Research Objectives

Problem Statement Men and women have different tendencies of being affected by advertisements. This is why companies do not know exactly which customer group, men or women are easier to influence through marketing campaigns. Therefore, the advertising budget is not spent accordingly to come up with a precise promotional campaign needed. If targeting men is easier, then the marketing should be done accordingly and if affecting women is easier, then the marketing campaign should be tailor made in order to reach that customer segment in a more effective manner. This shows that companies lack the awareness of whom to target through their promotional campaigns. Sometimes, when `targeting and attracting one specific gender would be more profitable, companies keep wasting their resources on marketing on a mass scale, which results in an unnecessary burden on the already scarce resources. Research Objectives This research paper was basically intended towards identifying the general trend in the effect that advertising has on the buying behavior of consumers. The consumers have been specifically studied in accordance to their respective gender. An important factor under study was that who is impacted more by any advertisement; whether it is males or females. Another important factor studied was that customers belonging to which gender have a better brand recall. This is because brand recall plays a very important role in the resulting purchase; if a consumer can recall the brand, he/she will most probably buy it. For this research, a few hypotheses have been enacted: Hypotheses IIIIIIIVVWomen have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men. Men and women perceive advertisements differently. Brand recall leads to purchase. Women have better brand recall as compared to men. Brand recall differs in different age brackets.

The main form of this research was exploratory study and in the end, i worked on my research topic to either prove or disapprove the proposed hypotheses.

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Literature Review
Consumer buying behavior is an important area of research for marketers and business developers. The importance of studying consumer buying behavior is imperative from the fact that most product launch features, marketing strategies and positioning strategies are made under the influence of consumer buying trends. These trends are further integrated with regards to gender i.e. male consumer buying behavior vs. female consumer buying behavior. In this regard the persuasiveness of a particular product is different for each gender. Cobb and Hoyer (1986) found that women are more likely to plan their purchases than men are. Block and Morwitz (1999) study about the use of shopping lists attribute this tendency to three reasons. First, traditionally, females have been in charge of grocery shopping. Second, because of such traditions, females tend to know more about stores and products. Third, also due to their traditional role, females have a better idea about inventory levels when they go shopping than males do (Goldman and Johansson, 1978; Urbany et al., 1996). Thus, it is not surprising that Block and Morwitz (1999, pp. 361-2) found that the probability that a purchased product was on a planned list was higher for females than for males. Measuring advertising effectiveness differences offers the direct marketers the opportunity to spend the advertising money in a more targeted mode. Studies concerning males vs. female¶s general advertising effectiveness levels indicate that gendered differences are apparent.

Importance/Benefit of study This research is beneficial, firstly, for the advertising agencies, as it will become easier for them to formulate the exact integrated marketing strategies for their customers so as to target the respective audience of the organization. It will also help the organizations to optimally distribute their marketing expenditure over different mediums of advertising, catering to their target group. It will also provide a platform to the market researchers of the respective organization to devise the marketing budget in accordance with a perfect balance between the medium chosen and the audience targeted. This will support them in identifying their target segment that they can influence and which can work in their favor. Hence getting the maximum return on what they will invest for marketing their product/services.

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It will also guide the marketers to identify the factors that influence the audience more effectively in any advertisement and so those can be worked on. Also it will be analyzed that how men and women perceive advertisements differently and hence what are the factors that lead to their purchase decision. This study has helped in solving the dilemma as I become able to identify the factors of advertisement that co-relate with each other or in any way affect the male and female buying decision. How well the product or service is communicated, can be analyzed by the buying trends of the consumers. It can be further broken down into different genders, as both the genders perceive advertisements regarding the neutral products/services differently and hence require different persuasive techniques.

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Research Methodology
Research Design Considering the extensive nature of the topic under study it was obvious that i have to bind my research to a controllable scale. For this purpose, my research was limited area of Delhi. I have taken into account variables like age, gender, brand recall etc. in order to drive a relationship between advertising and consumer¶s decision-making regarding purchase. Dependant and Independent variables were identified as per the data collected. The age bracket that was being analyzed for this purpose was between 18-50 years of age that is covering the young and adult age group. I selected this group because i believed that a major chunk of our population of purchasers fell in this age bracket. This was further divided into sub groups as per requirements. Men and women perceive advertisements differently and hence both genders require different persuasive techniques. I have taken neutral products/services for this analysis so as to provide both the genders with same circumstances to come up with an objective comparison.

Sample survey & measurement scale types: Gender: Age: City: Male/Female (18-25)/(26-40)/(41-50) Delhi

The following table shows the variables that are measured in specific hypotheses along with their data types, respectively. It also tells about the corresponding types of measurement scales used against the respective data types.

