INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
Hydraulic pumps convert mechanical energy from a prime mover (engine or electric motor) into hydraulic (pressure) energy. The pressure energy is used then to operate an actuator. Pumps push on a hydraulic fluid and create flow. 3-1. Pump Classifications. All pumps create flow. They operate on the displacement principal. Fluid is taken in and displaced to another point. Pumps that discharge liquid in a continuous flow are nonpositive-displacement type pumps. Pumps that discharge volumes of liquid separated by periods of no discharge are positivedisplacement type pumps. a. Nonpositive-Displacement Pumps. With this pump, the volume of liquid delivered for each cycle depends on the resistance offered to flow. A pump produces a force on the liquid that is constant for each particular speed of the pump. Resistance in a discharge line produces a force in the opposite direction. When these forces are equal, a liquid is in a state of equilibrium and does not flow. If the outlet of a nonpositive-displacement pump is completely closed, the discharge pressure will rise to the maximum for a pump operating at a maximum speed. A pump will churn a liquid and produce heat. Figure 3-1 shows a nonpositive-displacement pump. A water wheel picks up the fluid and moves it. b. Positive-Displacement Pumps. With this pump, a definite volume of liquid is delivered for each cycle of pump operation, regardless of resistance, as long as the capacity of the power unit driving a pump is not exceeded. If an outlet is completely closed, either the unit driving a pump will stall or something will break. Therefore, a positivedisplacement-type pump requires a pressure regulator or pressure-relief valve in the system. Figure 3-2 shows a reciprocating-type, positive-displacement pump. Page 1
the fluid could never overcome the resistance of the other parts in a system. Positive-displacement pumps often are self-priming when started properly. Because changes in pump drive affect volumetric output. they must be started with the inlet line full of liquid and free of air. cannot create a vacuum sufficient for self-priming. Pressure or resistance to flow can reduce a nonpositive pump's delivery. but it also backs it up. The three contrasting characteristics in the operation of positiveand nonpositivedisplacement pumps are as follows: Nonpositive• displacement pumps provide a smooth. § Nonpositive-displacement pumps. positive.
. Pumps are usually rated according to their volumetric output and pressure. In a positive-displacement pump.
3-2. continuous flow. This sealing is the positive part of displacement. pumps are sometimes rated according to displacement. pressure affects the output only to the extent that it increases internal leakage. it is sealed against backup. High outlet pressure can stop any output.displacement pumps have a pulse with each stroke or each time a pumping chamber opens to an outlet port. This pump not only creates flow. Performance. Without it. the fluid simply recirculates inside the pump. Volumetric output (delivery rate or capacity) is the amount of fluid that a pump can deliver at its outlet port per unit of time at a given drive speed. A sealed case around the gear traps the fluid and holds it while it moves.INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
Figure 3-3 shows another positive-displacement pump. usually expressed in GPM or cubic inches per minute. As the fluid flows out of the other side. with the inlets and outlets connected hydraulically. that is the amount of liquid that they can deliver per cycle or cubic inches per revolution.
