UMTS OVERVIEW

Contents, Glossary and Abbreviations

Contents
CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................................... I GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................................................ VII ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ X CHAPTER 1: UMTS, THE DEFINITION OF A NEW ERA ........................................................................ 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 BACKGROUND AND STANDARDISATION .................................................................................................... 1 1.2.1 Background in Europe ..................................................................................................................... 1 1.2.2 Background in Japan ....................................................................................................................... 3 1.2.3 Background in China ....................................................................................................................... 4 1.2.4 Creation of 3GPP ............................................................................................................................ 4 1.2.5 Creation of 3GPP2 .......................................................................................................................... 5 1.3 IMT-2000 AND UMTS............................................................................................................................. 6 1.3.1 IMT-2000 Process in ITU ................................................................................................................ 6 1.3.2 UMTS ............................................................................................................................................. 8 1.4 UMTS AS THE 3RD GENERATION SYSTEM ................................................................................................ 11 1.4.1 Main Service Differences Between 2G and 3G ............................................................................... 11 1.4.2 New Roles and Relationships for UMTS ......................................................................................... 12 1.4.3 Work Regulations .......................................................................................................................... 13 1.4.4 UMTS Services and Applications ................................................................................................... 13 1.4.5 UMTS Advanced Concepts............................................................................................................. 14 1.4.6 Network Operators’ Functions ....................................................................................................... 14 1.4.7 Technological Progress Impact...................................................................................................... 15 CHAPTER 2: ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW .......................................................................................... 16 2.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE SYSTEM .................................................................................................... 16 2.2 USER EQUIPMENT (UE).......................................................................................................................... 16 2.2.1 Schematic of the Receiver for UTRAN - Outdoor ............................................................................ 17 2.3 THE ACCESS NETWORK: UTRAN........................................................................................................... 19 2.3.1 RNS Architecture ........................................................................................................................... 19 2.3.2 UTRAN Architecture...................................................................................................................... 20 2.4 CORE NETWORK .................................................................................................................................... 21 2.4.1 Serving Network ............................................................................................................................ 21 I UMTS Overview July 2001

.....................4 Terminal Service Classes .................................................................................25 3....................................................................................Downlink ..........28 3.....................................................................2.....................41 3................................4 Code Properties .................................................1...............................................42 4................................................................. Glossary and Abbreviations 2........33 3.............................................................40 3.......................................................................4...............2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)....34 3................................1..................2..................................41 3...........................4 SOFT AND HARD HANDOVER .............. PHYSICAL AND TRANSPORT CHANNELS .................................22 2..............................................................4..............................................................5 Outer Loop Power Control .............................................2 RAKE Receiver .................................43 4............................................................25 3..............3 Spread Spectrum Goals ........................25 3..............5..5.44 II UMTS Overview July 2001 ...............22 2........3 INTRODUCTION TO SPREADING AND MODULATION ...........4...........................................................39 3........1........................25 3................................ TDD ................................................5 POWER CONTROL ................................................1 Inner Loop Power Control ..5............5..............3 Tx-Rx Frequency Separation .............................................1 Handover............................27 3...............28 3..........2 Home Network ................................................................35 3......42 4................................................................................................................................Downlink .................................1 Transport Channels: ...............1 INTRODUCTION ......................3 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) ............................................2 Outer Loop Power Control (SIR target adjustment) -Uplink.........35 3....................................1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) ....................5 MOBILITY .............................43 4...........................1 RADIO TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION .........6 Diversity Characteristics..........................2 Channel Arrangement ....................................3...4.........4..............................................................................2 ACCESS METHODS FDMA....................................................................................4...........Downlink .............................................................................................................................................3............................................................................................................................30 3......2 LOGICAL.........36 3..............................................36 3......................................................................................3......................4 Interfaces and Their Function ........................3 Transit Network ........1................3 Open Loop Power Control .....................42 4.............................................5 Receiver Requirements ................................................................... CDMA....................................................................Uplink ..............................................35 3........Uplink .......42 4.............6 Open Loop Power Control .....4 FDD vs..............................................1 Orthogonal Codes.........................1 Frequency Band.......................................................................................................................................................36 3....1...........................................................................4 Inner Loop Power Control .......................22 CHAPTER 3: CDMA TECHNIQUE ......................................................................................................................5.................22 2.............................42 4...............................................................................26 3..41 CHAPTER 4: AIR INTERFACE........................2...............5........................................42 4...............................................43 4..............1....3 Softer Handover.............. TDD .........................3........................................................................................................................Contents.................................................................................................... FDD VS...........................2............................................................................2 Soft Handover ........... TDMA..........40 3.............2............................................

.....................4.......................................... 64 4..............................7........... 53 4........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 56 4..............................................5 SERVICE MULTIPLEXING ..........................1 Uplink Spreading...............................3.................................................2 RADIO TRANSMISSION PROPERTIES AND PROBLEMS ............ 66 4............2..............................3 SPREADING......4 TRANSPORT CHANNEL CODING AND MULTIPLEXING CHAIN .........6.....................................................3 Step 3: Scrambling Code Identification ....................................................... 75 5... 72 5........ 69 5.......... 65 4........................................................2..................4 Transport-Channel Multiplexing .............................................................. 53 4.........................................1 Continuous Transmission in Uplink with Variable Rate .. 66 4......3 Mapping of Transport Channels to Physical Channels ........... 74 5........................... 52 4..8....... 68 CHAPTER 5: RADIO THEORY ...................... Scrambling and Modulation...............................2 Path Loss ............................................................................................................... Scrambling and Modulation ...............2............4 Multi-Path Propagation.................................................................... 61 4.....................................7...................................7................... 45 4........................1 Access Methods: Capacity vs Interference .........................................3 Dedicated Channel Multi-Packet Transmission ...................... 67 4................. 67 4.........................................................................................................................1 Radio Waves and Modulations ......................8................................................. Available Capacity ...................... 67 4....7.................................................... 72 5.... Glossary and Abbreviations 4........................................ 63 4.................................................................................................................................................................1 Step 1: Slot Synchronisation ..................4 Idle Mode Cell Search .....4.......................................................................2 Step 2: Frame Synchronisation and Code Group Identification ..................... 65 4...2 Downlink Spreading................. 63 4..................................................................................... 60 4.................................................................1 INTRODUCTION ....................................8...................2 Discontinuous Transmission (DTx) in Downlink with Variable Rate (1) .................................6......2...3 Rate Matching ............... SCRAMBLING AND MODULATION .....4.............. 63 4.........2 Inner Inter-Frame Interleaving .......3 Discontinuous Transmission (DTx) in Downlink with Variable Rate (2).............. 61 4...............................................2.....3 Shadowing............5 Active Mode Cell Search........................................ 61 4..3............................................ 69 5..................................3 RADIO TRANSMISSION OPTIMISATIOIN TECHNIQUES .......................................... 71 5..... 57 4.............................................1 Common Channel Packet Access ................................................1 Channel Coding ..... 72 5........ 73 5........Contents...................................................4...................7....................................................................................2....................................................6 TRAFFIC CASES (EXAMPLES) .......... 75 5..............4..............7 INITIAL CELL SEARCH ........1 Needed vs.................................................8 PACKET ACCESS ......5 Time Dispersion ...............................................................................6......................................................1................2 Access Methods ......3................................................................................2 Physical Channels: ...........................................2............ 64 4.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Dedicated Channel Single Packet Transmission ................................................... 66 4................................................................................. 75 III UMTS Overview July 2001 ................1.. 60 4......................................................................... 69 5......5 Inner Intra-Frame Interleaving ............... 58 4.......................................

.............................. 104 7..................................................................................................................95 7................................................ 100 7..........................................................95 7..........................6....................................................................................................8 UMTS QOS AND RAB ............3 Mobility .........................91 7....92 7.......................... 111 7.........................................3.............................................................................................................................................. 107 7......... 110 7............3 Error Detection and Correction .................. 111 7........................................................... 111 IV UMTS Overview July 2001 ...........................................................................................................1 User Equipment Domain ....86 6.................................................................................................................3 UTRAN and GSM BSS (GSM Base Station Subsystem) ...................................................................90 7..2...................................5 TECHNOLOGY OF THE TERMINALS ...........................................1 UMTS General System Architecture .........................................................................................2 APPLICATIONS OF THE UE ..............................................................8..................1 INTRODUCTION ...95 7..6...................Contents............. 103 7......6............................................................................2 Diversity ................................................88 CHAPTER 7: UMTS TERRESTRIAL RADIO ACCES NETWORK (UTRAN) .................................................................................5 UTRAN INTERFACES .................... Glossary and Abbreviations 5...........................90 7.........2 Iu Interface ...........................................................93 7.......................................1 System Access Control ...................90 7.................................................................5........2 UTRAN Architecture ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 7................................................3...............................................................................................................81 6................................................98 7......................... 110 7....4 Radio Resource Management and Control....................................1 Node B .......................................1........7........................................................................82 6..........................................................................1 General Principles for UTRAN Interfaces ..............................................90 7........................93 7.................................92 7................................83 6...........................78 CHAPTER 6: USER EQUIPMENT (UE)...................................................................................................1 General Principles ........3..............................96 7......................................................4..................................4....5..................1 Quality of Service (QoS) .....5...........................................2 UE Identifiers ................................................3 UTRAN SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE ....................6 UTRAN FUNCTIONS ............................1 UTRAN identifiers .................................................2 UTRAN MAIN ASPECTS...........................2 The Radio Network Controller (RNC)............. 104 7...................................................................5 UTRAN Internal Bearers ..................................................7..........................................................................4 Iub Interface .......................................2 Radio Channel Ciphering / Deciphering .............................77 5..........3 MULTIMEDIA USER EQUIPMENT ...................................................................................................................................3.2 Capabilities .....................6......................................................81 6............2.....3 Iur Interface.......................4 UTRAN NODES .................. 102 7.............................................4 UMTS SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (USIM) .........................................................................................................................5..........5........................................................................................7 IDENTIFIERS .............92 7.................. 103 7........................2....1 TERMINALS IN THE GENERAL UMTS SYSTEM ..........................................................................................................................................84 6......................................................

...........................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION TO CELL PLANNING ......................................................................6 POSITION 6 ............................................. 128 10...................5 POSITION 5 .................................................... 125 10...........8 POSITION 8 ............................................7 Launch of Commercial Service: .................3 STEPS IN THE CELL PLANNING PROCESS . 122 9.....10 POSITION 10 .............................................................. 114 8...................................................... 114 8................ 122 9.......... 125 10.................................... 116 8.........4..................................................................................................................................................Contents..............8.......3.3................................................................................................................... 122 9.....................................4........6 Implementation: ...................................................................................................................................................................3 Initial Cell Plan:..............DEPLOYMENTS ....................................................1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 123 9.......................... 123 9..................................................................4 DIFFERENCES WITH 2G TDMA SYSTEMS ....................... 129 10........ Analyses and Optimisation: ...........................................3............................................................................................................................... 116 8.......3............................................. 123 9..............................................2 Radio Access Bearers (RAB) ..................................4 POSITION 4 ...............................................1 Cell-Based Transport Network ...................................................... 117 8.................................. 123 9...................................................................................................4 Surveys: ...............3............................................................................................... 122 9............................................................ 117 8................................................4 MOVING TO UMTS IN THE GSM/GPRS CORE................................................................................................................ Glossary and Abbreviations 7............... 127 10............ 129 10......2 GPRS....... 114 8..................... 130 10........2 Multi Service .......................................................................................................9 POSITION 9 ......... 128 10...........................................1 New Nodes for Packet Data ............. 113 CHAPTER 8: CORE NETWORK ......................1 System Requirements: ............................................................2 Define Radio Planning Guidelines: ......... 124 CHAPTER 10: CELL PLANING .. 125 10........................................3 POSITION 3 .............................................................................................................................. 130 V UMTS Overview July 2001 ..........................................................1 POSITION 1 ................................. 130 10..........5 UMTS CORE NETWORK PHASE 1 (RELEASE 99) REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................................... AN IMPORTANT STEPPING STONE TOWARDS A UMTS CORE NETWORK .................................................1 Exploiting Existing Networks ........................................4..............................................................................3................................. 128 10.......................................................... 123 9......................................................................2 POSITION 2 .............................................2 DIFFERENT CELL TYPES .....3 UPGRADING THE GSM CORE FOR GPRS .................................3......................................2 Upgrades to Existing GSM Nodes .............................. 128 10............................................................7 POSITION 7 ...........................3...........................9 System Growth ............................................. 129 10..........3..................................... 119 8.3.......................................... 129 10.... 120 CHAPTER 9: HANDOVER (DOWNLINK CASE EXAMPLE) .................................................................................................8 On-going Testing............................ 122 9......................................................................................................................5 Individual Site Design and Parameter Setting: .................................................3.......... 130 10........

... 132 10...................................................5........ 130 10.............3 New Air Interface ....................... Glossary and Abbreviations 10......................................2 Uplink Design ................................................3 Downlink Design ..............................4 Co-Siting With GSM Case ................. 132 CHAPTER 11: WORLD-WIDE CONSENSUS ON ADDITIONAL SPECTRUM FOR 3RD GENERATION ............................................................................................ 130 10......................................1 Needed Input Parameters ........... 133 VI UMTS Overview July 2001 ........................................................4................................ 131 10...................................Contents.........................................5................................................................5........................................................................ 131 10.......................................................................................................5.............5 CALCULATION OF COVERAGE AND CAPACITY ........................

that functions as a single. (See also TCP/IP). since it avoids the need for major cable-laying. Air Interface: The radio interface between a mobile communications handset and the base station. Also see Narrowband. ETSI´s purpose is to define standards that will enable the European market for telecommunications to function as a single market. 1800 MHz or 1900 MHz frequency bands. GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications. usually measured in bits per second. Cell: The basic geographical unit of a cellular communications system. A data transmission technique that does not set up a continuous channel from a portable terminal for the transmission and reception of data. An RNS that supports the Serving RNS with radio resources when the connection between the UTRAN and the UE need to use cell (s) controlled by this RNS is referred to as Drift RNS. A multiple access technique used for CdmaOne and WCDMA air interfaces. Drift RNS: The role an RNS can take with respect to a specific connection between an UE and UTRAN. Internet: The name given to the world-wide collection of networks and gateways using the TCP/IP protocol. Increasingly being used as a fast and economic way to roll out modern telephone services.Contents. This is for helping us distinguish between user data or control data which is expressed in bit rate. GSM is now one of the world‟s main digital wireless standards. It makes very efficient use of available radio spectrum. Broadband is generally taken to mean a bandwidth higher than 2 Mbit/s. Service coverage of a given area is based on an interlocking network of cells. Originally defined as a pan-European standard for a digital cellular telephone network. The size of each cell is determined by the terrain and the number of users. Coded Composite Transport Channel (CCTrCH): A data stream resulting from encoding and multiplexing of one or several transport channels. Wideband and Broadband. to support cross-border roaming. GPRS: GSM General Packet Radio Services. Glossary and Abbreviations Glossary Active Set:Set of radio links simultaneously involved in a specific communication service between an MS and a UTRAN. Also implies a suitable network infrastructure. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access. Chiprate: Chiprate is the bit rate of the code/codes used for spreading. IMT-2000: The term used by the International Telecommunications Union for the specification for the projected third-generation wireless services. IP: Internet Protocol. each with a radio base station (transmitter/receiver) at its centre. and users may pay only for the volume of data sent and received. A body formed by the European Commission in 1988 to take over most of the standardisation work previously undertaken by CEPT. ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute. Geographical area served from one UTRAN Access Point. Uses TDMA air interface. Intelligent Network (IN): A capability in the public telecom network environment that allows new services such as Free-phone and tele-voting to be developed quickly and introduced on any scale. but transmits and receives data in packets. Can be implemented in 900 MHz. Bandwidth: The information capacity of a communications resource. VII UMTS Overview July 2001 . from a local trial to network-wide. Broadband: A classification of the information capacity or bandwidth of a communication channel. virtual network. A cell is defined by a cell identity broadcast from the UTRAN Access Point. Fixed Wireless (or Fixed Cellular) Network: This apparent contradiction in terms signifies a cellular network that is set up to support fixed rather than mobile subscribers.

and time-slot define a physical channel. A radio frame is divided into 16 slots of 0. Radio Link Removal: A [soft handover] procedure whereby a branch through a new [sector of a cell] is removed in case some of the remaining existing branches use [sectors of] that cell. The radio link replaces the traditional wired local loop. a data stream that is transmitted on one physical channel in each cell of the active set. code. This is where the term "cellular" came from. Iu: The interconnection point (interface) between the RNS and the Core Network. relative phase (I/Q). Radio Access Network Application Part: Radio Network Signalling over the Iu. Node B: A logical node responsible for radio transmission/reception in one or more cells to/from the UE. images and video) can be provided via standard terminal interfaces. a data stream that is transmitted on one physical channel. respectively. data. An UE has either zero or one RRC connection. dedicated for exclusive use of a specific communication process. Radio Network Subsystem: Either a full network or only the access part of a UMTS network offering the allocation and the release of specific radio resources to establish means of connection in between an UE and the UTRAN. Roaming: Ability of a cordless or mobile phone user to travel from location to location. PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network. independent of the technology used to provide it. Iur: Interface between two RNSs. Narrowband is generally taken to mean a bandwidth of 64 Kbit/s or lower. The use of a radio access technology to link subscribers into the fixed public telecom network. Terminates the Iub interface towards the RNC. A generic term for a mass-market mobile personal communications service. Different types of logical channel are defined according to the type of information transferred on the radio interface. A digital public telecommunications network in which multiple services (voice. Radio Network Subsystem Application Part: Radio Network Signalling over the Iur. The ordinary. frequency and. PCS: Personal Communications Service. frequency. Radio Link Addition: A [soft handover] procedure whereby a branch through a new [sector of a cell] is added in case some of the already existing branches were using [sectors] of the same cell. RLL/WLL: Radio in the Local Loop/Wireless Local Loop. Radio Access Bearer: The service that the access stratum provides to the non-access stratum for transfer of user data between MS and CN. analogue telephone network.625 ms duration. In the downlink. with complete communications continuity. It is also considered as a reference point. Cell sizes range from a few tens of meters to several kilometres. Physical Channel: In FDD mode. wired. VIII UMTS Overview July 2001 . a physical channel is defined by code. The unit of data that is mapped to a radio frame (10ms time interval) may also be referred to as radio frame. Supported by a cellular network of radio base stations.Contents. RRC Connection: A point-to-point bi-directional connection between RRC peer entities on the UE and the UTRAN sides. Radio Network Controller: This equipment in the RNS is in charge of controlling the use and the integrity of the radio resources. Logical Channel: A logical channel is a radio bearer. Iub: Interface between the RNC and the Node B. Radio Link: A set of (radio) physical channels that link an MS to a UTRAN access point. ITU: International Telecommunications Union. Radio Frame: A radio frame is a numbered time interval of 10ms duration used for data transmission on the radio physical channel. In TDD mode. MexE: Mobile station Execution Environment Narrowband: A classification of the information capacity or bandwidth of a communication channel. in the uplink. Physical Channel Data Stream: In the uplink. Radio Cell: The area served by a radio base station in a cellular or cordless communications system. or part of it. A Radio Network Subsystem is responsible for the resources and transmission/reception in a set of cells. Glossary and Abbreviations ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network.

e. Transport Format: A combination of encoding. The data protocol used in the Internet. a variable rate DCH has a Transport Format Set (one Transport Format for each rate). interleaving.g. There is one Serving RNS for each UE that has a connection between a UE and the UTRAN. sound. D-AMPS (IS-136) and PDC air interfaces. whether using dedicated or common physical channels are employed. Transport Format Indicator (TFI): A label for a specific Transport Format within a Transport Format Set. UTRAN Access Point: The UTRAN-side end point of a radio link. bit rate and mapping onto physical channels.. Signalling Connection: An assured-mode link between the user equipment and the core network to transfer higher layer information between peer entities in the non-access stratum. UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. and in January 1998 by ETSI. User Equipment: A mobile Equipment with one several UMTS Subscriber Identity Module(s). graphics. Wideband CDMA (WCDMA): The air interface technology selected by the major Japanese mobile communications operators. Wideband is generally taken to mean a bandwidth between 64 Kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s. for wideband wireless access to support thirdgeneration services. The European third-generation system. Glossary and Abbreviations Serving RNS: A role an RNS can take with respect to a specific connection between an UE and UTRAN. For example. IX UMTS Overview July 2001 . under development. Wideband: A classification of the information capacity or bandwidth of a communication channel. TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access. whereas a fixed rate DCH has a single Transport Format. A UTRAN access point is a cell. TIA: Telecommunications Industry Association. Internet access and videoconferencing. Signalling Link: Provides an assured-mode link layer to transfer the MS_UTRAN signalling messages as well as MS-Core Network signalling messages (using the signalling connection) TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.Contents. World Wide Web (WWW): Name commonly applied to the global Internet for multimedia. etc. Different types of transport channels are defined by how and with which characteristics data is transferred on the physical layer. This technology is optimised to allow very high-speed multimedia services such as fullmotion video. The US telecom standars body. A technique used for GSM. Transport Format Set: A set of Transports Formats. under the auspices of ETSI.. The serving RNS terminates the Iu for this UE. Transport Channel:The channels that are offered by the physical layer to Layer 2 for data transport between peer L1 entities are denoted as Transport Channels.

Glossary and Abbreviations Abbreviations ARQ AAL ATM BCCH BER BLER BS BSS BPSK CA CAA CBR C.Control-CC CCCH CCPCH CCTrCH CD CDA CDMA CN CTDMA CRC DCA DCH DCCH DC-SAP DL DPCH DPCCH DPDCH DRNS DRX DTX DS-CDMA FACH FDD FDMA FEC X UMTS Overview July 2001 Automatic Repeat Request Application Adaptation Layer Asynchronous Transfer Mode Broadcast Control Channel Bit Error Ratio Block Error Ratio Base Station Base Station System Binary Phase Shift Keying Capacity Allocation Capacity Allocation Acknowledgement Constant Bit Rate Call Control Common Control Channel Common Control Physical Channel Coded Composite Transport Channel Capacity De-allocation Capacity De-allocation Acknowledgement Code Division Multiple Access Core Network Code Time Division Multiple Access Cyclic Redundancy Check Dynamic Channel Allocation Dedicated Channel Dedicated Control Channel Dedicated Connection Service Access Point Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel Dedicated Physical Control Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel Drift RNS Discontinuous Reception Discontinuous Transmission Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access Forward Access Channel Frequency Division Duplex Frequency Division Multiple Access Forward Error Correction .Contents.

Glossary and Abbreviations FER HCS HO GMSK GSM ITU JD kbps L1 L2 L3 LAC LLC MA MAC MAHO Mcps ME MM MO MOHO MS MT NRT ODMA OVSF PC PCH PDU PHY PhyCH QoS QPSK PG PRACH PUF RACH RANAP RF RLC RLCP RNC RNS Frame Error Ratio Hierarchical Cellular Structures Handover Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Global System for Mobile Communication International Telecommunication Union Joint Detection kilo-bits per second Layer 1 (physical layer) Layer 2 (data link layer) Layer 3 (network layer) Link Access Control Logical Link Layer Multiple Access Medium Access Control Mobile Assisted Handover Mega Chip Per Second Mobile Equipment Mobility Management Mobile Originated Mobile Originated Handover Mobile Station Mobile Terminated Non-Real Time Opportunity Driven Multiple Access Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (codes) Power Control Paging Channel Protocol Data Unit Physical layer Physical Channel Quality of Service Quaternary Phase Shift Keying Processing Gain Physical Random Access Channel Power Up Function Random Access Channel Radio Access Network Application Part Radio Frequency Radio Link Control Radio Link Control Protocol Radio Network Controller Radio Network Subsystem XI UMTS Overview July 2001 .Contents.

