury and diminished Spain's ____. damaged C. He thought it would take drastic steps to pacify the rebellious part of the empire. liquid B. answer not available 16. warlike C. The ____ Armada set sail on May 9. scientists have been able to examine the skeletons and draw conclusions about the diet and habits of the residents. invisible E. which is an alloy of copper and tin. King Philip II of Spain wanted to claim the throne and make England a Catholic country again. was not the only cause of destruction. Large portions of the city were destroyed in the conflagration. Portugal. such as jewelry made of bronze. In addition to making these investigations. archaeologists have been able to study the skeletons of victims by using distilled water to wash away the volcanic ash. but bad weather forced it back to port. Fire. king of the Persian empire. open to attack D. and more maneuverable English ships in battle off the coast of Plymouth. A. accomplished D. England sent eight burning ships into the midst of the Spanish fleet to set it on fire.Herculaneum and its harbor were buried under ___lava. the excavations at both Pompeii and Herculaneum have yielded many examples of classical art. The voyage resumed on July 22 after the weather became more stable. Finally. was furious because Athens had interceded for the other Greek city-states in revolt against Persian domination. During the eight hours of battle. closed off B. Although some of his ships lacked guns and others lacked ammunition. timid E. defeated E. fountain Questions 20-24. non experienced 22. to raid Spanish ships and towns. 1588. gas E. all . chart E. The two battles left the Spanish fleet ____.rooftops quickly. sea E. flowing D. the English attacked again on August 8. saving lives and preventing the destruction of cities and cultures. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius and its tragic consequences have provided us with a wealth of data about the effects that volcanoes can have on the surrounding area. Queen of England. Poisonous sulphuric gases saturated the air. A. the fleet suffered extensive damage. ____have concluded that the volcanic eruption caused a tidal wave. visible C. The Spaniards recognized the superiority of the English fleet and returned home. A. most of England had become Protestant. Persia was ruled by one man. however. having lost several ships and with its ammunition depleted. excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum have revealed a great deal about the behavior of the volcano. A. solid C. The victory of the small Greek democracy of Athens over the mighty Persian empire in 490 B. studies by cutting apart C. their crews in panic and disorder. Sir Francis Drake. Today volcanologists can locate and predict eruptions. Drake achieved dramatic success. warlike B. it turned the Sarno River from its course and raised the level of the beach along the Bay of Naples. the Spanish ships could only drift away. Scientist have used ___water to wash away volcanic ash from the skeletons of victims. the Armada drifted perilously close to the rocky coastline. in January 1586. 15. unlimited power B. complete B.1588. The poisonous gases were not ___ in the air. adding gold and silver to England's treasury and diminishing Spain's omnipotence. treaties E. circled E. triumphant C. discouraged 24. encouraged her staunch admiral of the navy. answer not available in article 21. answer not available in this article Questions 25-29. 20. England wanted a share of the wealth that Spain had been taking from the lands it had claimed in the Americas. Meteorologists studying these events have also concluded that Vesuvius caused a huge tidal wave that affected the world's climate. Conflict had existed between Spain and England since the 1570s. on May 9. answer not available 18. By analyzing data. Before the Armada could regroup. Whereas Spain was Roman Catholic. first on July 31 and again on August 2. volcanic C. At the moment when it seemed that the Spanish ships would be driven onto the English shore. Elizabeth I. describes in detail B.

The doctors and nurses thought that she resembled Anastasia and questioned heer about her background. destroy C. a number of women claimed to be Grand Duchess Anastasia. and for the Trojan horse. 33. and Thetis. and acquaintances interviewed her. It is well known for the ten-year duration. think about D. effectively C. they murdered the Czar and what was thought to be his entire family. Eight years later. The power of the mighty Persians was offset by the love that the Athenians had for their city. Some workers and peasants. there were rumors suggesting that Anastasia had survived. ³Vast kingdoms are nothing in comparison with my gift. a sea nymph. The gods and goddesses reached a stalemate when the choice was narrowed to Hera.Athens had ____the other Greek city-states against the Persians. known as Bolsheviks. however. On their way to Marathon. they fled from their city and did not return until the Persians had left. though. and movies. Over the years. gave strength D. for the Persians next conquered the city of Etria and captured its people. the youngest daughter of Czar Nicholas II. The frightened citizens of Delos refused to believe this. She still wished to prove that she was Anastasia. Darius took drastic steps to ___ the rebellious Athenians. ³ promised Hera. she threw a golden apple marked ³for the most beautiful.´ All of the goddesses began to haggle over who should possess it. plays. reports that 6400 Persians died. A. A. During the next few years. to Paris. Paris did not have an easy job. A. Each goddess tried ___to bribe Paris. ³Choose me and I'll see that you win victory and fame in war. ex-servants. Menelaus collected his loyal forces and set sail for Troy to begin the war to reclaim Helen. gave fear E. secretly D. In 1957. Ennobled by this participation. this terrified young woman was rescued from drowning in a Berlin river. Not wanting to abet the conquest of Greece. . Many of these people said that her looks and mannerisms were evocative of the Anastasia that they had known. The Athenians refurbished their weapons and moved to the plain of Marathon. placate E. daydream about E. anxious to claim Helen. who was also known as Anna Anderson. Perhaps the best ±known claimant was Anastasia Tschaikovsky. agreed with D. A. Athena ___ Hera.´ Aphrodite outdid her adversaries. is the story of how the war began. captured E. During his reign over Russia. A. compared with only 192 Athenians. asserting that she was indeed Anastasia and deserved her inheritance. According to Greek myth. weaken B. the court decided that it could neither confirm nor deny Anastasia's identity. the Czar had planned to revoke many of the harsh laws established by previous czars. Two brothers named Tschaikovsky had carried her into Romania. gave hope 28. carefully E. comforting 31. however. promising Paris victory and fame in war. Herodotus. Therefore. The people of Delos did not want to ___ the conquest of Greece. She had been omitted from the guest list because her presence always embroiled mortals and immortals alike in conflict. Paris. he accepted the hospitality of her husband. She won the golden apple by offering Helen. set off for Sparta in Greece. refused help to B.´ contradicted Athena. Eris decided to cause a skirmish. A. Perhaps this was the secret of the remarkable victory at Marathon. The Athenian people went to their sanctuaries. What may not be familiar.Some Russian peasants and workers___for social reform. In 1918 a group of these people. Greek soldiers seized Persian ships and burned them. Although Paris learned that Helen was married. feeling hostile toward D. calm D. eager to win the golden apple. answer not available 27. tried aggressively to bribe him. who was said to be a good judge of beauty. Tiny Athens stood alone against Persia. restated the statement E. eighteen months after the Czar's execution. boldly B. Tried of being accused of fraud. intervened on behalf of C. The Athenians were ___by some soldiers who arrived from Plataea. On July 17 or 18. The Trojan War is one of the most famous wars in history. Each goddess. They asked their gods to expedite their victory. which freed them from Persian rule. At the last moment. Athenians were prepared to die for their city-state. who had taken her to Berlin and left her there. penniless and without a vocation. ignoring E. Someone was needed to settle the controversy by picking a winner. scores of the Czar's relatives. where she attempted to reclaim her health and shattered mind. Although witnesses vouched that all the members of the Czar's family had been executed. encourage C. she claimed that she was Anastasia. defeated 26. ³I'll grant you vast kingdoms to rule. Athena. held D. 30. King of Thessaly. and Aphrodite. Into the middle of the banquet hall. Unable to invoke the aid of her mother's family in Germany. anyway.citizens helped to rule. A. however. involving in conflict C. Her grandmother and other relatives denied that she was the real Anastasia. answer not available 29. The job eventually fell to Paris. There they prayed for deliverance. she had tried to drown herself.Eris was known for ___both mortals and immortals. wanted to fight D. overthrew the government. There she declaimed to the court. Anastasia immigrated to the United States in 1928 and took the name Anna Anderson. goddesses of discord. answer not stated 32. and Greek citizens fought bravely. A. and the Persians fled in terror. scheming against B. Zeus' daughter and the most beautiful mortal. questioned the statement Questions 33-37. In 1920. Athenians defeated the Persians in archery and hand combat. a famous historian. and returned to Germany in 1933 to bring suit against her mother's family. the Persians tried to fool some Greek city-states by claiming to have come in peace. The Athenian army attacked. the strife between the Trojans and the Greeks started at the wedding of Peleus. She said that she had been rescued by two Russian soldiers after the Czar and the rest of her family had been killed. though. her search to establish her identity has been the subject of numerous books. given orders for all to fight E. welcomed B. 25. clamored for more rapid social reform. She disclaimed any connection with the Czar's family. however. defeated C. where their little band would meet the Persians. son of King Priam of Troy. They were wise. She had married one of the brothers. She spent two years in a hospital. All of the gods and goddesses had been invited to the wedding celebration in Troy except Eris. To take revenge on those who had slighted her. Although we will probably never know whether this woman was the Grand Duchess Anastasia. for the heroism of a number of legendary characters. gave comfort B. One of the most intriguing stories of the Russian Revolution concerns the identity of Anastasia. soldiers from Plataea reinforced the Athenian troops. denied the statement of B. answer not available Questions 30-32. taking Helen and much of the king's wealth back to Troy. King Menelasu of Sparta. end B. Their participation___to the Athenians. Menelaus was outraged for a number of reasons when Paris departed. strengthened C. gave honor C.

