Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

36 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Research Proposal
- Statistical Techniques in Business and Economy by Mason
- 40007_Chapter8
- Advanced Statistics Review
- Statistics exercise solution
- jjjjjjjj
- Philippine Guidelines on Periodic Health Examination (PHEx).pdf
- Hypothesis
- hypothesis.ppt
- Impact of Cash Flow
- DECSCI 2 Chap 09 SlidesI
- UNIT - IV TH
- Hypothesis Testing
- Lecture 10 - Statistics.pptx
- Notes
- PLG500 L5 One Sample T-test
- Hypothesis Test for Comparison of Algos
- chapter13-chisquare
- Lecture08_SamplingDist.pdf
- hypothesis112.pdf

You are on page 1of 16

NOTES

Prepared by:

Nrs. Narian T. Reyes

CBESTA2

De La Salle University

ELGA 1: Effective communicators

Know and be familiar with the correct

nomenclature and symbols for parameters and

statistics

ELGA 2: Critical and creative thinkers

Recognize problems as applications of the

various tests of hypothesis which have been

discussed

Analyze and solve statistical problems and

interpret statistical results

Chapter 9

Tests of Hypothesis

ELGA 3: Technically proficient and competent

professionals and leaders

Learn to use the calculator and the computer in

generating statistical results

Be familiar with the use of basic software

(Microsoft Excel and its add-in PHSTAT) in statistical

analysis and decision-making;

ELGA 4: Service-driven, ethical, and socially

responsible citizens

Realize the significance of statistics in

business decision-making of entrepreneurs and

corporate managers and how statistics can

contribute to development

Chapter 9

Tests of Hypothesis

Chapter 9

Hypothesis Testing

Chapter Outline

Developing Null and Alternative

Hypotheses

Type I and Type II Errors

One-Tailed Tests About a Population

Mean: Large-Sample Case

Two-Tailed Tests About a Population

Mean: Large-Sample Case

Tests About a Population Mean: Small-

Sample Case

continued

Chapter 9

Hypothesis Testing

Tests About a Population Proportion

Hypothesis Testing and Decision Making

Calculating the Probability of Type I & II

Errors

What are Hypotheses?

Research Hypothesis

a statement of what the researcher believes will

be the outcome of an experiment or a study.

Statistical Hypotheses

a more formal structure derived from the research

hypothesis. A conjecture regarding one or several

population parameters.

Substantive Hypotheses

a statistically significant difference does not imply

or mean a material, substantive difference.

Developing Null and

Alternative Hypotheses

Definition. The null hypothesis, denoted by H

0

is the conjecture that is held as true unless

there is sufficient evidence to conclude

otherwise. The null hypothesis always contains

an equality and hence, in terms of population

parameters, comes in the form H

0

: =

0

or

H

0

:

0

, or H

0

:

0

. It is the Status Quo.

Manufacturers claims are usually given the

benefit of the doubt and stated as the null

hypothesis.

Definition. The alternative hypothesis

denoted by H

A

is the conjecture that covers all

situations not covered by the null hypothesis.

The alternative hypothesis never contains an

equality and hence, in terms of populations

parameters, comes in the form H

A

:

0

or H

A

:

<

0

, or H

A

: >

0

. The burden of proof falls

on the alternative hypothesis.

Developing Null and

Alternative Hypotheses

Test Statistic

Definition. The test statistic is a measure of

how close the sample results have come to the

hypothesized value of the parameter in the null

hypothesis. The test statistic follows a well-

known distribution such as Z, t, binomial, etc.

Decision Rule

Definition. The decision rule is a rule that

specifies under what conditions the null

hypothesis may be rejected.

There are two decisions that can be made in a

test of hypothesis, namely, to reject it, or not to

reject (accept) it.

Example: Accepting a shipment of goods

from a supplier or returning the shipment of

goods to the supplier.

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is not a foolproof

procedure. Remember that statisticians base

their decisions on sample results, and

sometimes, sample results could lead them

to make incorrect decisions.