User-UE UL UMTS USIM UTRA UTRAN VA VBR Radio Network Subsystem Application Part Radio Resource Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Management Real Time Resource Unit Receive Service Access Point Synchronisation Channel Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel Service Data Unit Spreading Factor Signal-to-Interference Ratio Short message Service Switching Point Serving RNS Traffic Channel Time Division Duplex ime Division Multiple Access Transport Format Indicator Transmit Power Control Transmit User Equipment Uplink Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS Subscriber Identity Module UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Voice Activity Variable Bit Rate XII UMTS Overview July 2001 . Glossary and Abbreviations RNSAP RR RRC RRM RT RU RX SAP SCH SDCCH SDU SF SIR SMS SP SRNS TCH TDD TDMA TFI TPC TX U.Contents.

and mainly with ITU. network operators.2 Background and Standardisation 1.2010 MHz which included a special band identified for satellite communication of 2170-2200 MHz. ETSIs work program is based upon.1 Introduction In 1992 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defined in World Administrative Radio Conference (WAPC) global frequency bands for Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Systems (FPLMTS). It 1 UMTS Overview July 2001 . the activities of international standardisation bodies. and is co-phased with. manufacturers. 1. which are requested by those who subsequently implement them. In total. a Technical Organisation and a Secretariat. ETSI consists of a General Assembly. formerly known as the CCITT and the CCIR. as the standards remain practical. 490 members from 34 countries are represented.2.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS.1 ETSI The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is a non-profit organisation in charge to determine and produce the telecommunications standards. and users.1. ETSI produces voluntary standards. the Definition of a New Era Chapter 1: UMTS. The members of ETSI are in charge to fix the work program standards in function of market needs. It is an open forum made of Administrations. the Definition of a New Era 1. service providers. a Board.1 Background in Europe 1. These FPLMTS bands were identified as 1885-2025 MHz and 1980. The technical standards are produced and approved by the Technical Organisation.2. FPLMTS is standardised by the Telecommunications Standardisation Sector (ITU-T) and the Radio-communications Sector (ITU-R).

But for each link numerous agreements were required. However. Therefore. The first International Telegraph Convention was signed by the 20 participating countries on the 17 May of 1865 after two and a half months of negotiations. each had its own telegraph code to preserve the secrecy of its military and political telegraph messages. The central Secretariat of ETSI is located in Sophia Antipolis. and the International Telegraph Union was born. telegraphy had become available to the general public. by sending the first public message over a telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore. the telecommunications progression has continued and advances have been made. In 1903 the conference would be held to study the question of international regulations for radiotelegraph communications. More than 3500 experts.2 ITU The ITU is an international organisation (United Nations) within which governments and the private sector co-ordinate global telecom networks and services. a high tech research park in the south of France.1. They adopted a set of uniform operating instructions and came along to common international tariff and accounting rules. Barely ten years later. Since that time. which by the past were different from one country to another. are at present working for ETSI. 20 European States decided to work together on a framework agreement. that agreements were made between countries to interconnect their national networks together. in over 200 groups. Samuel Morse did the first usher in the communications era on 24 May 1844. The ITU has its headquarters in Geneva. deciding on common rules to standardise equipment to guarantee generalised interconnection. With the invention in 1896 of wireless it was decided to convene on a preliminary radio conference. 2 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Switzerland. Technical Committees (TCs) and Special Committees. before being retransmitted over the telegraph network of a neighbouring country. at this period telegraph lines did not cross national frontiers because each country used a different system and what is more.2. messages had to be transcribed.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. As a conclusion. the Definition of a New Era encompasses ETSI Projects (EPs). translated and handed over the frontiers. 1. It is not surprising then.

the ITU set up a Study Group for the study of space radio communication. radio. the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) was established as a public service corporation with the support of the Minister of Posts and Telecommunications. In the area of telecommunications. This organisation would proclaim the research & development of new radio systems and the international standardisation of technical standards in the fields of telecommunications and broadcasting. on May 15. In 1927. maritime and aeronautical mobile. In 1959. intelligent networks and regional arrangements.2 Background in Japan In Japan. 3 UMTS Overview July 2001 . the integration of telecommunications and broadcasting. convergence (of services as well as technologies). amateur and experimental. broadcasting. 1. optical system or other electromagnetic system communications. transportation and information services of various types. restructuring. deregulation. At the 1932 Madrid Conference the name was changed to the International Telecommunication Union to reaffirm the whole scope of its responsibilities: wire.2. In the changing world of telecommunications today new players constantly appear on the international scene.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. The traditional role of telecommunications is being transformed every day with new service dimensions. new trends are emerging: globalisation. value added network services. tourism. the development of internationalisation. and the promotion of businesses using radio waves required the need for an organisation. the Definition of a New Era In 1920 sound was broadcasted at the studios of the Marconi Company. the Union allocated frequency bands to the various radio services existing at the time: fixed. In response to this need. 1995. Telecommunications have become a key ingredient in many non-telecommunication services such as banking.

org. The 3GPP have established a schedule of annual releases for the development of the standards. the standardisation organisations (ARIB. 3GPP changed the chip to rate to 3.arib. Release 2000 will include Internet Protocol based networks and will be rolled out in 2002. The six standards development organisations are: ARIB.2. CWTS. Further enhancements will be included in later releases. 4 UMTS Overview July 2001 .2. At a meeting in July 1999. They all agreed to co-operate for the production of technical specifications for a 3rd Generation Mobile System based on the evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technologies that they support (both FDD and TDD).or. For a global harmonisation. the Third Generation Partnership Project agreed to make standards for the FDD and TDD modes following the recommendations from ITU IMT-2000. The work will also include the inter-working between the evolved ANSI-41 and GSM MAP platforms. Release 1999 will be completed by 31 December 1999 and will be first deployed in early 2001 in Japan. 1. For more information about 3GPP see: www.jp. 3GPP will cover the technical issues related to the development of FDD and TDD modes. The complete 3G standards will enable global roaming and seamless provisional.3 Background in China China Wireless Telecommunication Standard is the standard development organisation responsible for wireless standardisation in China as approved by the Ministry of Information Industry. ETSI. www. In 1999 China Wireless Telecommunication Standard (CWTS) joined the project.3GPP.org. the Definition of a New Era 1. www. T1.etsi.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. TTA and TTC) involved in the creation of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project known as 3GPP.4 Creation of 3GPP In November 1998.84 Mcps and adopted a new downlink pilot structure. ETSI. According to the agreement.

3GPP 2 is an effort spearheaded by the International Committee of the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) board of director to establish a 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) for evolved ANSI/TIA/EIA-41. 1. The proposed 3G partnership is structured into two projects: 3GPP 1: Global specifications for GSM/MAP network evolution to 3G and the UTRA RTT. See www. IT providers. The tree market representations partners are: The GSM Association represents 347 members which is comprised of GSM Network Operators and Regulators with more than 165 million GSM subscribers in 133 countries.jp. has a cross industry representation worldwide of GSM infrastructure.UMTS-Forum.gsmworld. TTC.5 Creation of 3GPP2 Members of the ANSI board were concerned that the ETSI proposal was too limiting. 5 UMTS Overview July 2001 .or. In June 1999.org.org. GSA.GSAssociation. See www. www. The Global Mobile Suppliers Association.2.or. customer care and billing suppliers.t1. regulators. which the participating SDOs may submit to the ITU through their normal national or regional processes.tta. a meeting was held between this ANSI ad hoc group and a delegation from ETSI in Seattle to further discuss how the 3GPP could accommodate all industry participants. established a 3G ad hoc committee to examine how all standards development organisations (SDOs) could be involved.ttc.kr. the Definition of a New Era T1. UMTS Forum represents 182 members from over 30 countries and content representing operators. and as a result. terminals.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. "Cellular Radio-telecommunication Intersystem Operations" networks and related radio transmission technologies (RTTs). TTA. This co-operation may result in either complete specifications or in agreed technical elements.com. www. See www.org. manufacturers. www.

wireless access will likely blast fixed access to global telecommunications very early in the 21st century. million a month in Japan alone.1 IMT-2000 Process in ITU In 1986. Future public land mobile telecommunication systems (FPLMTS) are aimed at providing global wireless access around the year 2000. It will provide wireless access to the global telecommunication infrastructure through both satellite and terrestrial systems. serving fixed and mobile users in public and private networks. Satellite systems have limited capacity due to power and radio spectrum. micro and pico cells complement global satellite coverage and provide the frequency reuse necessary to serve a global market estimated to be of the order of one billion wireless access users early in the 21st century. With close to 5 million new mobile users a month. 6 UMTS Overview July 2001 .3 IMT-2000 and UMTS 1. when the availability of hand-held cellular phones offered the potential for global. The International Mobile Telecommunication vision encompasses complementary satellite and terrestrial components. the Definition of a New Era 3GPP 2: Global specifications for ANSI/TIA/EIA-41 network evolution to 3G and global specifications for the RTTs supported by ANSI/TIA/EIA-41. 1.3. Terrestrial macro. based primarily on the 2 GHz spectrum identified at the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92). IMT-2000 represents the satellite and terrestrial portion of IMT that will be available around the year 2000 primarily based on the spectrum identified at 2 GHz. land mobile systems.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. The acronym FPLMTS where changed to IMT-2000. IMT-2000 is an initiative of the ITU. Standardisation of FPLMTS is one of the strategic priorities of the ITU. the ITU began its studies on International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT2000). rather than National/Regional.

particularly in the digital processing area. The ITU standardisation work on IMT-2000 encourages convergence of the many diverse satellite and terrestrial mobile systems towards the ITU vision for third generation global mobile communications. be standardised. together with earlier global satellite systems in other bands. One of the key benefits of IMT-2000. The terrestrial infrastructure will then follow as demand increases. which will require a very different radio and control infrastructure. 7 UMTS Overview July 2001 .C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. An adaptive radio interface is envisaged for IMT-2000 to optimise performance in these widely differing propagation conditions. What this really means is that more and more is being done by software rather than by hardware. modulation and coding structures over the radio path because ¡t was difficult to build flexible radios. will likely provide the first telephone in many rural villages. new standards must not be restrictive. as a true third generation system. There are two major areas of technological innovation that may impact on future wireless systems: the first is multimedia. IMT-2000 covers a very wide range of radio operating environments. In other words the standardisation must be in such away that it can be efficiently controlled by future applications that we do not even dream about today. the second is software radio technology. IMT-2000. i. with the rapid changes in technology. Multi-mode and multiband mobile terminals will be a common mechanism to link IMT-2000 to earlier systems. In the past.e. the Definition of a New Era The satellite component of IMT-2000. However. will be its ability to deal efficiently with audio-visual multimedia communications In the future the users application will control how the negotiated radio bearer is used. radio standards were developed to a certain level of detail based on channel. This adaptation will be controlled by software using digital signal processing technology. all the way from the satellite to indoor pico cells. The impact of microprocessors and chip will allow greatly increased flexibility in radio equipment which is going to have a dramatic effect on what should. but should enable future telecommunication enhancements. and what should not.

3.1 ETSIs Projects on GSM and UMTS The task of SMG. signallingprotocols and conditions of interworking with other networks. SMG is also responsible for the elaboration of the GSM network architecture. in co-operation with studies by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) regarding a global system known as the International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 System (IMT2000).C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. The goal for the future work in SMG2 is to provide the standard for the radio access network part of UMTS. and defining all aspects of third generation mobile systems based on the concept of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).2. who are responsible for the 1900 MHz version. Special Mobile Group. Moreover it is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the GSM platform by close cooperation with ANSI T1P1.3. events and phases: 8 UMTS Overview July 2001 . In addition SMG is charged with the application of the Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) concept to the GSM network entities regarding operation and maintenance. SMG is also responsible for studying. The scope of the work is focused to the GSM family.2 UMTS 1. to this goal SMG2 is to provide UTRA as a candidate for IMT2000 to ITU. UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) is the ETSI candidate for IMT-2000 Radio Transmission Technology (RTT). For the work towards the UMTS standard it proposed that this work should consist of the following. In addition. SMG maintains close-working relations with the UMTS FORUM based on the co-operation agreement between ETSI and the FORUM. It includes the definition of the GSM services offered and the selection and specification of the most efficient radio techniques and speech coding algorithms. known as PCS 1900. known as DCS 1800. the Definition of a New Era 1. is to develop and maintain the specifications of the digital cellular telecommunications system operating in the 900 MHz band known as GSM 900 and of its variation in the 1800 MHz band.

Sat. IMT2000 ITU PHS IMT-2000 IMT-2000 Japan DECT IMT-2000 MSS S-PCN (UL) T D D IMT-2000 MSS S-PCN (UL) MSS S-PCN (UL) Europe GSM 1800 (DL) T D D UMTS FDD MSS S-PCN (UL) T D D UMTS FDD USA PCS (UL) PCS Un. the Definition of a New Era Finalise the SMG2 proposal of the radio access part of IMT-2000 and present this (submission from SMG to ITU June 30. It should he the goal to freeze the specifications/standard in December 1999. A first phase is to elaborate technical descriptions and evaluate performance of the final solutions of UTRA. The third phase is the iterative correction phase. The fourth part would further development of UMTS towards the UMTS phase 2 to be introduced 2005. 1998). This includes all radio protocols terminated in UTRA. but should considered done in 2001. ETSI decision on UTRA in January 1998: -WCDMA to be used in the paired band -TD/CDMA to be used in the unpaired band 9 UMTS Overview July 2001 . This phase is concluded with a detailed description of UTRA including the mobile station. IMT2000 Sat. Spectrum Allocation UMTS/IMT-2000.1. A second phase that could be initiated during phase 1 would be to write the actual specifications/standards based on the material elaborated in the first phase. PCS (DL) MSS S-PCN (DL) MSS S-PCN (DL) 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 MHz Figure ‎ . Same spectrum allocation in Europe and Japan. Lic. the UTRA internal protocols and the Iu interface as well as descriptions of the functionality's required of the network nodes and in terminal. where the specification/standard is corrected based on the experience gained with the standard during development and implementation of UMTS.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. This phase in principle never ends. 1 Spectrum consists of one paired band (1920-1980 MHz + 2110-2170 MHz) and one unpaired band (1910-1920 MHz + 2010-2025 MHz).

84 Mcps (7.68 Mcps.1.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS.2 UMTS Harmonisation Phase UMTS Phase 1 . . Spreading factor Not required 256 Table ‎ . the Definition of a New Era It is also stated that it should fit into 2*5 MHz spectrum allocations and that the two modes FDD/TDD should have harmonised parameters. UTRA Basic Parameters 1 1.36 Mcps) 4. 2000 –2001: Vendors development of network elements. First launch of UMTS in Japan 2001 based on Release 99.GSM GPRS Release 99 with UMTS UMTS Phase 2 .Higher bitrates (2 Mbit/s) UMTS Phase 3 -? 1.2.3.3. 2005: 10 UMTS Overview July 2001 UTRA TDD W-TDMA/CDMA TDD W-CDMA FDD 3.2. First operator licences for UMTS. Release 2000 including Internet Protocol based networks.84 Mcps) Frame length Inter-BS synchronisation Max. Release 99 completed by 31 December. 15.3 UMTS Releases December 1999: Standardisation freezes. Iterative experimental process that might effect the standards. UTRA FDD Multiple-Access scheme Duplex scheme Chip Rate Carrier spacing (3.2-5 MHz (200 kHz carrier raster) 10 ms Required 16 Availability of all core bands for UMTS. January 2002: UMTS in Europe.

1 Main Service Differences Between 2G and 3G Three main criteria characterise the services in 2G systems :    A variety standardised services are provided by 2G network operators. 11 UMTS Overview July 2001 .4 UMTS as the 3rd Generation System 1. HSCSD will let the users use more than one timeslot in the TDMA air interface.2. Bit Rate and Coverage 1 1. To meet the need of higher bitrates and packet data for the user UMTS will include other enhancements in the network. Designed primarily for speech. It will also be the backbone in the UMTS/GSM network. the Definition of a New Era 2008-2010: Additional spectrum for terrestrial and satellite use. GSM Packet Radio Switching will add the ability to send and receive packet data. User bit rate 2 Mbps 384 kbps UMTS EDGE 144 kbps 10 kbps HSCSD. In order to reach higher bitrates High Speed Circuit Switched Data. The system restricts Roaming where provided.4. EDGE will be a complement to UMTS that might give the operators without UMTS frequencies the possibility to present high bitrates for the customer. 2G mobile networks are usually restricted to relatively low bit rate services.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. GPRS GSM Wide area/High mobility Fixed/Low mobility Figure ‎ .

However. in most models.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. the following main features characterise 3G systems: Under the conditions of a still growing mass market. Access to and invocation of the users' own personalised services should be possible regardless of the operating environment and access system. the Definition of a New Era In contrast. In pre-3G mobile systems like GSM but also in ISDN. 3G system can offer spectrum efficient access to multimedia services of higher. This variety of services has led to complex instructions on how to use these services. Service Brokers and others. Between the roles various relationships can appear. Content Providers. thus supporting intersystem roaming. The user of today expects a variety of services to be offered by various providers and for these services to be flexible enough to meet his individual demands. Instead of individual services the tools for service creation will be standardised. the following actors play a role:     Network Operator Service Provider Subscriber User. a new business environment such as Value Added Service Provider. flexible bandwidth to mobile users. 12 UMTS Overview July 2001 . These will be used to identify interfaces that may require standardisation and make relations more clear. in particular supplementary services.2 New Roles and Relationships for UMTS Traditionally. 3G system shall meet the individual communication requirements of a customer with his personalised service profile and user interface. in addition to services already offered within 2G system. 1. Ordinary users will not accept an increase in complexity of service handling. the user has already a broad choice of services. may create new categories.4. Instead they will prefer a simpler 'personal assistant type' man-machine interface.

IMT-2000 is expected to exist in various forms and aspects. the position of regulators is also changing.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. a user may subscribe to services at different service providers.3 Work Regulations In recent years. we have been seeing the telecommunication services deregulation. As a result it increases the complexity of interworking or interoperation of networks for global roaming. with a tendency to giving licenses for frequency use rather than to complete systems. services offered by a provider may be offered to more than one network. data communication. In the area of licensing. In addition. Basic services provided in 3G networks are audio. 13 UMTS Overview July 2001 . but the decision is left to the market demand. Today service definition is not a matter for regulators. and combinations of these i.4.1 UMTS Service Classes 1. messaging. video. As a consequence.4.4. Commercial network operators/service providers may agree on some items such as a minimum set of services and the respective specifications. The term "home environment". 1. They can be divided in several classes.1 Conversational Class 3G must provide the capabilities for high quality speech conversation. e-mail/voice mail. multimedia.1. the Definition of a New Era While maintaining a single identity. paging. definitions of the home "network" or visited "network" used by second generation‟s system are no longer valid. 1. 1.4. is proposed as a replacement.4. facsimile transfer. except for emergency services.e. In consequence. Internet services.4.4 UMTS Services and Applications 3G service capabilities for these services should take account of their discontinuous and asymmetric nature in order to make efficient use of network resources.

in it distinction between fixed and mobile networks is continuously blurring through increased singularities of network functions in both network types. Future network operators and service providers will have to offer both wired and wireless access for terminals.1 Service Portability Roaming between different 3G environments shall he possible without limiting the user in his personal service set and accustomed user-interface.4.5 UMTS Advanced Concepts 1. 1. 1.4. 14 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 1. 1.4.2 VHE Concept Virtual home environment (VHE) is a system concept for service portability in the Third Generation across network borders.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS.1.2 Streaming Class It is assumed that video communications will become a mass service after ordinary telephony. operators agreed on a set of services to be provided by each operator.3 Relationship Between Mobile and Fixed Networks Any future system should be designed with the concept of a new type of network.6 Network Operators’ Functions In GSM networks. is a technological trend in telecommunications.4.1.4. the Definition of a New Era 1. 1. This simplifies the service management considerably but should no longer be sufficient to satisfy user demand.4. MFC.4. Mobile Fixed Convergence. In this concept.4.5.3 Multimedia Class 3G systems will support multimedia services and provide the necessary service capabilities. the serving network emulates for a particular user the behaviour of his home environment.5.4.5.

3G systems capabilities need to be built upon standardisation of the following services:         Definition for flexible service. accessible via both networks). transparency between fixed and mobile network concepts. 15 UMTS Overview July 2001 .g. These service capabilities are used by other parties to compose services for the market. the Definition of a New Era Service providers may request from the network operator that it enable roaming in other environments for all or some of his customers. cordless.4. It is proposed that in future the networks should only provide service capabilities. putting high demands on bandwidth requirements.7 Technological Progress Impact Latest achievements in modern technologies as information and entertainment technologies. Support for multi-system terminals. transfer of application support software packages (e. cellular. Integrated mailbox-service for voice. has to be taken into account in the design of any third generation mobile system. satellite networks).  Personal Assistant and intelligent agent suppor. text and other formats (in mobile and fixed networks. Java applets). 1. The use of Internet service is already today very common and well accepted by the user. including pre-payment and electronic purse systems Comprehensive real time charging information to the user. Third generation systems must provide the necessary tools. fax. Support of multi-mode operation Capability for international roaming and inter network roaming Flexible charging.C ‎ hapter 1: UMTS. high-capacity chips and memories. Personal mobility in mobile and fixed networks. which may differ slightly or fundamentally between different networks (e. The 3G system should cope with Internet and Intranet services.g. multimedia presentation.

16 UMTS Overview July 2001 . The idea is that this terminal will be compatible with the old system. and will be able to connect to both networks. with different technologies as well. The progressive change from one system to the other will give us a whole new world of possibilities in terminals for the user. In addition.2 User Equipment (UE) The UMTS behaviour will be much faster than the GSM one. The terminal is sub-divided into the Mobile Equipment (ME) and the UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM). CN IWN Inter Working Unit IWN Inter Working Unit MSC GMSC MSC A Iu RNS 2 Radio Network Subsystem A Iu Iur RNS 2 BSS Base Station Subsystem BSS 2 Uu Terminal Terminal MS Um MS Figure ‎ . the user equipment may include a removable smart card that may be used in every UE.1 General Overview of the System UMTS GSM GSM CN HLR Core Network.1. We have different kinds of equipment.C ‎ hapter 2: Architecture Overview Chapter 2: Architecture Overview 2. In this card we the user will have all the data and the private passwords. UMTS Architecture 2 2. We will speak about the terminal as the UE (user equipment). UMTS-GSM. with all the new technology that it involves. such GSM.

We have the MT (Mobile Termination). as it will be seen in some following chapters. based on several kinds of data and procedures that will identify the user with no error. the part that contains the end-to-end applications. Inside the UMTS terminals Rake reception in used to generate soft decisions that are fed into the channel decoder.1 Schematic of the Receiver for UTRAN . the capacity of the network will decrease. If the power control is bad implemented.Outdoor Input samples Decoded bits Rake Channel decoding Searcher Power control Power Control request Figure ‎ . The electronic technology of the VLSI gives us a very high power of integration so that the smart cards can have a lot of capabilities of identification. The channel decoding also develops jobs of setting the target for the power control. the ME can be divided into several parts. Receiver Method 2 17 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Furthermore.C ‎ hapter 2: Architecture Overview The terminal of the user develops the radio connection with different software capabilities. and we also have the TE (Terminal Equipment).2. The smart card will identify a user in such a way that it does not matter which kind of ME he is using. The references that can be found in the specifications are not clear in this point.2. leaving the design to the several providers. We have the identification properties inside of the USIM. 2. as well as the obvious functions of decoding the channels. that performs the transmission and some related capabilities.

C ‎ hapter 2: Architecture Overview

2.2.1.1 Rake Receiver: When the data acquisition has been already made, the RAKE receiver will use the several reechoed signals that arrive to the antenna of the UE to improve the final signal quality. This can be made because of the properties of the codes used in the system, because they are orthogonal. We can de-spread the signal whether it is received delayed from a initial one or not. Once we have the several echoes de-spread, we can combine the signals obtained through different ways to increase the final SNR, the final quality at the end. We will add the signals coherently. We can find fast fading in some signals, but this fading is independent from one signal to the other, so combining correctly the signals, the final SNR will be increased. This process is known as micro-diversity. We can also find macro-diversity in the SOHO (soft handover), and the rake way to avoid the problems in this case is basically the same. Now we have just to consider that the signals come from different Node B, not from several reflections of the same antenna. 2.2.1.2 Searcher: Sometimes we want to know the offset and the magnitude of the echoes and the power of the signals coming from different base stations. This can be made with the scrambling codes and the primary and secondary synchronisation channels. Although this will be seen much deeper in following chapters, we can say the PSCH (Primary Synchronisation Channels) are used to identify the power of the signals coming from different near base stations, in the cell search process. We can identify the one that will be the server Node B with this channel. The SSCH (Secondary Synchronisation Channel) allows us to know the specific Node B and the downlink scrambling code group used by this station. Once we know the scrambling code, the UE, through the searcher, can identify different echoes from the scrambled pilot symbol. The echo profile is highly correlated from one power control period to the next. We can use this characteristic to decrease the complexity of the design of the UE. 2.2.1.3 Power Control: The interface in the downlink is reduced minimising the transmission power at the base station for a particular user, in such a way that the characteristics of the link performance
18 UMTS Overview July 2001

C ‎ hapter 2: Architecture Overview

(throughput and error rate) are fulfilled. The UE will ask the base station to increase or to decrease the transmission power every power control period (0.625 ms), trying in every moment to keep the SIR as close as possible to a reference value. This SIR target is reevaluated every 10 ms depending on the status of the channel that is being decoded. 2.2.1.4 Channel Decoding: As well as supporting a more powerful version of the convolutional channel decoding used in GSM, UMTS terminals are likely to employ high performance turbo decoders.