The intense hatred that the people felt for Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette kept building until it led to the French Revolution. In 1903 the Wrights built their first airplane. answer not stated Questions 38-39. The minister of finance tried to curb these royal ___. the inventors of the first flying machine. circle. distasteful C. A. abundantly C. the Wright brothers are accurately called the fathers of aviation. however. A. acted in a negative way 42. did not stop the Wrights. Even though the minister of finance repeatedly warned the king and queen against wasting money. The French government taxed the citizens outrageously. the airplane pulsated wildly before taking off. They set up a wind tunnel and began a series of experiments with model wings. testified D. others reacted with peals of laughter. stopped C. hoped D. In court she ___ maintaining that she was Anastasia and deserved her inheritance. During this time of struggle and violence (1789-1799). carefully D. After further study. built a printing press. needless E. 40. Orville and Wilbur Wright had always had a compelling interest in aeronautics and mechanics. the queen embellished her palace with extravagant works of art.a lightweight gasoline engine. While the queen's favorites glutted themselves on huge feasts at the royal table. financial empire B. identify E. 38. justified E. they continued their experiments in aviation. answer not available 41. and they searched for more efficient methods to control the balance of airborne vehicles. as well as the king and queen themselves. Negative reactions. The Wright's interest in flight grew into a ____. however. were excited and impressed. wisely B. They felt that the royal couple bought its luxurious lifestyle at the poor people's expense. exciting D. Witnesses ___ that all members of the Czar's family had been executed. gave assurance B. While French citizens begged for lower taxes. answer not stated 36. Later. A. been negatively influenced C. impulsive fools. When the minister of finance tried to stop these royal spendthrifts. convinced some E. thought C. aristocrats B. A. Marie Antoinette. lost their lives at the guillotine. A. longed B. know 37. begged D. enemies D. The plane managed to stay aloft for twelve seconds. plan C. Tschaikovsky ____any connection with the Czar's family. locate B. spoke forcefully C. many people in France were starving. the queen replaced him.A. In 1896. boring B. thought much 34. the Wrights tested numerous gliders and developed control techniques. Others had flown in balloons or in hang gliders. need to act D. misery. noted D. A. but the Wright brothers were the first to build a fullsize machine that could fly under its own power. Impelled by their desire to succeed. . seemed uncaring about her subjects. spenders Questions 40-45.The people surrounding the queen encouraged her to spend money ____. A. A. acted without thinking B. when they read about the death of Otto Lilienthal. When they started the engine on December 17. the brother's interest in flight grew into a compulsion. The royal couple did not let France's insecure financial situation limit their immoderate spending. The idea of flying an aircraft was repulsive to some people. call upon D. She was unable to ___the aid of her relative. People thought that the Wright brothers had ____. answer not in article 43. the Wright brothers concluded that the published tables of air pressure on curved surfaces must be wrong. had not given enough thought E. however. in turn. foolishly E. answer not stated 35. individuals E. They even designed and built their own source of propulsion. and remain airborne for half an hour at a time. As the contributors of one of the most outstanding engineering achievements in history. Lilienthal. writers. These high taxes paid for the entertainments the queen and her court so enjoyed. Such people called Wilbur and Orville Wright. the beautiful but exceedingly impractical queen. been too cautious D. This idea was repellent to the Wright brothers. hoped E. She also surrounded herself with artists. they designed a newspaper-folding machine. foolish thought E. As young boys they earned money by making and selling kites and mechanical toys. thousands of aristocrats. which cost less than one thousand dollars. and musicians. Although many people who heard about the first powered flight on December 17. the old tables were repealed in time and replaced by the first reliable figures for air pressure on curved surfaces. gave evidence E. finally appeared B. The idea of flying an aircraft was ___to some people. had controlled his gliders by shifting his body in the desired direction. Perhaps if Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette had reined in their extravagant spending. Because of their efforts. who encouraged the queen to spend money even more profusely. a time when the country was fighting bankruptcy. and it flew one hundred twenty feet. King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ruled France from 1774 to 1789. the events that rocked France would not have occurred. and operated a bicycle-repair shop. This work. a pioneer in hang-gliding. however.1903. The invention of the airplane was no exception. made it possible for them to design a machine that would fly. joyfully 39. A. they continued to spend great fortunes on their personal pleasure. In 1900 and 1901. Many great inventions are greeted with ridicule and disbelief. The brothers' inability to obtain enough lift power for the gliders almost led them to abandon their efforts. speak about C. This lavish spending greatly enraged the people of France. Lilenthal's idea about controlling airborne vehicles was ___the Wrights. cried out C. denied B. money wasters C. By 1905 the Wrights had perfected the first airplane that could turn.

force to going backward E. B 11. It needs to be recreated as part of mainstream thought and not as an optional. B 34. B 16. Instead it is important to incorporate African-American history into what is taught every day as American history. The author's primary purpose in Passage 2 is to: . A 17. A 42. Define superstitions d. Extol the virtues of modern medicine e. B 29. B 38. B 22. A. 1. often irrelevant. A 32. A 4. 2. A 33. B 2. multiplied D. there were many different superstitions about how to cure asthma. B 31. In days gone by. A Author's Purpose Practice Questions Read the passage below and answer question 1.A. As Detroit Free Press columnist Rochelle Riley wrote in a February 1 column calling for an end to Black History Month. B 26. B 10. Eating raw cat's meat might be the cure. B 18. C 6. A 3. C 27. C 15. Second. there is a paternalistic flavor to the mandated bestowing of a month in which to study African-American history that is overcome if we instead assert the need for a comprehensive curriculum. A 36. we can and should move to a postracial approach to education. canceled C. B 23. force for moving forward B. Third. B 28. ASTHMA About 17 million children and adults in the United States suffer from asthma. destroyed B. The old tables were __ and replaced by the first reliable figures for air pressure on curved surfaces. C 37. In a place and time in which we overwhelmingly elected an African-American president. none of the above Answer Key 1. a condition that makes it hard to breathe. C 14. A 21. We should focus efforts on pushing schools to diversify and broaden their curricula. Today it is a problem that is treatable with modern medicine. B 19. A 35. A 9. the idea that African-American history should be focused on in a given month suggests that it belongs in that month alone. C 24. opposed by 44. B 7. turning D. for the first time in American history. B 40. B 41. opposite to the ideas of C. C 43. accepted by E. Explain some of the measures for treating asthma from long ago c. Explain why asthma came about Read the passage below and answer question 2. B 39. and then swallow them. C 20. B 30. it has become a shallow commercial ritual that does not even succeed in its (limited and misguided) goal of focusing for one month on a sophisticated. People also thought that if you ate a diet of only boiled carrots for two weeks. the idea of Black History Month suggests that the knowledge imparted in that month is for African-Americans only. The main purpose of the passage is to: a. this country has reached a point where we can stop celebrating separately. force for turning around C. Some people thought that eating crickets with a little wine would help. "I propose that. A 13. your asthma might go away. proven wrong by B. This carrot diet may actually have done some good for asthma patients. stop learning separately. The Wrights designed and built their own source of ____. There are a number of other reasons to abolish it. disliked by D. intelligent appraisal of the contributions and experiences of African-Americans throughout history. A 12. C 44. A 8. C 5. rather than for all people. roll them into a ball. Another idea was to gather some spiders' webs. not used 45. First of all. B 45. side note. discarded E. stop being American separately." In addition to being unnecessary. A. since vitamin A in carrots is good for the lungs. Describe herbal remedies b. A 25. BLACK HISTORY MONTH Black History Month is unnecessary.

Humor the reader d. bobcat. with the Coachella Valley region accounting for most of the remaining production. Your brain works hard to make the world look continuous! 5. OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER On a bad day. and severe or unpredictable discipline at home.000 acres planted in vineyards. Inform the reader about this complex condition d. Suggest that African-American history should be taught in two months rather than just one e. climate. try the following: Cover your left eye with your hand. excessive arguments with adults. Argue that Black History Month should be maintained d. You have probably not been aware of any of these interruptions in your visual world. Researchers. but your brain filters it out so that you are not aware of your nose unless you purposefully look at it. While many people considered this offer to be a good financial deal for the states. This concern was the basis of the disagreement: Who should have more power: the individual states or the central government? The Democratic-Republican Party developed to protest the bank. some of which exist only in one cave and are known nowhere else in the world. Entertain the reader b. meaning it has embraced many points of view and many groups with different identities from its beginning. and the California newt. Over 260 native vertebrate species are in the parks. have shown that your brain is constantly working to create the impression of a continuous. To persuade the reader to pay close attention to blind spots b. VISUAL PERCEPTION It is tempting to think that your eyes are simply mirrors that reflect whatever is in front of them. however. Many of the parks' caves contain invertebrates. By the 1850s. many states were uncomfortable with the arrangement because they saw it as a power play by the federal government. and raisins are all important agricultural commodities. CALIFORNIA GRAPES Grapes are one of the oldest cultivated fruits. but you never notice the hole it leaves. Argue that African-American history is not part of mainstream curriculum Read the passage below and answer question 3. and over 150 are rare or uncommon. With your right eye. Argue that Black History Month should be abolished c. Grapes have been grown in California for more than 200 years. have you ever been irritable? Have you ever used a harsh tone or even been verbally disrespectful to your parents or teachers? Everyone has a short temper from time to time. To entertain the reader b. each state was responsible for its own debts. or ODD. however. That is not to say that these groups have always seen eye to eye. William Wolfskill. but it came to represent a vision of America with power spread among states. The author's purpose in writing this passage is to: a. acorn woodpecker. To persuade the reader to consult an optometrist if the O and X disappear d. Then the boom in grapes planted for eating arose in the early 1800s. To bore the reader c. To inform the reader e. These different points of view-central government versus separate states-would not be resolved easily. white-footed mouse. Sway the reader Read the passage below and answer question 5. and behaviors intended to annoy or upset adults. and some drugs can treat particular symptoms. Nor are you aware of the artery that runs right down the middle of your retina. 4. PARK WILDLIFE Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks support a wide diversity of animal species. 3. western whiptail lizard. What is the main purpose of this passage? a. The best advice from professionals is directed toward parents. Persuade the reader to keep students with ODD out of public school Read the passage below and answer question 7. while others winter here. Also. the United States had officially acquired California from Mexico. It creates a large blind spot in your visual field. Plant life in the foothills. Prove that parents are the cause of ODD c. To prove that vision is a passive process Read the passage below and answer question 6. The author most likely wrote this passage to: a. temper tantrums. with blue oak and California buckeye in the valleys and on higher slopes.a. table grapes. For instance. wood rat. striped and spotted skunks. but many others saw it in the farmers and workers who formed the country's economic base. Various types of therapy are helpful in treating ODD. Until then. The Federalist Party was established in defense of the bank. The event that brought this disagreement to the surface was the creation of the Bank of the United States in 1791. planted the first table grape vineyard in 1839 near Los Angeles. the early Romans were known to have developed many grape varieties. low frustration tolerance. What was the author's purpose in writing this passage? a. EARLY POLITICAL PARTIES The United States has always been a pluralistic society. in the last 10 minutes. Unfortunately. Hieroglyphics show that Egyptians were involved in grape and wine production. some breed here. It is always right there. pocket gopher. Persuade the reader c. Therapists encourage parents to avoid situations that usually end in power struggles. The Bank of the United States. gopher snake. ODD can be caused by a number of factors. Some students affected by ODD suffer abuse. and habitat variety there. scrub jay. Today California wine. There have been some studies of invertebrates in the area. striped racer. To see this blind spot. As you move your head closer to the O. five species are extirpated (here meaning extinct). reflecting the range in elevation. The tradition of viticulture (growing grapes) began in 1769 when Spanish friars established missions throughout California. wanted to assume these debts and pay them off itself. with approximately 700. These same disagreements fueled the tension that erupted into the Civil War over half a century later. 7. Parents of children with ODD often feel as though their whole relationship is based on conflict after conflict. uninterrupted world. down in the bottom corner of your vision. ODD symptoms include difficulty complying with adult requests. founder of California's citrus industry.000 gold prospectors had moved to the region. to praise positive behaviors. If a central bank had control over the finances of individual states. California quail. but its ultimate vision was of a strong central government that could help steer the United States toward a more competitive position in the world economy. no single cure exists. the people who owned the bank would profit from the states in the future. is largely chaparral on the lower slopes. A few of these had the foresight to realize that there was money in grapes as well as in gold. lesser goldfinch. you have blinked your eyes around 200 times. A number of animals live in this area year-round. Inform the reader e. but current statistics indicate that between 16% and 20% of a school's population suffer from a psychological condition known as oppositional defiant disorder. To persuade the reader d. Express frustration about ODD b. California king snake. The first political parties developed in the United States as a result of conflicting visions of the American identity. and to discourage negative behaviors with timeouts instead of harsh discipline 6. However. Many politicians believed that wealthy merchants and lawyers represented the country's true identity. What is the author's purpose in writing this passage? . numerous additional species may be present but have not been confirmed. About 85% of California's table grape production is in the southern San Joaquin Valley region. to try not to feed into oppositional behavior by reacting emotionally. Argue that Black History Month should not be so commercial b. the X will disappear as it enters the blind spot caused by your optical nerve. The bank set out to rid the country of the debts it had accumulated during the American Revolution. black bear. where summers are hot and dry and winters are mild. Of the native vertebrates. Something you probably have not seen in a long time without the aid of a mirror is your nose. neglect. To explain the way visual perception works c. Local species include the gray fox. look at the O on the left. difficulty accepting responsibility for actions. Others have parents with mood disorders or have experienced family violence. but there is not enough information to know how many species occur specifically in the parks. wrentit. To humor the reader Read the passage below and answer question 4. and 80.