Types of Errors

There are two types of errors that can be made when

carrying out a test of hypothesis.

A Type I error occurs when one rejects the null

hypothesis when in fact it is true. The probability of

committing a Type I error is denoted by and it is

called the level of significance.

A Type II error occurs when one fails to reject the

null hypothesis when in fact it is false. The probability

of committing a Type II error is denoted by .

Types of Errors

Type II error Correct Decision Dont Reject H

0

Correct Decision Type I error Reject H

0

H

0

False H

0

True Decision

Actual Situation

Critical Region

Definition. The critical region, or rejection region,

is a range of numbers such that if the value of the

test statistic falls in this range, it will lead to the

rejection of the null hypothesis.

The critical numbers determines the critical region.

The rejection region is designed so that, before the

sampling takes place, our test statistic will have a

probability of of falling within the rejection region if

the null hypothesis is true.

Region of Non-Rejection

Definition. The region of non-rejection is the

range of values (also determined by the critical

numbers) that will lead us not to reject the null

hypothesis if the test statistic should fall within

this region. The region or non-rejection is

designed so that before the sampling takes

place, our test statistic will have a probability of

1 - of falling in this region if the null

hypothesis is true.

Hvpolheses Hvpolheses Righl Righl- -TaiIed Lefl TaiIed Lefl- -TaiIed TaiIed

O O

: : < <

0 0

O O

: : > >

0 0

a a

: : > >

0 0

a a

: : < <

0 0

Tesl Slalislic Tesl Slalislic Knovn Knovn Unknovn Unknovn

Rejeclion RuIe Rejeclion RuIe Uppei Uppei- -TaiIed Lovei TaiIed Lovei- -TaiIed TaiIed

Rejecl Rejecl

O O

if if > >

Rejecl Rejecl

O O

if if < < - -

One-Tailed Tests about a Population

Mean: Large-Sample Case (n > 30)

z

x

n

=

0

/

z

x

n

=

0

/

z

x

s n

=

0

/

z

x

s n

=

0

/

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

Hypotheses

H

0

: =

0

H

a

:

0

Test Statistic Known Unknown

Rejection Rule Reject H

0

if |z| > z

/2

Two-Tailed Tests about a Population

Mean: Large-Sample Case (n > 30)

z

x

n

=

0

/

z

x

n

=

0

/

z

x

s n

=

0

/

z

x

s n

=

0

/

=40 oz

Non Rejection Region

Rejection Region

Critical Value

Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Non Rejection Region

Rejection Region

Critical Value

Rejection Region

Critical Value

Hvpolheses Hvpolheses Righl Righl- -TaiIed Lefl TaiIed Lefl- -TaiIed TaiIed

O O

: : < <

0 0

O O

: : > >

0 0

a a

: : > >

0 0

a a

: : < <

0 0

Tesl Slalislic Tesl Slalislic Unknovn, NoinaI IopuIalion Unknovn, NoinaI IopuIalion

Rejeclion RuIe Rejeclion RuIe Uppei Uppei- -TaiIed Lovei TaiIed Lovei- -TaiIed TaiIed

Rejecl Rejecl

O O

if if > >

Rejecl Rejecl

O O

if if < < - -

One-Tailed Tests about a Population

Mean: Small-Sample Case (n < 30)

0

/

x

t

s n

=

0

/

x

t

s n

=

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

Hypotheses

H

0

: =

0

H

a

:

0

Test Statistic Unknown, normal population

Rejection Rule Reject H

0

if |t| > t

/2

Two-Tailed Tests about a Population

Mean: Small-Sample Case (n < 30)