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Hypotheses

Variable Measured

Data Type

Measurement Scales

Sample Question Number

H-I

Gender

Nominal

Multiple Choice (single response)

1 and 2

H-II

Affect of advertisements

Ordinal

Ranking (forced), Multiple Choice (single response)

3, 4, 5 and 6

H-III, IV, V

Brand Recall

Ordinal

Multiple Choice (single response), Free response

7, 8, 9, 10 and 11

Data Collection
y y y

Sample size taken is 150 females and males respondents.
The sampling method is random sampling. Only the criterions for the selection are that respondents should fall in age bracket of 18-50 and should be from study concerned areas.

y y

The data was collected through questionnaires, surveys, interviews.
The data collected was analyzed, interpreted thus lead to findings.

Data Analysis As per the objective of our research that is to study the impact of advertisement on male vs. female consumer buying behavior, i planned to carry out the preliminary research through the surveys, interviews and discussions of random consumers. The quantitative techniques (mean, mode) will then be employed once the data has been collected which will give us an objective overview of the data. Once the data has been analyzed, conclusions will be drawn based on the extensive study that would be completed. The previously mentioned hypotheses will be analyzed by various techniques. As for assumptions, we have assumed advertisement being the independent variable; dependent

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variables that we have identified up till now would be brand recall, gender, age and educational level.

Limitations of research study
y

The survey was limited to specific area & therefore cannot give a complete picture of comparison.

y y

The study is also limited by the number of individuals. Time span was limited.

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Results & Findings
H-1 Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men Following findings were made on the basis of our survey; the findings are represented on the basis of males vs. females. Females: 36% females in the age strata of 18-25 have responded YES to the question that they make a shopping list and plan their shopping. Similarly, 56% of females in the strata of 26-40 responded that they also plan their shopping and 48% of the females in the age strata of 41-50 responded that plan their shopping. On the other hand 12% of the females in age strata 18-25 responded YES to the question that they ³stick to the shopping list they have planned for´. In this regard, 6% of the females in the age strata 26-40 were the ones that stuck to the planned shopping list and 24% of females in age strata 40+ stuck to their shopping list. Males: 10% males in the age strata of 18-25 have responded YES to the question that they make a shopping list and plan their shopping. Similarly, 28% of males in the strata of 26-40 responded that they also plan their shopping and 58% of the females in the age strata of 40-50 responded that plan their shopping. On the other hand 20% of the males in age strata 18-25 responded YES to the question that they ³stick to the shopping list they have planned for´. In this regard, 36% of the males in the age strata 26-40 were the ones that stuck to the planned shopping list and 34% of males in age strata 40+ stuck to their shopping list.

H-2 Men and women perceive advertisements differently The questionnaire was designed to find the most effective medium of advertising that influences males vs. females and theme of the advertisement as well as the perception that whether advertisements portray a true picture of a particular add or not. Similarly, the attractive attention of a particular add was also found with regards to respective gender as well.

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Females: 64% of the females in the Strata of 18-25 rate TV as the highest medium of influence through advertisement, where as 92% of females in the strata of 26-40 rated TV as the highest medium of influence and similarly 76% of the females in the strata of 40+ have rated TV as the highest medium as well. On the same note, 40% of the females in the strata of 18-25 rated humorous theme followed by 28% rated that celebrity endorsed themes are most appreciated in advertisements. Whereas 46% females in the strata of 26-40 rated emotional theme as the most influential factor followed by 32% females in the strata of 40+ rated humorous data as most influential. When asked whether advertisements give a true picture of a product or service and to what extent advertisements attract their attention. 52% of the females in the 18-25 strata rated that they are not sure whether the advertisement portrays a true picture of a product or not. This is followed by 44% females of the same strata that feel that they are to some extent attracted by the advertisement. Similarly none of the females in the strata of 26-40 feels that advertisements give a true picture of the product or service that is marketed. Followed by 35% females of this strata felt that they are somewhat influenced/attracted by an advertisement that catches their attention. Whereas 22% of the females in the strata of 40+ says that advertisements do portray a true picture of the product or service being marketed. And 50% of the females of this stratum feel that advertisements attract their attention a lot. Males: 70% of the males in the Strata of 18-25 rate TV as the highest medium of influence through advertisement, where as 52% of males in the strata of 26-40 rated TV as the highest medium of influence and similarly 66% of the males in the strata of 40+ have rated TV as the highest medium as well. On the same note, 34% of the males in the strata of 18-25 rated humorous theme followed by 24% rated that celebrity endorsed themes are most appreciated in advertisements. Whereas 44% males in the strata of 26-40 rated informative theme as the most influential factor followed by 66% males in the strata of 40+ rated celebrities endorsed themes as most influential. When asked whether advertisements give a true picture of a product or service and to what extent advertisements attract their attention. 64% of the males in the 18-25 strata rated that advertisements do not portray a true picture of a product. Similarly 52% of

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the males in the strata of 26-40 feel that advertisements don¶t give a true picture of the product or service that is marketed. Whereas 44% of the males in the strata of 40+ says that advertisements do not portray a true picture of the product or service being marketed.