This is the lengthy period during which the ovaries progressively reduce production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. religion. hot flashes and night sweats. The first signs likely to be noticed are menopause-related symptoms. Although parental frustration is noted. offering various reasons why this is the best course of action." perimenopause is also often considered to include the year after menopause occurs. The timing and progression of the changes varies between individuals. To criticize b. This novel addresses the notion that as the individuals who know us best. While he constantly feels like an outsider looking in. therefore. The cessation of ovulation known as menopause isn't a process that happens overnight. Perimenopause is a normal event in the process of aging. and indicates that the reproductive years are coming to an end. The purpose of this article is to: a. Likewise. B: The purpose of the passage is to describe different measures that people took for asthma long ago. it is unlikely that the author would take the time to write a piece with the intent to bore the readers. Perimenopause is the time leading up to menopause. as in answer choice A. urinary problems and vaginal dryness. D: Since the author structures the passage using chronological order and gives many facts and details. To create interest in the novel Answers and Explanations 1. and D are incorrect. Chang-Rae Lee is also a first-generation Korean American immigrant. especially when the security of belonging to a place is becoming more elusive. Treatment The symptoms of perimenopause are a normal manifestation of the aging process and do not ordinarily require treatment. Even if you did not find this passage to be entertaining. it is not the primary focus. To show how the book is semi-autobiographical c. He immigrated to America at the early age of three. The passage does not. over a protracted period of several years. so B can be easily eliminated. To entertain d. To analyze c. early childhood cancer. thus. depending on a number of factors including genetics and family history. the author presents the theme of espionage as metaphor for the internal divide that Park experiences as an immigrant. this is unnecessary. Henry Park is confronted with this reality in the very beginning of the novel. is incorrect because the majority of the "medicine" described in the passage is not herbal. Most women experience the first signs of perimenopause around the age of forty. race. To criticize the founders of the Bank of the United States Read the passage below and answer question 8. Themes of identity. persuade the reader of a certain viewpoint. thus. DISCUSSION OF NATIVE SPEAKER. 6. parents are not overtly blamed for ODD. In an ever-changing world in which cultures are becoming increasingly intermingled. B: The passage explains the way that visual perception works. as in answer choice C. Lee shows us both the difficulties and the subtleties of the immigrant experience in America. Enumerate the symptoms that women may experience when going through perimenopause c. To explain the disagreements between early American political parties c. although ten years is typical. despite the fact that parental behavior as a contributor is mentioned. Most symptoms can be managed through a combination of diet and exercise. a woman's body undergoes a progression of changes. and history. A woman whose mother or grandmother experienced perimenopause early is likely to do so as well. the period of life when they no longer experience menstrual periods. persuade the reader of a certain viewpoint. option C also does not apply. Upon separating from his wife. Women who have experienced excessive premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms in the past are also likely to experience severe symptoms during perimenopause. which opens: The day my wife left she gave me a list of who I was. depression and anxiety. as in answer choice A. such as changes in periods. if bleeding is extremely heavy. color. 3. Consequently. Lee is also author of A Gesture Life and Aloft. C: This passage explores numerous facets of ODD and is meant to inform the reader about this psychological condition. as in answer choice D. as well as why the idea of opening up one's borders is so frightening. and loss of bone mass. Compare perimenopause to menopause itself Read the passage below and answer questions 9-10. Option D does note that a relatively high percentage of students have ODD. option A is incorrect. our family. 5. C. option C also does not apply. Symptoms experienced during perimenopause include headaches. but this passage nowhere implies that they should be kept out of school because of it. the meaning of identity must be constantly redefined. all of these characters struggle to belong in America. Describe the treatment of perimenopause b. Some physicians may choose to monitor the levels of certain hormones-particularly thyroid function-if the symptoms are severe. therefore. PERIMENOPAUSE For most women. To explain the importance of a strong central government d. as in answer choice B. In his works and through his characters. so D should also be eliminated. BY CHANG-RAE LEE Chang-Rae Lee's award-winning debut novel Native Speaker is about Henry Park. a medical professional should be consulted. Park struggles with racial and ethnic identity issues due to his loneliness. it is unlikely that the author would take the time to write a piece with the intent to bore the readers. Even if you did not find this passage to be entertaining. He urges us to consider the role of borders. This dual reality creates two worlds for Park and increases his sense of uncertainty with regard to his place in society. or occurs between periods. B: The entire passage makes the argument that Black History Month should be abolished. these themes in Lee's novels become even more pertinent. To illustrate one of the themes in the novel b. His interests in these themes no doubt stem from his firsthand experience as a kid growing up in a Korean household while going to an American school. In some women. . the best answer. therefore options A. you can quickly determine that the purpose of this passage is to inform the reader. peers. hysterectomy. They are. Nor is there any attempt within the passage to make an argument for any particular position and. Each of the other answer choices offers a method of changing or maintaining the existing celebration of Black History Month. the onset may occur much earlier. incorrect. Choice B is. Lee's novels address differences within a nation's mix of race. Why does the author of the passage quote the first line of the novel Native Speaker? a. 8. you can determine the purpose of this passage is to inform the reader. Most women are not immediately aware of the changes their bodies are going through as a result of these hormonal fluctuations and will become aware of changes in the schedule of their periods as the first indication that menopause is at hand. the body's output of several key hormones fluctuates and begins to shut down. as answer choice D suggests. As our world grows smaller with increasing technological advances. is gradual. Answer choice B is. weight gain. Symptoms such as these may indicate a more serious underlying gynecological problem. Onset and Duration Perimenopause usually takes place between the ages of 45 and 55. not the correct choice. therefore.a. Symptoms Many of the symptoms a woman may experience during menopause itself have their onset during the time of perimenopause. Although it is sometimes referred to as "premenopause. However. There is also evidence linking an early onset of perimenopause to factors such as smoking. and language. The duration of the change is quite variable from woman to woman and may last for as long as fifteen years. d. Nor is there any attempt within the passage to make an argument for any particular position and. Give an overall description of perimenopause d. therefore. Nor does it praise modern medicine. Which of the following best describes the purpose of this passage? a. as in answer choice D. 2. The protagonists are similar in that they deal with labels placed on them based on race. lasts longer than a week. so B can be easily eliminated. rather than abolishing it. insomnia and fatigue. and the necessity of assimilation between cultures. The symptoms of perimenopause are both physical and emotional and often begin years before a woman's period actually ceases. heart palpitations. To inform 10. before the advent of modern medicine. women may experience a variety of symptoms during this process. and cultural alienation pervade his works. Choice C is the best choice. Through Parks' work as an undercover operative for a private intelligence agency. Menopause itself is said to occur on the day a period has not been experienced for 12 months in a row. a Korean-American individual who struggles to find his place as an immigrant in a suburb of New York City. therefore. and a woman's ability to become pregnant is lost. During the onset of menopause. and lovers are the individuals who direct our lives and end up defining us. 4. and women who have not borne children. therefore. Answer choice A. herbal remedies. 9. It is the main idea of the novel. define superstitions. Under normal circumstances. To persuade the reader to accept the Federalist Party's point of view b. the onset of menopause. D: Since the author structures the passage using main idea and detail and gives many facts. Because hormones influence a wide spectrum of body functions. The author does not attempt to persuade the reader or prove a particular viewpoint. an interval when menopause-related changes begin to be noticed. he also feels like he belongs to neither world.