some pumps are rated in terms of volumetric output at a given pressure. or doing both. The vacuum at the inlet is used to create a pressure difference so that fluid will flow from a reservoir to a pump. an inlet is charged or supercharged. This drop in output is caused by an increase in internal leakage (slippage) from a pump's outlet side to its inlet side. Fixed-Displacement Pump. However. b. Displacement is either fixed or variable . the GPM output can be changed only by varying the drive speed. Therefore.INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
Pressure is the force per unit area of a liquid. changing the drive speed. In most rotary hydraulic pumps (Figure 3-3). the design is such that the pumping chambers increase in size at the inlet. The GPM delivery can be changed by moving the displacement control. The essentials of any hydraulic pump are-
. Displacement. Slippage is a measure of a pump's efficiency and usually is expressed in percent. The pressure developed in a system has an effect on the volumetric output of the pump supplying flow to a system. in many systems. if pressure increases. Slippage is oil leaking from a pressure outlet to a low-pressure area or back to an inlet. In this pump. In a rotary pump. displacement is expressed in cubic inches per revolution and in a reciprocating pump in cubic inches per cycle. a positive pressure rather than a vacuum is created by a pressurized reservoir. Variable-Displacement Pump. Slippage will increase with pressure and as a pump begins to wear. Any increase in slippage is a loss of efficiency. Designs. Displacement is the amount of fluid transferred from a pump's inlet to its outlet in one revolution or cycle. Slippage. a head of fluid above the inlet. its displacement is equal to the displacement of one chamber multiplied by the number of chambers. Some slippage is designed into pumps for lubrication purposes. The pump can be used in an open-center system-a pump's output has a free-flow path back to a reservoir in the neutral condition of a circuit. more flow will occur through a leakage path and less from an outlet port. The pump can be used in a closed-center system-a pump continues to operate against a load in the neutral condition. As pressure increases. In this pump the size of the pumping chambers can be changed. Oil flow through a given orifice size depends on the pressure drip. or even a lowpressure-charging pump. that is. a. usually expressed in psi. volumetric output decreases. 3-5. Some pumps have greater internal slippage than others do. 3-3. 3-4. If a pump has more than one pumping chamber. A drain passage allows leaking oil to return to an inlet or a reservoir. thereby creating a vacuum. The chambers then decrease in size at the outlet to push fluid into a system. An internal leakage path is the same as an orifice.
Both sets of teeth project outward from the center of the gears. A rotary pump is usually classified according to the type of element that actually transmits the fluid. Figure 3-6 shows the operating principal of an external gear pump.
Pumps may be classified according to the specific design used to create the flow of a fluid. Gear Pumps. External gear pump and mesh at a point in the housing between the inlet and outlet ports. a gear-. A mechanical means for activating the pumping chamber(s). 3-6. The gears rotate in opposite directions Figure 3-6. In this positive-displacement-type pump. rotary. a rotary motion carries the fluid from a pump's inlet to its outlet. Most hydraulic pumps are either centrifugal. a. As the teeth of the two gears separate. that is. Gear pumps are external. External. or lobe types. or piston-type rotary pump. A high-pressure outlet port connected to the pressure line. Rotary Pump. internal. vane-. Pumping chamber(s) to carry a fluid from the inlet to the outlet port. or reciprocating. a partial vacuum is created and draws fluid through an inlet port into chamber A.INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
o o o o
A low-pressure inlet port. For the purpose of this manual. only the rotary type pump will be discussed. which receives fluid from the reservoir. Fluid in chamber A is trapped between the teeth of the two gears and the housing so that it is carried through two separate paths around to
. It consists of a driving gear and a driven gear enclosed in a Chamber A closely fitted housing.
Everything in the chamber rotates except the crescent. The size of the crescent that separates the internal and external gears determines the volume delivery of this pump. Internal. b. One gear wheel stands inside the other. Figure 3-8 shows a lobe pump. This type of gear can rotate. and liquid is forced in from the supply source. the pressure is diminished. a suitably constructed companion gear. A small crescent allows more volume of a liquid per revolution than a larger crescent. Liquid is carried from an inlet to the discharge. they produce a force that drives a liquid through an outlet port. c. The teeth of one gear project outward. On the opposite side of the chamber.
The rotation of the internal gear by a shaft causes the external gear to rotate.INGERSOLL-RAND CHAPTER 3 DRILLING SOLUTIONS HYDRAULIC PUMPS chamber B. a crescent-shaped form stands in the space between the two gears to provide a close tolerance. An external gear is directly attached to the drive shaft of a pump and is placed off-center in relation to an internal gear. where it is forced out of a pump by the gears meshing. As liquid is carried away from an inlet side of a pump. As the teeth again mesh. or be rotated by. Lobe. The two gears mesh on one side of a pump chamber. It differs from other gear pumps because it uses lobed elements instead of gears. causing a liquid to be trapped in the gear spaces as they pass the crescent. The element drive also differs Page 5
. Figure 3-7 shows an internal gear pump. since the two are in mesh. between an inlet and the discharge. while the teeth of the other gear project inward toward the center of the pump.
