CONTENTS: • Abstract • Introduction • Android features • Competitors of Android • User Interface • Widget • Data Storage • Web Apps • Android

2.1 Eclair • Android 2.2 Froyo • Android 2.3 Gingerbread • Advantages • Disadvantages • Conclusion • References

ABSTRACT: This is a paper that gives an introduction to the new open source mobile platform Android as well as a comparative evaluation with regard to other mobile operating systems. Introduction . Finally an outlook and a conclusion complete this elaboration. The purpose of this paper is to present to the user the new and promising mobile platform based on the Linux operating system and provided by Google. Features and criteria defined in this part will be considered and included in the comparison of these systems. In the following part Android will be compared to the mobile operating systems Symbian OS. Then it describes the main features of Android for a better understanding of this platform. It explains its’ advantages and disadvantages and the basic features. The key topic of this paper is the categorization of Android.

It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries. Android has a large community of developers writing application programs ("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices. middleware.Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices such as mobile phones. It is manufacturer spanning and able to run on every cell phone. tablet computers and netbooks. Android includes an operating system. It was initially developed by Google and later positioned in the Open Handset Alliance. where many manufacturers compete. there are only two main competitors in the domain of cell phone operating systems which are Symbian with “Symbian OS” and Microsoft with “Windows Mobile”. based on the Linux operating system and GNU software. System Architecture Android features . Unlike on the market for cell phones. user-interface and applications.

They added a two pass layout and frame flattening. Android applications are all equal. • • SQLite – extremely small (~500kb) relational database management system. The framework is supported by numerous open source libraries such as openssl. Some of the most important ones are presented in the following list Application Framework is used to write applications for Android. Unlike other embedded mobile environments. From the point of security. • Optimized graphics as Android has 2D graphics library and 3D graphics based on OpenGL ES 1. the framework is based on UNIX file system permissions that assure applications have only those abilities that mobile phone owner gave them at install time. where all definitions. • Dalvik Virtual Machine it is extremely low-memory based virtual machine. for instance. the shooting legendary 3D game Doom was presented using Android on the mobile phone. These features increase speed and usability browsing the internet via mobile phone. It is also tuned to the CPU attributes. Two pass layout loads a page without waiting for blocking elements. This simple design is more than suitable for a platform such as Android. The Dalvik VM creates a special file format (. At this moment. which is integrated in Android. Frame flattening converts founded frames into single one and loads into the browser. internet. It is also supported by the Android core libraries. It is based on function calls and single file. sqlite and libc. such as external CSS or external JavaScript and after a while renders again with all resources downloaded to the device. media and connectivity. which come on Linux version.0.Android offers many features cover many areas such as application development. Conversion between Java classes and . an applications which come with the phone are no different than those that any developer writes. which was designed specially for Android to run on embedded systems and work well in low power situations.DEX format is done by included “dx” tool. • Integrated Browser Google made a right choice on choosing WebKit as open source web browser. possibly we will see great applications like Google Earth and spectacular games like Second Life.DEX) that is created through build time post processing. tables and data are stored. .

EDGE. 3G. PNG. and WiFi (hardware dependent) Camera. Universal: mobile phones are ubiquitous – they target a mass market of consumer.• • • • • Media support for common audio. enterprise and professional users. Connection: mobile phones are occasionally connected – they can be used when connected to the wireless phone network. User needs and requirements are different. Innovation: manufacturers need to differentiate their products in order to innovate and compete in a fast-evolving market. memory and performance profiling. 1. Symbian. This chapter examines the critical factors for operating systems in this market which differentiate them from each other. believes that the mobile phone market has five key characteristics that make it unique. compass. manufacturer of the mobile operating system Symbian OS. or on their own. The market for advanced mobile devices is hard to compare to other markets like the PC market where also operating systems are used. GIF) GSM Telephony (hardware dependent) Bluetooth. technologies and services. Mobility: mobile phones are both small and mobile. and result in the need for a specifically designed operating system. 5. and accelerometer (hardware dependent) Rich development environment including a device emulator. 3. The advanced mobile phones of today integrate fully-featured personal digital assistant (PDA) capabilities with those of a traditional mobile phone. 4. MP3. Open: the platform has to be open to enable independent technology and software vendors to develop third-party applications. and a plugin for the Eclipse IDE. tools for debugging. JPG. GPS. AMR. 2. . Competitors of Android Mobile devices have changed their profile dramatically in the last years. H. video. The classification of operating systems has to consider the market in which they are used. AAC. and still image formats (MPEG4. locally to other devices.264.