D. There is too much emphasis placed on the importance of protesting C. In order to run a factory. D. All of the fish that Estelle saw she caught. Analytical Reasoning Practice Questions 1. 5. because he believes that neither of them presents the potential of having the ability to take control of his company. In almost every publishing company. C. a person needs common sense. which one best clarifies the apparent paradox? A. during each inspection they discover that there are more reports of food poisoning found in the family dining restaurants than in the fast food restaurants. Rainfall patterns are not as predictable as patterns of temperature. so these two answer choices are also incorrect. E. Even a person who is not brilliant can control a company.7. if its economy falls. Improved yields grow highly unlikely." This piece was written to analyze the works by Chang-Rae Lee and the themes presented in his most famous novels. C. B. Although. Scientists can also use this method to learn about desert evolution. It would be pointless to locate chemical dumps where they would be most harmful. Geology or astronomy can be applied to with the same method. scientists pass away before they are able to study the complete life cycle of these certain breeds. All other answer choices would need to reflect the author's preference for a particular position in order to be valid options. Either protesters must have restrictions placed on them. The average subject uses the same ideals of observation. However. protestors are. E. Customers are most likely to connect the illness they've experienced to their most recent meal if the illness has suddenly struck all of the people they ate with. Because allowing the occurrence of the revolutionary outcome is out of the question. 6. 8. in truth. as well as rock formations. Customers complain less about the food poisoning they experience in fast food restaurants. If Hazen showed any sign of common sense. there was a substantial decline in the number accounting school students requiring text books. The quarterly food inspection. A pesticide producing company states that their unused pesticide that is dumped does not pose a threat to the aquatic life in the surrounding area. B. than it is possible for a 50% GNP increase. a single breed may be inferred by observation over various life stages. which one can be concluded from the observations of Estelle? A. Estelle did not see any other fish while she was fishing. It does provide information. if she or he has been able to obtain an MBA. A 71% increase is possible. if true. and the 50% GNP increase is attainable. the writer is illustrating the theme-option A-and goes on to discuss that very point in the passage. every fish that I caught was a salmon. China's economy is structured so that if the 33% increase in GNP is reached. we must restrict protestors. C. E. E. as in option A. he would have the ability to aid Violet in controlling the company. B: This passage does not choose one point of view on the issue. Over the past five years there has been a substantial decline in the number of accounting school students. D. C: While the article does describe some treatments. a real threat to the country's survival. 2. Of the following statements listed below. 10. It explores the "why. for the average plant. City people are most probable to sue the company if the dumps cause them health problems. performed by the local health team observes the customer reactions to fast food restaurants and family dining restaurants. China wants to avoid financial collapse of their economy. which one must be true if we are to assume the above statements are also true? A. the bill does limit the amount the dentist can charge for a regular visit. rendering B incorrect. There are different techniques that scientists can use that are available in our society. 9. A 17% GNP increase will be unattainable. Funds for environmental company clean up. however. he thinks that both of his children lack common sense. If this is correct. eliminating option D. this is only a portion of the overall purpose of the article. which is broader than a listing of symptoms. The main idea of the novel (C) and any suggestion that the reader of the passage should also read the novel (D) are nowhere stated. while electronic books have remained fairly stable. The above conclusion is unsteady due to the fact that: A. The possibility of pesticides filtering into the local water region was underestimated in the past. the writer goes beyond straightforward presentation of facts into analysis of the details and underlying meaning. they implicitly admit that the pesticides they produce are relatively dangerous to the nearby aquatic life. If patterns of rainfall began to shadow the climate changes there would be supplementary damaging effects. Different life forms such as animals and plants are known to have certain breeds that have extended life spans compared to that of humans. if China's 50% increase in GNP is unattainable. protestors do not in reality want to demolish the country B. this being the case. 10. We are well aware that there are warning signs concerning massive climate changes. C. B. B: The passage neither criticizes (A) nor entertains (C). making C the correct choice. E. While Estelle was fishing. it is because of the climate change that agricultural technology has an overall yield in annual fluctuation. Violet and Hazen are ignorant to the experience of controlling the company. The economy of China will not fall. which enable people simply to electronically copy the books they want rather than buying the printed text. as with B. Of the following statements listed below. The family dining restaurants microwaves certain food items instead of cooking them on the stove. 8. no other fish were caught by her. could assist either Violet or Hazen in controlling the company. Concerning this passage. what assumption can be made evident? A. A rich business man runs a prosperous company. In order to do this. or particular revolutionary issues that arise in society will be used to destroy the country. In the area that Estelle fished. The passage also does not delve into a lengthy comparison of perimenopause and menopause. D. An accommodation is failed to be considered between both alternatives D. The great majority of student texts have a massive backlog awaiting publication. China must raise their gross national product rate by 33%. Answer choice B most clearly expresses this purpose. B. Many electronic publishers have recently begun cutting back on subscriptions accounting school text books. it points out that these are seldom necessary. Dumps that are located in areas without large fish populations have fewer government interventions and are also less expensive. as in option D. And although it does enumerate symptoms. A committee with an average of three trained personal. if the 33% brink is achieved. Salmon was the only fish that Estelle saw while she was fishing. D. it's nowhere suggested that the novel is semi-autobiographical. would make this explanation more plausible? A. which concern waste dumps that are poorly run. D. B. E. if China continues to suffer national conflict. D. More people choose fast food restaurants over family dining restaurants. However. there has been an increase in the number of accounting school texts available in the past few years. A: The author of this passage uses the first line of the novel to provide an example of one of the themes of the novel. Violet and Hazen. D. it does not limit the expense amount that they can charge if a patient is in need of a special . Many hopeful crop growers believe that there will not be an overall negative affect on the plant growth population due to the fact that rain fall should not be altered because of the climate changes. so only choice B is in keeping with the passage's purpose. which one would be most likely to weaken the argument of the author if it were true? A. while electronic book subscriptions remained fairly stable. By showing a direct example. Of the following statements. Many publishers ascribe the necessity for these increases to the easy availability of electronic books. C. if technology is significantly influential in spite of climate change. Plant life is threatened more from cool temperatures than warm ones. there were no other fish. E. or the number of people who all ate the same meal. unless they can be 100% proven safe. then why have local fish been dying in this region? Due to the fact that the pesticide company is not located in a highly fish populated area. Certain endangered breeds need to be studied more before they become extinct. The regulation that is proposed for dental insurance will contribute only small assistance to patients in the reduction of costs for regular dental car. Of the following statements listed below. B. are reserved for rural regions only. 3. which is to explain the disagreements between the earliest political parties in the US. There has been a sharp increase in the subscription prices of many accounting school text books in the past five years. Due to this fact. Although the piece does express certain parallels between Lee's experience as a Korean-American and the character's. He is disappointed in his two children. Food poisoning cases are not related to the time customers ate at the family dinging restaurants. Through the use of today's study technique there are many breeds in out society that can not be properly studied in our environment. Estelle states: When I went fishing the other day. these climate changes are reducing plant life. Various stage development of different breeds are available to scientists as examples for both study and observation. 7. China's GNP will not have a 50% increase. B. This belief formulates from the opinion that: A. C. On which of the following assumptions are these hopeful claims based? A. because they expect it. B. and every salmon I saw I caught. China's economy will fall. so these two options may be quickly removed from the list of viable choices. if it can obtain an increased GNP of 50%. In the five years immediately preceding the price surge. 9. The reasons for protesting has not been defined E. E. C. Which of the following. This article clearly encompasses a general description of the condition. C. There is not accurate way to predict a climate change. 4.

instead of the obscurity within the object being observed. C. The MANG Company operates within a service industry. as a status symbol. Most Americans don't understand Japanese culture C. B. A story based entirely on the writer's knowledge of characters from another novel is not likely to include the writer's personal feelings of real life. tennis championships. rehabilitation facility is too costly. One day. If this is the case. The suggestion that procedures which are specialized are frequently done when a simple less-expensive procedure would work equally as well. Of the following words. responding in a gentle voice that he much preferred to think upon his race as inscrutable than of his race as wanting in perspicacity such as in Americans. Of the following criteria listed below. instead of the patient being charged once. A. The MANG Company is owned publicly. This being the case. The writing techniques that are successful for one writer are frequently unsuccessful for another. C. the dentist can bill the patient numerous times. and it doesn't place any limits on the amount of times that the dentist may see a patient for the same occurring problem. instead of simply aiming for prominence. it's not hard to tell domestic water from imported water based on its flavor B. God is much wiser than people are B. Never again will you have to pay high prices for imported spring water. Alcoholics may not want to accept treatment.S. Identifying a loophole in the regulation proposal that allows dentists to charge patients the same amount of money on a continuing basis. 14.A. My family doctor said that he would be performing a blood test on me when I visit him today. so all four door cars must have 8 cylinder engines. The suggestion that patients can not distinguish between what appropriate dental care expenses are for any known dental problem. Indifferent E. E. C. 12. 16. tennis champions have all changed to Wilson's new line of tennis rackets. 13. a low-ranking US ambassador asked a Japanese official why Japanese people were so inscrutable. Previous U. I know I will feel pain today. It is now bottled locally and inexpensively. which would make the most logical sense as criticism against the student's choice for her children's story? A. One of the students decided to base her story upon one of the fictional characters from her favorite novel. In the past. The needle will leave a bruise. E. only God and myself knew its meaning. You'll never taste the difference. C. A monopoly is distinguished through the decline or lack of competition. Some people purchase imported spring water instead of domestic. this patient has experienced pain at the family doctors. D. a low-ranking US ambassador asked a Japanese official why Japanese people were so inscrutable. E. which one may be an implication of the above statement. The official looked calm and friendly. The Japanese distrust American ambassadors E.A. If the East and West are ever to understand one another. All of the four door cars that I've repaired have always had 8 cylinders. D. While traveling to Japan.S. 21. All people are inscrutable. the poet has forgotten the meaning of his own verse 19. The author of her favorite novel would not allow the student permission to use their character. you will improve your tennis playing. D. 15. E. B. Angry D. Oak wood strengthened rackets help to make tennis rackets durable and stronger. Priest: Do you speak to the devil and follow his biddings? Parishioner: Yes Priest: You must be lying. (Alcohol Anonymous) rehabilitation facilities are forced upon us ± and society is determined that they should be forced ± then it should be society that pays for them. Consider the following conclusions. While traveling to Japan. a poet was requested to interpret an especially peculiar and obscure passage within one of his own poems. syllogism C. special training D. Considering the statements below. Fearful B. Tennis champions know a considerable amount about their equipment and the sport of tennis. generalization B. B. he accused the parishioner of being in league with the devil. The official looked calm and friendly. Many groups have been convinced by a government committee that the local rehabilitation facilities are unsuccessful. Nobody who is in league with the devil tells the truth. which one best describes both the attitude and the response made by the Japanese official? A. simply serve it in a leaded crystal decanter. in order to develop innovative and original ideas. he relied upon the answer of the parishioner in order to reject his response . With Wilson's rackets. don't you think it's time to improve your tennis swing and trade your old racket in for a Wilson? Consider the following claims. The expense to maintain an A. the idea would be to give their stories a quality of ³real-life´. B.procedure. but he later changed his story B. Implication that the regulation of dental care is impossible. B. Of the following statements. Emotional C. which best describes the Japanese official's comment? A. A writer should concentrate on developing themes of teaching and significance. Poets don't often know where their creative inspiration comes from D. however. deduction E. responding in a gentle voice that he much preferred to think upon his race as inscrutable than of his race as wanting in perspicacity such as in Americans. E. not just the Japanese B. allowing the player to make powerful swings. Why can the priest's behavior be considered paradoxical? A. What is the basis of this author's argument? A. D. C. If Local A. The cost of A. and the total costs will not reduce. The above argument depends on which one of these assumptions? A. 11. A one seller market is the definition of a monopoly. Children's story writing requires examination of the self. Rehabilitation facilities are supported by many neighborhood groups. The above argument is opposed to the new legislation based on: A.´ What does the poet mean by his answer? A. The MANG Company recognizes that its operations are within a competitive field. What a person lacks in perception may be a result of the carelessness of the observer. The doctor will have a hard time finding the patients vein. which one would weaken the argument above? A. there will need to be a much better cultural understanding 17. Compassionate 18. Now. The suggestion that regular dental visits are much more expensive than specialized procedures. D. The use of a needle always causes pain in the patient. which claim is not made and can not be used in conclusion to the above advertisement? A. if you're likely to be embarrassed to serve domestic spring water. The MANG Company's focus is non-monopolistic. His response was ³at the time that I was writing that particular verse. it is only God who knows. C. The status achieved by the past three consecutive women's U. restrictions on importing and customs duties make the price of imported water higher D. most people can't understand poetry C. the majority of spring water is bottled at its source C.S. ambiguity 20. The past three consecutive women's U. facilities are too high to be funded locally. There is no family competition in the MANG Company. Spring water tastes best when it's served from a decanter E. E. was due to the assistance of Wilson's rackets. What is the assumption made by this ad? A. Rackets that are strengthened by oak wood are used exclusively in Wilson's new rackets. great poems are inspired by a muse E. B. An English school teacher requested from her students that they try and write children's stories that are relevant to their every day lives. The doctor will have to try different needles to perform the test. D. D.A.