0

/

x

t

s n

=

0

/

x

t

s n

=

=40 oz

Non Rejection Region

Rejection Region

Critical Value

Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Non Rejection Region

Rejection Region

Critical Value

Rejection Region

Critical Value

Hvpolheses Hvpolheses Righl Righl- -TaiIed Lefl TaiIed Lefl- -TaiIed TaiIed

O O

: : p < < p

0 0

O O

: : p > > p

0 0

a a

: : p > > p

0 0

a a

: : p < < p

0 0

Tesl Slalislic Tesl Slalislic

Rejeclion RuIe Rejeclion RuIe Uppei Uppei- -TaiIed Lovei TaiIed Lovei- -TaiIed TaiIed

Rejecl Rejecl

O O

if if > >

Rejecl Rejecl

O O

if if < < - -

One-Tailed Tests about a

Population Proportion

0

0 0

(1 )

p p

p p

n

z

=

0

0 0

(1 )

p p

p p

n

z

=

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Rejection Region

Non Rejection Region

Critical Value

Hypotheses

H

0

: = p

0

H

a

: p p

0

Test Statistic

Rejection Rule Reject H

0

if |z| > z

/2

Two-Tailed Tests about a

Population Proportion

0

0 0

(1 )

p p

p p

n

z

=

0

0 0

(1 )

p p

p p

n

z

=

=40 oz

Non Rejection Region

Rejection Region

Critical Value

Rejection Region

Critical Value

=40 oz

Non Rejection Region

Rejection Region

Critical Value

Rejection Region

Critical Value

Example: Metro EMS

Null and Alternative Hypotheses

A major west coast city provides one of the

most comprehensive emergency medical

services in the world. Operating in a multiple

hospital system with approximately 20 mobile

medical units, the service goal is to respond to

medical emergencies with a mean time of 12

minutes or less.

The director of medical services wants to

formulate a hypothesis test that could use a

sample of emergency response times to

determine whether or not the service goal of

12 minutes or less is being achieved.

Example: Arnolds Diner

A soft-drink machine at Arnolds Diner is

regulated so that the amount of drink

dispensed is approximately normally

distributed with a mean of 200 ml. and a

standard deviation of 15 ml. The machine is

checked periodically by taking a sample of 9

drinks and computing the mean content.

Based on the sample results, a decision is to

be made whether the machine is operating

satisfactorily, or needs corrective action.

State the null and alternative hypotheses.

What kind of test is this?

Example: Coffee

A producer of a certain brand of coffee claims

that at least 20% of all coffee drinkers prefer

its product to the major competing brand.

The 8-step procedure

The standard 8-step procedure in hypothesis testing

consists of the following elements:

1. Null Hypothesis

2. Alternative Hypothesis

3. Level of Significance

+. Test Statistic

5. Decision Rule and Critical Region

6. Computation

/. Conclusion

8. Nake a managerial decision.

The equality part of the hypotheses always

appears in the null hypothesis.

In general, a hypothesis test about the value

of a population mean must take one of the

following three forms (where

0

is the

hypothesized value of the population mean).

H

0

: >

0

H

0

: <

0

H

0

: =

0

H

a

: <

0

H

a

: >

0

H

a

:

0

Summary of Forms for Null and

Alternative Hypotheses about a

Population Mean

Example: Sewer Pipe

Suppose building specifications in a certain city require

that the average breaking strength of residential sewer

pipe be more than 2,400 pounds per foot of length (that

is, per lineal foot). Each manufacturer who wants to sell

pipe in this city must demonstrate that its product meets

the specification. It is desired to decide whether the mean

breaking strength of the pipe exceeds 2,400 pounds per

lineal foot. From the point of view of the city conducting

the tests, the null hypothesis is that the manufacturers

pipe does not meet specifications unless the tests provide

convincing evidence otherwise.

Example: Sewer Pipe

(Continuation) Assume that the breaking strength of

the sewer pipes is = 200 pounds per lineal foot.

The manufacturer takes a random sample of 50

pipes and found the mean breaking strength of

these pipes to be 2+60 pounds per lineal foot. Carry

out a test of the hypothesis using a = 0.05 level of

significance.

The Use of p-Values

The p-value is the probability of obtaining a

sample result that is at least as unlikely as

what is observed.