." which offer fully implemented UI objects. like text fields and buttons. A View object handles its own measurement. the user interface is built using View and ViewGroup objects." which offer different kinds of layout architecture. The ViewGroup class serves as the base for subclasses called "layouts. as shown in the diagram below. a View is also a point of interaction for the user and the receiver of the interaction events. As an object in the user interface. This hierarchy tree can be as simple or complex as you need it to be. View objects are the basic units of user interface expression on the Android platform. layout. A View object is a data structure whose properties store the layout parameters and content for a specific rectangular area of the screen. like linear. each of which is a descendant of the View class. tabular and relative. scrolling. On the Android platform. and key/gesture interactions for the rectangular area of the screen in which it resides. The View class serves as the base for subclasses called "widgets.User Interface In an Android. or with custom Views that you create yourself. There are many types of views and view groups. and you can build it up using Android's set of predefined widgets and layouts. drawing. you define an Activity's UI using a hierarchy of View and ViewGroup nodes. focus change.

Your data storage options are the following: Internal Storage . such as whether the data should be private to your application or accessible to other applications (and the user) and how much space your data requires. you can. Android provides a set of fully implemented widgets. and zoom controls. But you're not limited to the kinds of widgets provided by the Android platform. like a date picker. checkboxes.Widgets A widget is a View object that serves as an interface for interaction with the user. and text-entry fields. Some widgets provided by Android are more complex. The solution you choose depends on your specific needs. Data Storage Android provides several options for you to save persistent application data. so you can quickly build your UI. If you'd like to do something more customized and create your own actionable elements. by defining your own View object or by extending and combining existing widgets. like buttons. a clock.

Web Apps There are essentially two ways to deliver an application on Android: as a client-side application (developed using the Android SDK and installed on user devices) or as a web application (developed using web standards and accessed through a web browser—there's nothing to install on user devices). Network Storage You can use the network (when it's available) to store and retrieve data on your own web-based services. By default. these files are removed. External Storage Every Android-compatible device supports a shared "external storage" that you can use to save files. files saved to the internal storage are private to your application and other applications cannot access them (nor can the user). Files saved to the external storage are world-readable and can be modified by the user when they enable USB mass storage to transfer files on a computer. This can be a removable storage media (such as an SD card) or an internal (non-removable) storage. your decision to develop a web application for Android can exclude consideration for screen support. but Android makes the decision to develop a web application easier by providing: • • Support for viewport properties that allow you to properly size your web application based on the screen size CSS and JavaScript features that allow you to provide different styles and images based on the screen's pixel density (screen resolution) Thus.You can save files directly on the device's internal storage. . When the user uninstalls your application. The approach you choose for your application could depend on several factors. because it's already easy to make your web pages look good on all types of screens powered by Android.

You can even define an interface between your Android application and your web pages that allows JavaScript in the web pages to call upon APIs in your Android application—providing Android APIs to your web-based application. You can mix the two together by developing a client-side Android application that embeds some web pages (using a WebView in your Android application layout).Another great feature of Android is that you don't have to build your application purely on the client or purely on the web. the web pages you embed in your Android application should be designed especially for that environment. Rather. However. Figure 1 visualizes how you can provide access to your web pages from either a web browser or your Android application. . you shouldn't develop an Android application simply as a means to launch your web site.