C 15. Patricia When deciding on the players in the lineup. Bart. Dexter and Bart will not start together. C 6. George. When the goalie has been chosen. Roger. but he refused to accept the answer Answer Key 1. C 10. Bart. Dexter. Erwin and Dexter B. George will only start if Bart also starts. The 4 fastest players are: John. the Smalltown Bluebirds hockey team has a starting lineup that is selected from two groups: First Group: John. John or Patricia E. George and Patricia 3 of the 4 fastest players will always be chosen. A 16. Erwin Second Group: Leanne. Marlene. Erwin and Bart 4. A 11. Patricia When deciding on the players in the lineup. A 7. he was the one who asked the question. Marlene. Roger. E 21. Dexter or Leanne C. When the goalie has been chosen. Dexter. John and Bart D. the coach considers the following requirements: Two players are always chosen from the first group. B 8. Bart. John. John and Bart E. C 17. his behavior was entirely within accordance with religious law. Dexter and Bart will not start together. the Smalltown Bluebirds hockey team has a starting lineup that is selected from two groups: First Group: John. while three are chosen from the second group. . Patricia and Marlene 3. the coach considers the following requirements: Two players are always chosen from the first group. The 4 fastest players are: John. The 4 fastest players are: John. When the goalie has been chosen. If Marlene is on the starting lineup. Roger. If George starts. D 3. Dexter. Erwin Second Group: Leanne. which of the following players will be the first group players who will also be starting? A. Patricia When deciding on the players in the lineup. B 14. the coach considers the following requirements: Two players are always chosen from the first group. Marlene. If George starts. B Logical Reasoning Practice Questions 1. Marlene won't start. Dexter and Bart E. Roger. Marlene or Roger 2. Roger and John D. Marlene or John B. C 9. George. while three are chosen from the second group. George. When the goalie has been chosen. while three are chosen from the second group. B 5. Dexter and Bart will not start together. B 20. A 4. Dexter. Bart.C. while three are chosen from the second group. the Smalltown Bluebirds hockey team has a starting lineup that is selected from two groups: First Group: John. George will only start if Bart also starts. If George is in the starting lineup. the coach considers the following requirements: Two players are always chosen from the first group. Erwin Second Group: Leanne. Dexter or John D. Marlene won't start. E 12. George will only start if Bart also starts. but he was accusing the parishioner of violating that law D. the Smalltown Bluebirds hockey team has a starting lineup that is selected from two groups: First Group: John. he doesn't actually believe in a dark lord E. Bart. George and John C. Patricia When deciding on the players in the lineup. George will only start if Bart also starts. E 18. Which of the following pairs cannot start together? A. Dexter and Bart will not start together. George and Patricia 3 of the 4 fastest players will always be chosen. Bart. who must also start? A. Marlene. John B. If George starts. while he is questioning the parishioner about possible association with the devil. A 13. George and Patricia 3 of the 4 fastest players will always be chosen. Erwin Second Group: Leanne. C 2. John. George. Bart. E 19. Marlene won't start. John and Dexter C.

Hamish's chief puppeteer (who is not Jill) is assisted by Tom. but Jill doesn't have anything to do with the kangaroo. isn't the gorilla (who's name is not Melville). whose chief is Paul. whose chief is Paul.5:0. The 4 fastest players are: John. each is represented by a puppet that is operated by a chief and an assistant puppeteer. Pam and Tom Melville isn't the puppet who is operated by Sue and her assistant Pam. Mike. Rex The Chief Puppeteers are: Ben. Rex The Chief Puppeteers are: Ben. Pam and Tom Melville isn't the puppet who is operated by Sue and her assistant Pam. while the Creature Buddies are on tour. Gorilla. Gorilla. Ben 7. isn't the gorilla (who's name is not Melville). Rex 8. Gale C. The Creature's Names are: Audrey. Which chief puppeteer works with Tom? A. What is the name of the Dragon? A. there are four little animals that make up the ³Creature Buddies´ are digitally animate. 2. and Tiger. and the players at all four of the tables are engaged in their fourth game against their prospective opponents. Paul D. Rex.5 [note: tied games result in a score of 0. The Creature Buddies are a: Dragon. Marlene won't start. Kangaroo. Marlene E. there are four little animals that make up the ³Creature Buddies´ are digitally animate. Jill. Lenny and Terry The players with black pieces are: Don. Hamish's chief puppeteer (who is not Jill) is assisted by Tom. Kangaroo. Rex E. A chess tournament is occurring in the local community school. Pam and Tom Melville isn't the puppet who is operated by Sue and her assistant Pam. Dave is the assistant puppeteer for the tiger. George D. Gale. and Tiger. With what kind of animal does Gale work? A. Ben is in charge of the dragon. Kangaroo. and Tiger. Rex. Paul and Sue The Assistant Puppeteers are: Dave. Melville. whose chief is Paul. George and Patricia 3 of the 4 fastest players will always be chosen. Sue E. while the Creature Buddies are on tour. isn't the gorilla (who's name is not Melville). Ben is in charge of the dragon. but Jill doesn't have anything to do with the kangaroo. Bart 5. Richie and Stephen The scores are 3:0. whose chief is Paul. Melville. Kangaroo.5. Hamish. Lemur 9. Since that means that they can't make a live stage performance. Hamish. Since that means that they can't make a live stage performance. Rex. 1. each is represented by a puppet that is operated by a chief and an assistant puppeteer. Paul and Sue The Assistant Puppeteers are: Dave. Tom E. Paul and Sue The Assistant Puppeteers are: Dave. Melville D. Dave is the assistant puppeteer for the tiger. On the popular children's television show. Hamish's chief puppeteer (who is not Jill) is assisted by Tom. Bart. On the popular children's television show. Jill C. Dragon B. Melville. Gorilla. while the Creature Buddies are on tour. Hamish. Hamish's chief puppeteer (who is not Jill) is assisted by Tom. Rex. Gale. The Creature's Names are: Audrey. Gorilla C. Ben B. Gerry. Ben is in charge of the dragon. isn't the gorilla (who's name is not Melville). Rex The Chief Puppeteers are: Ben. 2:1. The players with white pieces are: David. Gorilla. Jill. while the Creature Buddies are on tour. John C. Who is the assistant puppeteer for Melville? A. and Tiger. there are four little animals that make up the ³Creature Buddies´ are digitally animate. Since that means that they can't make a live stage performance. each is represented by a puppet that is operated by a chief and an assistant puppeteer.If George starts. there are four little animals that make up the ³Creature Buddies´ are digitally animate. Hamish. Pam and Tom Melville isn't the puppet who is operated by Sue and her assistant Pam. each is represented by a puppet that is operated by a chief and an assistant puppeteer.5 points for each player] . On the popular children's television show. Ben is in charge of the dragon. The Creature Buddies are a: Dragon. The Creature's Names are: Audrey. The Creature Buddies are a: Dragon. Hamish C. Gale. Of the following hockey players. Patricia B. Pam D. Paul and Sue The Assistant Puppeteers are: Dave. Since that means that they can't make a live stage performance. Dave is the assistant puppeteer for the tiger. Kangaroo D. Dave B. Tiger E. On the popular children's television show. Jill. but Jill doesn't have anything to do with the kangaroo. Gale. but Jill doesn't have anything to do with the kangaroo. Jill.5:1. The Creature Buddies are a: Dragon. who must start? A. Rex The Chief Puppeteers are: Ben. Audrey B. Melville. Dave 6. The Creature's Names are: Audrey. Dave is the assistant puppeteer for the tiger.

