Jesus and the Cynics Revisited Author(s): David Seeley Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 116, No.

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22.. See also the literature I cite in "Jesus'Death in Q.2."NTS 38 (1992) 230 n. 95. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. 211-13. 93-96. Epictetus 3. one must look elsewhere" than at Cynicism (p..6 and (f) inhabits and invites others into a divinely established realm. 704 .. Cynics and Christian Origins. family ties. 69 (see below). e. Indeed. 79-82. to by 2 See the literature cited by F. 1992) 34 n.8 It does remain true that Cynicism was "aneclectic mix. Diogenes Laertius 6." Semeia 55 (ed.47." zaiotq.. Epictetus 3. The Cynic Epistles (SBLSBS 12. Epictetus 3. 12:4-7.. 16:13. 151-53.30.g. nature:Q 12:22-31.72. Further references thisarticle indicated pagenumbers parentheses."Jesus Diogenes?Reflections the CynicJesusThesis. A. G.22. G. Cynic Epistles.37-38. 14:26.22. Below I consider Eddy's treatment and argue that. "withregardto the ongoing search for a viable model for the reconstruction of the historicalJesus. poverty:Q 12:33-34. 10:9. 1992) 135-36. Malherbe. See also. idem.22. 5 Cf. surveys current debate on the matter and concludes that.g.. Encheiridion 15. Dio Chrysostom 40. Cynic Epistles. 8 Itinerancy:Q 10:2-12. 193. Malherbe. 9 Downing..9 But so too were first-centuryCE 1 P. 72.Atlanta:ScholarsPress. J. Christ and the Cynics (JSOTManuals4." making the Cynic difficult to define (p. it is not quite so definitive as he suggests. Vaage.7Comparisons can be made with Jesus regardingeach of these items.. Cynics and Christian Origins. J. e. 23."as Eddy calls it.38.4 (d) advocated reliance on God's power. Kloppenborg and L. See also Epictetus my "Blessingsand Boundaries:Interpretationsof Jesus' Death in Q.. provides the "salvation" aotrnpiaof mankind). R.9. 28. is . 13:18-21. 157. Dio Chrysostom 8. Cynics and Christian Origins (Edinburgh: Clark. although probing in certain ways. 12:52-53. 469). F. 87-88.3 (c) criticized social norms-notably." in are 449-69. 3-8. 97 or or ("nature.g.8.22.God's power: Q 11:9-13. 13:18-21. Paul Rhodes Eddy has recently examined the question of possible links between Jesus and Cynicism.2(b) lived and preached a life-style of poverty.7. 93. 141-43. e.. 3 See. 4. 56. Downing has alreadymade this point at length.53. 4 See.JESUS AND THE CYNICS REVISITED In a well-researched and articulate essay.g. 26-56. e. Downing. 55.5 (e) especially as that power is seen in natural processes. 6 See F.2. kingdom:Q 7:28. Diogenes Laertius 6. Epictetus 3. E. an eclectic mix. cf. But most students of antiquitywould recognize as a Cynic one who: (a) was itinerant.. 46.63-69.30. Malherbe. Eddy begins by noting that "ImperialCynicism . Downing. G.. 459). 1977) 119. 1988) 68-71. on as JBL 115 (1996) Eddy. 7 See 3. S.