H-3(a) Brand Recall leads to purchase: In this regard our questionnaire was as such so that to find whether brand recall leads to purchase or not. And we found that 58% of females in the strata of 18-25 against 58% of males in the same strata are sure that an advertisement had created an inert feeling in them to try out a product thus leading to purchase behavior on the basis of brand recall. Whereas 56% of the females in the strata of 26-40 against 36% of the males in the same strata feel that an advertisement had created an inert feeling in them to try out a product thus leading to purchase behavior on the basis of brand recall. Similarly 52% of females in the strata of 40+feels that an advertisement had created an inert feeling in them to try out a product thus leading to purchase behavior on the basis of brand recall against 44% males in the same strata felt that advertisement had not created an inert feeling in them to try out a product so that to lead to a purchase behavior on the basis of brand recall.

H-3(b) Brand Recall In this regard our questionnaire was designed to ask both the genders whether their purchase decision is based on brand recall or not and how often. And to test their brand recall capacity with regards to gender we designed questions that specifically targeted their brand recall capability. Our findings thus are that 78% females in the strata of 26-40 rarely make their purchase on the basis of brand recall and 60% of the males in the strata of 40+ rarely make a purchase on the basis of brand recall. And 38% females and males of the same strata of 18-25 often make a purchase on the basis of brand recall.

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Analysis
Hypothesis 1: Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men. The first two questions were meant to test this hypothesis. The respondents were asked whether they make a list before going for shopping or not and that whether they stick to that list or not. According to the response that we got, we came to know that around 34.6% males did planned shopping while 40.6% of the females agreed that they made a shopping list. This obviously shows females are more planned shoppers as compared to men. Males who did not plan their shopping were 47.3% which is far higher than 30% females; this shows that males are much more spontaneous than females when it comes to shopping. In the second question, we observed that 40% men did not stick to what they had planned for shopping while most of the females, i.e. 57.3% claimed that they did not stick to their shopping lists. This means that even if these women had planned their shopping, they did not end up following it and hence they can be proved to be more spontaneous buyers as compared to men. Hence the first hypothesis can be safely taken as true. H1: ACCEPTED

Hypothesis 2: Men and women perceive advertisements differently. This hypothesis was tested from four different angles. Firstly we observed that which advertising medium was more effective for each gender, then we saw that what kind of advertisement themes were preferred by males and females, after that it was inquired whether men and women believed that advertisements were true or not and lastly it was asked that to what extent did advertisements attract their attention. These different angles gave us the opportunity to see how advertisements were perceived differently by men and women. The exposure of different advertising mediums is different among both the genders. This was evident by the results in which we saw that although men and women both ranked TV as the most effective while billboards as the second most effective medium, the percentage of women ranking TV as the most important was much more than that of men (women: 74.6, men: 62.0) and the percentage of men ranking billboards as the second most effective medium was much more than that of women (women: 10.7, men: 20). Also we see that in men¶s rankings, newspaper turns out to be the third most effective medium while females have ranked radio as the third most important. Side by side, men have ranked radio as the

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fourth most important and internet as the least important while females have ranked internet as the fourth most important while newspaper as the least important.

These findings can be attributed to specific reasons as well. We see that women in our society mostly stay at home while men have to go out for their jobs. This is why men have a higher exposure rate to billboards as compared to women and women have a higher exposure rate to TV as opposed to men. Staying mostly at home, women also tend to listen to radio more as opposed to reading newspapers while men tend to read newspapers more as opposed to radio. These are the reasons why men and women have different perceptions about different mediums.

Coming to the second question, we see that women were seen to be most influenced by humorous, emotional and celebrity endorsed advertising themes. Men on the other hand were most affected by celebrity endorsed, informative and humorous advertising themes. When we compare the percentages, we see that 40.7% men ranked celebrity endorsed advertising as the most effective while only 27.3% women ranked it as the most important. We also see that 14.7% men ranked adventurous advertising as most effective while only 8% women agreed on that. These differences are clearly attributable to the gender differences.