2.3 The Access Network: UTRAN
By Access Network it is known the several physical entities that control the resources of the access network, and gives the user the chance to access to the Core Network.

2.3.1 RNS Architecture
The Radio Network Subsystem basically is made of the RNC and other objects that at the moment are called Node B. This Node B has the same function as the Base Station in GSM systems. We have several interfaces, but here we can introduce the Iub, between the RNC and the Node B.

Figure ‎ .3. RNS Architecture 2

19 UMTS Overview July 2001

C ‎ hapter 2: Architecture Overview

2.3.1.1 Radio Network Controller, RNC This part is the responsible of the handover decisions that need signalling to the UE. The RNC comprises a combining/splitting function to support macro diversity between different Node B. This part of the UMTS system will need much more intelligence than its partner in the GSM system. These extra capabilities will increase the speed of the system, and therefore, the yield. 2.3.1.2 Node B The Node B will also be more intelligent than the Base Station in GSM. It will develop functions of combining/splitting to allow macro diversity. The communication among several Node B will allow the terminal to change from one cell to an adjacent one without losing connection in the process.

2.3.2 UTRAN Architecture
At the end, the UTRAN is made of an amount of several Radio Network Subsystems that represent an interface between the UE and the Core Network. For these functions, we have several interfaces among the different parts that compose the Access Network that allows the system to work properly.

Figure ‎ .4. UTRAN Architecture 2 It is a hierarchical structure, so every RNS will have a certain group of cells to serve, as it can be seen in the picture. We can see two different RNS very easily. First, we have the Serving RNS, which is the one that gives the service at a certain moment. If it is needed, the Drift RNSs can help the Serving
20 UMTS Overview July 2001

2. The Home Network and the Transit Network.1 Serving Network This part of the core is the responsible of giving connection between the access network (to which the user is connected) and the core itself. To have the strictest control of several service parameters (maximum delay or bandwidth). Serving and Drift RNS 2 2. The characteristics of the CN should allow it to handle circuit switched data ≤ 64 kbits/s. that makes the user think that he is always using the same interface. always "at home". or to provide a mechanism for transferring the signal (switching and transmission). We can see different parts in the Core. as for example the management of the location of the user. Probably. The role of an RNS (Serving or Drift) is on a per connection basis between a UE and the UTRAN. With the Core Network (CN). packet data ≤ Mbits/s. we will support the several functionality of the system. The system cannot be all-wireless. Figure ‎ . in later versions of the specification than the release '99 it will be possible to find different versions and characteristics of the division. To support the Virtual Home Environment VHE. We can find the Serving Network. The local functions of the CN are represented 21 UMTS Overview July 2001 .4.5.4 Core Network We must have a fixed network in this system to provide support for the different capabilities and features that we will find.C ‎ hapter 2: Architecture Overview RNS to give radio resources.

the coverage of the UMTS network won't be absolute at all. This IWF is a logical unit (and a virtual one) that will allow the CN to work with different protocols. 2. 2. 2. from the point of view of roaming and handover.C ‎ hapter 2: Architecture Overview by this section. At the beginning of the deployment. It shall be possible to interconnect the GSM network and the UMTS one. We can find a IP domain and a PSTN/ISDN domain.5 Mobility Logically. 2. due to the number of vendors that will work on this technology. mainly through the Iu interface.4. The USIM is related by subscription to the home network. It is also responsible for the routing calls and transport user data/information from source to destination.4.2 Home Network This part of the network represents all the functions that are related to a fixed location. shall be used as the common user identity in the two CN. The home network therefore contains at least permanently user specific data and is responsible for management of subscription information.4.3 Transit Network This part of the CN is located between the serving network (home network).4 Interfaces and Their Function The Inter Working Function (IWF) has the role of interconnecting the Access Network to the Core Networks. IMSI. It shall be possible to connect the UTRAN either to both these CN or to one of the CN domains. This implies that International Mobile Subscriber Identity. and the remote party. and it will be necessary the compatibility between the two networks. Common MAP signalling will be applied to both 22 UMTS Overview July 2001 . we can see two domains in the Core. regardless of the place that the user made the connection to the network.

They work independently to each other. has a CS service state machine and a PS service state machine. In parallel. Routing Area for PS services: They are managed by the CN. about the mobility functionality. When we are transmitting via a dedicated channel. the UE uses an inherent addressing (code a frequency). Location Areas (related to CS services) and Routing Areas (related to PS services) are used in the Core Network. The UE-CN signalling aims to keep the peer entities synchronised. although associated to the same terminal (or UE). We can see four areas for different concepts. this means that the UE is registered in the CN node responsible for handling this specific routing area. 23 UMTS Overview July 2001 . The GSM MAP mobile service operations shall be evolved and re-used as fast as possible. The UTRAN will try to offer a unified set of radio bearers. The UTRAN will store all the capabilities of the radio connection and all the radio network parameters. in such a way that they will bi able to be used for bursty packet traffic and for traditional telephony traffic. This means that the terminal (UE) is registered in the CN node responsible for handling this specific location area. The 3G_MSC/VLR for paging the terminal use LA. in such a way that the radio resource has two modes. A terminal that is supporting both CS and PS services. Connected and Idle mode. Once we decide to connect the UE. We have one service state machine for each service domain. The radio resource handling is UTRAN internal functionality and the CN does not define the type of radio resource allocated. In Idle mode the UE is identified by a CN associated identity. an initial connection is already set up. The 3G_SGSN for paging the terminal use RA. The UE will be identified by the different modes. In Connected mode the UE is assigned a Radio Network Temporary Identity to be used as UE identity on common transport channels. provided by these transport channels. We have two service domains the Circuit Switched service domain (PSTN/ISDN) and the Packet Switched service domain (IP).C ‎ hapter 2: Architecture Overview GSM and UMTS. Location Area for CS services: The CN manages one Location Area. In the UTRAN the UTRAN Registration Areas and Cell Areas will be used.

A PS-IDLE terminal will initiate Routing Area update towards the CN when crossing RA border. When the UE is connected. UTRAN initiated paging. UTRAN internal areas are used when the terminal is in connected mode.g. as it is seen in the UMTS specifications R99. If we use separately PS and CS mobility mechanisms within the UE and within the CN we may not obtain non-optimal usage of the radio resource. The UE in CS-CONNECTED mode will not initiate Location Area update and a UE in PS-CONNECTED mode will not initiate Routing Area update towards CN. the terminal receives the system information on the established connection. g. in connected mode. temporary identity management and equipment identity check. For the relation between LA and RA it shall be possible for the operator to have a LA and a RA equal (same cell) or a RA as part of a LA. or a LA as a part of RA. e. The UTRAN internal area structure should not be visible from outside the UTRAN. The radio access network will not co-ordinate mobility management procedures that are logically between the CN and the UE.C ‎ hapter 2: Architecture Overview Registration Areas and Cell Areas in URAN are only visible in the Access Network and used when the UE is in connected mode. This includes several capabilities. In Idle mode it is the broadcasted system information. UMTS Phase 1 R99 terminals should support the use of both combined and separate mechanisms. authentication. It should be possible to use combined mechanisms for location management purposes as well as for attach/detach status purposes. These areas are used at e. A UE in PS-IDLE will initiate Routing Area update towards the CN when receiving information about new RA in connected mode. the UE position is known on cell level or on UTRAN Registration Area (URA) level. A UE in CS-IDLE will initiate Location Area update towards the CN when receiving information about a new LA. information about the present LA and RA. that determines when the UE initiates a location registration procedure towards the CN. 24 UMTS Overview July 2001 . A more clear specification shall be defined in this point if an area consists of both UMTS cells and GSM cells. as location management. An CS-IDLE terminal will initiate Location Update towards the CN when crossing LA border. because the internal area updating is a radio network procedure. The use of combined updated may be used to avoid this. and LA and RA independently. In connected mode.

It´s no necesary a co-ordination or synchronisation among stations and each station doesn´t interfere in the other bands. CDMA. 25 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 3.1 Introduction CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access).C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique Chapter 3: CDMA Technique 3.1. FDMA is not a flexible system because of adding a new user requires some modifications in the equipment. is an access system based on spread spectrum communication in which multiple users share the same frequency band. Also. FDD vs. TDD 3. It´s not possible a station transmits in a bandwidth used by stations are idle. so in this access technique each user has a continuous access in a given frequency band. this can be a problem when the load is high and more resources are needed. TDMA.2 Access Methods FDMA. Code Time Frequency Figure ‎ . This part contains the CDMA concepts.2. FDMA 3 Advantages: FDMA uses a symple technique that has been proved.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) In FDMA system. within the available range of frequency. all the stations use a diffent band.

2. The tuning is easier because all stations transmit and receive on the same frequency. Each station uses a pre-assigned slot. A station could be assigned to one or more time slots during a cycle.C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique Disadvantages: Reconfiguration of the system in case of capacity variation is difficult. The station is allowed to transmit freely into its assigned slot. whether or not it has data to transmit. Disadvantages: TDMA need synchronisation. A single station occupies all of channel bandwidth at each instant. Advantages: High transmission throughput for a large number of stations. A high throughput is needed to dimension the station transmits. TDMA 3 The most important disvantage of TDMA is the fixed time slot allocation. Slots are repeated periodically in a cycle called frame. 3. For applications with bursty transmission requirements a fixed time allocation could be a bad use of the resources. due to flexibility.2. A better channel and hence better throughput can compensate a big cost of the equipments. and the entire system resources are devoted to the station. 26 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Code Frequency Time Figure ‎ . Digital processing leads to operational simplicity..2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) In TDMA the resource is the time which is divided into slots. It´s no necessary to control the transmitting power of the users. Each station knows when trasmit because all are synchronised.

Code Time Frequency Figure ‎ . is modulated on the carrier with the digital data on the top of it and each station is assigned a particular code sequence.C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique 3. This is the reason for calling it Spread Spectrum transmission. it is simple to operate. Several systems can coexist in the same frequency bands using different signals. 27 UMTS Overview July 2001 . in CDMA. 2) frequency-hopped in which according to some known pattern the frequency is periodically changing.3 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) As we have show neither FDMA nor TDMA allow any time overlap of the stations transmissions.2. The ability of the receiver to lock onto packet while all other overlapping packets appear as noise (capture effect). Disadvantages: The low throughput is the main disadvantage. The code. both in frequency and time. minimizes the effect of interference when several stations employ the same code. but the transmission of the code requires a much greater radio-frequency bandwidth. Against other interference systems it offers protection. Using quasi-orthogonal signals in conjunction with matching filters at the receiving stations CDMA achieves the conflict-free property. There are different ways: 1) phase-coded in which the carrier is phased-modulated by the digital data sequence and the code sequence and. CDMA 3 Advantages: Since it does not require any transmission synchronisation between the mobile stations. The multiple orthogonal signals (information that does not interfere with each other) increases the bandwidth required for transmission. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a conflict-free protocol that allows overlap transmission.3.

TDD 3 3. falls into: Frequency Hopping (FH) or Direct Sequence (DS). creating a composite data. The FDD mode doesn´t imply any specific accesses method. By means of increasing the frequency of the time signal spectrum spreading can be accomplished.2. synchronisation of transmitter and receiver.C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique 3. in both cases. In the technique for spread spectrum DS-CDMA. T is now reduced by n.4 FDD vs. TDD In FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) mode. if we increase the frequency by a factor n. the total power is spreaded over the entire transmission bandwidth. 28 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Consider a waveform with an amplitude of V and frequency f (where f = 1/T and T is the bit duration). In TDD (Time Division Duplex) the uplink and downlink will be on the same frequency.4. It is required. Before the modulation and transmission over the air. generally. separate frequencies are used in the uplink and downlink for the connection between a mobile and a base station. Time Frequency FDD Frequency TDD Time Time Figure ‎ . FDD vs. but they generate the carrier in different ways. The TDD mode doesn´t imply any specific accesses method. This means that the mobile will receive on one frequency and then transmit on another frequency. Is typically implement a frequency hopping system by rapid switching frequency in a pseudorandom pattern. the base-band binary data is spread by means of a high speed pseudo-noise (PN) code called chip rate.3 Introduction to Spreading and Modulation There are two categories in which spread spectrum. It can be considered the use of a pseudo-random carrier in the two forms.

The total area under the curve gives the total energy delivered and if the spreading bandwidth is high the amplitude of the signal will be reduced. therefore multiple users use the same frequency. If we increase the bandwidth to 5 MHz the process gain would be 6. PR. The code is made by means of an m-bit pseudo random. Gp.5 MHz and the bit rate is 1 MHz the processing gain would be 3.99 dB.Process loss due to k users. the margin described above is reduced since there will be a processing loss for every new user (interferer) that enters the system. The overall system gain is described by CDMA gain = Process gain . so energy are independent of the frequency and that the amplitude of the signal will be reduced.C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique Amplitude n=1 n=2 Baseband Figure ‎ . Power Spectrum for n = 1 and n =2 3 The total energy remains the same after spreading. This would provide as with an additional margin of 3 dB to help as suppress interference. generator that provides 2^(m-1) different codes. For k users this loss can be described as Process loss = 10 log (k). The definition of process gain is Gp = 10 log (transmission bandwidth/bit rate). After spreading the amplitude of the signal will be reduced. For example if the transmission bandwidth is 2. When more and more users enter the system. In CDMA each user will have its own code. 29 UMTS Overview July 2001 . If we consider the Gaussian "white noise" that we always have around us.5.98 dB. the bandwidth is enough the amplitude will be close to the noise level. The formula would become: CDMA gain = 10 log (bandwidth/k * bit rate) where the bandwidth is as described a function of the chip rate. This is called process gain.

. y2. x2. Direct Sequence is multiplication of more conventional communication waveform by a pseudo noise (PN)  1 binary sequence. being uncorrelated with the PN sequence. . This means that for two m-bit codes: x1.C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique M1 M2 M3 PN1 PN2 PN3 PN3 M3 PN2 PN1 Spreading M2 M1 Figure ‎ .1 Orthogonal Codes A pair of codes is said to be orthogonal if the cross-correlation is zero.. In the receiver a second multiplication by a replica of the same  1 sequence recovers the original signal.. the noise and interference. Uplink DS-CDMA 3 3. ym the sum of all m from 1 to m shall be 0. In the transmitter.. xm and y1.3. .6. the cross-correlation between two 4-bits codes: X=0011 Y=0110 _________ will be 1-1+1-1=0 (assigning +1 for xm = ym and -1 xm  ym). Spreading is entirely done in the binary domain and the transmitted signals are carefully band limited. The most of the interference 30 UMTS Overview July 2001 . For example. It takes prior to any modulation. become noise-like and increase in bandwidth... When the signals reach the detector.

Output N Figure ‎ . the signal is multiplied by the same PN-Code which removes the PNcode and recovers the desired data signal. the processing gain. . The basic system design parameters are transmitted power and channel bandwidth. SNR. User 1 Spread code 1 User 2 . process gain. User N Spread code N Spread code 2 Output 1 S Output 2 channel receiver . We increase (spread) the bandwidth of the data signal to overcome the problem of interference. that will lead to a bandwidth expansion factor. M-sequences. . PN-codes. The period of a PN-code is called the period. Gold-codes and Kasami-codes are different classes of PN-code. 1 bit period 1 chip period Data signal PN-code Coded signal Figure ‎ . The data signal (user information) is multiplied by a PN-code in DS-CDMA.8. In the simplest case a complete PN-code is multiplied with a single data bit and the signal is now multiplied by a factor N. Chips and bits 3 In the receiver squeme.C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique power can be rejected with a narrow band filtering that can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio.. so the code is a sequence of chips. . Different PN-Sequences 3 31 UMTS Overview July 2001 .7. g = W/R where W is the spread code bandwidth (chip-rate) and R is the data bandwidth (bit-rate). At the modulator/demodulator the transmitted signal (data information) is spreaded and despreaded with a binary value sequence seudo random (PR) that a sequence generator produces. .

We get a similar signal as thermal noise (white noise) if the random code pattern is nearly Gaussian distributed.C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique It is possible to use the same transmission bandwidth for more than one user by means of using different PR-sequences for each user. 32 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Different PN-Sequences for Each User 3 If the spreading is done by a different PN-sequence for many users then it is called direct sequence code division multiple access.10. Orthogonal code is used for spreading and channelisation. Data signal PN-code Spread data sequence t Figure ‎ . DS-CDMA Principle 3 DS-CDMA uses PN codes to detect each multipath signal and to pick up the signals from the desired base station. and the problem can be simplified. PN1 PN2 PN3 M1 PN1 M2 PN2 M3 PN3 Figure ‎ .9. DS-CDMA. Thus the interference of the other users is noise.

C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique

DS-CDMA spreads the original information over wide bandwidth by using much higher rate spreading codes, and makes use of frequency diversity to combat frequency selective deep fading. The filtering is essential in DS-CDMA to reduce the required bandwidth and FIR digital filters are usually used for sharp response.

3.3.2 RAKE Receiver
Transmissions arriving causes deep multipath fading at the receiver that have followed different propagation paths. CDMA is less prone to this effect. In fact, one approach in common use with CDMA system, the Rake receiver, takes advantages of multipath, normally a major source of interference and signal degradation in other systems. In a Rake receiver, the signals of several correlation receivers belonging to the strongest multipath components are combined to provide an enhanced signal with better quality. The users in a CDMA cellular environment simultaneously share the same radio frequency band and can be separated at the receiver end with the knowledge of their unique code using a Rake receiver.

Figure ‎ .11. RAKE Receiver 3 An optimum receiver contains several detection channels with different code delays, which are adjusted to match the major components of the impulse response. The timing accuracy to obtain full processing gain is approximately one chip time, i. e. the inverse of the channel bandwidth. The fingers in the rake collect together the contributions of the total signal energy from several multipath components. The impulse response is measured continuously in order
33 UMTS Overview July 2001

C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique

to set the delay and phase of the different rake fingers. Thus the output from the channels can be added coherently giving diversity combining. Both the right coding and the right timing must be done to be able to despread the wanted signal in the receiver. An optimum receiver contains several detection channels with different code delays, which are adjusted to match the major components of the impulse response. In the Rake receiver the contribution from several multipath components are combined. It is necessary to measure continuously the impulse response of the propagation channel in order to set the delay and phase on the different rake branches. The output from the channels can then be added giving diversity combining.

3.3.3 Spread Spectrum Goals
"Spread" the radio signal over a wide frequency range by modulating it with a code word unique to the radio. Techniques known since 1940s and used in military communications system since 1950s. Receiver's correlator distinguishes sender's signal from other signals by examining the wide spectrum band with a time-synchronised duplicate of the spreading code word. A spreading process at the Receiver recovers the sent signal. Spread spectrum waveform is more resistant to multipath effects and more tolerant of interference.
Channel Quality Channel Quality

f

f

Figure ‎ .12. Interference Averaging 3 Spread spectrum systems are power rather than bandwidth limited.
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C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique

With a wider band the interference will have an averaging effect in such a way that all user will share the problem.With a narrow bandwidth a user channel might receive severe fading dips.

3.3.4 Code Properties
The code should have good Auto Correlation (Time Relation) and Cross Correlation (suppress other users) properties. 3.3.4.1 Short Codes: Code sequence length = bit (bit = 1 bit user data). Code sequence repeated for each new data bit. + Orthogonal codes if perfect synchronisation. + Good synchronisation properties. - Code planning needed since limited number of good short codes. 3.3.4.2 Long Codes: Code sequence length >> bit + No code planning needed since low probability that users might have same code. - Non orthogonal codes. - Bad synchronisation properties since long repetition cycle.

3.4 Soft and Hard Handover
3.4.1 Handover
In general the change of physical channels allocated to a call while maintaining this call is considered as handover. In a hard handover the mobile station will instructed to move from one channel to another and only be receiving from one base station at a time (break before make). In a soft handover the mobile belongs to two base stations during the time it moves between the cells (make before brake).
35 UMTS Overview July 2001

5 Power Control Since there are several users in the same frequency band the received signal strength will be different for different mobiles. Many simultaneous connections share a common transmission channel in an interferencelimited system. Softer handover is the special case of a soft handover between sectors/cells belonging to the same base station site. Intra-frequency handover is an handover between cells using the same (single) radio frequency whereas inter-frequency handover is a handover between cells using different radio frequencies. the mobile station monitors the received signal level from neighbouring base stations. a softer handover is initiated and executed in the same way as an ordinary soft handover. Near-far refers to the ratio of the signal strength from a near mobile to a mobile far away. 3. While in FDMA each connection has its one frequency and in TDMA each connection has one time slot. this will permit high isolation between the connections (orthogonality). The inter-frequency handover is always performed as a hard handover. The main differences are on the implementation level within the network. 3. During the search. 36 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Based on this information the network orders the mobile station to add or remove base stations links from its active set. resulting in a near-far interference problem. This problem will give lower performance and reduce capacity in the system.C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique 3.4. The active set is defined as the set of base stations from which the same user information is sent simultaneously. compares them to a set of thresholds.2 Soft Handover The mobile station continuously searches for new base stations on the current carrier frequency when is in active mode. and reports them accordingly back to the base station.3 Softer Handover Conceptually.4. like CDMA.

C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique SS1= SS2= SS2 SS1 M2 M1 d2 Figure ‎ . Controlled Transmitting Power 3 37 UMTS Overview July 2001 . If d1 is not equal to d2 then the received signal strength from mobile 1 might be much stronger than the mobile 2 and the receiver would not be able to detect and recover mobile 2. SS1=SS2= SS2 SS1 M2 M1 d2 d1 Figure ‎ . Near-far Problem 3 d1 If the mobiles would transmit the same power the ratio of the received signal would be: RS1/RS2 = (d2/d1)^ where lambda is the path loss or propagation environment.13. This means that the transmitting power of each mobile has to be controlled so that the received power is constant irrespective of the distance.14.

also related to the bandwidth. The Gp determines how much the receiver can suppress the interference. the "International Cocktail Party" analogy can be used. AJ. This will help us to discriminate between the wanted signal C and interference I from all other users. The people in each pair only want to talk and listen to each other.C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique A specific code is assigned to each connection in interference limited system. increasing the noise and if more and more people enter the room each conversation will be louder and louder to cope with the interferers. 38 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Picture a large room with a number of people. in pairs. Commercially available SS systems typically implement processing gains in the 10-100 range. In order for these conversations to keep place. Information can be transmitted at power levels below ambient noise for high values of G p (>1000). is a related parameter. There will be a point when the C/I becomes to low when the total interference level is increased (more users). G p. I/C increases. if people speak in different languages. It is then very important with power regulation so that all signals have the same level at the receiver input. Now imagine that the Band starts playing even louder! Speakers try to talk more loudly. it is necessary to define the environment for each conversation. however. The processing gain.. and have no interest in what is being said in other pairs. who would like to hold conversations. This is called anti-jamming margin. and it will be more difficult to extract the conversation from the background. which is the maximum value for I/C. Now if a Band is playing a "random noise" is got and the G p will be lower. Gp is high and it is easier to distinguish individual speakers. To illustrate the problem and advantages with an interference limited system. This means low probability of "intercept/detect" and narrowband jamming or interference. To get an acceptable isolation between the connections a large bandwidth is needed to increase the AJ. This gives us an interference limited system for CDMA compared to FDMA and TDMA who are channel limited system.