The p-value can be used to make the

decision in a hypothesis test by noting that:

if the p-value is less than the level of

significance , the value of the test statistic

is in the rejection region.

if the p-value is greater than or equal to ,

the value of the test statistic is not in the

rejection region.

Reject H

0

if the p-value < .

P-Value for Normality Cases

In general, for a one tailed test concerning normally

distributed test statistics,

(a) if the H

A

contains a <, the p-value is the area

P(Z < z) where z is the value of the test statistic.

(b) if the H

A

contains a >, the p-value is the area

P(Z > z) where z is the value of the test statistic.

(c) if the H

A

contains a , the p-value is 2P(Z > z )

where z is the value of the test statistic.

Example: Glow Toothpaste

Two-Tailed Tests about a Population Mean:

Large n

The production line for Glow toothpaste is

designed to fill tubes of toothpaste with a mean

weight of 6 ounces.

Periodically, a sample of 30 tubes will be

selected in order to check the filling process.

Quality assurance procedures call for the

continuation of the filling process if the sample

results are consistent with the assumption that

the mean filling weight for the population of

toothpaste tubes is 6 ounces; otherwise the

filling process will be stopped and adjusted.

Example: Glow Toothpaste

Two-Tailed Test about a Population Mean:

Large n

A hypothesis test about the population mean can

be used to help determine when the filling

process should continue operating and when it

should be stopped and corrected.

Assume that a sample of 30 toothpaste tubes

provides a sample mean of 6.1 ounces and

standard deviation of 0.2 ounces. Use a 0.05

level of significance.

Two Two- -Tailed Test about a Population Mean: Tailed Test about a Population Mean:

Large Large n n

A hypothesis test about the population mean can A hypothesis test about the population mean can

be used to help determine when the filling be used to help determine when the filling

process should continue operating and when it process should continue operating and when it

should be stopped and corrected. should be stopped and corrected.

Assume that a sample of 30 toothpaste tubes Assume that a sample of 30 toothpaste tubes

provides a sample mean of 6.1 ounces and provides a sample mean of 6.1 ounces and

standard deviation of 0.2 ounces. Use a 0.05 standard deviation of 0.2 ounces. Use a 0.05

level of significance. level of significance.

Confidence Interval Approach to a

Two-Tailed Test about a Population

Mean

Select a simple random sample from the

population and use the value of the sample

mean to develop the confidence interval for

the population mean .

If the confidence interval contains the

hypothesized value

0

, do not reject H

0

.

Otherwise, reject H

0

.

x x

Test Statistic Unknown

This test statistic has a t distribution with n - 1 degrees of

freedom.

Rejection Rule One-Tailed Two-Tailed

H

0

: <

0

Reject H

0

if t > t

H

0

: >

0

Reject H

0

if t < -t

H

0

: =

0

Reject H

0

if |t| > t

/2

Tests about a Population Mean:

Small-Sample Case (n < 30)

t

x

s n

=

0

/

t

x

s n

=

0

/

Example: Highway Patrol

One-Tailed Test about a Population Mean: Small n

A State Highway Patrol periodically samples

vehicle speeds at various locations on a particular

roadway. The sample of vehicle speeds is used to test

the hypothesis

H

0

: < 65.

The locations where H

0

is rejected are deemed the best

locations for radar traps.

At Location F, a sample of 16 vehicles shows a

mean speed of 68.7375 mph with a standard deviation

of 2.935 mph. Use an = .05 to test the hypothesis.

p -Values and the t Distribution

The format of the t distribution table provided

in most statistics textbooks does not have

sufficient detail to determine the exact p-

value for a hypothesis test.

However, we can still use the t distribution

table to identify a range for the p-value.

An advantage of computer software

packages is that the computer output will

provide the p-value for the

t distribution.