Men are more affected by celebrity endorsed advertising as for them, a beautiful model marketing a product would obviously be more attractive than anything else; we can conclude that to be men¶s nature. Also men are more interested in the facts and figures about everything and so obviously informative advertising is preferred. Women are more emotional as opposed to men and so for them, emotional advertisements are more effective. They are often more affected by the emotional themes and so they aren¶t really bothered about the information being delivered in the ad and that is why that theme has not been ranked very high. Also they are not rough and tough and adventurous like men and so they have ranked the adventurous adverting theme the lowest. So by this we can see that men and women may slightly have similar advertisement choices but the percentages, which prefer different advertisements, are quite different.

In question number five; respondents were specifically asked what they thought about advertisements giving a true picture of the products being marketed. As expected, a very small percentage of men and women agreed that advertisements were true. The number of

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males and females choosing that option were roughly the same. As for people who did not believe that advertisements were true, there was a huge difference in the number of men and women, which believed so. Around 51.3% males confidently said that advertisements do no portray the products very truly and around 38% women believed the same. This shows the differing perceptions very clearly. Around 36.6% women chose the option µmaybe¶ because they were not really sure about advertisements¶ authenticity. Compared to that, only 34% males chose this option. In the last question for this hypothesis, people were asked that to what extent did advertisements attracted their attention. Around 35.3% women chose the µa lot¶ option whereas only 18.6% men chose this option. There was also an option of µsomewhat¶ for people who were not very confident about whether advertisements did or did not attract their attention. Around 58.3% males resided to this option whereas approximately 53.3% females ticked it too. The percentage of males who confidently believed that advertisements did not attract their attention at all was clearly more than that of women at about 11.2% as opposed to just 2%. These percentage differences between men and women clearly depict the differing perceptions that they have about advertisements. It can also be related to the previous two questions. We saw that nearly 51.3% men believed that advertisements did not give a true picture of the products being marketed. Still around 58.3% said that advertisements somewhat attracted their attention. This shows that men may not believe that advertisements are true, still they attract their attention due to possible reasons like men ranking the celebrity endorsed advertisements very high. H2: ACCEPTED

Hypothesis 3: Brand recall leads to purchase. Here two questions were posed to test this hypothesis. In the first one, respondents were asked whether an advertisement ever created an inert feeling in them to try out a product. Around 40.6 men said yes to this question while a visibly greater percentage of women (49.3%) said yes to this question. Therefore it can also be induced that it is easier to attract women¶s attention through advertising than men. In men, the percentage, which said a clear ³No´, was around 24.6% while women who said that an advertisement never created a feeling in them was only approximately 7.3% as opposed to that. Why men are at a higher percentage here and at a lower percentage in the ³Yes´ option is because the emotional quotient is lower in men and that it why they are not easily convinced by advertisements as compared to women.

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In the second question for this hypothesis, the respondents were asked how often their purchase decision was based on brand recall. Most of the respondents in both males and females chose the ³Rarely´ option. Second in line was the ³often´ option. This shows an interesting fact; people may like different sorts of advertising themes, they may say that an advertisement did create an inert feeling to try out a product, but when it comes to actually purchasing the products, their buying decision is rarely based on brand recall. This means that the inert feeling created by advertisements was not strong enough to make people actually buy the product. Just getting a feeling is different than getting an intention to buy the product. This means that the hypothesis that brand recall leads to a purchase would not be very authentic as the results show that people may remember a product due to its advertisements but it¶s not necessary that they would buy it too when they remember it. H3: REJECTED

Hypothesis 4: Women have a better brad recall then men. The last three questions of the questionnaire were meant to test this hypothesis. Respondents were asked to list out brands that they recalled from some specific colors, tag lines and celebrities. The results were pretty straight forward here. In the first question, which was regarding brands recalled from five specific colors, it was seen that the percentage of women who scored the maximum marks, i.e. got all their answers correct, was double than that of men. On average, men scored far less than women in terms of remembering brands from different colors. In the next question, in which respondents were supposed to recall brands from different tag lines, once again females were the maximum scorers. Around 70% women scored seven or above out of a total of ten while men who scored seven or above were only around 40%. This clearly shows the huge difference in terms of better brand recall. For the last question too, the total score was ten and respondents had to list the brands that they remembered from different celebrities. Once again, around 69% of the women were seven and above scorers which was more than double than the males which stood at approximately 30%. We see that when women were inquired about the most effective marketing medium and advertising theme in their opinion, they had chosen TV and an emotional advertising theme. This shows that women usually spend more time at home watching TV as the working woman concept has not evolved in our society very deeply till now and also they are more

