Micron Particle Deposition in the Nasal Cavity Using the v2 -f Model

Kiao Inthavong, Jiyuan Tu, Christian Heschl

Abstract From a health perspective inhaled particles can lead to many respiratory ailments. In terms of modelling, the introduction of particles involves a secondary phase (usually solid or liquid) to be present within the primary phase (usually gas or liquid). The influence of the fluid flow regime, whether it is laminar or turbulent plays a significant role on micron particle dispersion. RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) based turbulence models provide simpler and quicker modelling over the more computationally expensive Large Eddy Simulations. However this comes at an expense in that the RANS models fails to resolve the near wall turbulence fluctuating quantities due to the turbulent isotropic assumption. This error further propagates to the Lagrangian particle dispersion. Using the v2 -f the normal to the wall turbulent fluctuation, can be solved and used on the particle dispersion model directly in order to overcome the isotropic properties of RANS turbulence models. This technique is first validated against experimental pipe flow for a 90o bend and then applied to particle disperion in a human nasal cavity using AnsysFluent. The results arising from the nasal cavity application will increase the understanding of particle deposition in the respiratory airway. Greater knowledge of particle dynamics may lead to safer guidelines in the context of exposure limits to toxic and polluted air.

Kiao Inthavong RMIT University, Bundoora, Australia e-mail: kiao.inthavong@rmit.edu.au Jiyuan Tu RMIT University, Bundoora, Australia e-mail: jiyuan.tu@rmit.edu.au Christian Heschl Fachhochschulstudieng¨ nge Burgenland - University of Applied Science, Pinkafeld, Austria ea mail: christian.heschl@fh-burgenland.at


6million cells) has a diameter of 0. In terms of modelling.5million cells) is subjected to a Re=2498 at the outlet which corresponds to a flow rate of 20L/min. Successful modelling of micron particles will allow more flexibility in simulations of gas-particle flows for inhalation toxicology. a curvature ratio of Ro = 5. Christian Heschl 1 Introduction Studies of gas-particle flows in the human nasal cavity have generated a lot of interest recently as computational modelling offers a complementary alternative to experimental methods.02. and drug delivery studies through the human respiratory system. Re=10. The dispersed phase can be modelled under two different approaches.000 and De=4225. the v2 -f and the k-ε turbulence model are used to solve the fluid flow. In this paper.e.2 Kiao Inthavong. while a dispersed phase model (Lagrangian reference) is used to track the individual particles. 2 Model Description The 90o curvatures in the nasal cavity are located just after the nostril entrance. These two bends act as a naturally occurring filter system that traps high inertial particles as they travel through the airway. as it provides simpler and quicker modeling over the more computationally intensive Large Eddy Simulations. The turbulent particle tracking scheme is evaluated and the requirements for the models to account for the anisotropic flow behavior in the near wall region is discussed. Jiyuan Tu. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) based turbulence models are often used to resolve the flow field.056. and at the nasopharynx region (Fig. fixed stationary surfaces or boundaries). however this paper is limited to the Lagrangian approach only. Lagrangian or Eulerian. 1).6.e. Both approaches have their own advantages in computational modelling. radius of curvature Rb = 0. However this comes at an expense in that the RANS models fails to resolve the turbulence dissipation and anisotropy in the near wall regions (i. Micron particles are dominated by its inertial property which lead to inertial impaction upon sudden changes in the airflow streamlines. In particular the inhalability of particles has been studied which showed aspiration efficiencies of 60-80% [3] and 50-95% [2] for micron particles between 1-40µm. When the flow field is turbulent. 1). the introduction of particles involves a secondary phase (usually solid or liquid) to be present in conjunction with the primary phase (usually gas or liquid). A simpler test case for evaluation of the CFD modeling is to use a 90o -bend pipe based on experimental [5] and Large Eddy Simulation [1] data (Fig. turbulent dispersion of the particles has to be addressed. The computational pipe (0. leading into the field of multiphase flows. Turbulent dispersion of particles is modeled by the so-called Discrete Random Walk found in Ansys Fluent. The realizable k-ε turbulence model with enhanced wall function is applied through Ansys-Fluent and its model equations are provided in Ansys-Fluent (An- . The turbulence fluctuating quantities are overpredicted by RANS models and this error propagates to the particle dispersion. The nasal cavity (3. i.