Example: Kelloggs

According to Dietary Goals for the United States, high

sodium intake may be related to ulcers, stomach

cancer, and migraine headaches. The human

requirement for salt is only 220 milligrams per day,

which is surpassed in most single servings of ready-

to-eat cereals. If a random sample of 20 similar

servings of Special K has a mean sodium content of

244 milligrams of sodium and a standard deviation of

24.5 milligrams, does this suggest at the 0.05 level of

significance that the average sodium content for

single servings of Special K is greater than 220

milligrams? Assume the distribution of sodium

contents to be normal.

Sunnaiv of Tesl Slalislics lo le Used in a Sunnaiv of Tesl Slalislics lo le Used in a

Hvpolhesis Tesl aloul a IopuIalion Mean Hvpolhesis Tesl aloul a IopuIalion Mean

n n > > 3O ` 3O `

assuned assuned

knovn knovn

` `

IopuIalion IopuIalion

appioxinaleIv appioxinaleIv

noinaI noinaI

` ` Use lo

eslinale

Use Use lo lo

eslinale eslinale

Use Use lo lo

eslinale eslinale

Inciease Inciease

lo lo > > 3O 3O

/

x

z

n

=

/

x

z

n

=

/

x

z

s n

=

/

x

z

s n

=

/

x

z

n

=

/

x

z

n

=

/

x

t

s n

=

/

x

t

s n

=

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

No No

No No

No No

No No

assuned assuned

knovn knovn

` `

The equality part of the hypotheses always appears in

the null hypothesis.

In general, a hypothesis test about the value of a

population proportion p must take one of the following

three forms (where p

0

is the hypothesized value of the

population proportion).

H

0

: p > p

0

H

0

: p < p

0

H

0

: p = p

0

H

a

: p < p

0

H

a

: p > p

0

H

a

: p p

0

Summary of Forms for Null and Alternative

Hypotheses about a Population Proportion

Test Statistic

where:

Rejection Rule

One-Tailed Two-Tailed

H

0

: p < p

0

Reject H

0

if z > z

H

0

: p > p

0

Reject H

0

if z < -z

H

0

: p = p

0

Reject H

0

if |z| > z

/2

Tests about a Population Proportion:

Large-Sample Case (np > 5 and n(1 - p) > 5)

z

p p

p

=

z

p p

p

=

p

p p

n

=

0 0

1 ( )

p

p p

n

=

0 0

1 ( )

Example: NSC

Two-Tailed Test about a Population Proportion: Large n

For a Christmas and New Years week, the

National Safety Council estimated that 500 people

would be killed and 25,000 injured on the nations

roads. The NSC claimed that 50% of the accidents

would be caused by drunk driving.

A sample of 120 accidents showed that 67 were

caused by drunk driving. Use these data to test the

NSCs claim with = 0.05.

Example: Drug Screening

A commonly prescribed drug on the market for

relieving nervous tension is believed to be only

60 effective. Experimental results with a new

drug administered to a random sample of 100

adults who were suffering from nervous tension

showed that /0 percent received relief. !s this

sufficient evidence to conclude that the new drug

is superior to the one commonly prescribed? Use

a 0.05 level of significance.

Computing Type I error

A soft-drink machine at Arnold's Diner is

regulated so that the amount of drink

dispensed is approximately normally distributed

with a mean of 200 ml. and a standard

deviation of 15 ml. The machine is checked

periodically by taking a sample of 9 drinks and

computing the mean content. !f x falls within

the interval 191 x 209 the machine is

thought to be operating satisfactorily;

otherwise we conclude that 200 ml.

Find = P(Type ! error) when = 200

ml.

Relationship among , , and n

Once two of the three values are known, the

other can be computed.

For a given level of significance , increasing

the sample size n will reduce .

For a given sample size n, decreasing will

increase , whereas increasing will

decrease b.

End-of-Chapter Assessment

Have you achieved the Expected La Sallian

Graduate Attributes (ELGAs) for this chapter?

Do you have questions or wish to clarify

something?

Can you solve similar problems confidently if

they are issued in the quiz?