see Adding SDK Components. and bug fixesFor developers. the Android 2.2--Froyo Android 2. as well as a set of emulator skins and more.1 is a minor platform release deployable to Android-powered handsets starting in January 2010. use the Android SDK and AVD Manager tool to download the platform into your SDK. the Android 2. The downloadable platform includes no external libraries. To get started developing or testing against the Android 2. For developers.1 platform is available as a downloadable component for the Android SDK. Android 2. as well as a set of emulator skins. To get started developing or testing against the Android 2. use the Android SDK and AVD Manager tool to download the platform into your SDK.1--Eclair Android 2.Android 2. applications can offer voice calling features without having to manage .2 is a minor platform release including user features. The downloadable platform includes a fully compliant Android library and system image. Using the API. The downloadable platform includes no external libraries.2 platform.2 platform is available as a downloadable component for the Android SDK.1 platform. the Android 2. developer features. This release includes new API changes and bug fixes. as well as a set of emulator skins. Android 2. The downloadable platform includes an Android library and system image. and more.3--Gingerbread For developers. API changes. SIP-based VoIP The platform now includes a SIP protocol stack and framework API that lets developers build internet telephony applications.3 platform is available as a downloadable component for the Android SDK. The downloadable platform includes no external libraries. For more information. and more. sample applications. sample applications. The downloadable platform includes a fully compliant Android library and system image.

On discovering a tag.3 adds platform and API support for several new sensor reading types — gyroscope.sessions. Once an audio call is established. linear acceleration. the platform offers a new system facility called StrictMode. StrictMode To help developers monitor and improve the performance of their applications. transport-level communication. and even other devices. The Sensor API reports gyroscope and other sensor changes to interested applications. appending the tag's NDEF messages to the Intent as extras. Note that the specific set of hardware sensors available on any given device varies at the discretion of the device manufacturer. For example. and barometer. whether they are running on the application framework or in native code. Developers can use the new sensor readings to create applications that respond quickly and smoothly to precise changes in device position and motion. smart posters. Applications use to set up and manage SIP profiles. turn on speaker mode. gravity. after receiving a tag by Intent. and more. applications can mute calls. applications extract the NDEF messages. Near Field Communications (NFC) Android 2. rotation vector. alert the user. When implemented in an application. Gyroscope and other sensors Android 2. The platform provides the underlying NFC services that work with the device hardware to discover tags when they come into range. send DTMF tones. or handle them in other ways. store them. StrictMode catches and notifies the developer of accidental disk or network activity that could degrade .3 includes an NFC stack and framework API that lets developers read NDEF tags that are discovered as a user touches an NFCenabled device to tag elements embedded in stickers. the platform notifies applications by broadcasting an Intent. or audio — these are handled transparently by the platform's SIP API and services. Applications can create Intent filters to recognize and handle targeted tags and messages. then initiate audio calls and receive audio calls.

• Android supports all established techniques and standards for media. • The installation of Android is possible on every cell phone. such as activity taking place on the application's main thread (where UI operations are received and animations are also taking place). • The market leader is not present in the “Open Handset Alliance”. • Android has an integrated web browser which allows a PC like usage • Android relies on open operating system Linux version 2. . communication and data transfer.application performance.6 • Android uses the standardized and open programming language Java Main Disadvantages • No experience with Android in the “real world”. keeping the main thread more responsive and preventing ANR dialogs from being shown to users. • The installation of the whole environment to develop Android applications is possible on every operating system. • The openness regarding the source code could be a problem concerning security. • Google offers a very good documentation as well as many examples which cover the most basic and important techniques used to get in touch with Android and the application development on it. • Not many efficient applications available. • Android requires a low footprint of 250 kbyte • The application model/life-cycle is future oriented with the source code separation of view and logic. Main Advantages • The mobile platform Android is an open platform. Developers can evaluate the network and disk usages issues raised in StrictMode and correct them if needed.

Android participates in many of the successful open source projects. Consequently one has to keep in mind that Android is not available on a cell phone at the moment which makes it difficult to give a final and realistic conclusion. It aims to be as easy to build for as the web. that the Android mobile operating system seems to be a good decision for an operating system on every cell phone.Conclusion: The goal of this Seminar report is to describe. Android has a Marketplace from where the applications and games can be downloaded (freeware as well as expended). characterize and categorize the new mobile operating platform Android. The quality of the applications is great and a number of reusable utilities are easy for unrestricted but the number of much applications is encumbered. It meets all the requirements an mobile operating system has to meet in the future but practical experience in the real world is indispensable. This Google Android is stepping into the next level of Mobile Internet. . As an overall conclusion it can be said.

com/guide/topics/ .wikipedia.html _handson.References: • • • • • • • www.html http://developer.