A. 13 F. 14 B.namely. inter alia. 1. 1987) 83-85. Cynics and Christian Origins. 74 (emphasis mine).the bestapproach bothis probably to demand uniform to not the presence of certainspecific elements but ratherto seek "family resemblances. however. 467). Downing and..According to wisdomandbitingwit is best understood Eddy. Philo and the Qumrancommunity? not."'4 be similar one thingstillallowsforbeingsimilar something else. Downing. The Later Wittgenstein: The Emergence of a New Philosophical Method (Oxford:Basil Blackwell. can even gathera familygroup One suspect withoutanytwo of its members the together. say. 458 given that he later admits that "Downing retains a place for a strongly Jewish."'2 the Cynic. For a philosophical account of this method. J. G. Levy. amongCynicsthanthere were between."13 BurtonMacksaysthatJesus'speaking similarto the Cynics' styleis "very To to to waywithwords. Z.See Eddy. sharing By abovelistofferssubstantive for that existedbetween grounds thinking someconnection JesusandCynictradition. L. Jesus" (p. 163. 11Indeed. Cynics and Christian Origins. example." 462. 1988) 68 (emphasis mine). jaw. "Jesus. thiscriterion. 49).Mackhasexplicitly statedthathe sees Jesusas usingJewish wisdom: "One did mightimagineJesusdoingat a popularlevel whatmanyJewishintellectuals at a moresophisticated conceptual and tralevel. Mack. if Cynic. fact thatgives Eddyhimselfpausein usingthe singular "Judaism" 460 n. But no one has saidthatJesus'use of Cynicthoughtkepthim from (p." n.ll Sucha connection does not. 1987) 132 (emphasis mine). Hilmy."'5 religious that Downingreallyhas simplyand straightforwardly identified Eddy implies as a Cynicper se. "Jesus. see. then in principlewe If shouldbe aswillingto advert the one tradition to the other. more cautiously. combining JewishandHellenistic ditionsof wisdomin orderto makecritical aboutthe timesandto proposea judgments ethicheldto be in keeping withJewish ideals. For many unrelated peoplehavelargeearsor a smallnoseorblondhairor greeneyes or a square Butwhenseveralindividuals encountered are withmostor all of these attributes. and 10See Downing. 16 "Some Cynic theorists (e.A Myth of Innocence (Philadelphia:Fortress. Downing. "The Social Contexts of Jesus the Teacher: Construction or Reconstruction.Critical Notes 705 a Jewishideasand practices. a of usingJewishthoughtas well. but he offersno citation fromDowning's workin support. Weretherereallymoredifferences (p.g. DowningsaysthatJesusfashioned "marriage" Cynic ideas"with ownnative his andthat"Jesus Jewmustalsobe seen asJesus the Judaism. In fact. 1973) 153. Wittgenstein(London: Penguin. 1990) 50. Vaage) have made explicit claims involving 'homology"'(Eddy. one can reasonably a familyresemblance. 130-31."toclaimthatJesus'use of aphoristic withinthe contextof Hellenistic is context: Cynicism to missthe mostplausible Jewish wisdom" 460).. Jesus and the Threat of Freedom (London: SCM. S. 59). Downing."NTS 33 (1987) 449. meanthatJesuswas a Cynic. 26-30. Eddy's view on this is somewhat puzzling. Smith. Drudgery Divine (Chicago: University of Chicago Press.16 He Jesus also saysthat.whileJohnDominicCrossan Mackmayspeakin termsof analogy. G. since the charge of eclecticism can be brought againstvirtuallyall of them. 12 F. S. Jesus' eclecticism may be further seen in his functioning as an exorcist/healer."10 This methodlooksfor a critical massdrawn froma clusterof attributes. this approachis suitable for the gamut of Hellenistic religions. .5Ibid. to as In anycase. everyattribute.

Cynic Epis- 18Teles. 461-62). Cynics were known to use parables. Teles said. but rather to be unkempt and uncompromisSimilarly.they rush up. idem. and so it is impossible to know precisely what statements he has in mind.17 Indeed. 17Dio Chrysostom4. doing without even them could signal an especially devoted Cynic. he provides no is a great and noteworthything to take no heed even of a wallet (tilpa). "someparallelsdo exist"between Jesus' teaching and Cynicism.or Diogenes (Dio 72. But Diogenes taught his owner's sons "togo lightlyclad. vegetables. The primaryparallel is that of a warning against the seduction of wealth and materialpossessions. However. 131.Malherbe. 49).31). yea.Cynics Christian and 208. aims. 1977) 47. and I am not afraid to go even through an army if need be. In my own reading of Downing. Eddy is correct when he says that "one of the most characteristicforms of Jesus' teaching style-the parable-. silent.20.. 7apprniia was for voicing uncomfortable or unpopular truths. and not looking about them in the streets" (Diogenes Laertius 6. and amid brigands .706 Journal of Biblical Literature they actuallysuggest a much strongerlinkage (p. is a fundamentallyJewish form" (p. . without the herald's staff."18 will and travel by day unattended." while Cynicism "wasan urban phenomenon" (p. Its closest parallels are in rabbinic literature (though these continue to have problems of dating). Dio says that whenever children see someone wearing the philosopher'sgarb. There is also the fact that both Jesus and the Cynics did engage in social critique. Diogenes Laertius6.