The oil is squeezed out at the outlet as the pumping chamber's size decreases.or variable-displacement pump.
. A vane pump is generally quiet. Balanced design vane pumps all are fixed displacement. but will whine at high speeds. Vane pumps have good efficiency and durability if operated in a clean system using the correct oil. Characteristics. Polished. Package size in relation to output is small. As wear occurs. capacity. A vane pump is the only design that has automatic wear compensation built in. The vanes in some pumps are spring loaded to maintain a positive load against the cam ring. They cover the low to medium-high pressure. Displacement of a vane-type pump depends on the width of the ring and rotor and the throw of the cam ring. Pumping chambers are formed between succeeding vanes. Because the normal wear points in a vane pump are the vane tips and a ring's surface. one gear drives the other. A partial vacuum is created at the inlet as the volume between vanes increases. a slotted rotor splined to a drive shaft rotates between closely fitted side plates that are inside of an elliptical.or circular-shaped ring. and speed ranges. hardened vanes slide in and out of the rotor slots and follow the ring contour by centrifugal force. An unbalanced design can be built in either a fixed. Vane Pumps. the vanes and ring are specially hardened and ground.
3-7. both elements are driven through suitable external gearing. In a vane-type pump.INGERSOLL-RAND CHAPTER 3 DRILLING SOLUTIONS HYDRAULIC PUMPS in a lobe pump. the vanes simply slide farther out of the rotor slots and continue to follow a ring's contour. Thus efficiency remains high throughout the life of the pump. carrying oil from the inlet to the outlet. In a gear pump. In a lobe pump. Interchangeable rings are designed so a basic pump converts to several displacements. a.
a cam ring's shape is a true circle that is on a different centerline from a rotor's.
. In the unbalanced design. (Figure 3-9). A disadvantage is that an unbalanced pressure at the outlet is effective against a small area of the rotor's edge. Thus there is a limit on a pump's size unless very large hearings and heavy supports are used.INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
b. Unbalanced Vane Pumps. The advantage of a true-circle ring is that control can be applied to vary the eccentricity and thus vary the displacement. Pump displacement depends on how far a rotor and ring are eccentric. imposing side loads on the shaft.
Back pressures against the edges of a rotor cancel each other.INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
C. Recent design improvements that allow high operating speeds and pressures have made this pump the most universal in the mobileequipment field. 3-8. Radial. As a cylinder block turns. and driven by a common shaft. rotates a cylinder block.
d. The block turns on a stationary pintle that contains the inlet and outlet ports. Piston Pumps. Vane-type double pumps (Figure 3-11) consist of two separate pumping devices. Double Pumps. which is inside a circular housing. the pistons are arranged like wheel spokes in a short cylindrical block. A. Separate circuits require separate pressure controls to limit maximum pressure in each circuit. centrifugal force Page 8
. a pump has a stationary. A drive shaft. The two inlets and outlets are 180 degrees apart. Design variations are available in which both cartridges are contained within one body. An additional pump is sometimes attached to the head end to supply auxiliary flow requirements. Balanced Vane Pumps. Combining pump deliveries does not alter the maximum pressure rating of either cartridge. A pumping chamber is formed between any two vanes twice in each revolution. Each is contained in its own respective housing. Each pump also has its own inlet and outlet ports. elliptical cam ring and two sets of internal ports. Piston pumps are either radial or axial. mounted in tandem. which may be combined by using manifolds or piping. In the balanced design (Figure 3-10). Double pumps may be used to provide fluid flow for two separate circuits or combined for flow requirements for a single circuit. In a radial piston pump (Figure 3-14).
a pump's displacement. Controls can be applied to change a housing's location and thereby vary a pump's delivery from zero to maximum. A housing's centerline is offset from a cylinder block's centerline. The amount of eccentricity between the two determines a piston stroke and.