C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique

The solution is to minimise the interference level at the base station receiver is only effective for terminals assigned to this base station. Interference from terminals in other cells is still a problem. To minimise this interference the use of soft handover and careful selection of which base station shall be involved in macro diversity are needed.

3.5.1 Inner Loop Power Control - Uplink
The uplink inner loop power control adjusts the mobile station transmit power in order to keep the received uplink Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) at a given SIR target. The base station should estimate the received uplink power after RAKE combining of the connection to be power controlled. Simultaneously, the base station should estimate the total uplink received interference in the current frequency band and generates a SIR estimate. The base station then generates TPC (Transmit Power Control) commands.
Forward Link

Reverse Link

Figure ‎ .15. Forward and ReverseLink 3 Upon the reception of TPC command, the mobile station should adjust the transmit power of the uplink in the given direction with a step of TPC dB. The step size TPC is a parameter that may differ between different cells, in the region [0.25-1.5] dB. In case of receiver diversity (e.g., space diversity) or softer handover at the base station, the TPC command should be generated after diversity combining. In case of soft handover, the following procedure is considered:  In the base station a quality measurement is performed on the received signals; in case the quality measurement indicated a value below a given threshold, an increase command is

39 UMTS Overview July 2001

C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique

sent to the mobile, otherwise a decrease command is transmitted; all the base stations in the active set send power commands to the mobile;  The mobile compares the commands received from different base stations and increases its power only if all the commands indicate an increase value (this means that all the receivers are below the threshold);  In case one command indicates a decrease step (that is, at least one receiver is operating in good conditions), the mobile reduces its power; in case more than one decrease commands are received by the mobile, the mobile station should adjust the power with the largest step in the "down" direction ordered by the TPC commands received from each base station in the active set;  The quality threshold for the base stations in the active set should be adjusted by the outer loop power control (to be implemented in the network node were soft handover combining is performed).

3.5.2 Outer Loop Power Control (SIR target adjustment) -Uplink
The outer loop adjusts the SIR target used by the inner-loop power control. The SIR target is independently adjusted for each connection based on the estimated quality of the connection. In addition, the power offset between the uplink may be adjusted.

3.5.3 Open Loop Power Control - Uplink
Open-loop power control is used to adjust the transmit power of the physical access channel. Before the transmission of the access burst, the mobile station should measure the received power of the downlink. From the power estimate and knowledge of the transmitted power from the base station (broadcast from the base station) the downlink path-loss including shadow fading can be found. From this path loss estimate and knowledge of the uplink interference level and the required received SIR, the transmit power of the physical access channel can be determined. The uplink interference level as well as the required received SIR are broadcast from the base station.

40 UMTS Overview July 2001

C ‎ hapter 3: CDMA Technique

3.5.4 Inner Loop Power Control - Downlink
The downlink inner loop power control adjusts the base station transmit power in order to keep the received downlink SIR at a given SIR target. The mobile station should estimate the received downlink power after RAKE combining of the connection of the connection to be power controlled. Simultaneously, the mobile station should estimate the total downlink received interference in the current frequency band. The mobile station then generates TPC commands. Upon the reception of a TPC command, the base station should adjust the transmit power in the given direction with a step of TPC dB. The step size TPC is a parameter that may differ between different cells, in the region [0.25-1.5] dB. In case of receiver diversity (e.g., space diversity) at the mobile station, the TPC command should be generated after diversity combining.

3.5.5 Outer Loop Power Control - Downlink
The downlink outer loop power control sets the target quality value for the downlink inner loop power control. It receives input from quality estimates of the transport channel, measured in the UE. The downlink outer loop power control is mainly used for a long-term quality control of the radio channel. This function is located mainly in the UE, but some control parameters are set by the UTRAN. The SRNC, regularly (or under some algorithms), sends the target down link power range based on the measurement report from UE.

3.5.6 Open Loop Power Control - Downlink
The downlink open loop power control sets the initial power of downlink channels. It receives downlink measurement reports from the UE. This function is located in both the UTRAN and the UE.

41 UMTS Overview July 2001

1.1. base receive 2110-2170 MHz DOWN-LINK Base transmit. The channel raster is 200 KHz.1.1 Radio Transmission and Reception 4.4 Terminal Service Classes Different service classes will be used to define the data rate and code allocation for a UTRA/FDD terminal. so the centre frequency must be a integer multiple of 200 KHz. Proposed Frequency Band for UTRA 4 4.1 Frequency Band UTRA is designed to operate in the following paired band: 1920-1980 MHz UP-LINK Mobile transmit.1. mobile receive Table ‎ .8 MHz and the maximum value is 245. 4. 42 UMTS Overview July 2001 .3 Tx-Rx Frequency Separation The minimum transmit to receive frequency separation is 134. but this can be adjusted to optimise performance in a particular deployment scenario.2 MHz and all UE(s) shall support a Tx-Rx frequency separation of 190 MHz when operating in the paired band defined in 4.1.2 Channel Arrangement The nominal channel spacing is 5 MHz.1.1. 384 kbps and 2048 kbps are possible service profile types. UTRA can support both fixed and variable transmit to receive frequency separation.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface Chapter 4: Air Interface 4. 4. Data rates of 144 kbps.

3. Additional processing elements can increase the delayspread performance due to increased capture of signal energy. Possibility for downlink transmit diversity in the base station. A Rake receiver satisfies these reception characteristics. dedicated for exclusive use of a specific communication process. Output Power Dynamics for UL and DL 4 4. different types of logical channel are defined. Rake receiver or other suitable receiver structure with maximum combining.5 dB -50 dBm 1.5 Receiver Requirements A suitable receiver structure must use coherent reception in channel impulse response estimation and in code tracking mechanisms.2. 4. Slow quality-based power control.5 kHz 80 dB Downlink (DL) Variable 0. Diversity Characteristics for UTRA 4 Antenna diversity 4. Depending on the type of information transferred on the radio interface. Physical and Transport Channels Logical Channel: A logical channel is a radio bearer or part of it. Table ‎ . Uplink (UL) Power control steps Minimum transmit power Power control cycles per second Power control dynamic Variable 0.5 dB [ ] dBm 1.25-1.6 kHz 30 dB Table ‎ .6 Diversity Characteristics The following diversity possibilities are considered to be available in UTRA: Time diversity Multi-path diversity Channel coding and interleaving in both uplink and downlink.25-1.2 Logical. 43 UMTS Overview July 2001 .1.1. Antenna diversity with maximum ratio combining in the base station and optionally in the mobile stations.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface Output power dynamics: Both the uplink and the downlink use the following power control mechanism:   Fast closed-loop Carrier/Interference based power control.

2. 44 UMTS Overview July 2001 . frequency and. a data stream that is transmitted on one physical channel in each cell of the active set. frequency. Different types of transport channels are defined by how and with which characteristics data is transferred on the physical layer. code. Transport Format: The Transport Format is a combination of encoding. e. which is a downlink or uplink transport channel transmitted over the entire cell or over only a part of the cell. For example.1 Transport Channels: 4. In TDD mode.1. Active Set: Set of radio links simultaneously involved in a specific communication service between an MS and a UTRAN. In the downlink. Transport Channel: Transport Channels are those that are offered by the physical layer for data transport between peer L1 entities. relative phase (I/Q). and time-slot define a physical channel. interleaving. Transport Format Set: A set of Transport Formats.g.Dedicated Channel: Both user data and control information between the network and a mobile station is carried in the Dedicated Channel (DCH). 4. in the uplink. Physical Channel Data Stream: In the uplink.1 Dedicated Transport Channel DCH . whereas a fixed rate DCH (Dedicated Channel) has a single Transport Format. a variable rate DCH (Dedicated Channel) has a Transport Format Set (one Transport Format for each rate). a data stream that is transmitted on one physical channel. using lobeforming antennas. Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI): The TFCI is a label for a specific Transport Format within a Transport Format Set.2. whether using dedicated or common physical channels are employed.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface Physical Channel: A physical channel is defined by code. bit rate and mapping onto physical channels.

The RACH is an uplink transport channel that is always received from the entire cell. 4. 45 UMTS Overview July 2001 .2.2.1.Downlink Shared Channel The downlink shared channel (DSCH) is a downlink transport channel shared by several UEs carrying dedicated control or traffic data.2. 0 or /2).2.2.1 BCH . The FACH is a downlink transport channel that is transmitted over the entire cell or over only a part of the cell using lobeforming antennas. code.1. It may also carry short user packets.2.2. The BCH is a downlink transport channel that is always transmitted over the entire cell.2.2 Common Transport Channels 4.Forward Access Channel When the system knows the location cell of the mobile station. 4.2. 4.3 PCH . The PCH is a downlink transport channel that is always transmitted over the entire cell. and relative phase (on the uplink.2. 4.1.1.2 FACH .1. The FACH may also carry short user packets. the Paging Channel (PCH) is used to carry control information to a the mobile station.2.5 DSCH .Random Access Channel Control information from a mobile station is transmitted into the Random Access Channel (RACH).C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4.Broadcast Channel A base station uses the Broadcast Channel (BCH) to broadcast system and cell-specific information.2 Physical Channels: A physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency. 4.2. the Forward Access Channel (FACH) is used to carry control information to the mobile.1.4 RACH .Paging Channel When the system does not know the location cell of the mobile.

the super-frame length is 720 ms.2.1). Frame Structure for Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH 4 46 UMTS Overview July 2001 .. Transmit power control (TPC) commands.2. The transport-format indicator informs the receiver about the instantaneous parameters of the different transport channels multiplexed on the uplink DPDCH.e.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. 10*2 k bits (k=0. 4. Optional transport-format indicator (TFI). Dedicated data generated for the dedicated transport channel are transmitted into the uplink DPDCH.1 Frame Structure Each frame of length 10 ms is divided into 15 slots.1. or several uplink DPDCHs. Each connection may support zero. A super frame corresponds to 72 4 consecutive frames. There is only one uplink DPCCH on each connection. corresponding to one power-control period (see Figure ‎ .2.666 ms. DPDCH DPCCH Pilot N pilot bits 0.666 ms. the uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (uplink DPDCH) and the uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH). i.6) Data N data bits TPC N TPC bits TFI N TFI bits Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot # i T f = 10 ms Slot #15 Frame #1 Frame #2 Frame # i T super = 720 ms Frame #72 Figure ‎ . each of length T slot = 0.1 Dedicated Uplink Physical Channels There are two types of uplink dedicated physical channels. The control information consists of:    Pilot bits to allow channel estimation for coherent detection.2.1. Control information is transmitted into the DPCCH. one.

2. the spreading factor of the physical channel.2).2. The different time slots. i. have different spreading factors and different values of k. 1. as SF = 256/2 k. relative to the frame boundary of the received BCCH of the current cell. Access Slot 4 The random access burst consists of two parts:   A preamble part (length 1 ms) A message part (length 10 ms) 47 UMTS Overview July 2001 . are spaced 1.1 Physical Random Access Channel The RACH is transmitted into the Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH). The exact number of bits of the different uplink DPCCH is yet to be determined. SF may thus range from 4 up to 256.5 ms (see Figure ‎ .2. The access control is based on a Slotted Aloha approach. the access slots. The BCCH broadcasts information about available access 4 slots in the current cell.2.5 ms Access slot #1 Access slot #2 Access slot #i Random-access burst Random-access burst Random-access burst Offset of access slot #i Random-access burst Access slot #8 Frame boundary Figure ‎ .C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface The parameter k is related to SF. But the same connection usually carry an uplink DPDCH and uplink DPCCH which have different rates. The parameter k determines the number of bits per uplink DPDCH/DPCCH slot.2 Common Uplink Physical Channel 4. which means that a mobile station can start the transmission of the PRACH at a number of well-defined time offsets.2. 4.e.2.

and a control part. TPC commands. It carries dedicated data for the dedicated transport channel (DPH) and control information (known pilot bits. corresponding to the uplink DPDCH.  Required Service. The data part carries the random access request or small user packets.3 and listed below (the 4 values in brackets are preliminary values):  Mobile station identification. The control part uses a spreading factor of 256.2. which corresponds to a spreading factor (SF) of 256. It has a data part. Serv Optional user packet CRC Figure ‎ .C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface Between the preamble and the message part there is an idle time period of length 1.Access Burst Data Part 4 4. 64 or 128 kbps. corresponding to the uplink DPCCH.3. and an optional TFCI). which allows for detection of the preamble part and subsequent on-line processing of the message part.)   An optional user packet A CRC to detect errors in the data part of the random-access burst MS ID Re Req . The data and control parts are transmitted in parallel. using a channel bit rate of 16.3 Downlink Physical Channels 4.2. There are a total of 16 different signatures. 128. 48 UMTS Overview July 2001 . dedicated-channel setup. 32.2. Preamble Part: The preamble part of the random-access burst consists of a signature. 64 and 32.1 Dedicated Physical Channels The Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (dowlink DPCH) is the only type of downlink dedicated physical channel. The rate information indicates which channelisation code (or rather the spreading factor of the channelisation code) is used on the data part. and carries pilot bits and rate information. This field informs the base station what type of service is required (short packet transmission. The random-access burst consists of the fields shown in Figure ‎ .5 ms (preliminary value). respectively. Structure of Random . The MS ID is chosen at random by the mobile station at the time of each random-access attempt.3. etc.2. Message Part: The structure of the message part of the random-access burst is the same as the uplink DPH.

49 UMTS Overview July 2001 .. A super frame corresponds to 72 consecutive frames. The exact number of bits of the different downlink DPCH fields is yet to be determined. 20*2 k Datos bits (k=0. DPCCH DPDCH Pilot TPC TFCI 0. Each frame of length 10 ms is 4 split into 15 slots. In this case.e.4. The parameter k determines the number of bits per downlink DPCH slot.2.2.6) Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #i T f = 10 ms Slot #15 Frame #1 Frame #2 Frame #i T super = 720 ms Frame #72 Figure ‎ . SF may thus range from 4 up to 256. In order to support the use of downlink adaptive antennas. as SF = 256/2 k. the spreading factor of the physical channel.3. the super-frame length is 720 ms.e. But the same connection usually carry an uplink DPDCH and uplink DPCCH which have different rates. the control information is put on only the first downlink DPCH.2 Frame Structure Figure ‎ . corresponding to one power-control period. Frame Structure for Downlink DPCH 4 The parameter k is related to SF.4 shows the frame structure of the downlink DPCH.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. i. Multi-code transmission is employed when the total bit rate to be transmitted on one downlink connection exceeds the maximum bit rate for a downlink physical channel: several parallel downlink DPCHs are transmitted for one connection using the same spreading factor. i. while the additional downlink DPCHs belonging to the connection do not transmit any data during the corresponding time period. each of length Tslot = 0. have different spreading factors and different values of k. connection-dedicated pilot bits are transmitted also for the downlink.666 ms.666 ms.

This is done in order to be able to allocate different amount of FACH and PCH capacity to a cell (see Figure ‎ .5.2.5 shows the frame structure of the Primary CCPCH. needed for coherent detection.1 Primary Common Control Physical Channel The Primary CCPCH is a fixed rate (32 kbps. A CCPCH is not power controlled.2.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. The FACH and PCH are mapped to separate Secondary CCPCHs. Frame Structure for Primary Common Control Physical Channel 4 4. SF=256) downlink physical channel used to carry the BCCH. it is of constant rate.4.2.2.6). As the Primary CCPCH.2. The only control information is the common pilot bits.2. The Figure ‎ .4 Common Physical Channels 4. and this is the main difference between a CCPCH and a downlink dedicated physical channel. 20 bits Data Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #i T f = 10 ms Slot #15 Frame #1 Frame #2 T super Frame #i = 720 ms Frame #72 Figure ‎ . Pilot 0.2 Secondary Common Control Physical Channel The secondary CCPCH is used to carry the FACH and PCH. 4 The set of possible rates is the same as for the downlink DPCH. but the difference between them is that in the Secondary CCPCH the rate may be different for different secondary CCPCHs within one cell and between cells. The BCCH broadcasts the rate and spreading factor of each secondary CCPCH.4. It differs from the downlink 4 DPCH in that no TPC commands or TFCI is transmitted. The main difference between the Primary and Secondary CCPCH is that the Primary CCPCH has a fixed predefined rate while the Secondary CCPCH has a constant rate 50 UMTS Overview July 2001 .666 ms.

It is used to uniquely determine both the long code group and the frame timing. a sequence of 16 unmodulated orthogonal codes of length 256 chips. 4 The Primary SCH transmits the Primary Synchronisation Code. the Primary and Secondary SCH.2.2.7.6.3 Synchronisation Channel The Synchronisation Channel (SCH) is a downlink signal used for cell search. These are transmitted in parallel with the Primary Synchronisation channel. The Secondary SCH repeatedly transmits the Secondary Synchronisation Codes. Pilot 0. which is an unmodulated orthogonal code of length 256. as shown in Figure ‎ . 20*2 bits (k=0. 4. Frame Structure for Secondary Common Control Physical Channel 4 Furthermore.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface that may be different for different cells.666 ms. The sequence on the Secondary SCH identifies a group of scrambling codes among 32 possibilities. 32 sequences are used to encode the 32 different code groups each containing 16 scrambling codes. The base station downlink scrambling code belongs to the indicated group.4. It consists of two sub channels.6) k Data Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #i T f = 10 ms Slot #15 Frame #1 Frame #2 Frame #i T super = 720 ms Frame #72 Figure ‎ . the same for every base station in the system.. depending on the capacity needed for FACH and PCH. 51 UMTS Overview July 2001 . a Primary CCPCH is continuously transmitted over the entire cell while a Secondary CCPCH is only transmitted when there is data available and may be transmitted in a narrow lobe in the same way as a DPH (only valid for a Secondary CCPCH carrying the FACH).

C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface Tslot=2560 chips 256 chips Primary SCH Cp i Cp Cp Secondary SCH Csi.1.2 Csi. Structure of Synchronisation Channel (SCH) 4 4.8.1 Csi.8 summarises the mapping of transport channels to physical channels..2.15) encode cell specific long scrambling code group i Figure ‎ .15 Tframe=15*Tslot Cp: Primary Synchronisation Code Csi.3 Mapping of Transport Channels to Physical Channels The Figure ‎ ...Csi.2. Transport-Channel to Physical-Channel Mapping 4 52 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Csi. 4 Transport Channels Physical Channels Primary Common Control Physical Channel (Primary CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (Secondary CCPCH) BCCH FACH PCH RACH CPCH DCH Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Synchronisation Channel (SCH) DSCH Physical Sownlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Figure ‎ .7..k: One of 16 possible Secondary Synchronisation Codes (Csi.

Scrambling and Modulation The basic spreading (and scrambling) chip rate is 3.36 Mcps.1. 4.1 Uplink Spreading. and The randomly chosen access slot (random-access time-offset). which can be extended to 7.84 Mcps. uplink DPDCHs transmitted on different branches may use the same channelisation code.3. and subsequently they are coded by a complex scrambling code associated to the mobile terminal.3.1. which must be assigned its own channelisation code. both the I and Q branches may be used to transmit a new uplink DPDCH.3 Spreading. 53 UMTS Overview July 2001 .1. However.68 or 15.1 Uplink Dedicated Physical Channels (Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH) The uplink DPDCH and DPCCH are mapped to the I and Q branch respectively.3. described previously.1. 4. The data part is similar to the uplink DPDCH and the control part is similar to the uplink DPCCH. the selection of the scrambling code for the data part is based on:    The randomly chosen preamble sequence. In the case of multi-code transmission.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4.2 PRACH The message part of the random-access channel uses the same coding/modulation procedure as the uplink dedicated physical channels. Scrambling and Modulation 4. The preamble code associated to the base station. In order to guarantee that two simultaneous random-access attempts using different preamble codes and/or sequences will not collide during the message part.1 Modulation 4. Two different channelisation codes cD and cC are then used to spread both branches to the chip rate.3.

The short scrambling code may.1. As different mobile stations use different uplink scrambling codes.2 Long Scrambling Codes The long uplink scrambling code is typically used in cells without multi-user detection in the base station. 4.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. In the case of the uplink. 4. the base-station emits a downlink Access Grant message. It‟s the network who decides the uplink short scrambling code.1. Usually at least one additional uplink channelisation code is allocated for an additional uplink DPDCH. which tells the mobile station the short scrambling to use. Each connection is allocated at least one uplink channelisation code. So the uplink channelisation codes are always allocated in a pre-established order.3. Once the mobile station and network reach an agreement on the number and length (spreading factor) of the uplink channelisation codes. only in rare cases. the exact codes to be used are implicitly given.4.3 Spreading: Channelisation Codes The uplink uses the same type of channelisation codes as the downlink. 4. to be used for the uplink DPCCH.4. further uplink channelisation codes may be allocated.3.1 Short Scrambling Code The short scrambling code is a complex code c different codes of length 256. the uplink channelisation codes may be allocated without any co-ordination between different connections. If more than one uplink DPDCH is necessary. be changed during the duration of a connection. where cI and cQ are two .4 Scrambling: Scrambling Codes Either short or long scrambling codes should be used on uplink.3.1.3. After an uplink Random Access Request.1. 54 UMTS Overview July 2001 scramb = cI + jcQ. the limitations on the allocation of these codes are only valid within one mobile station. The mobile station is informed if a long scrambling code should be used in the Access Grant Message following a random-access request and in the handover message.

3. If the traffic load is high. In this way..1 Preamble Spreading Code The base station broadcasts the spreading code for the preamble part. so it can be detected by the base station. Note that although the scrambling code is the same for every access slot.5. these codes have to be planned..1.5 Random Access Codes (Spreading & Scrambling) 4. The base station broadcasts which signatures are allowed to be used in a cell..25 ms time shift between the access slots. which is specific of the cell. 4.1. the message part is also subject to scrambling with a 10 ms complex code. <P 0.3 Channelisation Codes for the Data Part The signature in the preamble specifies one of the 16 possibilities for the channelisation code. P15>.3.3.5.5.1. simultaneous detection of multiple random access messages arriving in the same access slot is allowed by the use of different signatures.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. 4. The base station gets the channelisation code used in the data part either with the help of the preamble signature and the rate information. there is no scrambling-code collision problems between different access slots due to the 1. 55 UMTS Overview July 2001 . The control part is always spread with a known channelisation code of length 256. The scrambling code is cell-specific and has a one-to-one correspondence to the spreading code used for the preamble part.1. 4. the base station can use more than preamble code. and the system uses all 256 codes.2 Preamble Signature The preamble part carries one of 16 different signatures of length 16. P1. The base station obtains the spreading factor used on the message part from the rate information field of control part..4 Scrambling Code for the Data Part In addition to spreading.5.1. Since two neighbouring cells must not use the same preamble code.3.3. The code used is a 256 chip code.

The BCCH broadcasts the channelisarion code(s) used in the Secondary Common Control Physical Channel. 56 UMTS Overview July 2001 . the base station responds with a downlink Access Grant message.2 Spreading: Channelisation Codes The number of available channelisation codes is not fixed but depends on the rate and spreading factor of each physical channel.3. Each additional downlink DPCH should be assigned its own channelisation code. The spread/modulation process must also be applied to every additional downlink DPCH. Scrambling and Modulation 4. The channelisation codes for the downlink dedicated physical channels are decided by the network. each pair of two bits are first converted from serial to parallel and then mapped to the I and Q branch. which is the same for all the cells within the system. the set of channelisation codes may be changed during the duration of the connection. and the mobile knows the scrambling code in the cell search process.2.3 Srambling: Scrambling Codes There are 512 available scrambling codes. the cell-specific scrambling code (real scrambling). and subsequently they are scrambled with c scramb. informing the mobile station about the downlink channelisation codes to receive. This change of downlink channelisarion codes is negotiated over a DCH.3.3.2. The grouping facilitates the process of fast cell search. 4. 4. The BCCH uses a predefined channelisation code.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. After an uplink Random Access request. The channelisation code cch spreads the I and Q branch to the chip rate (real spreading).1 Modulation The modulation scheme used for the data part is QPSK.2 Downlink Spreading. In the initial deployment a downlink scrambling code is assigned to every cell. respectively. in the case of multi-code transmission. grouped into 32 code sets with 16 codes in each set.2.3. If a change of service or an inter-cell handover occurs.

consist of pair wise mutually orthogonal codes of length 256.9. .4 Transport Channel Coding and Multiplexing Chain The following steps can be identified in the Figure ‎ .2.4 Synchronisation Codes The Primary and Secondary code words. c17} respectively. including optional transport-channel multiplexing Static rate matching Inter-frame interleaving 57 UMTS Overview July 2001 .3. which describes the overall concept of 4 transport-channel coding and multiplexing: Figure ‎ .9.. 4.. Coding and Multiplexing of Transport Channels 4    Channel coding. 4. cp and {c1 ..C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface The scrambling codes are repeated for every 20 ms radio frame.