End of Chapter 9

- Research ProposalUploaded byzahid_497
- Statistical Techniques in Business and Economy by MasonUploaded bymzubair42
- 40007_Chapter8Uploaded byasimi
- Advanced Statistics ReviewUploaded byJorie Roco
- Statistics exercise solutionUploaded byHang Le
- jjjjjjjjUploaded byfsfsefesfes
- Philippine Guidelines on Periodic Health Examination (PHEx).pdfUploaded byLinius Cruz
- HypothesisUploaded byAbhishek Purohit
- hypothesis.pptUploaded byRashi Tuteja
- Impact of Cash FlowUploaded byAprilya Fitriani
- DECSCI 2 Chap 09 SlidesIUploaded bywolfael
- UNIT - IV THUploaded byShesha3
- Hypothesis TestingUploaded byPallavi Shettigar
- Lecture 10 - Statistics.pptxUploaded byMohanad Suliman
- NotesUploaded bySriram Venkatakrishnan
- PLG500 L5 One Sample T-testUploaded byMelissa Dixon
- Hypothesis Test for Comparison of AlgosUploaded byMadhuri Dalal
- chapter13-chisquareUploaded byDawood Khan Barozai
- Lecture08_SamplingDist.pdfUploaded byAlthaf Avk
- hypothesis112.pdfUploaded byUnknown
- Inferentials Stastistical AnalysisUploaded bychatfieldlohr
- skittles projectUploaded byapi-271444168
- final objectivesUploaded byyasirzaidi1
- Hypothesis TestingUploaded byAnu Uy
- l10Uploaded byWilver Muriel
- StatisticsUploaded byrupanshi singh
- 5.EpiCoursepackUploaded byVigneshwar Subbiah
- Group 2 Section 2 0 a Bipartisan AgendaUploaded byunityb
- Test of Hypothesis (Parametric)Uploaded byAditya Mathur
- Premium TransportUploaded byjitendrasutar1975

- 55700476-TVS-CSRUploaded byrasika27
- ColumnShearCapacity_1Uploaded byAžar Pl
- Glow Plug Driver-flplugdrUploaded byDan Esenther
- Tong Extra PointsUploaded bygelongnavarro
- Agricultural Statistics 2016Uploaded byMohit Gupta
- Absorption SpectroscopyUploaded bytieuca08
- Vascular-Endovascular Surgery Combat Manual 2012.pdfUploaded bygolanz934
- Parameter-parameter tanahUploaded byNicholas Tedjasukmana
- bexar_medicaidUploaded bybrazilrica
- KULIAH-ODONTOLGI-FORENSIKUploaded byHendy Pratamaputra
- cat torque convetorUploaded byParker Lu
- ListUploaded byMovin Menezes
- CityFarm Feasibility Study July 2014Uploaded byDinh Le
- Pop Quiz 1 - Citation Referencing ANSWERUploaded byListra Eve
- 900-SPE-5001-MET&SYSTUploaded byyoi_123
- [NER]Fault Reduction Strategy by NERUploaded byWonbae Choi
- Cardiac Catheterization - 3Uploaded byIndranil Sinha
- EBS to WAM IntegrationUploaded byrabindra
- Regulatory AffairsUploaded bynsk79in@gmail.com
- TBI 2016 Crime in Tennessee reportUploaded byDan Lehr
- ISOASTM51205Uploaded byPartth Vachhani
- Flying Star Cafe Catering MenuUploaded byMax Drinker
- Am Sure Bonus BuilderUploaded bysuganthiaravind
- mab200802-05Uploaded bytocx1x
- MS-02-353Uploaded byel_koptan00857693
- 33 Lecture PresentationUploaded byV_smmf
- 417_2012_Article_2001 mataUploaded byTri Ramasari Syanggradewi
- Amerlock 400CUploaded byLalit Bom Malla
- Case Study: Testing of PetroGuard for use as hazardous chemical spill controlUploaded byGuardian Environmental Technologies
- ASTM A563Uploaded byRaul Cabanillas