(p. "Actually. "Cynictheory insisted that city life 139.89. MT: ScholarsPress. 458 n. 461) Eddy goes on to note Jesus'prohibitionof a bag or staff. as Downing has explained. they rapidlygive way to fundamentaldifferences with regardto foundationalprinciples. 461). Dio writes that the Cynic "hasno companions on his walks"(Dio 33. .34-35. .13). Teles (The Cynic Teacher) (SBLTT 11. 462). water.Dio quotes Diogenes as saying he could "go by night whithersoever I ing. Epictetus 1. However. But because the bag and staff represent poverty. Eddy admits that "onthe surface. In any event.I have found no place which identifies Jesus as a Cynic in such a way as to rule out continued association with his Jewish heritage. and motivations.19Eddy also says that Jesus' "chargeto refrainfrom greeting anyone along the way would seem to fly in the face of the Cynic pattern of'bold speech' (parresia)"(p. barefoot. tles. and Christ theCynics.47. 19This and all subsequent quotations from Dio. and Epictetus are from the Loeb Classical Library. as one begins to press these general similarities. expecting to hear the sort of tale told by Aesop. Eddy maintains that the Jesus movement was "largely a rural Galilean phenomenon. Again."at least. or Socrates. not for engaging in social banter. " (Dio Chrysostom 6. in Edward N.and Crossan.See Downing. lupines. however. arguingthat this is directly contraryto the Cynic practice of carryingthem (pp. O'Neil. 462). Graeco-Roman Religion Series 3. the distinction is not that simple. Origins. suggesting a less than friendly demeanor. In a similarvein.14). Mack.. Diogenes Laertius.24.60). But when Eddy adds that Jesus' use of parables "hasno real Cynic parallels"he somewhat overstates the case. Missoula.

" Bib 69 (1988) 214. A Genre for 'Q': The 'Lives' of Cynic Philosophers.moreover. 12:22-31. This or of Butin Q thereis littlemention thingsof the law. See M. Deconstructingthe New Testament(Biblical Interpretation 5.23 exorcisms.and"Noone whoputshis handto the plowandlooksbackis fit forthe be to that of (Luke9:62). it should not be thought that Cynics were entirely uninterested in the subject. the Son of manhas nowhereto layhis head"(Q 9:58). 83. 82.whichleavethe realissue Cynic-style Downing.4. for "Foxes haveholes.spentmytimein the country. But a number sayings (p. the relato absenceof challenges the lawin Q maywellbe due to Jewish Mark to for tiveabsenceof explicit support the lawmaybe attributable Cynicinfluence. 33-34. 23 Mack. Downing. 26 See also Q 10:2-12. Cynicism healings exorcisms 462). cf. Nonetheless. Leiden: Brill. 130-31. ested in communitythan were Cynics. Attic Nights 12. the Jesusmovement commubearsno traceof Jesus' and nal." be sure.24 that no one has ever denied there are differences Again. Cynics and Christian Origins.Eddy himself cites Regarding of Downing'sacknowledgment Cynicindifferencetowardthe matter(462 n.26 14:26demands disciples willing freethemQ kingdom God" ties."20 and and in that meetCynics townbecausethatis thenraisesthe possibility "wealways Downing in met whereourliterate commentators them. 15 above. Who Wrote the New Testament?(San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.36.Bothof these passages be or boileddownto flippant. "Le cynisme a l'epoque imperiale. 2736-38. 83.andbirdsof the airhavenests. 25 See n.Critical Notes 707 was unnatural corrupt." chreiai.11."weighty" shouldbe remembered betweenJesusandCynics."ANRW 2.-O.. and honest folk of simple habits" (1. 14:26-27. selvesevenfromthe closestfamily to as EddyimpliesthatJesusis unlikea Cynicinsofar his "fewchallenges the Jewto on commitment the 'weightier' ish law are predicated an unyielding thingsof that on of verylawandthe covenant utterdependency Godfromwhichtheystem"(p.51). relative Yet influence. 1994) 170. of Lucian's accountof Sostratus AulusGellius's also and description Peregrinus point toward rural settings. Cynics and Christian Origins.25 to at a EddystatesthatJesusfailsto display Cynic"commitment freedom anycost" free fromsocial of attributed Jesusdepicta life-style to 463). Cynicsclaimedto live out theirtheoryin practice. keeping and as quitealooffromthe cities."Leave deadto burytheirown dead"(Q 9:60). beingquitewellworthstudy. 73-74.22 is while is EddynotesthatCynicism individualistic. 463). ibid. 22 Lucian. "Demonax"1. D. 79. Downing.1995) 51.Dio writesof his time of exile:"Iarrived the Peloponnesus. these concernshavealready been addressed those in the "Jesus-as-Jewish-Cynic" by were muchmoreinterTheredoes seemlittledoubtthatJesusandhis followers camp. For Downing's acknowledgmentof Cynicism'slack of interest in healings. Cf. "one-liners. Aulus Gellius.but the entanglements.thereis evidenceforCynics To in ruralareas.Bothof (p. Myth of Innocence. Cynics and Christian Origins.21 21 See . idem. 69). instance. two to points: presentsa Jesusseemingly prepared criticize of the law'smostimportant can observance sabbath (2:23-28)and food laws(7:14-23). 20 mingling with herdsmen and hunters. GouletCaze. Seeley. see Cynics and Christian Origins. 24 Downing's article is "Quite Like Q.