. which follow a circular housing.INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
slings the pistons. therefore.
no more than one piston is completely blocked by a pintle at one time. two pistons could be blocked by a pintle at the same time.
(1) Pintle. When a pump has an uneven number of pistons. three pistons would discharge at one time and four at another time. Two holes serve as an intake and two as a discharge. a rotor. Two slots are cut in a side of the shaft so that each slot connects two of the lengthwise holes. With an even number of pistons spaced around a cylinder block. and pulsation would occur in the flow. The other pair of holes is connected to an inlet line. the pistons. A pintle is a round bar that serves as a stationary shaft around which a cylinder block turns. If this happens. The slots are in-line with the pistons when a cylinder block is assembled on a pintle. which reduces flow pulsation.INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
Figure 3-15 shows a nine-piston. A pintle. a cylinder block. One of these slots provides a path for a fluid to pass from the pistons to the discharge holes bored in a pintle. and a drive shaft constitute the main working parts of a pump. radial piston pump. The discharge holes are connected through appropriate fittings to a discharge line so that a fluid can be directed into a system.
. A pintle shaft (Figure 3-16) has four holes bored from one end lengthwise through part of its length.
. A cylinder block (Figure 3-17) is a block of metal with a hole bored through its center to fit the pintle and cylinder holes that are bored equal distances apart around its outside edge. The cylinder's holes connect with the hole that receives a pintle.
(3) Pistons. Designs differ. Diagram B shows a piston in which a conical edge of the top bears directly against a reaction ring of the rotor. A cylinder and pintle holes are accurately machined so that fluid loss around a piston is minimal. a piston goes back and forth in a cylinder while it rotates about its axis so that the top surface will wear uniformly. In this design.INGERSOLL-RAND CHAPTER 3 DRILLING SOLUTIONS HYDRAULIC PUMPS (2) Cylinder Block. Pistons are manufactured in different designs (see Figure 3-18). while others have spokelike cylinders radiating out from the center.
Diagram A shows a piston with small wheels that roll around the inside curve of a rotor. some cylinders appear to be almost solid.
B. (4) Rotors. depending on condition. Except for in-line pumps. Petroleum oil fluids are usually required. A rotor consists of a circular ring. A drive shaft is connected to a cylinder block and is driven by an outside force such as an electric motor or diesel engine. Pressures are as high as 5. Pulsations in delivery are small and of medium frequency. Efficiency is high. In capacity. against which the pistons bear. No provision is made for using piston rings to help seal against piston leakage. which are compact in size.INGERSOLL-RAND CHAPTER 3 DRILLING SOLUTIONS HYDRAULIC PUMPS Diagram C shows a piston attached to curved plates. A rotor rotates within a slide block. In axial piston pumps. (5) Drive Shaft.
. A slide block has two pairs of machined surfaces on the exterior so that it can slide in tracks in the pump case. machine finished on the inside. Rotor designs may differ from pump to pump. The curved plates bear against and slide around the inside surface of a rotor. Axial piston pumps may be an in-line or angle design. and drive speeds are medium to high. Axial Piston Pumps. which can be shifted from side to side to control the piston's length of stroke. piston pumps range from low to very high. piston pumps are heavy and bulky. The pistons' sides are accurately machined to fit the cylinders so that there is a minimum loss of liquid between the walls of a piston and cylinder. and pumps generally have excellent durability. the pistons stroke in the same direction on a cylinder block's centerline (axially).000 psi. The pumps are quiet in operation but may have a growl or whine.
and oil is drawn into a bore through somewhat less than half a revolution. an opening in the end of a bore slides over an inlet slot in a valve plate. Reciprocation of the pistons is caused by a swash plate that the pistons run against as a cylinder block rotates. a drive shaft and cylinder block are on the same centerline. The piston shoes slide against a swash plate and are held against it by a shoe plate. which carries the pistons around a shaft. A drive shaft turns a cylinder block. A swash plate's angle causes the cylinders to reciprocate in their bores.INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
(1) In-Line Pump. At the point where a piston begins to retract. In an in-line piston pump (Figure 3-19.