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emotionally attracted to the ads as opposed to men. This is why women tend to remember what they see more as compared to men. H4: ACCEPTED

Hypothesis 5: Brand recall differs in different age brackets In the results obtained from brand recall questions, it was seen that younger consumers in both the genders had a better brand recall than the other two strata of both males and females. This is because the memory recall is better in younger age and the younger generation today is more in touch with media than the older generations. Another reason for this is that companies tend to target the younger age bracket through advertising campaigns as the younger consumers can influence the buying behavior of their parents and grandparents too. So as this younger age bracket is specifically targeted, the promotional campaigns are bound to affect them more than the older generations and this is also a reason why younger consumers have a better brand recall. H5: ACCEPTED

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Statistical Tool for Analysis Count is the Major tool in use for analysis. Mean, median and mode are other statistical tools that are being used. For question number 9, 10 and 11 mean is used because of the fact that all the respondents have provided a score as a response to the three questions and therefore it is easier to calculate the mean of both the genders (150 females: 150 Males) so that the average figures of the two major strata can be statistically analyzed. Question 1 & 2 Table 1 shows that females (Yes=61) are more prone to making a shopping list and where as males are less prone to doing so as only 52 males have opted for ³yes´. On the other hand 71 males out of the entire strata of 150 opted for ³No´ implying that males generally do not make shopping lists. Table 1 - Count Q1 Q1 Female Count - Yes Count - No Count - Sometimes Q1 Male Count - Yes Count - No Count - Sometimes 52 71 27 61 45 44 Table 2 - Count Q2 Q2 Female Count - Yes Count - No Count - Sometimes Q2 Male Count - Yes Count - No Count - Sometimes 50 60 39 23 86 41

Table 2 shows that 86 females out of the 150 strata size do not stick to what they have planned for shopping and there are 50 males who admit that they stick to what they have planned for; this means that males have a less spontaneous shopping behavior than women even though the mode for both the genders was the same.

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Question 3 & 4 Question 3 & 4 were included in the questionnaire to analyze hypothesis (II); question 3 had five responses namely TV, billboard, newspaper, internet and radio and the ranks given to them in the data sheet were 1,2,3,4,5 respectively with 5 being the highest and 1 the lowest. According to table 3, in the female strata of the sample size the most recurring value for TV, billboard, newspaper, internet and radio was 5,4,3,2,1 respectively which indicates that TV ranked 5th by majority of the female elements of the sample size.

Table 3- Count Q3 Female TV Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 112 16 4 7 11 Billboard Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 16 80 30 15 9 Newspaper Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 3 30 65 29 23

Internet Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 3 10 25 60 48

Radio Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 7 12 24 57 50

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Table 4 - Count Q3 (Male) TV Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 93 30 9 8 10 Billboard Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 27 52 82 19 11 Newspaper Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 16 40 64 25 5

Internet Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 7 16 19 55 53

Radio Rank 5 Count Rank 4 Count Rank 3 Count Rank 2 Count Rank 1 Count 7 12 17 43 71

Question 5 & 6 These two questions were used to analyze hypothesis II which states that men and women perceive advertisements differently. Question number five measured the respondents belief on the statement that ³if advertisements give a true picture of the products/services being marketed´. For question 5 the three responses were Yes, No and May be.

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Table 5 - Count Q5 (Female) Q5 Count - Yes Count - No Count - Sometimes 38 57 55

Table 6 - Count Q5 (Male) Q5 Count - Yes Count - No Count - Sometimes 22 77 51

The count values presented in the tables above make it very clear that a greater percentage of men have chosen the response ³No´ (Male: 77, Female: 57) and an even lesser number of males have responded ³Yes´ (Male: 38, Female: 22); therefore it holds true that men and women do perceive advertisements differently as the number of individuals opting for ³sometimes´ as a response were more or less equal for both the genders. Question 6 determined the extent to which advertisement attracted both the gender; the responses were extremely, a lot, somewhat, no and never. Majority of the respondents from both the genders opted for the third response which as undoubtedly ³somewhat´. It clearly indicates the fact that advertisement does attract the attention of both the genders but to a little extent. Table 7 - Q6 (Female) Table 8 - Q6 (Male)

Q6 Count ± Extremely Count ± A lot Count ± Somewhat Count ± No Count ± Not at all 12 53 80 3 2

Q6 Count ± Extremely Count ± A lot Count ± Somewhat Count ± No Count ± Not at all 16 28 87 17 5

According to table 7 and 8 the number of females who opted for the response ³A lot´ was greater (53) than that of males (28) which indicates that for the entire sample size, that they

