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A DIVISION O F N O R T H AMERICAN ROCKWELL CORPORATION 6 6 3 3 CANOGA AVENUE. CANOGA PARK C A L I F O R N I A 91304

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The Rocketdyne .J-2 i s t h e hydrogen-fueled rocket engine t h a t w i l l launch t h e f i r s t t h r e e a s t r o n a u t s i n t o e a r t h o r b i t i n t h e Apollo space-

c r a f t and l a t e r w i l l f l y them toward t h e moon. In c u r r e n t f l i g h t s , it develops up t o 225,000 pounds of t h r u s t a t a l t i t u d e (200,000 a t 5 : l mixture r a t i o ) and i s t h e most powerful high energy rocket engine c u r r e n t l y being used i n upper s t a g e s of U. S. space v e h i c l e s . Both t h e Uprated Saturn I and t h e S a t u r n V launch v e h i c l e s u t i l i z e t h e high energy engine. For t h e Uprated Saturn I, 5-2 performs a s a

s i n g l e second s t a g e engine i n t h e S-IVB under development by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. Saturn V vehicle. The S-IVB a l s o is used a s t h e t h i r d s t a g e of t h e

I n a second a p p l i c a t i o n t h e 5-2 i s employed i n a

c l u s t e r of f i v e engines i n t h e S-I1 developed a s t h e second s t a g e of Saturn V by t h e Space Division of North American Rockwell Corporation. In t h a t c o n f i g u r a t i o n , 5-2 w i l l develop a c l u s t e r t o t a l of 1,125,000 pounds of t h r u s t maximum. 5-2 production is centered a t Rocketdyne's Canoga Park, C a l i f . , plant. Testing i s conducted a t t h e company's Santa Susana F i e l d

Laboratory i n t h e nearby Santa Susana mountains. The b i g hydrogen-fueled engine has r e s t a r t c a p a b i l i t y i n space and can be used f o r o t h e r advanced space programs. capable of u p r a t i n g t o increased t h r u s t .
Its b a s i c d e s i g n i s

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Advanced d e s i g n s t u d i e s a l s o have confirmed t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of modifying t h e e n g i n e t o i n c o r p o r a t e new n o z z l e and turbopump d e s i g n s t h a t would g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e i t s payload l i f t i n g c a p a b i l i t y . The 5-2 program i s being c a r r i e d o u t by Rocketdyne under t h e t e c h n i c a l d i r e c t i o n of NASA's Marshall Space F l i g h t C e n t e r , H u n t s v i l l e , Ala.

CHRONOLOGY

To g a i n g r e a t e r weight l i f t i n g c a p a c i t y f o r i t s launch v e h i c l e s , N S reached an e a r l y d e c i s i o n t o t a k e advantage o f t h e h i g h energy o f AA l i q u i d hydrogen a s a r o c k e t f u e l i n upper s t a g e engines. Toward t h i s g o a l , NASA c o n t r a c t e d i n t h e f a l l of 1959 f o r development of a l i q u i d oxygen/liquid hydrogen e n g i n e of 150,000 pounds o f t h r u s t t h a t would b e used s i n g l y and i n c l u s t e r s i n upper s t a g e s of space v e h i c l e s then b e i n g planned o r under development. Almost immediately, however, a requirement f o r a more powerful l i q u i d hydrogen e n g i n e i n t h e 200,000 pounds t h r u s t class w a s e s t a b l i s h e d . This

high energy e n g i n e would m e e t t h e f o r e s e e a b l e need f o r h i g h - t h r u s t upper s t a g e s of very l a r g e space v e h i c l e s . P r o p o s a l s were requested of a number of a e r o s p a c e companies i n t h e s p r i n g of 1960 and on June 1, 1960, NASA announced t h a t Rocketdyne, i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h f o u r o t h e r companies, had been s e l e c t e d t o d e v e l o p t h e 5-2.

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The c o n t r a c t awarded t o Rocketdyne on Sept. 1, 1960, was t h e f i r s t t o s p e c i f y a high t h r u s t , h i g h energy r o c k e t e n g i n e d e s i g n t h a t would "insure maximum s a f e t y f o r manned f l i g h t . " and development through f u l l q u a l i f i c a t i o n . Work began immediately through t h e u s e o f a n a n a l y t i c a l computer model t o s i m u l a t e e n g i n e o p e r a t i o n s and a f u l l - s c a l e mockup t o i n v e s t i g a t e design c r i t e r i a . Both t e c h n i q u e s proved t o b e important t o o l s throughout