He calls only on God (3. Atlanta:ScholarsPress. it echoes the popular.2. but what comes out").Christand the Cynics.3-8). Miller. Jesus' attitude toward it is portrayed as less than reverent. and marriage."CBQ 55 (1993) 263-83. however. and lacking any expositoryexplicationof the matter at hand. Diogenes Laertius 6.29More famously. "Jesus' Temple Act. ton.23. 46). "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's.33 27Compare thecloakdoesnotmakea Cynic. cf. J. R.and that this shows his distance from Cynicism ( is not obvious why a preacher in Galilee would have had many occasions to talk about the Temple service.22.(Wilmingthe to 323 to . Jesus is said to enter the Temple and halt all the sacrifices (Mark 11:16).56. 135 C. see G.E. "Symbolic Money-Changersin the Temple?"NTS 37 (1991) 280-90. and there would have been good reason for passing up whatever opportunities presented themselves. Moreover. criticizing them would have been dangerous. SBLASP 30. 67. Galilee From Alexander Great Hadrian B. 164-65. IN: Universityof Notre Dame. "It'snot what goes in that defiles. As for imperial taxes. the Downing. It is clear that Mark 7:19b. Freyne. that the man who lays his hand to so great a matter as this without God. Malherbe.135 n.Notre Dame.22. Epistles. J.30 Q 13:35 does show Jesus lamenting over a forsaken Temple. He should not even have a family.73). But Eddy does not say what these opportunitieswere. the Cynic cloak" "For but the (Malherbe. not man for the Sabbath". 1991) 235-52. Seeley. 146. is hateful to him" (3. and the literature cited by 32 S.and to God the things that are God's"(Mark 12:17).Cynicsand Christian Origins. taxes. 463). 28Cf. 1980) 281-87.22. but again. In any event. 3. See also Diogenes Laertius6. See Downing. understands the second to be sweeping awaythe food laws. when someone asks Epictetus about the calling of the Cynic. Lull. W.C. 99.22. 31 See my "Blessingsand Boundaries. Indeed.32Matt 17:24-27 is very likely a Mattheanattempt to bring Jesus' teaching into line with Jewish traditon.56). 29Compare the following:"Andhe [Diogenes the Cynic] saw no improprietyin stealing anyfrom a temple" (Diogenes Laertius6.22.38. this is a Cynic-likechreia: compact.22. and so is unhelpful here. The Temple bureaucracy was probably not a daily presence for inhabitants of Galilee. As for dependence on God.69). See also my Deconstructing New Testament.27 The precise meaning of these two passages for Torah is uncertain.53). clever. thing 30Whether the incident is historical has been questioned. Regardingsacrifices. so that he may remain "whollydevoted to the service of God"(3. The Cynic must be ever at the command of God (3."in SBL 1991 SeminarPapers (ed. Jesus does say. DE: Michael Glazier.44."143-44. Cynic Epistles.22. Mark 2:25-26 describes him holding up as a model David's (technically illegal) consumption of the bread of the presence. 33Epictetus3. Cynic 69). "The (A)historicityof Jesus' Temple Demonstration:A Test Case in Methodology. Greco-Roman philosophical distinction between earthly and heavenly authority. Buchanan. D. the first thing he says is: "I can tell you this much.708 Journal of Biblical Literature dangling in uncertainty ("The Sabbath was made for man.28 Eddy writes that Jesus "passed up numerous opportunities"to attack sacrifices. Galileans were noted for their relative indifference toward such matters.31 Neither is it clear what the "numerousopportunities" were for commentaryon taxation. but this appearsto be a post-70 CEaddition. He has been sent by God (3.E. D.

