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. General Javed Hassan, ex- Rector of National school of Public Policy, discussed Pakistans Heritage in a lecture discussion with participants of 94th National Management Course at National Management College, Lahore, on 19th April, 2011. Before commencing the Lecture Discussion Lt. Gen. Javed Hassan went over the written questions received by him from the participants regarding Session 1 of Pakistans Heritage . The brief gist of these questions is given as under. Question by Mr. Izhar---- Pakistan is an ideological state based on the common aspirations of the Muslims of the units which constitute the nation. At the same time it has been said that the people of Indus Valley have a binding factor in terms of a historical culture. How important is the later factor in defining Pakistan as a nation ? Answer---- The answer to this question will unfold during the course of the current session. Question by Mr. Saqib Aleem--Answer---- This question is based on quite a few assumptions like if culture has emerged after Pakistans creation was there no culture before, and what is the new culture. In case of diaspora are we talking about the diaspora in the Muslim countries or in the Western countries. We will find an answer when we specify these assumptions. There are three facetsintellectual, emotional and cultural. We may find an answer in the current talk. Question by Syed Hassan Reza Jafri----To what extent do beliefs, values and attitudes affect public policy ? Answer---- If we look at the Public Policy Flow Chart, discussed in the first Session, if Deen ( Religion ) plays a part in part in the Constitution and Public Policy then it needs to be discusse. We know the self of the individual ,but how do we find out the self of the nation. Jung has touched upon this. Deen Ashrfiya ( Deen of the Kings) has been diccussed by Ibn- Khaldun. After dealing with the questions Lt Gen Javed Hassan commenced with the current session of the Lecture Dicussion. The Guest Speaker stated that the Western Civilization is influenced by yhe Theory of Evolution where survival of the fittest is pervasive. These nations believe that they have evolved into a higher level than the rest of the world and now it is their responsibility to bear the white mans burden and civilize the rest of the world. They have a utilitarian view of morality within the nation. However the morality within nations is based on double standards, as we see in USAs behaviour in Afghanistan. Principles are like icing on the cake, and can be dispensed with in national interest. The guiding principle for Public Policy in the West can be different for different countries. For instance, for USA it is the pursuit of Happiness ; for UK it is the Crown ; for France it is Liberty, Equality, Fraternity ; for Germany it is German Nationalism and Liberal Democracy. The majority of Muslim migrants in these countries have integrated, but have not assimilated as desired by the host country. Islam in India provided an alternative paradigm . Muslim conquerors kept on gaining strength in India after Muhammad Bin Qasims conquests. People born in India were known as Hindis. Even the Muslims from India were called Hindis.

The ideological basis of India as envisaged by the Hindus. The Hindu concept of time has 4 cyclical phases : 1 Karta Yug------Golden phase 2 , 3 Loha Yug------Brass phase 4 Kal Yug -------Black phase At present Bharat Avash is going through the Kal Yug . Bharat was the great King in Mahabharat and the political and geographical concept of Bharat ( Punya bhoomi ) envisaged Bharat extending from Bukhara to Indonesia. The religious concept of Poonya Bhoomi is that there are only gods and no humans,with Brahman ( Ishwar ) alone at the top. Brahman had many manifestations like Brahma ( Creator ), Vishnu ( Preserver ), and Shiva ( Destroyer ). The wives of Vishnu and Shiva were also worshiped, namely , Laxmi and Kali. The Hindus also have a Tantra sect which may indulge in human sacrifice, infanticide, and witchcraft. However , salvation may be yours if all of this is done under the guidance of a guru. According to Hindu mythology gods were playing amongst themselves and during their playfulness Purush ( human being ) was created. When they realized that Brahman was not happy with this creation, they wanted to destroy him, but Brahman forgave them, and that is how Purush came to be on Earth. The Hindu Order is based on the following four main classes : Brahmans----------------- elite class/priests Kashatriyas--------------- warriors/kings Vaisyas merchants/farmers Shudras labourers The people outside the class system were the Dalits (untouchables). The Malaish were the impure or the non- Hindus. The main beliefs of Hindus are Karme ( Deeds ), Reincarnation ( Series of Borth, Death, Rebirth ), and Nirvana ( Release from these series of rebirths through good deeds ). The Hindu society is organized around these concepts, and they believe that it is their duty to endure this order. The revered books of Hindus fall in 2 categories----those akin to revealed (Veda, Shruti ), and those akin to tradition ( Bhagwat Geeta ). The Guest Speaker elaoborated that people take oath on their religious books while taking oath. The Hindus take oath on Bhagwat Geeta, which is not their most revered book. This is because of the caste system which forbids certain classes likethe untouchables to even listen to the Vedas. The Guest Speaker went on to say that beliefs are accommodated even in secular states. For example, Article 48 states that Animal Husbandry should be promoted and cow slaughter should be prevented. So in a round about way slaughter of cows was discouraged to appease the Hindus, although the state was secular. Religious parties cannot take part in politics, but they have been there on the political scene in some form or another. The Hindus view India as a geographical and cultural unity. All people living in India may not be Hindus, but they are encouraged to have a Hindu culture. Lt. Gen. Javed Hassan talked about the main beliefs of major religions which provide each religion with a cultural and social paradigm. For instance, Christians

believe that Jesus , by being crucified, payed for the sins of his believers. The Jesuits believe that Kingdom of God will be under the patronage of Jews as God made a covenant that if Jews believe in one God , He will grant them power and authority over their people. But this covenant was broken once Jews started regarding themselves as above all laws. The Guest Speaker talked about a distinguishing factor of Hiduism ie, Karma Sansara. He mentioned retributive metonpsychosis. The Hindus believe that all spirits come to India before Nirvana. The four realms of these spirits is Soyer Loka (Heaven), Madhya Loka (Human), Tria Loka ( Plants ), and Narg Loka (Hell). The basis of inter state relations are well defined in Hinduism. They have been categorized as under; Sama -- Always negotiate Dana Give Dana (Benefits) for favour Bheda gain sympathy in other states through agents Danda Use of force. The Guest Speaker said that people often talk about the continuity of democratic process after Independence in India. He attribute this to the Hindu thought, elaborated earlier which makes adherence to established structures and norms most essential, and thought for change almost non-existant. Those Hindus who cannot conform may leave the mainstream and adopt Tayag. They will not be allowed to stay within the fold and try to sabotage or disturb the order. The Guest Speaker talked about the beahviour of the Muslims in India. He dwelled on the role of the Muslim conquerors in India, like Muhammad Bin Qasim and Mahmud of Ghaznavi. These were military expeditions. The spread of Islam was edged on by the social equality offered by Islam, and the role of the scholars who kept on visiting various parts on India. It is recorded that when Mahmud Ghaznavi decided to invade India he sent 300 scholars, including Al- Beruni , to study India . Through time Muslim Kings like Iltutmish, Allaudin Khilji, Muhammad Tughlaq, Akbar increased their influence and power in India by improving their administration and their agents of authority. AS the Muslim power waned in India, Hindus developed their potential to take over. This could have happened had the British not come to India. At this point in Muslim History people like Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan urged Muslims to take up Western education to keep up with modernity. The Muslims could not find a place for themselves in Indian Nationalism, and Pakistan came into being.