. diagram A). There is a solid area in a valve plate as a piston becomes fully retracted.
In the center position. no oil is pumped. nine pistons with shoes. an opening in a cylinder barrel moves over an outlet slot. A swash plate's angle (Figure 3-19. and there is no piston reciprocation. and a shoe plate. In a variable unit's. which can vary by changing the angle. and a valve plate. which can turn on pintles. a shaft seal. a splined spherical washer. diagram B) determines the stroke. and oil is forced out a pressure port. the direction of flow can be reversed by swinging a yoke past center. a swash plate is stationary in the housing. A rotating group consists of a cylinder block that is splined to a drive shaft. A swash plate is stationary in a fixed-displacement design. Different controls can be attached to the pintles to vary pump delivery from zero to the maximum. a swash plate. In a fixed angle's unit.
(a) Displacement.INGERSOLL-RAND CHAPTER 3 DRILLING SOLUTIONS HYDRAULIC PUMPS As a piston begins to extend. When a group is assembled. (b) Components. it is mounted on a yoke. a spring. (c) Operation. a spring forces a cylinder block against a valve plate and a spherical washer against a shoe plate. Pump displacement depends on the bore and stroke of a piston and the number of pistons. a bearing-supported drive shaft. ensuring that the pistons will reciprocate as the cylinder turns. A variable-displacement in-line pump operates the same as a fixed angle except that a swash plate is mounted on a pivoted yoke. With certain controls. A yoke can be swung to change a plate angle and thus change a pump's displacement. The major components of a typical. fixed-displacement in-line pump are the housing. A valve plate contains an inlet and an outlet port and functions as the back cover. This action holds the piston shoes against a swash plate. a rotating group. a swash plate is perpendicular to the cylinder's. A
Maximum delivery is allowed only when pressure is less than the compensator setting. yoke-actuating piston that is controlled by a valve. A pump's compensator control thus reduces its output only to the volume required to maintain a preset pressure. and the wobbling pushes the pistons in and out of the pumping chambers in a stationary cylinder barrel.
. a cylinder barrel does not turn. which positions a yoke automatically to maintain constant output pressure under variable flow requirements. separate inlet and outlet check valves are required for each piston. In a wobble-plate pump. In this design. a plate wobbles as it turns. since the pistons do not move past a port. A compensator control consists of a valve that is balanced between a spring and system pressure and a springloaded. This is a variation of an in-line piston pump.INGERSOLL-RAND CHAPTER 3 DRILLING SOLUTIONS HYDRAULIC PUMPS yoke can be positioned manually with a screw or lever or by a compensator control.
(2) Wobble-Plate In-Line Pump.
b.INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
(3) Bent-Axis Axial Piston Pump. A universal link keys a cylinder block to a shaft so that they rotate together but at an offset angle.
3-9. Overloading. In an angle. The angle of offset determines a pump's displacement.or a bent-axis-type piston pump (Figure 3-21). In variable models. a yoke mounted on pintles swings a cylinder block to vary displacement. In this case a larger pump may be required. Sometimes a field conversion to get more speed out of an actuator will cause a pump to be overloaded. Pump Operation. Torque is circular force on an object. A cylinder barrel turns against a slotted valve plate to which the ports connect. If a needed delivery requires a higher drive speed than a pump's rating. the piston rods are attached by ball joints to a drive shaft's flange. Flow direction can be reversed with appropriate controls. Running a pump at too high a speed causes loss of internal lubrication. Excess Speed. One risk of overloading is the danger of excess torque on a drive shaft. The following paragraphs address some of the problems that could occur when a pump is operating: a. Excess speed also runs a risk of damage from cavitation. Page 16
. In fixed-delivery pumps. the angle is constant. a higher GPM pump will have a lower pressure rating than a lower GPM pump. just as the swash plate's angle determines an in-line pump's displacement. Pumping action is the same as an in-line pump. which can cause early failure. Often in a given package size. use a higher displacement pump. An increase in pressure/pump displacement will increase the torque on a shaft if pump displacement/pressure remains constant.