Lenny and Terry The players with black pieces are: Don.5. and the players at all four of the tables are engaged in their fourth game against their prospective opponents. 2:1.5 B. Don is leading his match after his last three games.5:1. however. Stephen C.5 points for each player] Lenny is playing at the table to the right of Stephen. David C. Terry C. Gerry. Mike. Richie.5. and has calculated his mileage at 23 miles per gallon. who has lost all of his games until now.5 [note: tied games result in a score of 0. he actually only gets 15 miles per gallon E. The players with white pieces are: David. Table 2. Larry had never before calculated the mileage of his car. Methane can't be processed on Wednesday. however. The player who is using the white pieces at table 4 is Terry. Mike B. Whose score is highest? A. 2:1 10. At least one game at table 1 has resulted in a tie. and Sulfur Dioxide C.5:1.5 points for each player] Lenny is playing at the table to the right of Stephen. has not been in a tied game. who has lost all of his games until now. At least one game at table 1 has resulted in a tie. who is not in the lead over his opponent. Table 1. 1. whereas Steve drives the highway C. Table 2. Gerry is playing against Mike. 1. Steve. Table 1.5 [note: tied games result in a score of 0. A chess tournament is occurring in the local community school. 3:0 C. Richie and Stephen The scores are 3:0. Sulfur Dioxide can't be processed on Fridays.5:1. who is not in the lead over his opponent. Richie. At least one game at table 1 has resulted in a tie.5. has not been in a tied game. Xenon. The player who is using the white pieces at table 4 is Terry. The players with white pieces are: David. Before buying the device. What table is Stephen playing at. however. After a month has passed. Richie. Larry was driving in the city. who has lost all of his games until now. Xenon may be processed any day except for every other Monday and every other Thursday. Lenny and Terry The players with black pieces are: Don. 2:1. David D. 1. Liquid Hydrogen. however. Don E. and the players at all four of the tables are engaged in their fourth game against their prospective opponents. Mike B. Gerry is playing against Mike. the current score at table 4 is not 2:1. Gerry is playing against Mike. Terry 12. Richie D. Gerry E. A chess tournament is occurring in the local community school.5 points for each player] Lenny is playing at the table to the right of Stephen. has not been in a tied game. Which of the following statements would cause Larry's conclusion to be the weakest? A. If a petrochemical plant manufactures a range of hazardous chemical products and must therefore follow strict guidelines concerning each of the chemicals may interact with one another on a daily basis. owns the exact same make and model car.5 [note: tied games result in a score of 0. David E. Gerry. Methane. The player who is using the white pieces at table 4 is Terry. B. Wednesdays and Fridays. Don is leading his match after his last three games. 14. Richie D.5:0. Richie and Stephen The scores are 3:0. 2. 2. A chess tournament is occurring in the local community school. Table 3. Larry determines that his mileage currently rests at 17 miles per gallon.5:0. The player who is using the white pieces at table 4 is Terry. Three of these chemicals can be processed on any given day. At least one game at table 1 has resulted in a tie. Liquid Hydrogen may be processed on Mondays. and the players at all four of the tables are engaged in their fourth game against their prospective opponents. Xenon. 2. Lenny and Terry The players with black pieces are: Don.5 E. Steve lied. Gerry.5:1. 2:1. the current score at table 4 is not 2:1. Larry purchases a lower grade of gasoline than Steve D. who is not in the lead over his opponent. Gerry is playing against Mike. Lenny 11. Mike. can be processed only on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. Don B. Larry then makes the conclusion that the manufacturer of the device's claim is not true. and what is the score at that table? A. Oxygen. Larry's car is 15 years older. Larry's best friend. Steve's car does not have the device that Larry purchased one month ago. The players with white pieces are: David. the current score at table 4 is not 2:1. and Oxygen .Lenny is playing at the table to the right of Stephen.5:0. has not been in a tied game. Larry has purchased a device that the manufacturer claims will reduce the fuel consumption in his car. The plant processes five different chemicals every week. 3:0 D. however. What are the three chemicals that can be processed on any given Monday? A. Richie 13. Methane. Don is leading his match after his last three games. Don is leading his match after his last three games. the current score at table 4 is not 2:1. 2. Richie.5:1. who is not in the lead over his opponent. who has lost all of his games until now. Though Larry has the same make and model of car as Steve. Which player has black pieces and is tied? A. Mike. 2. Who is the winning player at table 4? A. Oxygen. Richie and Stephen The scores are 3:0. and Oxygen B.

Methane. Oxygen. Thursday E. Maggie and Naomi. Mrs. can be processed only on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. A media relations person told reporters that the government would not require warning labels on products that contain caffeine. What are they? A. Oxygen. and the government did not want to lose credibility. The plant processes five different chemicals every week. Trotter. Wednesdays and Fridays. and it may have different results in the future. Bore C. The plant processes five different chemicals every week. The fourth customer in the line bought the pork chops What was purchased by the third person in line? A. however. Liquid Hydrogen. Piggott. Wednesdays and Fridays. Trotter. which is the most in line with the statement that was made by the media relations person? A. Oxygen. Pork Pie C. and Liquid Hydrogen E. Piggott. The second customer was Maggie. but before Mrs. Each of the customers bought something different. Each of the customers bought something different. If a warning applies only to a small minority of people is inappropriate B. The fourth customer in the line bought the pork chops What was the last name of the person who purchased the pork pie? A. Xenon may be processed any day except for every other Monday and every other Thursday. Their last names were Bore. The first names of the customers were Annie. These rats were given the equivalent amount of caffeine that a person would consume with 6 cups of coffee every day. The Cumberland sausage was requested by Mrs. If a petrochemical plant manufactures a range of hazardous chemical products and must therefore follow strict guidelines concerning each of the chemicals may interact with one another on a daily basis. The caffeine increase also increased the occurrence of birth defects. she was served after Annie. Hazlitt was the third in line. pork pie. and Xenon D. there were five customers in the lineup. Wednesdays and Fridays. The pork pie was purchased by the customer directly after Jessica. Six cups of coffee per day is much higher than what a person typically drinks C. Three of these chemicals can be processed on any given day. Sowter and Trotter. At the local butcher's shop. there were five customers in the lineup. Each of the customers bought something different. Mrs. Hazlitt.D. she was served after Annie. Jessica. The available products . If a petrochemical plant manufactures a range of hazardous chemical products and must therefore follow strict guidelines concerning each of the chemicals may interact with one another on a daily basis. and Sulfur Dioxide C. there were five customers in the lineup. Of the following statements. but before Mrs. Wednesday D. In a lab. Friday 16. and sliced ham Lily Piggott was served later than the customer who requested the sliced ham. pork chops. Oxygen. Wednesday D. Jessica. Sowter. Xenon. Their last names were Bore. Piggott E. Methane can't be processed on Wednesday. as the testing was continuing. Sulfur Dioxide can't be processed on Fridays. The available products were: Cumberland sausage. Methane. The first names of the customers were Annie. Hazlitt. the scientists have been performing tests on pregnant lab rats with caffeine. Which weekday is most likely to be impossible for 3 chemicals to be processed in one day? A. Jessica. Methane. Methane. Liquid Hydrogen may be processed on Mondays. Xenon may be processed any day except for every other Monday and every other Thursday. and Xenon E. Pork Chops E. Hazlitt. Lily. Friday 18. The pork pie was purchased by the customer directly after Jessica. and Sulfur Dioxide 15. The conclusive nature of studies that have been performed on animals are doubted D. Sliced Ham D. Tuesday C. Thursday E. The Cumberland sausage was requested by Mrs. Methane. can be processed only on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. Oxygen. There are 3 chemicals that can be processed on a Friday. Tuesday C. and Liquid Hydrogen B. Maggie and Naomi. Piggott. Naomi was the woman who bought the scotch eggs. Trotter B. The plant processes five different chemicals every week. Studies on rats don't provide us with much data regarding birth defects in humans E. Liquid Hydrogen. Sowter. Monday B. and sliced ham Lily Piggott was served later than the customer who requested the sliced ham. At the local butcher's shop. Monday B. Three of these chemicals can be processed on any given day. scotch eggs. Sowter 21. Lily. Three of these chemicals can be processed on any given day. Scotch Eggs 20. The significance of birth defects due to the use of caffeine is unclear 19. Maggie and Naomi. Oxygen. At the local butcher's shop. Methane can't be processed on Wednesday. Methane can't be processed on Wednesday. Sulfur Dioxide can't be processed on Fridays. Sulfur Dioxide. and Sulfur Dioxide 17. Cumberland Sausage B. The second customer was Maggie. Liquid Hydrogen may be processed on Mondays. however. The available products were: Cumberland sausage. The first names of the customers were Annie. Oxygen. Which day of the week is the only days that they can process Liquid Hydrogen so that they can process three chemicals? A. Liquid Hydrogen may be processed on Mondays. Lily. Hazlitt was the third in line. Sowter and Trotter. Liquid Hydrogen. pork pie. Naomi was the woman who bought the scotch eggs. pork chops. Their last names were Bore. If a petrochemical plant manufactures a range of hazardous chemical products and must therefore follow strict guidelines concerning each of the chemicals may interact with one another on a daily basis. scotch eggs. Sowter and Trotter. can be processed only on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. Sulfur Dioxide can't be processed on Fridays. Hazlitt D. however. Xenon may be processed any day except for every other Monday and every other Thursday.