It extended from d e s i g n

t h e e a r l y phases o f t h e 5-2 program. On Nov.
11, 1960, l i t t l e more t h a n two months a f t e r s t a r t of t h e

c o n t r a c t , t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t a l component, a f u l l - s c a l e i n j e c t o r , was h o t - f i r e d on a temporary test p o s i t i o n a t Rocketdyne's S a n t a Susana F i e l d Laboratory. Simultaneous w i t h t h e s t a r t of development, p r e p a r a t i o n of f u l l s c a l e f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e s t i n g b o t h components and complete hydrogen e n g i n e s was initated. Included i n t h a t program w e r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o f o u r l a r g e t e s t

stand p o s i t i o n s , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a huge vacuum chamber i n which t h e engine could b e o p e r a t e d under simulated space c o n d i t i o n s and t h e r e f i t t i n g of more t h a n 15 component test p o s i t i o n s . By t h e end o f 1960, t h r e e t e c h n i c a l management programs of long-term s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e 5-2 program w e r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . These w e r e a Design

Review Board, which would a n a l y z e and probe t h e d e s i g n o f each o f J - 2 ' s i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s ; a R e l i a b i l i t y t a s k f o r c e t o d e v e l o p s t a t i s t i c a l models adapted s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e 5-2 test program, and a PERT (Performance E v a l u a t i o n and Review Technique) r e p o r t i n g system f o r u s e by t h e program management team.

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By l a t e 1960 .the f i r s t experimental components were b e i n g f a b r i c a t e d

and assembled by a r e s e a r c h and development team.

A t t h e same t i m e ,

manufacturing p l a n n e r s were t a c k l i n g p r o d u c t i o n problems. A e a r l y d e c i s i o n t o u s e high s t r e n g t h s t a i n l e s s steel t u b i n g t o n form t h e J - 2 ' s r e g e n e r a t i v e l y cooled t h r u s t chamber posed a major problem--The new steel could n o t b e

how t o p r o p e r l y f a s t e n t h e t u b i n g t o g e t h e r . hand brazed economically.

Furnace b r a z i n g provided t h e answer and by

January, 1962, a method of performing t h i s o p e r a t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrated. H w t o form some 600 uniform p o s t s on t h e f a c e o f t h e 5-2 i n j e c t o r o was a n o t h e r problem. An i n j e c t o r d e s i g n s u i t a b l e f o r producing t h e s e from

a s i n g l e p i e c e o f m e t a l by e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e machining was evolved i n t h e f a l l of 1961. T h i s d e s i g n i s c u r r e n t l y being used f o r p r o d u c t i o n p a r t s .

Simultaneous w i t h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , a d e s i g n team f o r GSE (ground support equipment) a l s o w a s formed t o p r o v i d e s p e c i a l h a n d l i n g equipment and o p e r a t i n g c o n s o l e s t o be u t i l i z e d i n Rocketdyne o p e r a t i o n s a s w e l l a s a t f i e l d sites and in s u p p o r t of engine f l i g h t s . Meanwhile, l i q u i d hydrogen, which b o i l s a t minus 423 d e g r e e s F a h r e n h e i t , p r e s e n t e d e n g i n e e r s w i t h new problems o f i n s u l a t i o n , metals embrittlement and s e a l i n g . In May, 1961, work was i n i t i a t e d on a s p e c i a l

c r y o g e n i c s l a b o r a t o r y t o b e devoted e x c l u s i v e l y to hydrogen a p p l i c a t i o n s and t h a t l a b o r a t o r y was placed i n t o f u l l o p e r a t i o n by t h e end o f t h a t y e a r . I n mid-November, 1961, t h e f i r s t test f a c i l i t y s p e c i f i c a l l y designed

f o r t h e 5-2 program, a components c e l l , was a c t i v a t e d and test f i r i n g s o f both t h e oxygen and hydrogen pumps f o r t h e e n g i n e were begun.

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Building of t h e f i r s t experimental engine began l a t e i n 1961.

It was

completed on Jan. 25, 1962, and s i x days l a t e r , on Jan. 31, 1962, a major milestone was reached w i t h t h e s u c c e s s f u l completion of t h e f i r s t experimental 5-2 engine test on VTS 3B, t h e f i r s t engine stand t o complete modification. Production of 5-2 f o r both ground test and f l i g h t test was ordered on J u l y 1, 1962, i n a N S c o n t r a c t f o r 55 of t h e engines with support AA equipment and s e r v i c e s . L a t e r t h a t month, p l a n s were announced f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of two new manufacturing b u i l d i n g s t o accommodate production of Saturn v e h i c l e engines, including t h e 5-2. Occupation of t h e f a c i l i t i e s began a year l a t e r .