Micron Particle Deposition in the Nasal Cavity Using the v2 -f Model 3 Fig. To achieve the uniform droplet concentration assumption.000 droplets yielded a difference of 0. The The v2 -f model was implemented in Fluent via user-defined scalar interface (UDS).000 droplets since an increase of droplets to 60. and therefore the code friendly v2 -f version by Lien and Kalitzin [4] is applied to improve convergency. The normal (perpendicular to the wall) fluctuation component. For the Discrete Phase Model (DPM) the Lagrangian approach is used.5 v = ζ v2 . one at the nostril inlet and the other at the nasopharynx region. u and w . (b)Lateral view of the 90o bend pipe. 3 Results and Discussion Velocity contours at the 45o and 90o deflection are shown in Fig. The region of slow moving fluid is much smaller than that of the LES data especially at the 45o deflection. It can be seen that the high velocity region moves from the inner wall to the outer wall (from the 45o deflection to the 90o deflection). (v ) in the near wall region (y+ ≈ 0-30) is significantly damped in comparison to the corresponding fluctuating components. droplets were released at the same velocity as the freestream. 2. The modified DRW model applied to regions where y+ < 30 is then reformulated as 0. A larger region of slower velocity is found at the inner wall region as the secondary flow effects progress with the flow moving through the bend from 45o to 90o . With the v2 -f model.1% in the inhalation efficiency. The v2 -f model was also able to capture some of the secondary flow effects although at a reduced level. Two 90o curvature bends are present. 1 (a)Lateral view of the nasal cavity model showing the left cavity side. The number of droplets tracked was checked for statistical independence since the turbulent dispersion is modelled based on a stochastic process. In addition the streamlines highlight the movement of the fluid from the core towards the outer pipe wall with two resultant vortices near the inner wall region. Even worse . The segregated solver in Fluent is used to solve the additional transport equations for v2 and f. sys 2009). Independence was achieved for 40. the turbulent fluctuation component perpendicular to the wall is resolved which can then be applied to the DRW model in the near wall region. The secondary flow features are captured well with the LES model by [1].

Because the v2 -f model provides directly the v2 profile near the wall. 2 v2 -f and k-ε simulation results compared with LES data by Berrouk and Laurence (2008). Fig. Christian Heschl Fig. the streamlines in the core flow. Jiyuan Tu.4 Kiao Inthavong. The normal fluctuating velocity component (v’) taken at the pipe bend entrance is chosen for comparison with DNS data because this is the component that is overpredicted by the DRW models when a RANS-based turbulence model is applied. Fig. The angled deflections indicate the pipe curvature location. performing is the k-ε model which does not capture the slow moving region at all at the 45o deflection. (2001) is shown for Reτ =395. the particle takes the fluctating velocity component as v = u = w = 2k/3. Furthermore. The CFD simulations for the v2 − f and k − ε simulations had a Reτ =267 while the DNS data from Abe et al. In the DRW model. moving towards the outer wall are distorted at the 90o deflection which is not reproduced by the two RANS turbulence models. 3 a) RMS of velocity fluctuations for v’ . 3 shows that when this occurs the v’ component is overpredicted in both the v2 -f and the k-ε model. b) Particle deposition in a pipe bend for Re=10000. The inside wall of the pipe is on the left side and the outer wall of the pipe is on the right indicated by I and O respectively. the v2 can be defined directly into the DRW .