4 Figure ‎ . the output is split onto several DPDCHs.1 Convolutional Coding If the service requires a BER in the order of 10 -3 then is typical to apply convolutional coding. i. In the case of multi-code transmission. channel coding is done on a per-transport-channel basis.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface    Transport-channel multiplexing Dynamic rate matching Intra-frame interleaving The different steps are described in detail below. i. into one data stream mapped on one or several physical channels.1 Channel Coding Every transport channel is coded before transport-channel multiplexing. If the service requires a BER in the order of 10 -6 then convolutional coding is applied in concatenation with RS coding and outer interleaving.10.1. Transport channels are coded and multiplexed as described above.4. Figure ‎ . 4.10 illustrates this concept.4.e. with very high bit rates.e. The output of the inner interleaving block is usually mapped to one DPDCH. 58 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Channel Coding in UTRA/FDD 4 4.

4. Turbo codes of rate 1/3 and ½ (for the 4 highest data rates). which require data rates above 32 kbps (see Figure ‎ . Figure ‎ . Figure ‎ .11). compared to the existing proposals. while DCHs in slotted mode are usually coded with a ½-rate convolutional coding. FEC Coding for UTRA/FDD When Turbo Codes are Used 4 59 UMTS Overview July 2001 .12. Block Diagram of a Turbo code encoder 4 Figure ‎ .1.12 shows the basic FEC coding structure for the UTRA. which will be employed in 4 case Turbo codes give an improved FEC for high quality services.2 Turbo Coding ETSI is currently investigating the use of Turbo coding for high quality services.4. ETSI is awaiting further results of simulations illustrating the performance of Turbo Codes.11. have been proposed to replace the concatenation of convolutional and Reed-Solomon codes.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface Dedicated transport channels (DCHs) in normal (non-slotted) mode typically use a 1/3-rate convolutional coding.

 Dynamic rate matching: carried out on a frame-by-frame 810 ms) basis 4. carried out on a per-transport-channel basis. 4. The span of the inner inter-frame interleaving can vary in the range 20 ms to 150 ms. in addition to the standard coding schemes listed above.4.1.3 Rate Matching Rate matching is carried out according to the following procedures:  Static rate matching: carried out on a slow basis.3.1 Static Rate Matching Two different reasons lead to the use of static rate matching:  To adjust the coded transport channel bit rate to a level where minimum transmission quality requirements of each transport channel is fulfilled with the smallest differences in channel bit energy  To adjust the coded transport channel bit rate so that the maximum total bit rate after transport channel multiplexing is matched to the channel bit rate of the uplink and downlink dedicated physical channel.2 Inner Inter-Frame Interleaving Those transport-channels that can allow for and require interleaving over more than one radio frame (10 ms) use inner inter-frame bit interleaving.4. 60 UMTS Overview July 2001 .4.3 Service Specific Coding The service-specific-coding option allows supplementary coding schemes. although it is carried out prior to transport-channel multiplexing. increasing in this way the flexibility of the UTRA Layer 1. typically every time a transport channel is added or removed from the connection. 4. One example is the use of unequal-error-protection coding schemes for certain speech-codecs.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4.4. It is important to note that the rate matching must be co-ordinated between different transport channels. The static rate matching is based on code puncturing and unequal repetition.

It uses unequal repetition and is only applied to the uplink. 4.5 Service Multiplexing Service multiplexing allows the separate and independent control of QoS.14).5 Inner Intra-Frame Interleaving Inner intra-frame interleaving over one radio frame (10 ms) is applied to the multiplexed set of transport channels. 4. usually after outer RS coding but before outer interleaving.4. The output after the multiplexer (before the inner interleaving) will thus be according to the . it is necessary to match the total instantaneous rate of the multiplexed transport channels to the channel bit rate of the uplink DPDCH. Transport Channel Multiplexing 4 Another option is transport-channel multiplexing within the channel-coding unit.4.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. 4 61 UMTS Overview July 2001 . discontinuous transmission (DTX) is used when the total instantaneous rate of the multiplexed transport channels does not match the channel bit rate.4.2 Dynamic Rate Matching After the multiplexing of the parallel coded transport channels. On the downlink. which is done by the dynamic rate matching.13. Figure ‎ . This is done by treating multiple services in the same connection with separate channel coding/interleaving and mapping to different basic physical channels (slot/code) (see Figure ‎ .4 Transport-Channel Multiplexing The coded transport channels are serially multiplexed within one radio frame.3. 4.

. Inner Coding/interf.14.15. if the total rate exceeds the upper limit for single-code transmission. Time Mux Inner Coding/interf. the multi-service data stream is mapped to one or. 4 Time Mux Outer Coding/interf. several resource units. Service n Figure ‎ .C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface Coding / interleaving Service 1 Parallel services Coding / interleaving Service 2 Coding / interleaving Service N Figure ‎ . Service Multiplexing (a) 4 Another option is time multiplexing at different points of the channel coding scheme (see Figure ‎ .. Time Mux Parallel services Time Mux Outer Coding/interf. Time Mux Service 1 Service 2 .15). 62 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Service Multiplexing (b) 4 After service multiplexing and channel coding.

C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4.6.666 ms 1-rate ½-rate ¼-rate 0-rate : DPCCH-part (Pilot+TPC+RI) : DPDCH-part (Data) Figure ‎ .6.2 Discontinuous Transmission (DTx) in Downlink with Variable Rate (1) 0.17. Downlink Variable Rate (DTX) 4 63 UMTS Overview July 2001 .1 Continuous Transmission in Uplink with Variable Rate 10 ms 1 rate ½¼- rate rate 0.rate Variab le rate R =1 R = 1/2 R =0 R =0 R = 1/2 : DPCCH (Pilot+TPC+RI) : DPDCH (Data) Figure ‎ . Uplink Variable Rate (no DTX) 4 4.6 Traffic Cases (Examples) 4.16.

Subsequently.7 Initial Cell Search The initial cell search is the process of searching for the base station to which the mobile has the lowest path loss.2 Csi.2.19.6. Downlink Variable Rate (DTX) 4 4. the mobile determines the downlink scrambling code and frame synchronisation of that base station.15) encode cell specific long scrambling code group i Figure ‎ . Csi..1. The initial cell search is carried out using the synchronisation channel (SCH).Csi.1 Csi.18..k: One of 16 possible Secondary Synchronisation Codes (Csi.. see Figure ‎ .3 Discontinuous Transmission (DTx) in Downlink with Variable Rate (2) 10 ms 1-rate ½-rate 0-rate Variable rate R=1 R=0 R = 1/2 R=1 R=0 : DPCCH (Pilot+TPC+RI) : DPDCH (Data) Figure ‎ . Structure of Synchronisation Channel (SCH) 4 This initial cell search is carried out in three steps: 64 UMTS Overview July 2001 .15 Tframe=15*Tslot Cp: Primary Synchronisation Code Csi. 4 Tslot=2560 chips 256 chips Primary SCH Cp i Cp Cp Secondary SCH Csi.19..C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4.

Figure ‎ .20. The decision variables are obtained by non-coherently summing of the correlators outputs corresponding to each 16 length sequence out of the 32 possible sequences and its 16 cyclic shifts giving a total of 512 decision variables. This is done by correlating the received signal at the positions of the Secondary Synchronisation Code with all possible (16) Secondary Synchronisation Codes. Matched-Filter for Primary Synchronisation Code to Slot Synchronisation 4 4. by identifying the sequence/shift pair that gives the maximum correlation values. Detecting the position of the strongest peak gives the timing of the strongest base station modulo the slot length.20). Note that the cyclic shifts of the sequences are unique. This is done with a single matched filter (or any similar device) matched to the primary synchronisation code cp which is common to all base stations (see Figure ‎ .1 Step 1: Slot Synchronisation During the first step of the initial cell search procedure the mobile station uses the primary SCH to acquire slot synchronisation to the strongest base station. The outputs of all the 17 correlators for 16 consecutive secondary SCH locations are used to form the decision variables. the code group as well as the frame synchronisation is determined.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. The output of 4 the matched filter will have peaks for each ray of each base station within range of the mobile station. the matched-filter output should be noncoherently accumulated over a number of slots.2 Step 2: Frame Synchronisation and Code Group Identification During the second step of the initial cell search procedure.7. 65 UMTS Overview July 2001 .7. Note that the position of the Secondary Synchronisation Code is known after the first step. For better reliability. Thus. the mobile station uses the secondary SCH to find frame synchronisation and identify the code group of the base station found in the first step.

The mobile station may also search for new base stations on other carrier frequencies using the slotted mode. in order to reduce the probability of wrong/false acquisition. This cell search is carried out in basically the same way as the idle mode cell search. 66 UMTS Overview July 2001 . The scrambling code is identifies through symbol-by-symbol correlation over the Primary CCPCH with all the scrambling codes within the code group identified in the second step. 4. Note that. averaging the correlator outputs over a sequence of symbols 8diversity) might be required before using the outputs to determine the exact scrambling code. due to combat background noise/interference. 4. The main difference compared to the initial cell search is that an idle mobile station has received a priority list from the network. superframe synchronisation can be acquired and the system.4 Idle Mode Cell Search When in idle mode. from step 2.7.7.3 Step 3: Scrambling Code Identification During the third and last step of the initial cell search procedure.and cell specific BCCH information ca be read. due to the unknown data of the primary CCPCH.7. The priority list is continuously updated to reflect the changing neighbourhood of a moving mobile station. This priority list describes in which order the downlink scrambling codes should be searched for and does thus significantly reduce the time and effort needed for the scrambling-code search (step 3). Also. Correlation must be carried out symbol-wise.5 Active Mode Cell Search When in active mode.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. The cell search is done basically the same way as the initial cell search. the mobile station continuously searches for new base stations on the current and other carrier frequencies. the mobile station determines the exact scrambling code used by the found base station. Also the complexity in the second step may be reduced if the priority list only includes scrambling codes belonging to a subset of the total set of code groups. the Primary CCPCH can be detected. the frame boundary and consequently the start of the scrambling code is known. the mobile station continuously searches for new base station on the current carrier frequency. After the scrambling code has been identified.

22. the connection set-up should be fast and closed loop power control for large packets.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. Access Request Arbitrary Time Access Request Common Channel (RACH/FACH) User Packet User Packet Dedicated Channel (DTCH) Figure ‎ .22 During the packet transmission closed-loop power 4 control is used. 4 Figure ‎ .8.8. the possibility of packet scheduling should be included. while frequently or large packets should use the dedicated channels. During the time there are no packets to transmit there will be no link Access Request User Packet Arbitrary Time Access Request User Packet maintenance (see Figure ‎ . and a small overhead for small packets.8 Packet Access The requirements for packet access are:   Fast access Efficient use of the radio resources In order to satisfy these requirements. Moreover. 4. Dedicated Channel Single Packet Transmission 4 67 UMTS Overview July 2001 .21.1 Common Channel Packet Access The common channel RACH/FACH would be used for transmitting small packets and medium data rates. Open loop power control would be used. as shows Figure ‎ . Small frequently sent packets are sent on the common channels.21). Common Channel Packet Access 4 4.2 Dedicated Channel Single Packet Transmission Each new packet in a single and scheduled packet transmission is preceded with a random access request.

23).8.23.3 Dedicated Channel Multi-Packet Transmission In the case of scheduled and non-scheduled packet transmission. Scheduled packets Non-scheduled packets Access Request User Packet User Packet Access Reques t User Packet Dedicated Channel (DTCH) Link maintenance (pilot. Dedicated Channel Multi-Packet Transmissio 4 68 UMTS Overview July 2001 . TPC) Figure ‎ . The link 4 will be released after a defined time-out period.C ‎ hapter 4: Air Interface 4. the link will be maintained. and closed–loop power control will be used during the transmission (Figure ‎ .

1 Introduction The content of this chapter deals with some selected radio properties and their effects on a mobile system.1. Wave Form 5 There are many different types of electromagnetic waves including radio waves. The serving area is called a cell. frequency or phase of a radio wave (or light wave) is changed. 5. This area is served by a transmitter/receiver that will transmit towards the mobile and receive from the mobile. Modulation is the process where the amplitude. They are generally generated by oscillating charges on a transmitting antenna. 69 UMTS Overview July 2001 . In a mobile network the connection between the mobile phone and the network is done via the air interface with the help of radio waves. which is expressed in Hertz. The area in which the mobile and the network can stay in contact with some acceptable quality is called the coverage area. Hz (see Figure ‎ .C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory Chapter 5: Radio Theory 5.1 Radio Waves and Modulations A radio wave is an electromagnetic wave of a frequency lower than 3000 GHz. The electromagnetic wave is produced by the interaction of time varying electric and magnetic fields. Radio waves are one example of what we refer to as electromagnetic radiation.1). 5 Time 1 cycle Figure ‎ . To be able to use the radio waves for transfer of information such as speech or data a modulation technique is used. infrared rays and x-rays. The number of cycles or events per time unit is the frequency. light.1.

5 Amplitude Time Figure ‎ . Amplitude Modulation 5 Frequency modulation occurs when the carrier‟s frequency is changed according to the input signal. the phase or use pulse modulation (see Figure ‎ . while the carrier‟s frequency is fixed (shown in Figure ‎ . FM modulation is more immune to 5 noise than AM and improves the overall signal-to-noise ratio. 5 5 Pulse Modulation is a sample of the waveform taken at regular intervals.5 and Figure ‎ . There exit a variety of Pulse Modulation schemes not covered here.4).2). Phase Modulation is similar to FM but instead of changing the frequency of the carrier wave.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory Quadrature component Q =M sinq M q In-phase component I =M cos q M = magnitude q = phase Figure ‎ . The signal-to-noise ratio is the ratio between the signal maximum peak-to-peak signal and what remains when the signal is removed. while the amplitude is unchanged (see Figure ‎ . Digital Modulation Techniques 5 There are different ways to modulate a radio signal. the ratio of the wanted signal to that of the noise. the frequency. the phase of the carrier changes (see Figure ‎ . We could change the amplitude. 5 In Amplitude Modulation the carrier‟s amplitude changes in accordance with the modulated user signal.3. that is.2.3). 70 UMTS Overview July 2001 .6).

6. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) y Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). Commonly use access methods in radio networks are Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). 71 UMTS Overview July 2001 .5. 7/4 Phases separated by 180º ( radians) 2x bandwidth efficiency of BPSK Figure ‎ . This connection is wireless.1. Frequency Modulation 5 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) Q 01 state Q 11 state I 00 state 10 state 0 state I 1 state Phase of carrier: /4. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying 5 To be able to use analogue signals for digital information they have to be processed by an intermediate stage before transmission. This is done by a modem (modulator/demodulator) in a process known as a modulation/demodulation. The way we utilise these radio waves in the air is called Access Method and there exist a number of them with different properties. 5.4. 5/4. 3/4.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory Amplitude Time Figure ‎ . Binary Phase Shift Keying 5 Figure ‎ . it uses radio waves in the air interface to set up the connection.2 Access Methods In a cellular network we have a mobile phone or terminal connected to the network via a base station that transmits towards the mobile phone and receives signals from the mobile phone.

2.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory FDMA is used for standard analogue mobile telephony. The fewer spectrums needed per subscriber the more subscribers that can be accommodated on the network. Each user is assigned a discrete part of the RF spectrum. The allocated frequency segment for that one carrier is considerably larger than that used in FDMA or TDMA. In TDMA the users are still assigned a discrete part of the RF spectrum. 72 UMTS Overview July 2001 . To distinguish the different users occupying the same frequency band simultaneously.7). FDMA permits only one user per channel since it allows the user to use the channel 100% of the time. and all users use the entire carrier. 5. the capacity available is a compromise between needed capacity and the interference (more interference involve less quality in our connection) that the use of the same medium by different users produces. Each of the users alternates their use of the RF channel. making it difficult to get sufficient signal strength levels. but it results also in a lower interference from non wanted transmitters far away from the receiver.2 Radio Transmission Properties and Problems 5. Frequency division is still used.2 Path Loss Path loss or attenuation of the signal causes the received signal at the receiver to get weaker the further away from the transmitter we are (see Figure ‎ . 16 for half rate GSM). 8 for full rate GSM. CDMA is a spread-spectrum communication system in which multiple users have access to the same frequency band.1 Needed vs. Since there is no way to create new frequencies we need good modulation techniques and efficient access methods to use the air interface properly. but these carriers are now further sub-divided into some number of time slots per carrier (3 for TDMA-AMPS. 5 Path loss can be a problem. Normally. each user is assigned a binary code.2. 5. Available Capacity One problem encountered with radio is that the available spectrum is limited. all of the time. but multiple users now share that RF carrier on a time slot basis. In CDMA there is no time division.

C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory If there would be no path loss the interference from all transmitters around us would be very high. transmission will most likely be affected by shadowing objects. According to this formula. When the mobile phone moves around. hills.3 Shadowing If the radio path does not have free line of sight between transmitter and receiver. e. It also assumes that there are no reflections interacting with the direct radio wave. the path loss varies proximally in the following way: Pathloss  distance 2 x frequency 2 This formula assumes a line of sight condition between the transmitting and receiving antennas. the user or virtually anything in the radio path. path loss depends on the distance between the receiver and the transmitter. can be measured in tens of meters. according to transmitting power. as indicated buy the formula. variations in signal strength. By this it will gain some dB.2. buildings. 5. the higher the path loss. Path Loss 5 For a given frequency. due to the character of the objects. is using the lowest frequency. Since the mobile phone normally is located in a low position.7. Shadowing is also called “log normal fading” or “long term fading”.g. 73 UMTS Overview July 2001 . d Figure ‎ . Also. Since the pathloss will increase with an increasing frequency it is beneficial if the weakest part. One way to estimate this is to use the free space formula. the obstacles will cause shadowing. the higher the frequency used.

while in another system like UMTS with a RAKE receiver structure this leads to the possibility of diversity gain turning the multipath channel to its advantage. multipath fading. Multi.Path Propagation 5 Different reflections would then mean slightly different time delays for the rays and the reflections also will have different effects on the phase of the radio wave. or weaker. Normally we would receive not one.4 Multi-Path Propagation Another effect that might occur especially in an urban area with a lot of reflections objects near the transmitter and receiver is multi-path propagation (see Figure ‎ . On the other hand a receiver could with the help of some addative procedures capture a number of different reflected rays and the take “the best” out of this information. 74 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Figure ‎ .2. In a GSM system multipath propagation can cause problems in the receiver.8). but several reflected radio waves and the resulting wave could be stronger. If there is no phase difference between the waves. This cancelling out effect may cause very deep fading dips. Since the 5 transmitter normally is not transmitting directly towards the receiver but rather in a wide area towards him/here. The phenomenon is called multi-path or Rayleigh fading.8. but if the phase difference between the two signals is close to 180 degrees they may null each other out. there will be a lot of rays reflected by obstacles and the received by the receiver. than the individual waves. the resulting wave may have considerably better signal strength.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory 5.

Reusing an identical carrier 5 frequency in different cells is limited by co-channel interference or C/I.9. In e.g. 75 UMTS Overview July 2001 . This is e.11).3 Radio Transmission Optimisatioin Techniques 5. Satisfactory performance in these systems depends critically on control of the mutual interference arising from this reuse pattern. The amount of time dispersion is roughly described by the delay spread (see Figure ‎ .9). GSM where we reuse the number of frequencies available this might mean that there is a transmitter using the same frequency as the wanted signal (see Figure ‎ . timeslots.1 Access Methods: Capacity vs Interference Interference is the term for a non-wanted signal that the receiver experiences.g.2. both using the same carrier frequency.10). Channel Impulse Response (Power) / Time Delay 5 5. true for GSM. or both.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory 5. The effect is that the impulse response of the propagation channel is spread out. 5 This might cause an interference problem that will be handled by keeping the reuse frequencies (same frequencies) as far away from each other as possible.5 Time Dispersion One effect of multipath propagation is time dispersion due to varying propagation delays. 5 Impulse response t1 t2 t3 time Figure ‎ .3. Since the number of available frequencies both are limited by physics and by regulation the frequencies then must be reused (see Figure ‎ . Radio communication systems often separate users either by frequency channels. Co-channel interference is the relation between the desired signal C and the undesired re-used signal I.

SNR at the detector. f1 C I Figure ‎ . The enhancement overcomes the summed noise enough to provide an adequate Signal to Noise Ratio. enhancing the signal to noise ratio at the detector. Reusing Frequencies in GSM 5 A A A A A A A A A A A A A Figure ‎ . C D F B D A C A B D B A C E B A Figure ‎ . the system is no longer sensitive to worst-case interference. Use of noise-like carriers. Traditional time or frequency slotted systems must be designed with a reuse ratio that satisfies the worst-case interference scenario.11. Interference 5 Another approach to this is used in CDMA. The receiver correlates its input with the desired noise carrier.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory Carrier. While those waveforms are nor rigorously orthogonal (they do not interfere with each other). Instead of partitioning either spectrum or time into disjoint “slots” each user is assigned a different instance of the noise carrier. The reuse pattern is now the same for each (see ). 76 UMTS Overview July 2001 . with all users occupying the same spectrum. makes the effective noise the sum of all other-user signals. but rather to average interference. Because the interference is summed.12. In CDMA 5 The major benefit of noise-like carriers is that the system sensitivity to interference is fundamentally altered. f1 Interferer.10. they are nearly so.

3.3. There are different combinations to diversity.2 Frequency Diversity Another effective way to fight negative effects of multi-path propagation is to change the frequency. 5. each consecutive burst will be transmitted (and of course received) at a different frequency. 5. 77 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 5.2. When frequency hopping is applied as in GSM/DCS. Can for example be used to provide a smooth transition as the mobile moves from transmitter to another (soft handover).3.2. A certain distance between the antennas could be used (space diversity) or the antennas element could be polarised (polarisation diversity).2 Diversity One of the objectives in system optimisation is to reduce or benefit from the multipath and shadowing effects.3.1 Space Diversity By using two receiving antennas.3.2. 5. thus changing the positions of the dips. The use of antenna diversity will improve the carrier to interference (C/I) properties of the systems as the problem with the fading dips is reduced.4 Macro Diversity Simultaneous use of links between the mobile and two or more fixed transmitters.3 Multi-Path Diversity Here versions of the signal arrive via separate paths and at different times and are combined in the receiver.3. 5. chances are that they do not experience the same multipath propagation at the same time.2.5 Time Diversity Obtained by using symbol interleaving and error correction coding to introduce time correlation into the signal (described later in this chapter). Some are applicable to TDMA and FDMA as well as CDMA system.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory 5.2.

3. will need to handle more and more of data transmission and multimedia. Over a radio channel that experiences a lot of problems we need something to detect errors and correct them. Channel coding is a way to add information to the data so that errors could be detected and corrected. This. This could be done with the help of retransmission of information that was faulty and/or by adding redundant information to the data.1 Block coding When block coding is used.3. in contrast to pure speech system. however. adds high demands on the quality. adding a number of redundant bits to help detect or correct the errors protects the bits.3 Error Detection and Correction In the first and second generation mobile system like NMT and GSM the main intention and use of the system have been foe speech communication.3. so that the number of 1‟s in the total block are always even (see Figure ‎ . A simple form of block coding is using a parity bit. 5.1 Channel Coding In an analogue network the loss of some information will only decrease the quality somewhat.3. The 3 rd generation system. like UMTS. In a digital network. Two different methods of channel coding are block coding and convolutional coding.1. The quality of the received signal is often measured in Bit Error Rate (BER). The symbol “1” interpreted as a “o” gives a totally different piece of information. the importance of each bit of information is crucial.3. Otherwise the parity bit is set to one. The check bits only depend on the bits in that block. Interleaving is a technique to help the channel coding procedure. Typical data services require very low error rates. 5 78 UMTS Overview July 2001 . The philosophy of both of them is basically the same.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory 5. The parity bit could be set to zero if the 1‟s in the block equal an even number. one or several check bits are added to the information block. The BER represents what percentage of the bits that is not correctly detected. The ear is able to correct the analogue signals that are slightly incorrect.13). 5.