16. however. 1992] 15).the argument Cynic mustbe positedin into his teaching.historical archaeological cultureto of Hellenistic thatLowerGalilee influenced various was by aspects suggested a greaterdegreethanpreviously 463).75. 145." pointsneed to be madehere. 36For the relationbetween Cynic attitudestowardmarriageand 1 Corinthians7. .. 1. He admitsthat"[i] one has arguedfor a "Cynic elements has been thatJesusthe Jewincorporated noted above. Dio 1.E. 4.22.g. "EarlyChristianity in the Galilee: Reassessing the Evidence From the Gospels. Cynicstoo spokeof (p. hyper-hellenized As Several Jesus. Epictetus 3. 2. He does not.Second. New York/Jerusalem: Jewish Theological Seminaryof "hyper-hellenized Cynicincubator" withan no orderto claimthatJesusdidthis. Still. 37 Malherbe.36 with of that relationship" Godplaces Eddymaintains Jesus' speaking a "father-son him "indiametrical to Cynicism 463). and especially the Via Marisnear where Jesus grew up. and in any event. Cambridge:Cambridge UniversityPress. by Cynicincubator portrayed the CynicJesustheorists" 464).3.38 Cynicswere a wandering 34See. 3.ThisleavesJesus' ties.69-71. 1. Epictetus in with 3. 38Nazareth "overlookedthe main route that led south and west from Sepphoris to Caesarea and was only a short distance from Japhia. 1995)."in The Galilee in Late Antiquity [ed. 12. 60). Cynic Epistles. 103). 35 See my "Jesus'Death in Q.6. C.Onlya few hoursin a marketplace at a and fact). is described as the son of Zeus (Epictetus 2. oppostion" God as Father. explainwhat this means.E. but the former is polemic againstthe Phariseesjust the sort of passage whose authenticityscholarshave often questioned. 53. 1. Deming. Paul on Marriageand Celibacy:The Hellenistic Backgroundof 1 Corinthians7 (SNTSMS 83. Dio 1. of individual knewthe essential who Eddy fact thatwe cannotspecifically placea Cynicin LowerGalileein the firstcenturyCE in LowerGalilee(nearNazareth. the Onemustnotbe tied downby family tionessentially sameas thatof the Cynics. Meyers and J.39-40." n.60. Eddy argues that Q 14:26 is actually"Semitic-style 460 overstatement"used as a "rhetorical ploy" ("Jesus. Lukan theirnewcalling for remark patriaradding(somewhat implication marriage. see now W.22. See also the places where Heracles. in for hellenizedGalileesupported recentscholarship no wayprovides the type of by as (p. traderoutespassedthrough (pp.19.22.64. playsout its unmistakable for that posichally) the callingmustalsocomebeforeaffection wives. Butmajor or tribe.36.9. First.Cynic Epistles.. Malherbe.Critical Notes 709 and EddyarguesthatJesusdoes not criticize marriage.61.34. Levine. Lee I. 75.44.463).12.e. were among the busiest in ancient Palestine"(H.37 and The balanceof Eddy'sarticledealswith Hellenization LowerGalilee (pp. Butin reality. 14:26is verymuchin keeping Q philosopher's (p. 1.15).34 mustput in general.466-67).82 (cf. studieshave and 463-67). the fact remainsthat Q 14:26 seems closer to the Cynic admonitionto avoid familycares in favorof divine service than it does to Jewishattitudes (see below). 28.he insiststhat"thenotionof a thought" (p. Kee.Paulis largely agreement theCynicposition Cor (1 7:32-35).24.13.35 that ThereJesusis saidto assert his followers tudestoward family version this of or The aboveeventheirloveforparents children. thatthisputshim at odds as an impedimentto fulfillingthe with Cynicpronouncements paintingmatrimony withCynicattitask However. Eddy points to Mark7:9-12 as a counterbalanceto Q 14:26. God'sworkcomesfirst.9." 230 n. 36. Strangehave accuratelyobserved that the cities and trade routes of the Galilee in the first century C.Oneneedimagine morethananencounter makesmuchof the structure Cynicthought. the Cynic model.