The f i r s t mainstage engine tests under simulated a l t i t u d e c o n d i t i o n s were made i n February, 1963. Early i n 1963, t h e f i r s t production drawings were r e l e a s e d t o t h e manufacturing shops and by May of t h a t year 5-2 production l i n e s were

w e l l established.
On Nov. 27, 1963, t h e f i r s t extended d u r a t i o n f i r i n g was made with

t h e 5-2 when a 510 second run was s u c c e s s f u l l y completed.

Also i n

November t h e f i r s t of f i v e engine s i m u l a t o r s was completed and d e l i v e r e d . The s i m u l a t o r s were designed t o perform a l l engine f u n c t i o n s except firing. They were used f o r e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical checkout w i t h

Rocketdyne furnished Ground Support Equipnent and f o r working o u t i n t e r f a c e d e t a i l s concerned with connecting engine and v e h i c l e s t a g e systems.

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The f i r s t production engine was d e l i v e r e d i n A p r i l , 1964, t o McDonnell Douglas f o r S-IVB s t a g e s t a t i c t e s t i n g .
On Nov. 25, 1964, Preliminary F l i g h t Rating T e s t s were s u c c e s s f u l l y

completed by Rocketdyne a t i t s Santa Susana F i e l d Laboratory, followed by successful demonstration of t h e J - 2 ' s r e s t a r t c a p a b i l i t y i n a test conducted on Dec. 9 , 1964. McDonnell Douglas s u c c e s s f u l l y conducted t h e f i r s t f u l l d u r a t i o n S-M3 s t a g e s t a t i c test on i t s b a t t l e s h i p stand a t Sacramento, C a l i f . , f o r 410 seconds on D e c . 23, 1964. Test s t a n d s designed t o s i m u l a t e a c t u a l v e h f c l e o r v e h f c l e s t a g e

s y s t e m s f o r ground s t a t i c t e s t i n g a r e b u i l t of heavy materials and
designated " b a t t l e s h i p " s t a n d s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from " f l i g h t weight" facilities. The Space Division of North American Rockwell Corporation successf u l l y completed t h e f i r s t mainstage test on t h e S-I1 second s t a g e , f i v e engine c l u s t e r t h a t develops 1.125 m i l l i o n pounds of t h r u s t a t a l t i t u d e , on May 5 , 1965. The test w a s conducted on a b a t t l e s h i p test stand a t t h e
On Aug. 9 , 1965, t h e f i r s t f l i g h t d u r a t i o n

Santa Susana F i e l d Laboratory.

S-I1 c l u s t e r f i r i n g of 390 seconds was s u c c e s s f u l l y conducted on t h e same

st and.
In November, 1965, NASA contracted f o r a n a d d i t i o n a l 48 engines. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n tests demonstrating performance over t h e 3-2's d e s i g n operating range w e r e completed i n December, 1965, when a s i n g l e engine was s u c c e s s f u l l y operated 30 s e p a r a t e times f o r a t o t a l f i r i n g t i m e of 3774 seconds. Five of t h e tests were each f o r t h e required d u r a t i o n

t i m e of 470 seconds.

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The 5-2 was operated i n f l i g h t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e on Feb. 25, 1966, when i t powered t h e S-IVB second s t a g e o f t h e f i r s t Uprated S a t u r n I v e h i c l e t o be launched. Engine o p e r a t i o n was completely s u c c e s s f u l ,

meeting a l l r a t e d performance c r i t e r i a , i n c l u d i n g i g n i t i o n a t a l t i t u d e and o p e r a t i o n f o r 7 & minutes.
To meet advanced requirements f o r t h e S a t u r n V v e h i c l e , work was

undertaken i n 1965 t o u p r a t e t h e 5 - 2 t o a maximum t h r u s t o f 230,000 pounds. The f i r s t o f t h e u p r a t e d e n g i n e s was d e l i v e r e d t o t h e M a r s h a l l

Space F l i g h t C e n t e r i n t h e s p r i n g of 1966, and was s u c c e s s f u l l y q u a l i f i e d i n August, 1966, i n a series o f 30 tests which accumulated o v e r 3800 seconds of mainstage o p e r a t i o n .
F. M.

(Bud) Drummond, 5-2 engine p r o j e c t -

manager a t t h e N S M a r s h a l l Space F l i g h t C e n t e r , s t a t e d t h a t t h e s e r i e s AA of t e s t s "was smoother t h a n any engine q u a l i f i c a t i o n program we've e v e r run.
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RWM Rev. 11/06/67