Particle tracking analysis using the DRW-mod-v2 -f model is performed and the coordinates of the particles as they move through specified slice planes in the geometry are recorded. This results in the 1µm particle dispersing more evenly through Slice B whereas the 15µm particles remain close to the . meaning that ≈23% has deposited already in the anterior nasal cavity (nasal vestibule) region. away from the experimental data as the St decreases further. only 77% of 15µm particles pass through. and also how many are passing through. At this slice. The streamlines in Slice A tell us that the secondary flow will push the particles both upwards and downwards. The particles are concentrated close to the ceiling of the passageways with high velocities. 1. When the DRW model is modified and the normal fluctuating component takes on the v2 profile. Fig. 4 Flow field and particle deposition patterns taken at cross-sectional slices A-D as depicted in Fig. The overprediction becomes greater. the deposition efficiency for St < 0. The predicted deposition of 1-30 µm particles in a 90o bend pipe compared with the experimental data of Pui et al.1) which are viewed from the front of the nose. Particles passing through the slices are coloured by velocity magnitude. with streamlines directed toward the inner nasal septum wall. The contours show axial velocity magnitudes while the surface streamlines represent the secondary flow. 3b. 3 by the dashed line and denoted as v2-f(v2) which shows a better improvement in the near wall region. The percentage of 1µm and 15µm particles passing through each cross-section is given below each slice. 3b). Slice A exhibits the highest maximum velocity. where the particle Stokes number is based on the pipe inlet conditions. Therefore the proposed modification of the DRW model is expected to improve the turbulent particle dispersion. The deposition efficiency for the DRW model taking the default isotropic fluctuating component from k (turbulent kinetic energy) shows an overprediction in the deposition for St < 0.Micron Particle Deposition in the Nasal Cavity Using the v2 -f Model 5 model. This can give an indication of how the particles are moving through the nasal cavity. Its profile is shown in Fig.1 is improved. [5] is shown in Fig. Three crosssectional slices are created (Fig.1 (square symbols in Fig.

It was shown that by applying -f the small modification of v = v2 directly the DRW can take on a more realistic turbulent dispersion in the near wall region. Hinds. The main cluster of particles for the 15µm particles is still found in the superior regions of the slice. Pui.6 Kiao Inthavong. 2002. 2001.3%. Inhalability of large solid particles. 2008. 22:53–56. A breathing rate of 20L/min was used and a RANS based turbulence models in the form of the k-ε and the v2√ model was applied. All particles are mainly passing through the inner side of the passageway (the nasal septum wall side). These flow patterns provide a predictive tool as to where the particles may travel. Kennedy and William C. Stochastic modelling of aerosol deposition for les of 90◦ bend turbulent flow. The nasal cavity was then used as an application which also showed that the modified DRW model improved the deposition efficiency for smaller inertial particles. Nola J. and Benjamin Y. 33:237–255. and Jiyuan Tu. 4 Conclusion The Discrete Random Walk (DRW) model used in Ansys-Fluent was used to simulate dispersed particles through a wall-bounded geometry such as the human nasal cavity. the airflow between the left and right nasal cavity chambers have merged. The particle tracking model can be used to determine the localised regions of high particle deposition. 5. which is now the outer curvature wall side. Here we see complex secondary flow patterns. Aerosol Science and Technology. 4. F. Nearly all the particles moving from Slice B to Slice C have passed through the passageway which has now expanded in cross-sectional area. H. . Francisc Romay-Novas. Experimental study of particle deposition in bends of circular cross section. The streamlines from the left and right sides converge in the middle of the slice and are directed towards the inner curvature wall side of the slice. 7(3):301 – 315. 1987. Abdallah S. Journal of Aerosol Science. At Slice C. 3. 2. Jiyuan Tu. Computations of transonic flow with the v2-f turbulence model. For the 15µm particles there is a large drop in the number of particles passing through from Slice A to Slice B ( 61%). NaN. David Y. Inhalation Toxicology. Lien and G. References 1. Berrouk and Dominique Laurence. Kiao Inthavong. exhibiting two vortices and two peak axial velocity regions each of which are almost symmetrical to each other. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. Christian Heschl top of the slice because of its high inertial property. A 90o pipe bend was used to validate the model which showed an improvements to the particle deposition. H. Liu. Kalitzin. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. 22(4):287–300. Inhalability of micron particles through the nose and mouth. 29(4):1010–1028. meaning that this is the main section of deposition for the particles. Camby Mei King Se. Interestingly this is also the main deposition region for the 1µm particles with a percentage deposition of 3.

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