The Principle of Convolutional Coding 5 5. work best when the bits lost are spread out at a certain distance. with a certain number of correct bits in between the incorrect ones. but also for correcting them. demanding the transmitting part to resend. Doing logical operations on the positions of the bits in the register produces the coded information bits.2 Convolutional Coding The convolutional code consists of a shift register into which one shifts on the information bits. The condition for being able to correct errors is that only few errors appear at a time.14. When all the information are shifted through the register we have produced the coded bits that will be sent (see Figure ‎ .1.2 Interleaving The error detection and correction methods mentioned.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory Block coding is mainly used for detecting errors. In the computer world block coding is often used together with a retransmission command. The Principle of Block Coding 5 5.3.3. If 1 then add 1 If 0 then add 0 Received Means 11 00 Information Parity bits 01 10 1 0 error error Figure ‎ .14).13. XOR Output A info Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 XOR Output B Figure ‎ . 5 Convolutional coding is not good for detecting errors. 79 UMTS Overview July 2001 . This is not so useful when dealing with a real time application such as speech.3.3. This will make several coded bits dependent on one of the information symbols shifted into the coder.

An analogy of this is. If only parts of a block are lost. but four consecutive symbols in a block. all the number two symbols in another.. etc. If we re-arrange them so that all number one symbols are put together in one block. As an example. so that they can be taken care of by “Channel Coding” thus minimising the harm longer sequences lost. If Several Blocks Regroup the Information. BUT not one complete block. totalling 20 pages is lost.C ‎ hapter 5: Radio Theory Interleaving is a method of spreading the potential losses. we will loose symbols from several blocks. THMT HEUH IASE SRTY T H E Y T H ? Y MU S T MU ? T H E A R H E ? R T H I S T H ? S THEY MUST HEAR THIS TH?Y MU?T HE?R TH?S Figure 5. if the last 20 pages are torn out of an Agatha Christie novel.15. 5 80 UMTS Overview July 2001 .15). ‎ Assume also that it is likely that we loose not only one. let us assume that each message block contains four symbols. the chance of reconstructing the information improves dramatically (see Figure ‎ . it will be more difficult to reconstruct the plot than if every 10th page.

C ‎ hapter 6: User Equipment (UE) Chapter 6: User Equipment (UE) 6. So we can have these two big domains: the User Equipment Domain and the Infrastructure domain. This is represented by the interface Uu. as they are explained 6 in this chapter. UMTS radio interface Yu = Zu = Reference point between Serving and Transit Network domains Reference point between Serving and Home Network domain Figure ‎ .1. Home Network Domain Cu Zu Uu Iu Yu USIM Domain Mobile Equipment Domain RAN Domain Serving Network Domain Transit Network Domain CN Domain User Equipment Domain Cu = Iu = Uu = Reference point between USIM and ME Infrastructure Domain Reference point between Access and Serving Network domains Reference point between User Equipment and Infrastructure domains.1 Terminals in the General UMTS System The Figure ‎ .1 shown below represents the general schematic in the system. 81 UMTS Overview July 2001 . UMTS Domains and Reference Points 6 We can divide basically between the User Equipment or Terminal (UE). and the infrastructure.

MT. The infrastructure is made up of the several physical nodes that develop the various functions required to terminate the radio interface and to support the telecommunication services requirements to the users.1. the Cu reference point 6. The reference point between the user equipment domain and the infrastructure domain is called the “Uu” reference point (UMTS radio interface).1. This device is associated to a given user. 6. in such a way that we can have dual mode UMTS-GSM user equipment. and the one which 82 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 6.1. because it separates two different worlds. These equipment types are referred to as user equipment (terminals). Mobile Termination. and as such allows identifying this user regardless of the ME he uses. The mobile equipment may be further sub-divided into several entities.1 User Equipment Domain This part of the system stores a variety of equipment types with different levels of functionality. This equipment has a radio interface to the infrastructure.1. UMTS Subscriber Identity Module. the one which performs the radio transmission and related functions. the terminal will include a removable smart card that may be used in different user equipment types. The infrastructure is a shared resource by all the users and it will provide services to all these users (authorised) within its coverage area. e. it is a very important interface.g. Here we have another interesting interface. As it has also been said. and they may also be inter-connectable with one or more existing access systems. These functions are typically embedded in a standalone smart card. as it happens in GSM.C ‎ hapter 6: User Equipment (UE) User equipment is the terminal that the user employs to access to the UMTS service.1 USIM Domain The USIM. contains data and procedures that unambiguously and securely identify it.2 Mobile Equipment Domain The Mobile Equipment contains applications and performs radio transmission. As it has been said. The user equipment is as well subdivided in to the Mobile Equipment Domain (ME) and the UMTS Subscriber Identity Module Domain (USIM).1.

g. i.25 W 0. 83 UMTS Overview July 2001 .g.e. multiband/multi-mode terminals and any combination of the aforementioned. videophones. more flexibility is available for service providers/network operators to create unique services. The following four classes are defined:     2W 0. speech only terminals. e. the power classes need to be determined. wideband data terminals.5 W 0. The set of terminal capabilities includes radio capabilities. the types of terminals are not standardised and are therefore not limited in any way. fax terminals. 6.C ‎ hapter 6: User Equipment (UE) contains the end-to-end application or (e. to complex multimedia services containing several simultaneous media components that place totally different requirements on the system and on the terminal equipment. TE. We know that no UMTS Terminal is going to be defined by the specifications. A wide range of terminal types is likely in the UMTS environment. data terminals. Such services range from simple services like voice. The maximum power will affect User Equipment possibilities to support the upper range of bit services over the UMTS coverage area. for cell planning reasons. Terminal Equipment. By standardising service capabilities rather than actual services.125 W We already know that no terminal types are standardised. laptop connected to a mobile phone).2 Applications of the UE This 3 generation system wants to offer service capabilities that enable the wide variety of services that the vendors will offer to be implemented. The same principle also applies for UMTS terminals. Cell planners will plan for achieving coverage for higher bit rates on the cell border primarily for power class 1-user equipment's. so user equipment must indicate to the network a set of terminal capabilities in order to be handled properly by the UTRAN and the Core Network. multimedia capabilities and speech coders/decoders that are supported by the user equipment.

The general architecture of a H. and additionally other radio access modes. 6.2. ITU standards H.20 kbit/s depending on the characteristics of input speech signal.75 – 12. due to the compatibility we have already talked before. the UMTS Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) code. Multimedia capabilities may include which type of display and which coders/decoders that are supported for video and audio. ITU has produced a number of such standards. Where needed slight modification for the UMTS case is introduced by 3GPP.324 is the standard for circuit switched multimedia over the PSTN while H. Finally.324 multimedia terminal in UMTS user equipment is shown in Figure ‎ . GSM and UMTS networks and terminals include a number of different speech coders:       GSM Full Rate GSM Half Rate GSM Enhanced Full Rate GSM Full Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate GSM Half Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate UMTS Adaptive Multi-Rate The UMTS user equipment has a default speech code.323 and H. It generates a variable rate bit-stream of bit-rates between 4. UMTS FDD-mode and UMTS TDD-mode. the so-called H-series. 6 Mobile multimedia terminals for UMTS are based on existing multimedia terminal standards for the fixed networks. GSM packet switched radio.324 are used for UMTS multimedia terminals.C ‎ hapter 6: User Equipment (UE) The radio parts of a user equipment can support any combination of GSM circuit switched radio. H. 84 UMTS Overview July 2001 .3 Multimedia User Equipment The ITU has developed extensions to the fixed terminal standards to adapt them to mobile communication characteristics such as higher bit error rates.323 targets multimedia over packet switched networks with no support of guaranteed Quality-of-Service.

It contains the application software. The five entities in the H.723.g.g. in the terminal for multimedia application and controls the usage of the other blocks in the Figure ‎ . the user interface. 6 The H. In order to have terminals that work properly the single bit-stream from the multiplexer requires a bit-rate of at least 32 kbit/s.1) Data protocols for end-to-end retransmissions and flow control for transfer of user data end-to-end (e.263) The audio coder/decoder that transfers analogue audio into a digital bit-stream (G. 6 The Application SW is not part of the standard. UE Multimedia General Architecture.2 which implement the H. (The core network will be aware of the fact that the call is a H324 call in order to activate specific rate adaptation functions in the so-called Interworking Function in the MSC).245) All the streams generated by the four entities above are finally multiplexed into one single bit-stream according to the H.324 components are:    A video coder/decoder that transfers analogue video into a digital bit-stream (H.2.223.324 terminal part reside in the Terminal Equipment part of the UMTS User Equipment. The single bit-stream from the multiplexer is sent to the Mobile Termination part of the User Equipment for transparent transport over the radio interface an onwards. 85 UMTS Overview July 2001 . e.324 standard components.C ‎ hapter 6: User Equipment (UE) Application SW Video Codec Audio Codec Data End-to-End Control Multiplex To Mobile Termination Figure ‎ .324 multiplex standard H. LAP-D)   Control procedures for multimedia session set up and release end-to-end (H.

 Possibility to update USIM specific information over the air. algorithms. The G.) in a secure and controlled manner. algorithms.1 speech codec has to be supported by UMTS multimedia terminals for interworking with terminals in the fixed network. as well as to the security issues.   The support of one or more user profile on the USIM Physical characteristics same as used for GSM SIM (note that the standard supports inserting a GSM SIM card into a UMTS user equipment which will enable access to the GSM set of services.e. introduced by the International Standardisation Organisation. The following functionality is required from the IC card holding USIM application:  The support of at least one USIM application (several USIM applications belonging to different UMTS service providers may reside on the same IC card).723. (e.   User authentication.C ‎ hapter 6: User Equipment (UE) 3GPP has added the ETSI AMR speech coder/decoder to the list of possible audio codecs for the purpose of mobile-to-mobile multimedia calls. etc. for video applications. USIM is a UMTS specific application residing on a removable IC card and is required for service provision.g. such information as service profile information. no UMTS specific service). i. such information as service profile information. The application in order to allow more versatile UMTS IC card functionality such as access to value-added services.4 UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) This module of the Terminal must contain information enough to identify the user and service provider. We also have the standard MPEG-4. Authentication and ciphering functionality may be part of USIM or some other application on the same or different IC card.) in a secure and controlled manner.g. Necessary requirements for IC Cards used for holding USIM application are related to the need to have one USIM application on the IC card. (e.e. etc. i. not only videotelephony. 6. The standard should support the following additional functionality for the IC Cards in UMTS environment: 86 UMTS Overview July 2001 .  Possibility to update USIM specific information over the air. It is introduced for every kind of video applications.

call barring tables). controlling divert information). Related security issues have to be analysed.g.  Possibility for some applications/files to be restricted to one or some of the subscriptions. service profiles (e.  An interface allowing highly secure downloading and configuration of new functionality. 87 UMTS Overview July 2001 .g.  Inclusion of a payment method (electronic money and/or prepaid and/or subscription details)  Support for storing and possibly executing encryption related information. short dialling codes) and SP-specific parameters inside a USIM application (e.  The support for more than one simultaneous application (Multiple USIM. new algorithms and new applications into the IC card as well as updating the existing applications. under user/SP control. Dynamic addition and deletion of these applications during the lifetime of the card is envisaged. EMV credit/debit card. being done so in a secure manner. as well as for as yet undefined applications (including downloadable applications) required by the future services.C ‎ hapter 6: User Equipment (UE)  Security mechanisms to prevent USIM application specific information from unauthorised access or alteration. with all applications that are shared.  The ability to accept popular value-adding IC card applications. telephone books).g. users preferences (e. Ecash and/or some other applications). electronic purses such as Mondex and Visacash.  Possibility to have shared applications/files between multiple subscriptions including other user and Service Provider controlled files and data. etc.g.   Possibility for one UMTS SP to block multiple subscription on the card the SP has issued. In multi application cards a functionality to prevent the unauthorised access and alteration of USIM specific information by other applications residing on the card. algorithms and data. such as digital signature applications. such as keys and algorithms. With all of these shared applications we can include database (e. Verification of the access privilege shall be performed on the card itself and not delegated to another entity (for example the terminal).

were able phones. Multi-band terminals (e. The goal of “four 100´s” has been a rule of thumb target for handsets. sometimes also called as Value Adding features. The concept trends of mobile handheld terminals is likely to diverge from simple speech terminals towards a variety of different types..g.      Support of higher number of source codecs (several speech codecs). On the other hand. The size targets have already been achieved and any requirement for smaller terminals is questionable from the usability and physical size limitation perspective. Examples of these are memory databases.g. The first reason for this. cellular systems themselves require a huge amount of functions to be fulfilled.).. speech recognition. etc..e. e. display functions. Technological development of these terminals relies on new packaging and interconnection technologies. as well as technological steps like SW-radio. GSM in 900 MHz and DCS1800). In addition to those functions. vending machine radio. Terminal development trends for today‟s terminals are mainly towards higher integration levels resulting in smaller size. from channel and speech coding to signalling and data protocols. communicators. 100 gram weight and also 100 MIPS performance. Dynamic SW configurability. The other target parameters have no maximum limitations.. PC connectivity and compatibility). we can see the following further trends for near future terminals:  Increased number of value adding features (graphics. 100 hour standby. messaging features. Application specific terminals (smart traffic.and multimedia-oriented terminals will challenge the dominant role of speech terminals in the future. These trends are more than likely to continue in the future. 100 cc size. data terminals. 88 UMTS Overview July 2001 . These new data. all terminals have there owned mobile system independent features..g. smart messaging. and different source coding methods (e. i. Multi-mode terminals (e.5 Technology of the Terminals The complexity of the equipment of the 2nd generation digital cellular terminals is already considerable.g.C ‎ hapter 6: User Equipment (UE) 6. JPEG). etc. GSM/DECT dual-mode terminal). The users would prefer multi-band and multi-mode terminals with high integration levels.

implementation architectures. both at the time of issuing and during the card‟s lifetime. It can be clearly seen that the technical development of IC cards in the UMTS context. Terminal implementation technologies. have developed a lot recently and will undergo further development in the future. and memory technologies are developing rapidly and will facilitate an increase in terminal functionality that will enable higher integration of terminals. Furthermore. These development trends will meet the requirements of UMTS and should be taken into account while defining the features and functions of UMTS card. and display technologies. VLSI. such as digitalisation providing programmability and terminal configurability. and will enable IC cards to be much more flexible in the future. The advent of these virtual machine cards. IC and passive integration.g. The trend for IC cards (used form the USIM) is similar to those form terminals.g. the variety of terminals in the UMTS environment will evidently be large. Processing power. the amount of memory and processing power will increase significantly. 89 UMTS Overview July 2001 . Java cards and Multi cards. applications could be downloaded to and removed from these cards. The next generation of IC cards will be multi-application cards capable of supporting several applications simultaneously. GSM Phase 2 SIM cards). will change the roles of the card issuers and application providers. Compared to current IC cards (e. e.C ‎ hapter 6: User Equipment (UE) New radio-interface and system capabilities will enable higher quality multimedia services to be provided and therefore new terminal concepts to evolve. as well as the integration of more functionality into smaller terminals.

C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) Chapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7. It might however be the case that the advanced bearer capabilities of UTRAN not are fully supported by the core network.2 UTRAN Main Aspects 7. 7. in such a way that the evolved GSM network is compatible with UTRAN regarding roaming and handover. In UMTS Release 99 UTRAN is considered the only access network. 90 UMTS Overview July 2001 . and it provides the connection between the core network and the user equipment.2. 7.1 Introduction UTRAN (UMTS Radio Access Network) is the radio access network for UMTS.105. UMTS R-99 puts interoperability requirements on both UTRAN and GSM BSS access networks. It will also support asymmetric and bursty traffic for single.2. Full support for macro diversity in UTRAN-FDD The RNC connection and its mobility is fully controlled by the UTRAN.2 Capabilities The radio access bearer (RAB) capabilities for UTRAN are specified in 22.and multi-media IP as well as N-ISDN applications.1 General Principles The general principles for UTRAN:     Logical separation of signalling and data transport networks. UTRAN will support high bit rate bearer services with the notion of negotiated QoS characteristics. A full separation of UTRAN and CN functions from the transports functions.

Seamless handover within UTRAN. Support for handover TDD-FDD-GSM. The set-up.  Standardised operation. 7. Support for multiple simultaneous RABs. both real time and non-real time capabilities. asymmetric. administration and maintenance protocols co-operating with ETSI TMN. Negotiation and re-negotiation of QoS. of connections. re-negotiation and clearing. Support for positioning within 50 meters. the co-existence of UTRAN and GSM BSS in a network is essential.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) UTRAN in R-99 shall have the following capabilities:     One UTRAN is contained in one UMTS network.  USIM requirements shall be considered. This requires the following for UMTS R-99:  Support of dual mode terminals (UMTS/GSM) that can select cells to camp on from both systems in idle mode and connected mode. 91 UMTS Overview July 2001 .3 UTRAN and GSM BSS (GSM Base Station Subsystem) Since the evolution to UMTS will be gradually. bursty.2. At least 384 kbit/s urban outdoor. Support for broadcast and multicast applications. Support for dual mode terminals FDD-TDD. Supported bit rates:            At least 144 kbit/s rural outdoor. At least 2048 kbit/s indoor/low range outdoor. Support for Localised Service Area (LSA) Optimisation of UTRAN radio interface is based on high bit rates.

and with UE over the radio interface Uu.1. Note that some traffic flows might be re-negotiated or even released because of the different radio access bearer capabilities of the different access networks. MM (Mobile Management).3 UTRAN System Architecture 7.3.  Support of handover between UMTS and GSM BSS in both directions.1 UMTS General System Architecture UTRAN is connected to the CN over the Iu interface.3. UMTS System General Architecture 7 7. A 92 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 7. The UPP implements the actual Radio Access Bearer (RAB) service that carries the data through the Access Stratum (AS). A RNS consists of a Radio Network Controller and one or more Node Bs.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN)  Paging and cell selection procedures shall be designed to handle the combination of GSM and UTRAN cells. Over these interfaces the protocols are divided in "User plane protocols" (UPP) and "Control plane protocols (CPP). but can be used to transparently transfer Non-Access Stratum (NAS) messages (i. CN Iu UTRAN Uu UE UTRAN CN UE UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Core Network User Equipment Figure ‎ .2 UTRAN Architecture The UTRAN consists of a set of Radio Network Subsystems connected to the Core Network through the Iu. GMM and SM messages). CM. The CPP controls the RAB.e.

A RNC supporting the FDD mode may include a combining/splitting function to support macro diversity between different Node B.2. Core Network Iu RNS Iur RNC Iub Node B Iub Node B Iub Node B RNC Iub Node B RNS Iu Figure ‎ . Iu(s) and Iur are logical interfaces. Iur can be conveyed over physical direct connection between RNCs or via any suitable transport network. One Node B consists of the following blocks: 93 UMTS Overview July 2001 .1 Node B Node B transmits and receives in one or more cells. the RNCs of the Radio Network Subsystems can be interconnected together through the Iur. TDD mode or dual-mode operation. FDD or a combination of TDD and FDD.4 UTRAN Nodes 7. Inside the UTRAN. UTRAN Architecture 7 7.4.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) Node B is connected to the RNC through the Iub interface. The RNC is responsible for the Handover decisions that require signalling to the UE. The Node B interfaces the UE over the Uu interface. and the RNC over the Iub interface. A Node B can support FDD mode. There are three modes for a Node B: TDD. The RNC comprises a combining/splitting function to support macro diversity between different Node B.

Here is the modulation/demodulation performed. and insert data in the system information.1.4.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7.2 Signal Processing The processing of the signal has different requirements in UL and DL:  Uplink:        SC/CC generation Despreading Rake receiver Deinterleaving Channel decoding Combining (in softer handover) Downlink:      Splitting (in softer handover) Channel coding Interleaving CC/SC generation Spreading 7.3 Transmitter / Receiver The transmission/reception part handles the carrier generation and is responsible for the output power. 7.1.1 Control The control function is responsible for the signalling towards the RNC and the O&M functions. It also monitors the radio quality in the cells. The modulation is QPSK.1.4. 94 UMTS Overview July 2001 .4.

4.5 UTRAN Interfaces UTRAN contain two internal interfaces (Iub. and assigns channels to the UE Supervision: monitors QoS.1 General Principles for UTRAN Interfaces  As few options as possible for the functional division across the interfaces. It interfaces the MSC or SGSN in the core network over the Iu interface.2. 7.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7. Iur) and interfaces to the UE (Uu) and the core network (Iu).2. 7.2 The Radio Network Controller (RNC) The RNC is in control of one or several Node B:s.2 Radio Access Bearer Management The radio access bearer management functions is responsible for the establishment. supervision and release of radio bearers. and the Node B over the Iub interface.4.4. This function is also responsible for the control of system information from CN and UTRAN. The RNC consists of the following: 7.1 Radio Network Management Signalling both to CN and UE is handled by radio network management functions. It also handles the ciphering/deciphering. handover decisions Release: deactivates channels 7. This function is also responsible for the (re-)negotiation with an UE in a cell and the CN for the QoS for a call/session.    Establishment: assigns and activates channels in Node B.5. An interface between RNC:s is specified.4. 7.3 Signal Processing The signal processing functions handles flow control and retransmissions. as well as the SOHO procedures combining (UL) and splitting (DL). and known as the Iur interface.2. 95 UMTS Overview July 2001 .

7.5.2. The actual signalling protocol that is in use within the Transport Network Control Plane depends on the underlying transport layer technology.2 Iu Interface 7.5.3. Transport Network Control Plane is a functional plane in the interface protocol structure that is used for the transport bearer management. Serving RNS Relocation 7 96 UMTS Overview July 2001 . SRNS Relocation needs support from the Core Network to be executed. Core Network Core Network Iu DRNS Iur SRNS SRNS Iu RNS Cells UE Before SRNS Relocation UE After SRNS Relocation Figure ‎ . The intention is not to specify a new UTRAN specific Application Part for the Transport Network Control Plane but to use signalling protocols standardised in other groups (if needed) for the applied transport layer technology.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN)  Interfaces should be based on a logical model of the entity controlled through this interface.1 Access Network Triggered Streamlining One Access Network triggered function needed over the Iu interface is the function for SRNS Relocation.

2 Iu Interface Protocol The Radio Network signalling over Iu consists of the Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP). Over the Iu interface the RANAP protocol is.4). Request of various types of UTRAN Radio Access Bearers through the dedicated SAP. This resource and traffic handling is controlled by the Transport 7 Signalling. used for:  Facilitate a set of general UTRAN procedures from the Core Network such as paging notification as defined by the general SAP.5. It is therefore proposed to separate the Data Transport Resource and traffic handling from the RANAP (Figure ‎ .    Transfer of transparent non-access signalling as defined in the dedicated SAP.  Separate each User Equipment (UE) on the protocol level for mobile specific signalling management as defined by the dedicated SAP. e. Various transmission possibilities exist to convey the bearers over the Iu to the Core Network. Figure ‎ . It is also capable of conveying messages transparently between the CN and the UE without interpretation or processing by the UTRAN. Separation of RANAP and Transport over Iu 7 97 UMTS Overview July 2001 . The Access Stratum provides the Radio Access Bearers.4.g. Perform the streamlining function. A Signalling Bearer carries the Transport Signalling over the Iu interface. The RANAP consists of mechanisms to handle all procedures between the CN and UTRAN.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7.2.

3 Iur Interface The Iur interface connects a SRNS and a DRNS. The internal DRNS handling of the macro-diversity combining/splitting of radio frames is controlled by the DRNS. commonly agreed Quality estimate Synchronisation information Signalling:  Addition of Cells in the DRNS which may lead or not to the addition of an new Iur Data stream   Removal of Cells in the DRNS Modify Radio bearer characteristics From a logical stand point. The information exchanged across the Iur is categorised as below:  One or more Iur Data stream which comprises:     Radio frames Simple.3.5. there is no deeper hierarchy of RNSs than the SRNS and DRNS.5. the Iur interface is a point to point interface between the SRNS and all the DRNS. 7. this point to point logical interface should be feasible even in the absence of a physical direct connection between the two RNSs.1.e. This interface should be open.3. and data streams communicated via its own cells. SRNS performs macro-diversity combining/splitting of Iur data streams received from/sent to DRNS(s). i.1 Macro Diversity Combining/Splitting DRNS may perform macro-diversity combining/splitting of data streams communicated via its cells.1 Functional Split over Iur Interface 7.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) The RANAP is terminated in the SRNS. 98 UMTS Overview July 2001 . However. 7.5.