if you are an average potato eater. D 16. Polish farmers dig up just over 800 million bags a year. The average American eats 50 lbs of potatoes a year. The pork pie was purchased by the customer directly after Jessica. Abigail eventually married her pupil. Each spring these blossoming trees attract thousands of visitors to the nation's capital. sprayed with liquid sugar to brown them.. D 11. scotch eggs. No wonder. of course. ³It's time to stop!´ And he did. The fourth customer in the line bought the pork chops What place was Naomi in line? A. B 6. Perhaps you know them as ³taters. The first potatoes were grown by the Incas of South America. made it their business to send signals during their husbands' speeches. A 12. Naomi was the woman who bought the scotch eggs. Mrs. Of the many kinds of vegetables grown all over the world. D 2. These Idaho potatoes have less water content than other kinds. while the Russians lead the world with nearly 1. Earlier. E. but before Mrs. A 7. The First Ladies are key supporters of the Presidents. the automobile. though. so she phoned him and said. Fifth Answer Key 1. you can understand why most people agree that this part of the food industry is no ³small potatoes. When Lady Bird Johnson thought her husband was talking too long. ( That's higher than any other food will grow. Dolly Madison was the most influential president's wife.´ or as ³chips. Trotter. What is the main idea of this passage? A. D. more than four hundred years ago.´ or ³Kennebees. a few short fries in a bag are okay. D 15. One of the most famous First Ladies was Eleanor Roosevelt. The telephone. The sheep not only kept the lawn mowed but provided wool for an auction sponsored by the First Lady. then.were: Cumberland sausage. Worldwide. A 13. The second customer was Maggie. Potatoes are a key vegetable in America.´ or even ³shoestrings.´ ³spuds.000 was raised for the Red Cross. Second C. E 19. Before shipping. steam dried at high heat. the annual potato harvest is over six billion bags. you will put away at least a hundred pounds of them each year. Third D. That may seem like a lot of ³taters. After his death. farmers fill about four hundred million bags a year. C 17. Mrs. 3. so she taught him herself.´ If you can't talk more politely than that in public. C 10. She was active in political and social causes throughout her husband's tenure in office. that the company pays particular attention to the way its fries are prepared. which can have as much as eighty percent water. . B. However. The various terms for potatoes have a long history. E 18. C 20. A 3. Many First Ladies have been remembered because of the ways they have influenced their husbands. during World War I. The painting is the only object from the original White House that was not burned. he could not read or write. Taft also influenced the male members of her family and the White House staff in a strange way: she convinced them to shave off their beards! Shortly after President Wilson suffered a stroke. even after the guards had left. The First Ladies are important in American culture. First B.´ Abigail Fillmore and Eliza Johnson actually taught their husbands. D. What about the twenty percent that are left in the batch? Well. As the British marched toward Washington. C.) Early Spanish and English explorers shipped potatoes to Europe.´ No matter. D. C. D. Roosevelt. The Cumberland sausage was requested by Mrs. pork pie. C. She made life better for thousands of needy people around the world. Sowter. now that you realize the enormous size and value of the potato crop. the potato. Millard Fillmore and Andrew Johnson. Dolly Madison saw to it that a magnificent painting of George Washington was not destroyed during the War of 1812. the potatoes are partly fried in a secret blend of oils. Bess Truman and Lady Bird Johnson. radio. television. the thirteenth and seventeenth Presidents. B 21. stop and think a moment about some of the commonplace things that you use every day. some of them as large as four pounds each. then flash frozen for shipment to individual restaurants.each bag containing a hundred pounds of spuds. Their descendants in Ecuador and Chile continue to grow the vegetable as high as fourteen thousand feet up in the Andes Mountains. Mrs. these inventions might never have been fully developed to serve mankind. Another forty percent has to be over three inches. E 14. Once Bess Truman didn't like what her husband was saying on television. Eleanor Roosevelt transformed the First Lady image. At least two First Ladies. So.5 billion bags. only russet Burbank potatoes are used. Other First Ladies have made the history books on their own. E 5. Here in the United States. C 4. which remains the favorite of young and old alike? Why. the wife of President Franklin D.´ ³Idahoes. however. As a matter of fact. The Humanitarian work of the First Ladies is critical in American government. and sliced ham Lily Piggott was served later than the customer who requested the sliced ham. To start with. E Reading Main Idea Practice Questions 1. One fast-food chain alone sells more than $1 billion worth of fries each year. That's only a tiny portion of the amount grown every year. Americans have always been interested in their Presidents' wives. and roasted. Hazlitt was the third in line. it must pass many separate tests. you come right home. she became famous for her humanitarian work in the United Nations. French fries are made from potatoes. Fail any one and the spud is rejected. It read. every shoestring is measured. to name just three. B. 2. If it had not been possible to patent their ideas and thus protect them against copying by others. Forty percent of a batch must be between two and three inches long.´ but it leaves us a distant third among world potato growers. she wrote a note and sent it up to the platform. E. What does the word patent mean to you? Does it strike you as being something rather remote from your interests? If it does. When Eliza Johnson married Andrew. Millard. a potato by any other name is still a potatothe world's most widely grown vegetable. objects that you take for granted as part of the world around you. she was served after Annie. and the thousand and one other things (even the humble safety pin) that enrich our lives today once existed only as ideas in the minds of men. and they found their way to North America in the early 1600s. Wilson had had sheep brought onto the White House lawn to eat the grass. A 8. People eat potatoes in many ways-baked. Potatoes from Ireland started the Potato Revolution. Fourth E. Almost $100. Once cut into ³shoestrings´ shapes. It was First Lady Helen Taft's idea to plant the famous cherry trees in Washington.´ What is the main idea of this passage? A. C 9. C. Edith Wilson unofficially took over most of the duties of the Presidency until the end of her husband's term. pork chops. A schoolteacher. Before any fry makes it to the people who eat at these popular restaurants. she remained behind to rescue the painting. in the United States most potatoes are devoured in the form of French fries. it seems. mashed.

For three weeks he slept on the ground and tried to hide from the soldiers who were looking for him. George Washington signed the first patent law on April 10. The patent system encourages free enterprise. patent structure came from England. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Today. Patented inventions also help keep prices down by increasing manufacturing efficiency and by stimulating the competition that is the foundation of our free enterprise system. had . So a lot of their hard work is wasted. After a while. Beavers are supposed to be great tree cutters. but they don't always choose the most efficient mechanisms. The grapes are first dried on one side.) But then what? Often the beaver does not make use of the tree. It happened in 1873 in the San Joaquin Valley of California. After three days of staggering on foot through mile after mile of thick bamboo. In addition to more than 3 million U. Raisins are cleaned thoroughly at the packing plant. while others were forced into hard labor. Siv was working in the White House. there was one Oregon beaver that really was a worker. Of course. Sometimes entire families were wiped out. and the men who drew up the Constitution incorporated one. Siv finally made his way to Thailand. Then they know the grapes are ripe enough to be picked. Later. he was delayed. was more than two thousand feet long. B. By 1989. patents. The growers wait until the sugar content is twenty-one percent. and the creative process. The public outcry became so great that the government was forced to decree that monopoly rights could be awarded only to those who created or introduced something really unique. The Constitution protects the patent system. Beavers are poor surveyors of aquatic environments in some cases. After that. They will build a dam across the widest part of the stream. too. The Patent Office in Washington. The inconsistency. It may take two weeks or longer. (In fact. the expanding technology was furthered by the granting of exclusive manufacturing and selling privileges to citizens who had invented new processes or tools. It is true that a beaver can gnaw through a tree very quickly. any raisins that are a bit too dry take moisture from those that have a bit too much. or any distinct and new variety. in Montana. have stood the test of time well. Siv came from a large family that lived in the capital of Cambodia.. he taught English. It made a lake large enough to hold forty beaver homes. Soon he was on his way to the states. But they don't always build them in the right places. The journey. They are again checked for moisture and sugar. The fact is that most trees lean toward the water to start with. One dam. and millionaire Cornelius Vanderbilt invented a shoe-shine kit. What is the main idea of this passage? A. New Hampshire was the site of the largest beaver dam. Beavers may work hard. Patents are important tools for inventors. For one thing. they do not let the grapes dry on the vines. drill press or lathe. 4. and less than four months later the first patent was issued to a man named Samuel Hopkins for a chemical process. Unfortunately. They are tested often for sweetness. After finishing high school. and had begun charging as much as the traffic would bear.a step that did much to encourage creativity. which are automatically weighed and sealed. The grapes are dried until only fifteen percent of the moisture is left. They treat them with much more care. One of the sides in this war was the Cambodian government. they are turned to dry on the other side. Everybody wanted more. They are poured into big boxes called sweatboxes.If there were no patent protection there would be little incentive to invent and innovate. an important principle was added to the patent structure: The Lord Chief Justice of England stated that society had everything to gain and nothing to lose by granting exclusive privileges to an inventor. The fundamental principles in the U. D. he can produce more and earn more with the computer. Because he had worked for an American charity group.) When beavers cut a tree near a stream. These squares lie between the long rows of vines. adding machines. the situation in Cambodia got worse. Beavers think nothing of building a dam more than two hundred feet long. (A six-inch birch takes about ten minutes. Later. He arrived in June of 1976 and got a job-first picking apples and then cooking in a fast-food restaurant. and enabled American technology to outstrip that of the rest of the civilized world. The technological progress that has made America great would wither rapidly under conditions such as these. It was so hot the grapes dried on the vines. You have to know what you're doing. Then they found that they could not move it. B. The raisins are now ready for market. That year. D. The workers fill their flat pans with grapes. article of manufacture. It stretched four thousand feet. The raisins are rolled up in the paper on which they have dried. They are wide at the bottom and narrow at the top. For example.. During the glorious reign of Queen Elizabeth I in England. One bunch of beavers cut down a cottonwood tree more than one hundred feet tall. Then they have turned into raisins. however. Now what about dam building? Most beaver dams are wonders of engineering. Beavers are excellent dam builders. The best ones are strongly built of trees. When they were picked. Here the grapes stay while the sun does its work. stones. or composition of matter ( a chemical compound or combinations of chemical compounds). They don't try to find a place where the stream is narrow. The patent system has also helped to boost the wages of the American worker to an unprecedented level. After five days of work it gave up. Our patent laws. this time he made it. So the San Joaquin farmers went into the raisin business. of course. Sichan Siv was crawling through the jungle. In late August the grapes start to ripen. D. Caught at last. however. E. Then the plump brown raisins have a last inspection. They pick the bunches of grapes by hand. The patent system in England has been influential in American patent development. E. Siv. Many farmers raised grapes in this valley. there was a heat wave. he was put into a labor camp. where he worked eighteen hours each day without rest. C. hordes of imitators who did not share the inventor's risks and expenses might well flood the market with their copies of his product and reap much of the benefit of his efforts. 6. How did this strange journey come about? Like millions of Cambodians. Here. From the staff of eight that it maintained during its first year of operation it has grown into an organization of over 2500 people handling more than 1600 patent applications and granting over 1000 every week. They gently empty the pans onto squares of paper. like the Constitution from which they grew. 5. The process of raisin development requires multiple steps. People were surprised to find how good raisins were. He rode an old bicycle for miles. D. Siv managed to escape. Then they go on a belt to packing machines. In 1976. The water bath is next. because a patent for an invention was granted for something new that society never had before. B. and this treasure trove of information is open for public inspection. What is the main idea of this passage? A. So a good tree goes to waste. Siv was a victim of a bloody civil war. In colonial times patent law was left up to the separate states. As a result. E. The raisin business in America was born by accident. C. In 1936 the Patent Office was established as a separate bureau. including certain mutants and hybrids. This knocks them from their stems. These principles are the mainstays of our modern patent system in the United States. and unfairness that resulted clearly indicated the need for a uniform patent law. The creation of raisins in America was an accident. C. Here they are poured into packages. an American group that was helping victims of the war. Siv quickly found work in a refugee camp. The other was a group called the Khmer Rouge. just before the grape harvest. Instead. It was one of the worst heat waves ever known. like himself. brought untold benefits to society as a whole. is the world's largest library of scientific and technical data. After several months. Patented inventions protect the inventor. free enterprise. as an advisor to the President of the United States. Most people think it's fine to be ³busy as a beaver. wanted more than this.1790. machine. for once the details of an invention became known. he was afraid he would be killed. California has been the leader in American raisin development. They encouraged the creative processes. he and his family were taken from their homes and forced to labor in rice fields. The big boxes are trucked next to the packaging plant. The largest one ever seen was in New Hampshire. Siv had hope to leave Cambodia before the Khmer Rouge took over the country. Beavers are well developed tree cutters. S. he wanted to work with people who. Some people think that beavers can make a tree fall the way they want it to. The decades of history have disclosed little need for modification of the patent structure. It gets stuck in the other trees. But they do not plan it that way. Another basic principle was brought into law because certain influential people in England had managed to obtain monopoly control over such age-old products as salt. After a while they are all just moist enough. Skilled workers come to the vineyards. Many people were killed. It decided to fix a leak in a man-made dam. They are emptied onto a conveyor belt that shakes the raisins gently. it usually falls into the water. Siv worked for a while with a Cambodian airline company. The leak it was trying to block was the lock that boats go through. A blast of air whisks the stems away. Each box holds one hundred and sixty pounds of raisins. In thick woods a tree sometimes won't fall down. trying to escape from Cambodia. Beavers should learn that it's not enough to be busy. When the Khmer Rouge won the war. a beaver sometimes gets pinned under a falling tree. Beavers may be hard working animals. Not true. S. trying to reach Thailand where he would be free and safe. doesn't think to cut down the trees that are in the way. Trucks take them from the fields. he took a job with CARE. in Washington D. So beavers do build good dams. One expert says that beavers waste one out of every five trees they cut. C. Abraham Lincoln patented a device to lift steam vessels over river shoals. he escaped again. confusion. it houses more than 7 million foreign patents and thousands of volumes of technical literature. and mud. they do not choose their trees wisely. when critics argued that giving monopoly rights to one person infringed on the rights of others. A patent may be granted for any new and useful process. was a terrifying one. Raisins on the grocery store shelf undergo a brief fermentation process. of plant. California had its first raisin crop. however. When they have reached the right color. an improved method of making potash for use in soapmaking. Mark Twain developed a self-pasting scrapbook. C. They just don't plan. but often they don't get much done.´ Little do they know. They sit in the sun.