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are somewhat more attracted to advertisements than men. Therefore it is not possible or feasible to completely accept or reject the hypothesis (II) and it can be stated that men and women perceive advertisements differently to some extent. Question 7 This particular question analyzes if brand recall creates a feeling inert enough to lead to purchase; the three response for this question were yes, no and sometimes. The values in the tables show that the most recurring response for this question by both the genders was ³Yes´, therefore, it can be said for the entire sample size that advertisements do create an inert feeling to try out a product although this does not imply that this particular feeling is strong enough to lead to purchase as it is very difficult to measure the intensity of the feeling. Table 9 - Count Q7 (Female) Q7 Count - Yes Count - No Count - Sometimes 74 11 65 Table 10 - Count Q7 (Male) Q7 Count - Yes Count - No Count - Sometimes 61 37 53

But if we critically analyze the independent count figures for both genders than it can be stated that the count for the response ³No´ was greater by 26 counts which means that although the most recurring response was µYes¶ but a greater number of males responded that advertisements were not effective enough to create an inert feeling to purchase a product. Additionally the count of females for the response ³Yes´ was also greater than that of the males and so it can be deduced that females are more prone to being affected by the advertisements than men.

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Question 8 This question basically analyzes the fact that how often the purchase decision of a buyer is based on advertisement recall; the provided responses were mostly, often, rarely and never and the scores given were 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The descriptive statistics of the independent scores of both the genders have been mentioned below:
Table 21 - Male Descriptive statistics (Q8) Table 13 ± Female Descriptive Statistics (Q8)

Q8 Mean Median Mode 2.58 3 3

Q8 Mean Median Mode 2.746667 3 3

The most recurring value (Mode) is 3 for both the genders and this was the score given to the response ³Rarely´ among the total four responses; this actually means that the majority of the respondents out of the total 300 sample size rarely based their purchase decision on their brand recall. Additionally the mean value of Q8 for the female respondents was 2.6 whereas that of the male strata was 2.7 approximately, therefore it can safely be said that both the values are roughly equal for both the major strata¶s and hence brand recall rarely leads to purchase.

Question 9, 10, 11 Female descriptive statistics:-

Q 9 (5/5)

Q 10 (10/10)

Q 11 (10/10)

Mean

4.28

Mean

7.053333 Mean

7.606667

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Male descriptive statistics:Q 9 (5/5) Q 10 (10/10) Q 11 (10/10)

Mean

3.261745 Mean

5.255034 Mean

5.114094

Brand recall capacity has been measured directly in question number 9, 10 and 11 where the respondents were asked questions and provided with blank spaces to note down the answer; the respondents have been given scores out of 5, 10 and 10 respectively. The individual score of all the respondents (all the age brackets of both the genders) were calculated for the three questions individually and then their means have been combined to calculate a final average score of the entire male and female strata of the sample size. According to the descriptive statistics the: Mean of Q9, Q10, Q11 (Female) = 6.49333 where as the, Mean of Q9, Q10, Q11 (Male) = 4.54362433 Both the means clearly indicate that females have a better brand recall, as on average every female score 6.5 out of 10 in the last three questions; whereas all the males had an average score of 4.5 out of 10 as the mean for the same set of questions. If the percentage is calculated then it can be safely said that the brand recall of women is better by 20% than men. This figure can be marked valuable for marketers as they can increase the marketing expenditure targeted at females by the same percentage so that their campaigns can be more efficient.

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Conclusions

Based on all the findings and analysis, we have come to the following conclusions:

y

Women are easier to target and affect through marketing due to their higher emotional quotient and TV exposure. It is also more beneficial to target women as their brand recall was also proved to be better so this obviously means that they are more prone to spread the product¶s awareness through word of mouth. Due to these reasons, companies should spend a greater proportion of their marketing budget on targeting women through adverting campaigns based on emotional, humorous and celebrity endorsed themes.

y

TV and billboards are the most effective mediums for marketing to consumers belonging to both the genders.

y

It is not necessary that brand recall leads to purchase but still promotion is important and effective in terms of creating awareness and recall potential in the consumers.

y

Women have a more spontaneous buying behavior as compared to men so point-ofsale advertising can be a point of focus for the companies.

y

Men and women perceive advertisements differently so different advertising themes are important to target both these genders more effectively.

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Bibliography

Research Methodology ± Methods and Techniques (C.R Kothari) Hogg. M & G. Jade, 2003, Gender identity and the consumption of advertizing, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, volume 6 issue 3, p 160 174 Female buying power - http://realtytimes.com/rtpages/20070111_buyingpower.htm Consumer behavior ± http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/11908/1/MPRA_paper_11908.pdf Ndubisi.N, 2006, Effect of gender on customer loyalty: a relationship marketing approach, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, volume 24 issues 1, p 48-61 Stern¶s, 1988, Media Use and Gender Differences: volume 6 issue 2, p 20-30

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HYPOTHES ZES W SE CHARTS (ANALYS S)

Hypot

i

omen have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men.