2 Control of Macro Diversity Combining/Splitting Topology When requesting the addition of a new cell for a UE-UTRAN connection. Note that this does not imply that the signalling of the code allocation to the UE must be done from the DRNS. used for Iur data streams and radio interface transmission/reception in DRNS.3. Separation of RNSAP and Transport Over Iur 7 99 UMTS Overview July 2001 .2 Iur Interface Protocol The signalling information across Iur interface as identified in previous section is called Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (RNSAP).3. 7.5. is performed by DRNS.3 Handling of DRNS Hardware Resources Allocation and control of DRNS hardware resources. in which case the macro-diversity combining and splitting function within the DRNS is not used for that cell.1.4 Allocation of Downlink Channelisation Codes Allocation of downlink channelisation codes of cells belonging to DRNS is performed in DRNS.5.1.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7.e. Figure ‎ . 7.5. 7.5.3. whether a new Iur data stream shall be added or not. the DRNS takes the decision whether macro-diversity combining and splitting function is used inside the DRNS for that cell i.1. the SRNS can explicitly request to the DRNS a new Iur data stream.5.3. Otherwise.

5). As already stated in previous section a clear separation shall exist between the Radio Network Layer and the Transport Layer.g. The information transferred over the Iub reference point can be categorised as follows: 1. for example to add and delete cells controlled by the Node B to support communication of the dedicated connection between UE and SRNS.5. The Iub data stream shall follow the same specification as the Iur data stream. switched connection). Quality Estimations of Uplink Radio Frames and Synchronisation Data:The macrodiversity combining function of the RNC uses Node B quality estimations of the uplink radio frame data blocks. Radio Application Related Signalling:The Iub interface allows RNC and Node B to negotiate about radio resources. Therefore. The information in category 3 is tightly coupled to the radio frame data blocks in category 2. 2. Radio Frame Data Blocks:The Iub interface provides means for transport of uplink and downlink radio frame data blocks between RNC and Node B.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) The RNSAP is terminated in the SRNS and in the DRNS. 3.4 Iub Interface The Iub interface connects a RNC and a Node B. A Signalling Bearer carries the Transport Signalling over the Iur interface. There is also a need for accurate time synchronisation between the soft handover branches. Over the Iub interface between the RNC and one Node B. 7. category 2 and 3 information is multiplexed on the same underlying transport mechanism (e. This resource and traffic handling 7 is controlled by the Transport Signalling. This transport can use predefined transmission links or switched connections. one or more Iub data streams are established. each corresponding to one or more cells belonging to the Node B. It is therefore proposed to separate the Data Transport resource and traffic handling from the RNSAP (Figure ‎ . 100 UMTS Overview July 2001 . and is together referred to as an Iub data stream.

4. 7. 7. 7.2 Control of Macro Diversity Combining/Splitting Topology When requesting the addition of a new cell for a UE to UTRAN connection.5. whether a new Iub data stream shall be added or not. The RNC takes the decision to add or delete cells from the connection. 7.5.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7.1 Macro-diversity Combining of Radio Frame Data Blocks Node B may perform macro-diversity combining/splitting of data streams communicated via its cells.5. is performed by Node B. 101 UMTS Overview July 2001 . used for Iub data streams and radio interface transmission/reception.1. the RNC can explicitly request to the Node B a new Iub data stream. RNC performs macro-diversity combining/splitting of Iub data streams received from/sent to several Node B(s). The Node B controls the internal Node B handling of the macro-diversity combining/splitting. Note that this does not imply that the signalling of the code allocation to the UE must be done from Node B. UTRAN uses measurement reports from the MS (Mobile Station) and detectors at the cells.1 Functional Split Over Iub 7.5 Allocation of Downlink Channelisation Codes Allocation of downlink channelisation codes of cells belonging to Node B is performed in Node B.1.1.1.4 Handling of Node B Hardware Resources Mapping of Node B logical resources onto Node B hardware resources. the Node B takes the decision whether macro-diversity combining and splitting function is used inside the Node B for that cell i.4.5.1. Otherwise. in which case the macro-diversity combining and splitting function within the Node B is not used for that cell.4.e.3 Soft Handover Decision To support mobility of the UE to UTRAN connection between cells.4.5.4.4.5.

2 Signalling Bearer Requirements for Iur Interface There exist at least two major types of soft handover over the Iur interface: 1.2. 2.2 and I.5.g.5 UTRAN Internal Bearers For all open interfaces.1) is used as the standard transport layer for Soft Handover data stream across the Iur interface. Support of signalling inactivity testing of a specific UE connection. The case when existing transmission (Iur data stream) is used over the Iur interface when an additional cell is added in the DRNS.   A reliable connection to make the RANAP simpler.2 Signalling Bearers 7. one mandatory set of protocols must be specified.5.363.5. However. Consequently a UE context must exist in the DRNS. Over the Iur interface the RNSAP protocol requires: 102 UMTS Overview July 2001 .5. to facilitate messages belonging to a specific User equipment (UE) during a call.5. A connection oriented transport of RANAP messages e.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7. In this case the DRNS must be able to identify the UE in order to perform the adding of the cell.g.5.1 Signalling Bearer Requirements for Iu Interface Over the Iu interface the RANAP protocol requires:   A connectionless transport of RANAP messages to facilitate e. 7.5.366. 7. The case when a new physical transmission (Iur data stream) is set up over the Iur interface to provide an additional cell.1 User Data Bearers ATM and AAL type 2 (ITU-T recommendations I.5.5. paging. 7.2. a clear separation between the Radio Network functions and the Transport functions should allow this Transport layer to be exchanged to another one with minimum impact on the Radio Network functions.

one signalling bearer connection for each DRNS for a particular UE. etc. i. or the network side. e.    Admission Control. FACH and RACH channel structure of the cell.   A reliable connection to make the RNSAP simpler.6 UTRAN Functions The functions of UTRAN are divided in functions for overall system control. Congestion Control.e. mobility and radio resource handling.6. The tasks may include:    Access rights Frequency bands used Configuration of transport channels. radio channel ciphering. User system access may be initiated from either the mobile side. e. a mobile originated call. a mobile terminated call. 7.g. 7.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN)  A connection oriented transport of RNSAP messages.      Network and cell identities Information for location registration purposes UE idle mode cell selection and cell re-selection criteria UE transmission power control information UE access and admission control information 103 UMTS Overview July 2001 .1 System Access Control System access is the means by which a UMTS user is connected to the UMTS in order to use UMTS services and/or facilities. Support of signalling inactivity testing of a specific UE connection.g. System information broadcasting: This function provides the mobile station with the information that is needed to camp on a cell and to set up a connection in idle mode and to perform handover or route packets in communication mode. PCH.

etc. 7.1 Radio Environment Survey This function performs measurements on radio channels (current and surrounding cells) and translates these measurements into radio channel quality estimates.g.3 Mobility 7.g. The deciphering function is the complement function of the ciphering function.6. Transmission range (e.3.6. This function is located in the UE and in the UTRAN. 7.6. . low-speed. Synchronisation status. based on the same ciphering key. (current and surrounding cells).1. the basic control and synchronisation of this function should be located in UTRAN. This function is located in the UE and in the UTRAN. Estimated bit error ratios. Estimation of propagation environments (e. Doppler shift.1 Radio Channel Deciphering This function is a pure computation function that is used to restore the original information from the ciphered information.6. derived through signalling and/or session dependent information. through timing information).).1 Radio Channel Ciphering This function is a pure computation function whereby the radio transmitted data can be protected against an non-authorised third party. 7. Measurements may include:       104 UMTS Overview July 2001 Received signal strengths (current and surrounding cells). Ciphering may be based on the usage of a session-dependent key.2.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) Because of its close relation to the basic radio transmission and the radio channel structure. satellite.6.2 Radio Channel Ciphering / Deciphering 7.2. high-speed.

Depending on the outcome of this comparison. In order for these measurements and the subsequent analysis to be meaningful.6. the cell (base station sector) and/or the radio channel. 7. but conveyed via several parallel physical channels (diversity sub-links). 7. Such association may include the use of identifiers for the network. If mobile only initiated handover.6. Macro diversity control should interact with channel coding control in order to reduce the bit error ratio when combining the different information streams. some association between the measurements and the channels to which they relate should be made in the analysis. This function may also include functionality to assess traffic loading distribution among radio cells and to decide on handing over traffic between cells for traffic reasons. If both the mobile and the network can initiate handover. this function is located in the UE. the base station.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN)  Received interference level. This function is located in the UE and in the UTRAN. This function controls macrodiversity execution which is located at the two endpoints of the connection element on which 105 UMTS Overview July 2001 . this function is located in the UTRAN. The location of this function is depending on the handover principle chosen:    If network only initiated handover.3 Macro Diversity Control Upon request of the handover decision function. this function will be located in both the UTRAN and the UE. The overall quality of service is compared with requested limits and with estimates from surrounding cells. the macro-diversity control function or the handover control function may be activated.3. This function also controls the combining of information streams generated by a single source (diversity link). this function control the duplication/ replication of information streams to receive/ transmit the same information through multiple physical channels (possibly in different cells) from/ towards a single mobile terminal.3.2 Handover Decision This function consists of gathering estimates of the quality of the radio channels (including estimates from surrounding cells) from the measuring entities and to assess the overall quality of service of the call.

that is at the access point and also at the mobile termination. However. It initiates the handover execution process in the entities required and receives indications regarding the results. In some cases.6.3.3. This function is located both in the UTRAN and in the CN. This function is located in the UTRAN for UTRAN internal path switching and in the CN for CN path switching.g. some bit stream combining function within the CN may have to be included in the control.6 Handover Completion This function will free up any resources that are no longer needed. 7.3.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) macro-diversity is applied (diversity link). 7. this function should be located in the UTRAN. e. It comprises two sub-processes: handover resource reservation and handover path new radio and wire-line resources that are required for the handover.6. 7. including any intermediate path combination required. When the new resources are successfully reserved and activated. handover branch addition and handover branch deletion in the soft handover case. depending on the physical network architecture. the handover path switching process will perform the final switching from the old to the new resources.4 Handover Control In the case of switched handover. this function is responsible for the overall control of the handover execution process.g. A re-routing of the call may also be triggered in order to optimise the new connection.6. This function is typically located in the UTRAN.5 Handover Execution This function is in control of the actual handing over of the communication path. there may be several entities which combine the different information streams. depending on physical network configuration. another combines information streams on wire-line signal basis. Due to the close relationship with the radio access and the Handover Decision function. e. one entity combines information streams on radio signal basis. 106 UMTS Overview July 2001 .

8 Inter-System Handover The Inter-system handover function enables handover to and from e.e. UMTS radio resources must be shared between circuit mode (voice and data) services and other modes of service (e.g. This function is located both in the UE and in the UTRAN. 7. which is located in the radio access sub network.4. In the former case. this function will be activated by request from other functional entities at call set-up/release. And to manage and maintain the element of the end-to-end connection. when the end-to-end connection has already been established. This function interacts with the reservation and release of physical (radio) channels function. reserving or releasing the corresponding physical radio 107 UMTS Overview July 2001 .3.6.6. This function is located in the UTRAN.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7.4 Radio Resource Management and Control Radio Resource Management is concerned with the allocation and maintenance of radio communication resources.1 Radio Bearer Connection Set-Up and Release (Radio Bearer Control) This function is responsible for the control of connection element set-up and release in the radio access sub network. this function may also be invoked to cater for in-call service modification or at handover execution.3.7 SRNS Relocation The SRNS Relocation function co-ordinates the activities when the SRNS role is to be taken over by another RNS.6. 7. the UE and the CN. GSM BSS. i.6. SRNS relocation implies that the Iu interface connection point is moved to the new RNS.2 Reservation and Release of Physical Radio Channels This function consists of translating the connection element set-up or release requests into physical radio channel requests. 7.4.g. 7. The purpose of this function is   To participate in the processing of the end-to-end connection set-up and release. In the latter case.6. This function is located in the UTRAN and the CN. packet data transfer mode and connectionless services).

Therefore. 7. 7. once physical radio channels have been reserved. This function includes procedures which:      Provide packet access control over radio channels. this function must also be capable of dynamically assigning physical channels during a call. Provide packet multiplexing over common physical radio channels. Provide packet discrimination within the mobile terminal.4. Moreover. 108 UMTS Overview July 2001 .4 Packet Data Transfer Over Radio Function This function provides packet data transfer capability across the UMTS radio interface.g. The distinction between the two functions is required e. due to service requests from the user or macro-diversity requests. This function may or may not be identical to the function reservation and release of physical radio channels. Provide flow control procedures. the amount of radio resource required may change during a call. for actual physical radio channel usage. to take into account sharing a physical radio channel by multiple users in a packet data transfer mode.6.6.4.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) channels and acknowledging this reservation/release to the requesting entity. This function is located in both the UE and in the UTRAN. allocating or de-allocating the corresponding physical radio channels for data transfer. This function may or may not be identical to the function reservation and release of physical radio channels. Provide error detection and correction. This function is located in the UTRAN. The distinction between the two functions is required e.3 Allocation and De-Allocation of Physical Radio Channels This function is responsible. This function may also perform physical channel reservation and release in the case of a handover. This function is located in the UTRAN. to take into account sharing a physical radio channel by multiple users in a packet data transfer mode.g.

whether closed or open loop. it is important that the radio transmission power is not higher than what is required for the requested service quality.6.6.4. The channel coding algorithm(s) used and the amount of redundancy introduced may be different for the different types of transport channels and different types of data. This function is located in both the UE and in the UTRAN.4.6.7 Radio Channel Coding This function introduces redundancy into the source data flow.8 Radio Channel Decoding This function tries to reconstruct the source information using the redundancy added by the channel coding function to detect or correct possible errors in the received data flow. increasing its rate by adding information calculated from the source data. 109 UMTS Overview July 2001 . This function is located in both the UE and in the UTRAN. 7. 7. The function forms an inherent part of any power control scheme.6. This function is located in both the UE and in the UTRAN.5 RF Power Control In order to minimise the level of interference (and thereby maximise the re-use of radio spectrum). Based on assessments of radio channel quality. This function is located in both the UE and in the UTRAN.4. The channel decoding function may also employ a priori error likelihood information generated by the demodulation function to increase the efficiency of the decoding operation.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7. 7. The channel decoding function is the complement function to the channel coding function. this function controls the level of the transmitted power from the mobile station as well as the base station.6 RF Power Setting This function adjusts the output power of a radio transmitter according to control information from the RF power control function. in order to allow the detection or correction of signal errors introduced by the transmission medium.4.

This function is located in the UTRAN.6. This function is located in both the UE and in the UTRAN. 7.4. etc.Timing Advance] CN Distribution function for Non Access Stratum messages. 7.7 Identifiers The following identifiers are used within UTRAN 7.1 UTRAN identifiers PLMN Identifier: PLMN-Id = MCC + MNC CN Domain Identifier: CN CS Domain-Id = PLMN-Id + LAC CN PS Domain-Id = PLMN-Id + LAC + RAC RNC Identifier: Global RNC-Id = PLMN-Id + RNC-Id Service Area Identifier: SAI = PLMN-Id + LAC + SAC 110 UMTS Overview July 2001 .6.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7. code rate.10 Initial (Random) Access Detection and Handling This function will have the ability to detect an initial access attempt from a mobile station and will respond appropriately. 7. The successful result will be the request for allocation of appropriate resources for the requesting mobile station.6.9 Channel Coding Control This function generates control information required by the channel coding/ decoding execution functions.4. etc.11 Other Funtions:      Radio resource configuration and operation [TDD . This may include channel coding scheme.4.7.Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA)] Radio protocols function [TDD . The handling of the initial access may include procedures for a possible resolution of colliding attempts.

maximum and guaranteed bit rate. There are four different RNTIs: 1. d-RNTI: Drift RNC RNTI 3. user plane transport and QoS management functionality. These aspects are among others the control signalling. To realise a certain network QoS a Bearer Service with clearly defined characteristics and functionality is to be set up from the source to the destination of a service. s-RNTI: Serving RNC RNTI 2.107 The QoS negotiation is a trace off between bit error rate (BER) delay and bit rate. etc.7. that is from one terminal equipment to another terminal equipment. u-RNTI: UTRAN RNTI 7. There are four QoS classes defined for UMTS (the same as for GPRS) responding to different requirements for delay. c-RNTI: Cell RNTI 4.8 UMTS QoS and RAB 7.8. When negotiating QoS a number of service attributes are agreed (Traffic class. delay and BER.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) Cell Identifier: UC-Id = RNC-Id + C-Id 7.) 111 UMTS Overview July 2001 . The UMTS QoS concept is describes in the specification 23. called the Radio Network Temporary Identity. A bearer service includes all aspects to enable the provision of a contracted QoS.2 UE Identifiers When the UE is known to UTRAN is given an identity.1 Quality of Service (QoS) The general QoS approach for UMTS is that only the QoS perceived by end-user matter.

6·10-8 10-3. 103 3 . 10-5 10-2.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) Traffic class Conversational class Conversational RT Streaming class Streaming RT Interactive class Interactive best effort Background Background best effort Preserve time relation (variation) between Fundamental information characteristics entities of stream Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay) Example of application Voice Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of stream Request response pattern Destination is not expecting the data within a certain time Preserve Preserve payload payload content content Background download of emails Streaming video Web browsing Table ‎ . UMTS QoS Classes 7 Traffic class Maximum bitrate (kbps) Delivery order Maximum SDU size (octets) Delivery of erroneous SDUs Residual VER SDU error ratio Transfer delay (ms) Guaranteed bit rate (kbps) Traffic handling priority Allocation/Retention Priority Conversational class <2000 Yes/No <1500 Yes/No/- Streaming class <2000 Yes/No <1500 Yes/No/- Interactive class <2000 – overhead Yes/No <1500 Yes/No/4·10-3. 10-2. 10-6 Background class <2000 – overhead Yes/No <1500 Yes/No/4·10-3. 3 1. 2. 10-4 .1. 10-4. 10-4. 10-5. 10-2. 2. 10-5. 10-4. 2. 3 1.2. 10-3. 6·10-8 10-3. 10. 10-6 10-2. 2. 3 1. 3 Table ‎ . 10-6 5·10-2. Value Ranges for UMTS Bearer Service Attributes 7 112 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 2. 3 1. 10-4.5·10-2. 10-3. 10-4 10-5. 10-5 100 – 500 – maximum value maximum value <2000 <2000 1.

2 Radio Access Bearers (RAB) RAB is described by:  Information quality of service      Bit rate Bit error ratio Maximum transfer delay Delay variation Traffic characteristics   Point-point.C ‎ hapter 7: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acces Network (UTRAN) 7.8. uni-directional or bi-directional (symmetric or asymmetric) Point-to-multipoint. uni-directional (multicast and broadcast) 113 UMTS Overview July 2001 .

The use of dual mode mobiles in the early phases of introduction of third-generation systems will ensure that UMTS subscribers will able to enjoy roaming and interworking with the global GSM community. Keeping GSM as the core network for the provision of third-generation wireless services has distinct commercial advantages: protecting the investment of existing GSM operators. penetration of wireless datacom services is still less than three per cent.1 Introduction The UMTS core network will be based in the existing GSM core network. 8. helping ensure the widest possible customer base from day one. or GSM Network Switching System (GSM NSS). whether as evolved GSM core networks or as newly-built pure UMTS networks (albeit with different topology and physical implementation). full roaming and hand-over from one system. excluding Short Message Service (SMS). and with mapping of services between the two systems as far as possible. and fostering supplier competition through the continuous evolution of GSM systems. 114 UMTS Overview July 2001 .C ‎ hapter 8: Core Network Chapter 8: Core Network 8. Bearing this in mind it is worth noting that today‟s wireless data market is still in its infancy: among wireless subscribers. A wide customer base from day one is achieved with the help of dual mode GSM/UMTS mobile terminals. The GSM standard offers a sound base for UMTS core networks. an Important Stepping Stone Towards a UMTS Core Network The real point of moving to third generation systems is to give users high speed access to wireless multimedia services and other wireless data services.2 GPRS.

rather than connection time. GPRS can therefore help remove the network barriers to large-scale take-up of wireless data services by allowing familiar. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). offers current GSM operators an opportunity to kickstart the predicted mass market for wireless data services. including IP will be supported by GPRS. via for example TCP/IP and X. GPRS will support applications ranging from low-speed short messages to high-speed corporate LAN communications. All the widely-used data communication protocols. it is relatively small step from building a core network capable of delivering GPRS services to enhancing it to meet the requirements of UMTS. especially for bursty Internet/intranet traffic. enhancing GSM data services significantly. and do not meet the UMTS requirements. In other words. This make extremely efficient use of available radio bandwidth to be shared between many users. The introduction of GPRS is one of the key staging posts in the evolution of GSM networks to third-generation capabilities. GPRS does not require any end-to-end connection and only uses network resources and bandwidth when data is actually being transmitted. the packet-based data bearer service for GSM. but also to build upon for IMT-2000. so it will be possible to connect to any data source from anywhere in the world using a GPRS mobile terminal. UMTS? 115 UMTS Overview July 2001 . GPRS will provide end-to-end packet switching capability from the mobile terminal upwards. By providing seamless interconnection with existing data services. Call set-up will be almost instantaneous and users will be charged on the basis of actual data transmitted. And important to note.25 interfaces. they are inefficient at handling small. So what needs to happen in the core network to support the move to GPRS and.C ‎ hapter 8: Core Network The problem is that the current wireless networks are not best equipped to deal with these new forms of data use. As circuit switched networks. user-friendly interfaces like the Internet to be used. implementing GPRS will provide a core network platform for current GSM operators not only to expand the wireless data market in preparation for the introduction of third-generation services. permitting volume-based charging and providing high-speed user data rates. frequent data calls and bursty IP traffic. ultimately.

for example.C ‎ hapter 8: Core Network 8.3. or separated. the GGSN is a host that owns all IP addresses of all subscribers served by the GPRS network. The GGSN will provide the gateway to external ISP networks.3 Upgrading the GSM Core for GPRS Compared with establishing a completely new communications system. authentication and ciphering to and from all GPRS subscribers located in the SGSN service area. The traffic is routed from the SGSN to the Base Station Controller (BSC) and to the mobile terminal via the Base Transceiver Station (BTS). depending on location. A GPRS subscriber may be served by any SGSN in the network. The nodes will be interconnected by an IP backbone network. handling security and accounting functions as web as dynamic allocation of IP addresses to serve mobile terminal. 116 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 8. An intermediate move to a GSM-GPRS network will make the transition even easier. including mobility management. even residing in different mobile networks. intranets and databases.1 New Nodes for Packet Data Two new logical nodes will be introduced to handle GPRS applications in the GSM:   Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) The SGSN will provide packet routing. with new types of connections to external packet data networks. it will essentially be an extension of GSM. Moving to a GSM-UMTS core network will likewise be an extension of this evolved network. building GSM-UMTS infrastructure based on an existing GSM network will be a relatively fast exercise. GPRS will be implemented simply by adding new packet data nodes and upgrading existing nodes to provide a routing path for packet data between the wireless terminal and a gateway node. The SGSN and GGSN functions may be combined in the same physical node. From the external IP networks point of view. The gateway node will provide interworking with external packet data networks for access to the Internet. While GPRS will require new functionality in the GSM network.