After finishing his studies at Columbia.001 uses. Every year since 1986. Siv persevered to become an American citizen. bamboo is nearly as important as rice. and thorny bushes. C. They also suffer from a lack of water. and hundreds of other useful things can be made? A grass that you would even enjoy eating? Would you believe that person? You should. almost never wears out. Even though they did not know about the wheel. because Siv got the opportunity to help refugees in his work. Bamboo has at least 2. Many Asians live in bamboo houses. Near the finish line.some as heavy as ten tons. the challenge of the race is the main reason for coming. and Texas. Few runners finish the day without blistered and raw feet. called the union. the Incas created splendid objects from these precious metals. E. the runners are up at 6:00 A. Bamboo is an amazing grass that can be used in multiple ways. they run fifteen miles across a desert of sand. Siv overcame numerous challenges to come to American and help others. It is cheap. Bamboo grows in many parts of the world. In the United States it grows in an area from Virginia west to Indiana and south to Florida. They must be ready for the next day's run. The runners run at their own pace. It is used to make musical instruments. Helicopters rush fallen runners to medical help. he felt that he was very much a part of his new country. the runners pass through a level stretch and a beautiful. The seventh day is the last. Runners who make it to the end of the fifth day know that the worst is over. No wonder. he was able to study at Columbia University in New York City. an event that may happen only once every thirty years. The Incas once ruled a great empire that covered a large part of the South American continent. The Marathon of the Sands was founded in 1986 by Patrick Bauer. The smallest is only three inches tall and one-tenth of an inch across. the wind picks up and. and barley. with only twelve miles to be covered. Bamboo grows at an amazing rate and is found primarily in Asia. D. Louisiana. What is the main idea of this passage? A. In most Asian countries. C.´ says one contestant who has raced here twice. the runners must climb giant sand dunes. High in the Andes Mountains in Peru stands the ancient city of Machu Picchu. is found in warm. then. and is easy to grow. 7. At times you can even see it grow! Botanists have recorded growths of more than three feet in just twenty-four hours! Bamboo is hollow and has a strong root system that almost never stops growing and spreading. though. they grow more and more exhausted.the first they have faced. They sit on bamboo chairs and sleep on bamboo mats. The sizes of the knots and the distances between them represented numbers. He told his subjects where to live. and many runners cannot make it. they learn much about themselves and each other. The ones who have run the whole marathon know they have accomplished what most people could not even dream of. Siv persevered to become an American citizen D. When flying the flag at half-mast. They dug ditches to carry water into dry areas for farming. they cross more than twenty-one miles of rocks and sand dunes.suffered the hardship of leaving their own countries behind. When flying the American flag with banners from states or cities. some of the world's most daring runners have gathered in the desert of Morocco. blistered runners set out at daybreak. wet climates. The temperature soars to 125 degrees F. bamboo is even used for water pipes. Bamboo is used to build large buildings as well as homes. on this and on the next day. Bamboo is light and strong. The dusty. This grass is not just a material for making useful products. as it is called. D. tired. Bamboo may look like wood. the American flag is on the right. The Incas. The blocks were fitted so tightly. No one knows why this great city was built. in 1980. The Marathon of the Sands. After fifteen miles of these conditions. how long they should work-even whom they could marry. It is a kind of grass. who come from all over the world. It was a difficult job. as the desert heat is thrust against them with great force. The largest reaches more than two hundred feet in height and seven inches in diameter. For most of the runners. in many Asian foods. On the third day. for example. After several more years. His idea was to give the runners. Soon their faces are caked with mud. went to that continent in the sixteenth century. American flag should be flown differently in certain situations. When you want to hang the American flag over the middle of a street. They fence their land with bamboo and use the wood for cages for chickens and pigs. treefilled oasis. He wrote letters to many colleges and universities. They were skillful engineers who paved their roads and built sturdy bridges. heat and rocks punish the racers terribly. On the fourth day. but then. what to plant. Siv covered a large area during his life. the heir to the Incan empire had also been killed. Dust and sand mix with the runners' sweat. Earlier. that to many people bamboo is a symbol of happiness and good fortune. Placing the American flag inappropriately will draw government intervention. raise the nation's banner first and lower it last. however. clothing. On the sixth day. now had no recognized leader. At its height. hoist it to the top of the pole for a moment before lowering it to mid-pole. floats on water. The second day. Most bamboo. especially in Asia and on the islands of the South Pacific Ocean. Incan dishes and other kinds of pottery are prized for their wonderful designs. In 1533 Spanish explorers led by Francisco Pizarro murdered the emperor of the Incas. and he often had to work long hours. and it bends without breaking. it is 100 degrees F. (They are allowed less than nine quarts of water during each day of the race.and in the amount he wished -to his people. The emperor ruled them with an iron hand. and sleeping bags on their backs. In 1988. boats. Young bamboo is eaten. C. What is the main idea of this passage? A. but the runners do not hesitate. This extraordinary material has many other uses. Paper made from bamboo has been highly prized by artists for thousands of years. a special kind of adventure. While it is true that the Incas had no written language. 10. They plowed the land in such a way that rains would not wash away valuable soil. The Marathon of the Sands race tests the limits of human endurance. that it would be impossible to slip a knife blade between them! The walls have stood firm through great storms and earthquakes that have destroyed many modern buildings. Persistence and courage are global ideas. Siv was offered a job in the White House working for President Reagan's closest advisors. and they were impressed with his bravery. When it is glued in layers.´ What is the main idea of this passage? A. The American flag has fifty stars. suspend it vertically with the blue field. Nothing else on earth grows quite so fast as bamboo. The race continues like this for four more days. They were impressed with his school records from Cambodia. Finally. but it is part of the family of plants that includes wheat. . What if someone told you about a kind of grass that grows as tall as the tallest trees? A grass that can be made as strong as steel? A grass from which houses. for everybody has caught the excitement. Place the staff of the American flag in front of the other staff. In fact. There are at least a 1. That night. ³During the hard moments. B. looking for gold. the Incan empire included as many as thirty million people."The flag should be lowered quickly and respectfully.up the sides of mountains to build walls. ". and they run with their food.) Most of all. B. No wonder. Nevertheless. Most of the runners in this race have found that they form deep friendships with the other runners during their days and nights in the desert. The fourth and fifth days are the worst. for that grass is bamboo. On the first day. The runners complete the course in fewer than seven days. the runners finally reach their next camp. Bamboo could be considered a flower in some cases. The American flag is the symbol of American freedom. the Incas were able to move huge stone blocks. Raise the flag quickly and lower it slowly and respectfully. Facing terrible heat and complete exhaustion. B. The Incas were an advanced people. However the long hard work was worth it. too.000 types of bamboo. the deserted city of Machu Picchu is important for what it reveals about the ancient Inca people of South America. who had always been entirely dependent on their emperor. They must cover eighteen miles that day. E. that the lives of nearly half the people on earth would change enormously if there were no longer any bamboo. The Incas were great artists. D. to the north and east-west street. E. Siv decided that the best way to prepare for this kind of work was to go to college. They are there to take part in one of the most difficult races in the world. ³I'd think. the ³wood´ of 1. rocks. Within a few hours.000 uses. On some islands in the South Pacific. oats. µWhy am I here?' Then I'd realize I was there to find my limits. C. such as flutes and recorders. often mixed with other vegetables. 8. they kept their accounts by using a system of knotted strings of various lengths and colors. Since he owned everything. they rest. without cement of any kind. He married an American woman and became a citizen. Never allow the flag to touch the ground. What is the main idea of this passage? A. only after it flowers. Today. There are more than a thousand kinds of bamboo. Siv took a job with the United Nations. In the Valley of Dra. too. it becomes as strong as steel. The race causes the strong to stumble and the weak to not finish. covers over 125 miles of desert and mountain wilderness. The empire was more than five hundred years old when the first Spanish explorers. Every runner runs the race to find their human limits. will bamboo die. Since both gold and silver were in great supply. The Spaniards easily conquered the empire and plundered its riches. B. furniture. children race along with the runners. M. nor is it likely that we will ever know. 9. they are exhausted when they arrive at the campsite for the night. The seventh day is the hardest day of the race. When the flag is displayed with another banner from crossed staffs. the emperor gave what he wished when he wished.

B. C . B 6. The Incan empire can be found in ancient cities and was plundered by the Spanish. D 8. E. Machu Picchu was the capital of the Incan empire. eighty percent of the twenty million people are descendants of the Inca people. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Spanish conquerors destroyed the Incan empire in the thirteenth century. The Incas once inhabited the ancient city of Machu Picchu. C 9. The remains of this ancient city still stand high in the mountains of Peru. You can even visit Machu Picchu. C. D 7. Answer Key 1. Peru was the primary country of the Incas. A 5. A 10. D. an awesome tribute to this once powerful empire. once the center of that great empire. In Peru alone. Evidence of the Incan empire can be found in many other places in South America as well. D 3. D 2.Have the Incas disappeared from South America? Not at all. E 4.

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