1) Do you plan your shopping: do you make a shopping list?
47.3
40.6 34.6

50

40 30 20
10 0

30

29.3

18

Females
Males

Yes

No

Sometimes

Data: Count Table 1

2) Do you stick to what you have planned for shopping?
57.3 60

50 40
30 20 10 33.33

40 27.3 26 15.3
Females Males

0
Yes No Sometimes

Data: Count Table 2

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Hypothesis-II Men and women perceive advertisements differently. 3) which advertising medium do you think is most effective? (Rate, 5 being the highest, 1 the lowest)
74.33
80 0 0 18.67

Qno:3
62.67

60 40 30
20

10
0

2

3.33

70

60
0 TV

Qno:3 Males
Billboard

0

30 20

Newspaper Internet
Radio

30 20 10 0 3 2 1

10
0 3 2 1

25

¥

¤

¢

¥

¢

¥

¤

£

¤

¡  

Females
12

10.67

.3
6.67

7.3

Males

Data: Strata Wise Charts

80 70 60 0
0

Qno:3 Female TV s
Billboard Newspaper Internet

Radio

Data: Count Tables 3, 4

4) how would you rate the following advertisement theme? (5 being the highest, 1 the lowest)

0

Qno:4
40.67 27.33 17.33 27.33 27.33

40 30 20 10 0

Informative Adventurous Emotional Celebrity Endorsed

20
10

0

0
4 3 2 1

26

¨

4

3

2

1

§

1

§

Humorous

2

Humorous

Informative Adventurous Emotional

Celebrity Endorsed

Data: Count Tables 3,4 

30

¨

¨

©

§

§

§

¨

¨

4 40 3 30 2 20 1 10
§

¦

20.67 12 14.67 8 10.67
Females Males

Data: Strata Wise Charts

Qno:4 Male

3

Qno:4 Female

5) Do you think that advertisements give a true picture of products/services being marketed?

60 50 38
40 30 20

51.3

36.6

34
Females

25.3
14.6

Males

10 0
Yes No May be

Data: Count Tables 5, 6

6) to what extent do you think that advertising attracts your attention?
58

60 50 40
30 20 10 0 8 10.6 35.3

53.3

Females

18.6
11.3

Males 2 3.3

1.3

Extremely

A Lot

Somewhat

No

Not at all

Data: Count Tables 7,8

27

Hypothesis-III Brand recall leads to purchase.

7) did an advertisement ever create an inert feeling to try out a product?
49.3

50 40 30
20 10 0

40.6

43.3
35.3 24.6

Females Males 7.3

Yes

No

Sometimes

Data: Count Tables 9,10

8) How often is your purchase decision based on an advertisement recall?
58

60

Qno:8

51.33

50
40 30 26.67 14.67 7.33 30 Males Females

20
10

6

6

0
Mostly Often Rarely Never

Descriptive Stats: Tables 11, 12

28

STRATA W SE CHARTS (

ND NGS)

Qno:1 Female
36 42

40 20 0

18-25 1
78
80

26-40 2

Qno:1 Male
56 58

60 40
20 10 12 28 16 18 24

Yes

No Maybe

0
1 18-25 2 26-40 3 41-50

Qno:2 Female
80
60 40

64

58 50

36
24 24 6 26

20 0

12

Yes No Maybe

18-25 1

26-40 2

41-50 3

60 50 40 30 20
10

52 44 36 34 34 34

Qno:2 Male
28 Yes No

20

20

Maybe

0
1 18-25 2 26-40 3 41-50

29   

22

26

1

41-50 3 

60

56 4 32 20

Yes No Maybe

70

60 50 40
30 20

Qno:3 Females(18-25)
TV illb ard

Newspaper Internet 

10 0
5 4 3 2 1

Radi

Newspaper
Internet

5

4

3

2

1

Rank Sc res

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Qno:3 Females(41-50)
TV illb ard

Newspaper Internet 

Radi

5

4

3

2

1

30  

Radi  

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Qno:3 Females(26-40)
TV illb ard  



70
60

Qno:3 Males(18-25)
TV

50
40 30

Billboard N w pap r Int rn t
Radio

20
10

0
5 4 3 2 1

Rank Scores

50
40

Billboard

30
20

Newspaper Internet

10
0

Radio

5

4

3

2

1

Rank Scores

0

60
50

Qno:3 Males( 1-50)
#

T

40 30
20 10

Billboard Newspaper Internet

Radio

0
5 4 3 2 1

Rank Scores

31

%

#

T

%

60

Qno:3 Males(2 - 0)
$

!