handled by the BSC. The BSC will also have a new traffic and signalling interface from the SGSN.2 Upgrades to Existing GSM Nodes Few or no hardware upgrades will be needed in the existing GSM nodes. The BSC will require new capabilities for controlling the packet channels: new hardware in the form of a Packet Control Unit (PCU) and new software for GPRS mobility management and paging. UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) will be connected to the GSM-UMTS core network using a new multi-vendor interface (the Iu). This core network will support both GSM and UMTS. which will be backward compatible with the GSM network in terms of network protocols and interfaces (MAP. 8. There will be a clear separation between the services provided by the UTRAN and the actual channels used to carry these services. The SGSN and GGSN should also support several radio networks (those with compliant open interfaces) at the same time. The HLR will contain GPRS subscription data and routing information. The BTS will have new protocols supporting packet data for the air interface. and will be accessible from the SGSN. etc.C ‎ hapter 8: Core Network A key requirement for these new nodes is that they are scalable.4 Moving to UMTS in the GSM/GPRS Core UMTS will have an evolved GSM core network. 8. and add extra capacity as it is needed. A special interface will be provided between the MSC/Visitor Location Register (VLR) and the SGSN to co-ordinate signalling for mobile terminals that can handle both circuit-switched and packet-switched data. with hand-over and roaming between the two.). The HLR will also map each subscriber to one or more GGSNs.3. The utilisation of radio channels will be optimised through dynamic sharing between the two traffic types (circuit and packet switched traffic). together with new slot and channel resource allocation functions. so that GSM operators can start to offer high-speed packet data services using small nodes in selected areas costeffectively. ISUP. All radio network functions (such as resource control) 117 UMTS Overview July 2001 . and the same transmissions links will be used between BTSs and BSCs for both GSM and GPRS. The transport protocol within the new radio network and to the core network will be ATM.

all nodes must be upgraded to handle the new range of data rates and the concept of quality of service negotiation and re-negotiation. As a consequence. Apart from the new range of higher data rate bearer services and more advanced QoS procedures. Pre-UMTS systems have largely standardised the complete sets of teleservices. Last but not least. It is intended that these standardised capabilities should provide a defined platform which will enable the support of speech. Service capabilities consist of bearers defined by QoS parameters and the mechanisms needed to realise services.in how services will be handled. messaging data. The GSM-UMTS core network will implement supplementary services according to GSM principles (HLR-MSC/VLR). multi-media. Modifications to support UMTS will be requires in all core network nodes. UMTS shall therefore standardise service capabilities and not the services themselves.. The GSM-UMTS network will consist of three main parts:    GSM-UMTS core network UMTS Radio Access Network (URAN) GSM Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Like the GSM-GPRS core network. and clearly separated from the service and subscription functions in the core network. The core network access point for GSM circuit switched connections is the GSM MSC. These mechanisms include the functionality provided by various network elements. the communication between them and the storage of associated data. MSC and SGSN must be upgraded to handle the new signalling and traffic protocols towards UTRAN. the GSM-UMTS core network will have two different parts: a circuit switched part (MSC) and a packet-switched part (GSN). the UMTS core network introduces a third major novelty – as compared to preUMTS networks . and for packet switched connections is the SGSN. user applications and 118 UMTS Overview July 2001 . video. applications and supplementary services which they provide. Furthermore. substantial re-engineering is often required to enable new services to be provided and the market for services is largely determined by operators to differentiate their services. GSM-defined services (up to and including GSM Phase 2+) will be supported in the dual “GSM” way.C ‎ hapter 8: Core Network will be handled within the radio access network. other teleservices. HLR and VLR must be modified to store UMTS service profiles and subscription data.

the core network will simply act as a transparent bearer. will thus no longer be standardised. They include for instance:         Bearers defined by quality of service (QoS) parameters Intelligent network functionality Mobile Equipment Execution Environment (MEXE) WAP and Telephony value-added Services SIM Application Toolkit Location servers Open interfaces to mobile network functions Downloadable application software So. compared with the equivalent current solutions. and to cater for the large increase in data traffic volume. Instead they will be created using new the service capabilities (which are standardised) mentioned above. For such services. 119 UMTS Overview July 2001 .4. The core network will ultimately be used for the transfer of data between the end-points. New services. with servers residing on service LANs outside the GSM-UMTS core network. 8. in addition to new services provided by the GSM-UMTS network itself. many new services and applications will be realised using a client/server approach.C ‎ hapter 8: Core Network supplementary services and enable the market for services to be determined by users and home environments. the client and the server. The combination of ATM and UTRAN capabilities and the increased volume of packet data traffic over the air interface will mean a saving of at least 50% in transmission costs. These service capabilities may be seen as „building blocks‟ that provide service mechanisms in the UMTS network and UMTS mobile terminal that can be used for service creation. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) will be used as the transport protocol within the UTRAN and towards the GSM-UMTS core network. beyond GSM Phase 2+.1 Cell-Based Transport Network To make the most of the new UTRAN capabilities.

The additional requirements for the phase 1 UMTS core network are the following:  The phase 1 UMTS core network shall support circuit switched data service capability of at least 64 kbit/s per user. optimised for delay-sensitive speech services and packet-data services.g.C ‎ hapter 8: Core Network ATM. This shall not limit the user from choosing lower data rates. CS). The re-negotiation of QoS attributes for a bearer service may be caused by an application or the user via an application. 8.5 UMTS Core Network Phase 1 (Release 99) Requirements In the first phase of UMTS. connection admission control. with the newly-standardised AAL2 adaptation layer.  Established bearers shall not prevent the set-up of a new bearer. and multicast) traffic.  The phase 1 UMTS core network shall support a range of traffic and performance characteristics for connectionless (e.g. imply a completely new transport infrastructure: the ATM could well be run over existing STM lines. usage parameter control…) on a connection during its set-up and lifetime. PS. re-negotiation and clearing of connections (i. This shall not limit the user from choosing lower data rates. provides an efficient transport protocol. This means that the support of the full set of bearer services defined in the UMTS specifications is not required for the phase 1 UMTS core network. It shall be possible to apply traffic policing (e. the UMTS core network capabilities are a superset of the phase 2+ release 99 GSM core network capabilities. CS calls or PS sessions) with a range of traffic and performance characteristics.  The phase 1 UMTS core network shall enable set-up. These bearers can be of any type (e. broadcast. Introducing ATM as a transport protocol does not. flow control. It is nevertheless expected that the terminal and network 120 UMTS Overview July 2001 . unicast. however.  The phase 1 UMTS core network shall support packet switched data service capability of at least 2 Mbit/s peak bit rate per user.e.g.  The range of traffic and performance characteristics that shall be supported by the phase 1 UMTS core network shall be at least those of GPRS phase 2+ release 99.

 The phase 1 UMTS core network shall support interworking with PSTN. GSM.  It shall be possible for the standardised classes of phase 1 UMTS mobile terminals supporting the GSM BSS and UTRAN radio interfaces to roam in GSM networks and receive GSM services. MEXE. N-ISDN.g. X. the notion of Internet port).C ‎ hapter 8: Core Network capabilities will put some limitations on the number of bearer services that can be handled simultaneously. WAP and SIM Toolkit). administration and maintenance of the UMTS phase 1 core network in co-operation with relevant groups within ETSI. It shall be possible for each bearer to have independent traffic and performance characteristics. This functionality could be provided through available toolkits (such as IN.  Standardised protocols shall be defined for the operation.25 and IP networks with their respective numbering schemes.  Operator specific services based shall be supported by the phase 1 UMTS core network. it shall be possible to address applications to/from a phase 1 UMTS mobile termination (e. 121 UMTS Overview July 2001 .  In order to facilitate the development of new applications.

RNC1. is performed. SC1.1 Position 1 The UE receives information from the Node B that controls the cell with Scrambling Code 1. This operation is known like combining and splitting and is performed by the RNC Signal Processing. 9. This cell has a different Scrambling Code (SC2) and is controlled by a new Node B that depends on the same RNC1. This is the simplest case that can be found. The handover decisions are taken in the RAB Management of the RNC1. SOHO. All the information of the first Node B is received from the Radio Network Controller 1. The four RNCs and the BSC are connected through the common Core Network. The RNC1 is transmitting to two different Node Bs.2 Position 2 The UE enters in a new cell using the same frequency. 122 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 9. In this short period a soft handover.3 Position 3 The UE is completely inside the cell number two (SC2) and is receiving from the second Node B.4 Position 4 The UE is crossing the cell border to enter in the cell number three (SC3) that is controlled by the same Node B. Now the combining operation is realised by Node B with the RNC supervision. 9. 9.C ‎ hapter 9: Handover (Downlink Case Example) Chapter 9: Handover (Downlink Case Example) In this chapter a complete case of handover is presented. In this case a softer handover is performed. A GSM macro cell and six UMTS macro cells compose the scenario.

123 UMTS Overview July 2001 . that controls the Serving Radio Network Subsystem. In this case an Iur interface is present between the two RNCs. The downlink is realised to frequency f1. that controls the Drift Radio Network Subsystem. is called Drift RNC. where the handover decision are taken. The RNC1. RNC1.5 Position 5 The UE is completely inside the cell number three (SC3) and is receiving from the second Node B. In this case a soft handover is performed. The SOHO condition has the drawback that is necessary to transmit more power. In this case only a hard handover (UMTS-GSM) can be performed. Even SRNS relocation is realised. All the information regarding the UE in position 7 is transmitted to the BSC through the Core Network.C ‎ hapter 9: Handover (Downlink Case Example) 9. The combining and splitting operations are performed by the Serving RNC. 9. All the information regarding the UE in position 8 is transmitted to the RNC3 through the Core Network. SRNS. 9.8 Position 8 The UE is crossing the cell border to enter in the GSM cell controlled by the BTS.9 Position 9 The UE is crossing the cell border to enter in a UMTS cell controlled by RNC3. Even in this case only a hard handover (GSM-UMTS) can be performed. 9. RNC2.7 Position 7 The UE is completely inside the cell number four (SC4) and is receiving from the third Node B. This Node B is controlled by a second RNC.6 Position 6 The UE is crossing the cell border to enter in the cell number four (SC4) that is controlled by the third Node B. is called Serving RNC and the RNC2. DRNS. 9.

C ‎ hapter 9: Handover (Downlink Case Example) 9. Even in this case to transmit all the information regarding the UE in position 9 to the RNC4 the Core Network is used. In this case only a hard handover can be performed because of the different frequencies within the two cells. The downlink is realised to frequency f2.10 Position 10 The UE is crossing the cell border to enter in a new cell controlled by RNC4. For the Uplink case the analogue considerations can be done 124 UMTS Overview July 2001 .

Idealistic then would be to place a base station in every street corner. The Choice of Cell Types Affecting Several Posts on The Scale 1 Important when designing a network is to find a balance regarding which combination of the types of cells to use. the different steps in cell planning. and thus the required number of cell sites. Radio network planning includes the calculation of the link budget. The difficulty is to plan a network that allows future growth and expansion. In this chapter we will look at different cell types. the differences compared to GSM cell planning as well as some of the advantages of co-siting with GSM. radio network planning includes detailed coverage and parameter planning for individual sites.2 Different Cell Types A cellular network is created by means of placing equipment in strategic places to guarantee a certain perceived Quality of Service. Planning an immature network with a limited number of subscribers is not the real problem.1 Introduction to Cell Planning Network planning covers two major areas: radio network planning and network dimensioning. must be weighed against cost and expected penetration (see Figure ‎ 0. this though is not cost efficient.C ‎ hapter 10: Cell Planing Chapter 10: Cell Planing 10. but 125 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 10.1. Furthermore.1). Wise re-use of site location in the future network structure will save money for the operator. Which dell type to use. capacities. The most common ones today are macro. 1 Coverage Capacity Penetration Cost Spectrum Quality Figure ‎ 0. micro and pico cells.

e. The base station is transmitting at low output power and the antennas could be mounted on walls or in the ceiling. if the UMTS network is designed to handle high bit rates. macro and micro cells use different frequency bands. Normally the site location is on a hilltop or a rooftop. Macro cells. base station coverage areas or cells are shown as hexagons. i. HCS also allows for the possibility to conduct load sharing between the different cell layers. have a typical coverage range from 1 to 35 km (several vendors offers special high coverage solutions that will extend the coverage beyond 35 km). where the major part of the radio waves is propagated along the streets. However. A micro cell can maintain indoor coverage in the lower levels of a building. HCS offers a high capacity solution. and these will form a hexagonal cellular pattern (see ). Pico cells are used when the capacity needed is extremely high in certain hot spots. i. one may also consider the user‟s velocity when deciding which cell layer to use. 126 UMTS Overview July 2001 . HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structures) is an example of how different cell types can be deployed in the same area.C ‎ hapter 10: Cell Planing sometimes also mini cells are mentioned. as the antenna is typically placed at the same level as the rooftops. Thus. Thus. boundaries between the base station cells will theoretically form straight lines. Mini cells are between macro and micro cells. the different cell types.).1 to 1 km. Pico cells supplies coverage in indoor environment (or possibly outdoors in environments physically distinctly limited – a backyard e. 384 kbps and above. This is so because the system is designed to let the mobile always operate on the nearest or best base station. guarantying good coverage.e. As co-siting is one key design objective for UMTS networks. the majority of the cells will be micro and pico cells. The base station antenna placement is below the rooftops of the surrounding buildings. it is very likely that UMTS will have the same type of cells as today‟s second generation systems. In order to limit the amount of handovers in the system.g. In the theoretical part of cell planing. perpendicular to the connection lines between the sites. The main rays are propagated over the rooftops. as the micro band is capable of handle a high load. Traditionally. it should be noted that high bit rates have lower coverage than low bit rates. Micro cells have a typical coverage range from o.

A cell planner most likely is dealing with the content of several of these boxes at the same time. This work can be simplified and structured in certain steps (see Figure ‎ 0. leading to increasingly complex handover relations and planning. The following describes the content of the boxes and what each step may involve. This process is by no means complete or unbeatable.3 Steps in the Cell Planning Process Cell planning means building a network able to provide service to the customers wherever they are. the radio planning and surveying actions are interlinked in an ongoing iterative process that should ultimately lead to the individual site design. Cell Coverage Shown as a Hexagon 1 The use of different types of cells on the same area introduces the concept of a hierarchical structure. System Requirements Define Radio Planning Initial Cell Plan Surveys Individual Site Design System Growth On-going Testing Launch of Service Implementation Figure ‎ 0.3. Normally the output from one box is the input of another. in a single flow of events.C ‎ hapter 10: Cell Planing Figure ‎ 0. Some 1 of these steps are performed frequently whilst other are more rare. For instance.3).2. Different Steps in The Cell Planning Process 1 This process should not be considered just as it is depicted. 10. each operator has its own flowchart of processes. 127 UMTS Overview July 2001 .

tower or vacant lot that could be leased for a reasonable cost. fading margins for indoor. Coverage for different customers in different environments. Phase of build out (expansion and future investments?).3.3.3. 10. consider existing site). Predicted composite coverage and interference map. The ideal planned locations have to be searched for any suitable building.3 Initial Cell Plan:    Idealised overview of site locations (consider GSM initially also WCDMA for expansion).2 Define Radio Planning Guidelines:  Coverage and interference: which prediction model to use. 10. 128 UMTS Overview July 2001 . power and PCM links. Investigate physical necessities such as space for equipment. outdoor and in-car. Testing and optimisation strategy. Investigate other system‟s antenna and interfering transmitters.4 Surveys:  Radio environment survey: Investigate path loss.   Traffic planning: choice of models and processes.1 System Requirements:      Licence (available bandwidth may also set coverage requirements). isolation. roof clearance (first Fresnel zone empty).C ‎ hapter 10: Cell Planing 10. Quality of Service (dropping and delay) and GoS (blocking). channel loading plan (if co-siting. diversity. interference and time dispersion. Cell configuration. Check space for antenna mounting.  Sit Survey: Pinpoint exact location with GPS. Traffic behaviour of customers in different regions (uplink and downlink may differ). parameter setting. 10.3.

10. lightning equipment and antennas. Drive testing to detect blank spots and interference and to confirm correct call set-up. Antenna type and gain. HO margin.6 Implementation:  Install: node B. air-conditioning equipment. neighbour list (GSM).  Commissioning tests of node B. power. Analyses and Optimisation:  System diagnostics: collect statistics in OMC. 10. handover. MSC or RNC to analyse traffic behaviour. dropped calls.8 On-going Testing.3. radio channels quality. termination equipment for PCM link. “Final” parameter setting (power planning.   Analysis of the results above. location updating and to detect missing neighbour relationships. and to study trends. Grade of Service.5 Individual Site Design and Parameter Setting:  Radio engineers need to select best site location from the options available from the site acquisitors.3.3.C ‎ hapter 10: Cell Planing 10. 10. timers. direction and tilt and ERP need to be decided. Also to investigate problems reported by customers and to validate changes undertaken. physical implementation of antenna directions or tilts or any other measures to counteract detected problems. earth bar. Adjust output power. scrambling code.3. interference. transport network and RNC. handover failures.    Dimensioning of node B. and Optimisation of parameters. traffic distribution. call success rate. functionality). access links statistics. set parameters.  Drive testing to localise weak signal strength.7 Launch of Commercial Service: When the network is operational a commercial launch can be made. time dispersion or other radio problems. 129 UMTS Overview July 2001 .

4.C ‎ hapter 10: Cell Planing 10. due to more users or new services.4.5 Calculation of Coverage and Capacity In WCDMA power is the common shared resource. Expansion of existing sites. 10.3 New Air Interface   Trade-off between coverage and capacity. 10. Thus. Power planning instead of frequency planning.2 Multi Service    Load from several different types of services. Delay requirements.3.9 System Growth    More traffic. Different services have different coverage. Handover to GSM (for coverage or load sharing purpose). 130 UMTS Overview July 2001 . in order to achieve high spectrum efficiency WCDMA supports a fast quality based power control. 10. New sites added.4..Deployments 10. The combination of these two features together with the fact that WCDMA use a frequency re-use of one results in that WCDMA offers a trade-off between coverage and capacity.4 Differences With 2G TDMA Systems . 10. Information about traffic and propagation conditions.1 Exploiting Existing Networks    Re-use of site locations and equipment (site Co-sting).

5. The initial assumed load usually corresponds to a low load. Based on that information.). Further.. i. If it does.e. one should check if the assumed load equals or exceeds the maximum load in the system. high interference in the system. Area to cover and which type of area it is (urban. If the assumed load is greater than the calculated load. GoS. Knowing the area. the process is completed and we have found a design that handles the traffic in the system. we can calculate how much interference we should design for. By using the load assumption in combination with the coverage requirement. the users can be further away from the base station. Supported services. then the system is capacity limited and the number of sites needed can be found from dividing the total traffic with the traffic that one 131 UMTS Overview July 2001 .. Available spectrum. low interference. Otherwise. the traffic within that area can be calculated. The C/I = Eb/No – 10log(chip rate/bit rate) 10. compared to when there is a high load. i. Users within the area. the amount of traffic per carrier in a given area can be calculated. By using the GoS input requirement.1 Needed Input Parameters The needed input parameters are:        Coverage requirements (indoor. number of carriers.5. the assumed load is compared to the calculated design load.. From the link budget. 10.C ‎ hapter 10: Cell Planing This means that at low load. i.2 Uplink Design The first step in the uplink design is to make an initial assumption about the uplink load. In the next step. Traffic that each user generates (uplink and downlink separately).e.e. probability. the cell range can be calculated and thus also the cell area. bit rate at cell border). and still supported. a link budget can be calculated. the C/I for the different services can be calculated by taking the Eb/No values from the WCDMA RTT. suburban.

the needed resources are calculated. By comparing the load that a 5 MHz carrier can handle and compare it with the uplink traffic demand within the cell area. 10. If the downlink load is supported. If the system is not capacity limited.5. the needed number of frequencies can be estimated. the process is slightly different as the site locations already are known. the design process is completed. the cell range used in the existing GSM network. By knowing the cell range.4 Co-Siting With GSM Case When the aim is to co-site with GSM. the supported load per carrier can be found from the downlink plot once the cell range is given. one can make an uplink link budget in order to find out now large interference margins can be tolerated.C ‎ hapter 10: Cell Planing site can handle.e. Having the cell area. one assumes a new load and repeats the process. one gets the cell range and the cell area. Otherwise. the cell range and the cell area must be reduced until the downlink load is handled. By using the GoS for the different supported services.5. In the downlink. i. 132 UMTS Overview July 2001 . 10. traffic within that area is calculated.3 Downlink Design From the uplink. Then by using the downlink plot. The needed amount of carriers can then be calculated. just as in the uplink. by dividing the traffic demand within the cell area with the traffic that one carrier can handle. it can be seen whether the design supports the downlink load or not.

finally approved at the WRC 2000 plenary . following four years involvement in this uniquely important and complex project. This means that mobile users will be able to access their personal information services using affordable handheld terminals wherever they travel. The historic announcement . Representatives of the UMTS Forum‟s Spectrum Aspects Group (SAG) provided support and expert inputs to the Conference.2025 and 2110 .2200 MHz) identified by a previous Conference in 1992.C ‎ hapter 11: WORLD-WIDE CONSENSUS ON ADDITIONAL SPECTRUM FOR 3RD GENERATION Chapter 11: WORLD-WIDE CONSENSUS ON ADDITIONAL SPECTRUM FOR 3RD GENERATION IMT-2000 IS ANOTHER GIANT LEAP FORWARD FOR EVERYONE‟S MOBILE FUTURE June 1st 2000: The promise of tomorrow‟s global information society has taken a major step forward with the successful identification of additional radio spectrum to support the rapid rollout of "third generation" (3G) UMTS/IMT-2000 mobile communications services for all the world‟s regions.this result also paves the way for the introduction of 3G services even in regions where the core spectrum has not hitherto been available for IMT-2000. as well as providing additional capacity to support the future mass market for mobile multimedia services .was made at the conclusion of the month-long WRC-2000 (World Radiocommunication Conference) meeting in Istanbul after four weeks of intense work by spectrum administrators representing every government. Crucially.calculated by the UMTS Forum to approach 2 billion users within the next decade . The new bands are: 133 UMTS Overview July 2001 . The additional terrestrial bands agreed by WRC2000 for IMT-2000 cover three alternative areas of spectrum to complement the IMT2000 core bands (1885 . The Inter-governmental Conference reached a global consensus to identify additional bands for the terrestrial component of UMTS/IMT-2000.

885 MHz 2.690 MHz All of these three bands meet the UMTS Forum‟s call for 160 MHz of global additional spectrum that is required to support the forecast growth of traffic and services that will outstrip the capacity of the present IMT-2000 core band in many markets before the end of this decade.C ‎ hapter 11: WORLD-WIDE CONSENSUS ON ADDITIONAL SPECTRUM FOR 3RD GENERATION    806-960 MHz 1.710-1.the world‟s largest pan-industry group dedicated to 3G mobile matters. The decision on extension band spectrum follows an earlier milestone of equal importance reached last month when the ITU Radiocommunication Assembly unanimously approved the formal adoption of the first release of IMT-2000 radio interface specifications. and a fantastic result for the entire global mobile industry which is represented by the membership of the UMTS Forum . This groundbreaking news comes at a time when the UMTS licensing process is rapidly progressing in many countries throughout Asia and Europe in order to commence commercial services by 2001/2002. More than 100 licenses are to be awarded to operators of highcapacity UMTS mobile multimedia services within the next 12-18 months. Some existing operators may also wish to consider migrating their networks to IMT-2000 in order to offer the benefits of lower costs and high-speed packet data services up to 2Mbit/s and beyond. Each government will make their own decision on the choice and timescale for making these additional bands available for IMT-2000 use. Factors influencing the availability of these additional frequencies include the local market demand for 3rd generation services and economic factors such as the stage of development of present 2nd generation networks. It‟s an incredible milestone in the development of tomorrow‟s mobile networks." 134 UMTS Overview July 2001 . UMTS Forum Chairman Dr Bernd Eylert said today of the decision: "The UMTS Forum wishes to congratulate the ITU and to thank all its members for this successful result. This 160 MHz of additional spectrum in every ITU Region was calculated on the basis of traffic forecasts and the existing available mobile bands for 2nd and 3rd generation services.500-2.

even in territories that were effectively blocked from the benefits of 3G in the past because of limited spectrum. The stage is now set for UMTS/IMT2000 to deliver on its exciting promise of immense socio-economic benefits for all the world‟s mobile users. The UMTS Forum will continue its work in this very important field to assist the regions in their IMT-2000/UMTS deployments." 135 UMTS Overview July 2001 .C ‎ hapter 11: WORLD-WIDE CONSENSUS ON ADDITIONAL SPECTRUM FOR 3RD GENERATION Dr Eylert continued: "This decision is particularly welcome as it provides a solid basis for the regional introduction of 3G services.

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