Edwards in asks:" . 1992]71). datewas21 November The was in Scholarship 1993. Why might a carpenter not have done the same? In the words of Martin Hengel. p." ("Early 42 lecture in the Frontiers Biblical The Series." 41 D. Rheinisches of "TheGreekPhilosophic Background FourthMaccabees.42 There Meyers said the following:"Takingthe example of the work of Crossanthat an urbanizedGalilee was the appropriatesetting for the transmissionof popular Cynic ideas . 465 [emphasis his]).. Christianity the Galilee. An example of such utilizationis 4 Maccabees.41 Near the end of his article. Levine. "Hellenization" PressInternational. I take Eddy to mean that it would be unlikely for Jesus to find Sepphoris's hellenized ethos appealing or attractive. Museumfur Philologie 115 (1972) 223-38. who grew up in the neighbourhood of Sepphoris. Hengel SCM. rural Aramaic-speaking areasand Hellenistically-oriented Ethosof and The is Socio-Economic Cultural areas? evidencesuggests the answer 'no"' that ("The in the LowerGalileein the FirstCentury: for Implications the NascentJesusMovement. Renehan. Eddy refers to a lecture by Eric Meyers at the 1993 AAR/SBL Annual Meeting in Washington. but they are not especially elaborate or complicated. creative mind to absorb the basics of Cynic thought and begin mixing them with Jewish tradition. 1989)44. . the very existence of the rift that Eddy sketches has been seriously questioned.2). the claim that Jesus as a Nazarene would have been significantlyinfluenced in a positive direction by Sepphoris'smore hellenized ethos is questionable (Eddy. uses florid Greek rhetoric. Thus." The of in Galilee LateAntiquity Lee I." 40See R.710 Journal of Biblical Literature crossroadswould be necessary for a bright. D. have made contact with Cynic itinerant preachers. "Why should not the craftsmanJesus. and employs Greek philosophical ideas.Those aspects of Jesus' teaching which seem to echo Cynicism are important. Alciphron describes a fishmonger pausing in the agora to listen to a nearby Cynic (Epistles 1..40One must not confuse the borrowingof parts of a culture with wholesale assent to that culture.C. Kee saysof Sepphoris "thephysical proximity with of contact inhabitants Nazareth therewouldnothavebeenextensive economic cultural and by in thisimportant Roman and center" cultural administrative 15). hellenized centers of the Greco-Romanworld (such as Sepphoris) and the smaller surroundingpeasant villages (such as Nazareth). But as has alreadybeen noted.. one has to posit no more than active trade routes or a market- 39 M. A single diatribe would have sufficed for their transmission.But it is not necessary for a thinker to accept an ethos in order to utilize elements from it.3. (pp. Markschies. NewYork/Jerusalem: Theological [ collaboration C.Philadelphia: afterChrist(London: Trinity Century and affinities betweenGospeltradition Cynicreligious socialcritiand alsosaystherethat"[t]hese cismgo rightbackto Jesushimself. we must say that this is not evident in either of the Galilees we have explored"(quoted by Eddy.. especially since he himself spoke some Greek?"39 Perhaps Eddy would answer Hengel's question by sayingthat a notable political and economic rift tended to exist between the more urbanized. The with ofJudaea in the First Hengel. was there significant culturalantagonism the LowerGalilee urban betweenlargelyconservative. a stridently anti-Greek tract that is written in Greek. p. 466). By this. 465-66). Seminary Jewish that makesit impossible that America. Besides.