d. Excessive air entrained in the fluid can cause this to occur. It can also occur if there is a vacuum or even a slight positive pressure at the inlet. Pressure will not drop. if a reservoir's oil level is too far below the inlet. Cavitation causes the metal in an inlet to erode and the hydraulic oil to deteriorate quicker. however. cylinders. A pump will lose its efficiency gradually. These leakage paths are normally internal rather that external leaks. Aeration. The actuator speed slows down as a pump wears. keep the inlet clean and free of obstructions by using the correct length of inlet line with minimum bends. Cavitation can occur if there is too much resistance in an inlet's line. The easiest way to do this is to flood it by locating the reservoir above the pump's inlet. As a general rule of thumb. A badly cavitating pump has oil bubbles exploding in the void. A badly worn pump could cause pressure loss. slow operation. It may be seen as metal being removed from the valve plate in a piston pump or erosion on the gears of a gear pump. Pressure loss. or if an oil's viscosity is too high. and noise are common operating problems in a pump. If this is not possible and you cannot create good inlet conditions. Cavitation. It can be observed as air bubbles seen in a sample of the fluid. This can be caused by a worn pump or by a partial oil leak in a system. pressure loss is more often caused by leaks somewhere else in a system (relief valve. The only way to be sure a pump is not cavitating is to check the inlet with a vacuum gauge. (1) Pressure Loss. Cavitation occurs where available fluid does not fill an existing space (excessive vacuum).INGERSOLL-RAND DRILLING SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS
c. Pressure loss means that there is a high leakage path in a system. Aerated fluid passing through the pump will usually result in excessive pump noise. use a pressurized reservoir. erosion in the inlet area of the pump results from cavitation and similar erosion in the outlet area of the pump results from aeration. You can also use an auxiliary pump to maintain a supply of oil to an inlet at low pressure. It often occurs in a pump's inlet when conditions are not right to supply enough oil to keep an inlet flooded. but it is more common to use a positive-displacement gear pump with a pressure-relief valve that is set to maintain the desired charging pressure. However. Pumping aerated fluid with a positive displacement pump will cause erosion to occur at the outlet side of the pump. motors). Operating Problems. Another method is to charge an inlet. Page 17
. e. if a load moves at all. Aeration can occur as the result of a leak in a suction line or a crack or hole in a return pipe within the hydraulic tank. (2) Slow Operation. You could use a centrifugal pump. no delivery. To prevent cavitation. The end result is failure of the pump. Therefore.
which will spread harmful particles through a system. a dirty inlet filter. Could be driven in the wrong direction. or too high a drive speed.
(4) Noise. To find this point. noise can be caused by worn or damaged parts. a loose connection in an inlet. Air in a system also causes noise. feel the components for unusual heat. Air will severely damage a pump because it will not have enough lubrication. Has suffered a catastrophic failure (piston pump). This can occur from low oil in a reservoir. If oil is not being pumped. (3) No Delivery. If you hear any unusual noise. Has not been primed.INGERSOLL-RAND CHAPTER 3 DRILLING SOLUTIONS HYDRAULIC PUMPS hp is still being used and is being converted into heat at a leakage point. causing more damage if an operation continues. shut down a pump immediately. or low oil level in a reservoir.
. Also. The reasons for no prime are usually improper start-up. Has a broken drive shaft or drive coupling. a pump• • •
Could be assembled incorrectly. or no oil in a pump before starting. inlet restrictions. Cavitation noise is caused by a restriction in an inlet line. a leaking shaft seal.