! !

" !

&

40 35
30 25

Qno:4 Females(18-25)
Humorous
Informative Adventurous Emotional

20 15 10
5 0

Celebrity Endorsed

5

4

3

2

1

60 50

Qno:4 Females(26-40)
Humorous Informative

40 30 20
10 0

Adventurous Emotional Celebrity Endorsed

5

4

3

2

1

40

35
30

Qno:4 Females(41-50)
Humorous Informative Adventurous
Emotional Celebrity Endorsed

25 20
15

10
5

0 5 4 3 2 1

32

35
30 25

Qno:4 Males(18-25)
Humorous Informative

20 15
10 5

Adventurous Emotional Celebrity Endorsed

0
5 4 3 2 1

Humorous

Informative Adventurous Emotional
Celebrit Endorsed

5

4

3

2

1

70
60

Qno:4 Males(41-50)
Humorous
Informative Adventurous Emotional

50
40

30
20 10

Celebrit Endorsed 5 4 3 2 1
)

0

33

(

'

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Qno:4 Males(2 -40)

STRATA WISE TABLES (FINDINGS) Q5 to Q9

18-25 Q5. Female Q5. Male 20 4 28 64 52 32 0 32

26-40 50 52 50 16 22 14

41-50 44 62 34 24

18-25 Q6. Female Q6. Male 16 36 44 8 32 64 4 6 0 0 0

26-40 20 70 0 4

41-50 10 12 50 32 0 4 4 2 2

12 28 56

12 64 18

18-25 Q7. Female Q7. Male 58 58 14 14 28 28 56 36

26-40 6 18 38 46 52 18

41-50 12 44 36 38

18-25 Q8. Female Q8. Male 8 8 38 38 44 44 10 10 4 12

26-40 12 28 78 50 6 10 6 2

41-50 40 14 52 60 2 24

34

Questionnaire
, He S / We are here to conduct a research to measure the e ect of advertising on male/female consumer buying behavior. The purpose of this study is to know, understand, and evaluate the gender based consumer behavior. We would appreciate if you could spend about 5 Min. and communicate your feelings, e pression, & comments through this Questionnaire. Please give your honest opinion and be understood that this information collected will be purely confidential and not to be shared with any other entity or research purpose.
9 88 75654 32 100

Q1) Do you plan your shopping: do you make a shopping list 1) Yes 2) No 3) Sometimes

Q2) Do you stick to what you have planned for shopping 1) Yes 2) No 3) Sometimes

Q3) which advertising medium do you think is most effective (Rate, 5 being the highest, 1 the
lowest)

TV Billboard News paper Internet Radio

________ ________ ________ ________ ________

Q4) how would you rate the following advertisement theme (5 being the highest, 1 the lowest)
Humorous Informative Adventurous Emotional Celebrity endorsed ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

Q5) Do you think that advertisements give a true picture of products/services being marketed
y

Yes

2) No

3) May be

35

Q6) to what extent do you think that advertising attracts your attention
y

Extremely

2) A lot

3) Somewhat

4) No

5) Not at all

Q7) did an advertisement ever create an inert feeling to try out a product
y

Yes

2) No

3) Sometimes

Q8) How often is your purchase decision based on an advertisement recall
y

Mostly

2) Often

3) Rarely

4) Never

Q9) which brand comes to your mind from the following colors (List as many as you remember)
o o o o o

Yellow Blue Red Orange Green

___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

Q10) Fill in the following blanks: Brands/Company
o _____________________ o _____________________ o _____________________ o _____________________ o _____________________ o _____________________ o _____________________ o _____________________ o _____________________ o _____________________

Tag Lines
Is se sasta aur Achcha kahee nahee

Ye jhatke hai zara hatke Sense and simplicity
The World's Local Bank

Its all about money honey Tedha hai par mera hai When style matters more Do the Dew The complete Man
The Power of Knowledge

36

Q11) which advertisement comes to your mind when you think of the following celebrities.
(List as many as you remember)

o o o o o o o o o o

Aishwarya Rai Hrithik Roshan Yuvraj Singh Aamir Khan Sharukh Khan Sanya Mirza Rani Mukharjee Juhi Chawla MS Dhoni Amitabh Bacchan

________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________

Thank You For giving response to this Questionnaire and being part of this survey. Personal Details: Name Mr. /Mrs.: Age:

37

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