11:3. "Roman Sepphoris in Light of New Archeological Evidence and 45Downing. Eddy again does not investigate this "massof surfaceparallels"and does not explainwhy it is merely superficial. Nor does he say why exegetes disillusionedwith crassconsumerismshould seek recourse to Cynic texts. and Leif Vaage. Netzerand see had (see. whether so sweeping a conclusion can be drawn from these findings is open to question.43 to segments of diasporaJudaism. see Edwards." 55 (1992) 88. 33-34. 466). and Crossanare not arguingin such "either-or" to terms. 10:4-8. Rather." "the Cynic values of poverty and degradationof wealth seem particularlyapropos ther. for Downing."However.GalileanJews-under the pressure of hellenizationtended to bond even more closely with their religioustraditionsjust because of the close proximityof pagan and/or Hellenistic influence"(p.46In light of this. 467).g. D. Seminary America. as this passage seems to indicate. M. "TheSocio-Economic Cultural Ethos.or how it might "mesmerize"an experienced scholarlike Downing. for those "who have adopted a revamped form of the history-of-religions approach and have reduced 'religion' to a subset of 'social formation'-without remainder-the Cynic thesis serves the purpose well" 43Ontraderoutes. But if. Theological 46See H. It has setting been stated above that Downing. However."JR (1994) 471.does the presence of ritualbaths and the absence of graves show that there could not have been Cynics passing through? Perhaps the crux of the debate between Eddy and scholars like Downing is the demonstratedwhen he says that Meyers'sportraitof Lower Galilee is "hardly type of conducive to converting a Nazarene Jew to a Cynic mind-set" (p. .Sepphoris twomarketplaces e. he wonders what is the "cashvalue of the Cynic Jesus model. They do not conceptualize Jesus' use of Cynicism as a "conversion" it.44Meyers bases this view on the number of miqva'ot and the practice of burial outside the city. 16:13)? With regard to Mack. Ron Cameron."45 Eddy begins a final section titled "ConcludingThoughts"by agreeing with Hans Dieter Betz that the "'Jesusas Cynic' hypothesis"is "easyto criticize"(p. Mack. Wouldn't Jesus' comments on wealth be enough to satisfy them (e. 38 above. Levine. given the crass consumerism of the modem First World. 466)."BARev 18/6 [1992] 42)." TheGalilee LateAntiquity Lee I.467). E. 466).g. the "massof surface parallels"has proven to be "mesmerizing. and 59. Meyers. JonathanZ. Q 9:58. To quote Downing once more. today. n. Weiss. terms."Jesus the Cynics: 74 and and of Survey Analysis a Hypothesis.. Jewish of 1992)325. BA and for of "TheChallenge Hellenism Early Judaism Christianity. "similar place. "Jesusthe Jew must also be seen as Jesus the Cynic. 12:22-31. Betz. More specifically. 132 (emphasis mine). Smith." 44See E. Both of those were present in Jesus'environment. Eddy adverts once again to the work of Eric Meyers. Eddy is implying that Jesus' teaching was no more influenced by Hellenistic thought than diaspora texts like 4 Maccabees or the Wisdom of Solomon.. require and more. in citing the latter's conclusion that the archaeological remains of Sepphoris reveal "a Torah-true population" (p. They see him as combining parts of Cynic thought they are arguingin "both-and" with his native Jewish traditions.Critical Notes 711 Eddy maintainsthat. then he is admitting all that Downing et al. in (ed. a model whose proponents are willing to defend it in the face of all apparentodds?"(p. See also idem. On marketplacesin Mark. Jesus and the Threatof Freedom. "New Mosaic Art From Sepphoris. Z. in NewYork/Jerusalem: RecentResearch. Eddy writes that. He surmises Furthat.

In the end. spiritual foundation. As for the motives of Crossan and Hengel..49 David Seeley 1001 LouisianaBlvd. 468)... yet the above remarks concerning the Cynic's reliance on God show that it rested on a firm. 162 (CynicSageor Sonof God?[Wheaton. the sectiontitled"Parallels runs IL: Cynicism" fromp.48Speculation on the motives behind colleagues' work is inappropriate in scholarly venues. . forJBL 1995]). III Crossan theirkin and . NE.In G. a very pragmaticallyoriented movement. they are not discussed. 48Eddyis notalonehereeither. leaving the way open for further debate on the issue.. Here. havecaught whattheywerelooking IL: for.Cynicismwas. InterVarsity. A profitable beginning would be an extended discussion of the parallelsto which Eddy refers. NM 87110 47 Eddyis by no meansthe onlyexegeteto giveshortshriftto this subject. Eddy presumably means that Mack et al. it may be said that Eddy's criticisms of Cynic influence on Jesus have not entirely hit the mark.47 Less profitable would be more ad hominem arguments such as those with which Eddy ends his article. A.B. to be sure. "(TheJesus Grove. Quest[Downers werelooking for. does how whatthesescholars 1995]79). Albuquerque. 160 to p. tear away the theological anchor of religion and regardit simply as a sociologicalphenomenon. Boyd's betweenJesusandAncient 416-pagebookattacking Downinget al.712 Journal of Biblical Literature (p. #46. But why Cynicism would be particularlypleasing to such a perspective remains murky.Witherington notexplain he knows 491 wishto thank anonymous the on reader whooffered critical comments thisessay. but which he never examines at any length..Witherington writesthat"Funk. and serves more to inflame than inform. VictorBooks.

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