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N y0RU8A

Ex
C. K.

Libris

OGDEN

LANGUAGE STUDIES
IN

YORUBA.

ALL

RIGHTS

RESERVED.

CHURCH MISSIONARY

LAGOS. SOCIETY'S BOOKSHOP.


1914.

SRLfJ

/if

c,:

INTRODUCTION.
This book
those
Its
is

intended to be practical and to


to

assist

who
is

desire

learn

the

Yoruba Language.
need
of

aim

to supply the long-felt


full

a book

between
book.

grammatical
of

treatise

and a phrase
will

The

rules

English

Grammar

be of
to

service to the student,

and

for those

who wish

use

it

full

conjugation of the verb appears in Part X.


laid

Too much emphasis cannot be


of learning the intonation

on the necessity
of

and meaning
said of

words

at the

same

time.

The same may be

memory work,
is

for the

primary need in learning any language


Part
III. is so

Vocabulary.

arranged that the student

can give special attention to any group of nouns


if

so desired.

Use has been made

of

Bowen's Grammar
is

and Wood's Notes.

The student
;

recommended
;

to purchase the following


of the

Bibeli

Mimp

Dictionary

Yoruba Language

and the

full series of

Yoruba

Readers.

These can be obtained at any of the C.M.S.

Bookshops.

LANGUAGE STUDIES
IN

YORUBA.

CONTENTS.
PART I. ORTHOGRAPHY.
Section
1.

Page
8 8

The Alphabet
Vowels Consonants
.

2. 3.

4. 5.
(>.

Diphthongs Tones or Accent Elision of Vowels

9 10 10
II
I

7. 8.

Words beginning with

"

n," for pronunciation


..
.

9.

Syllables, for pronunciation Interchange of letters


.

..
.

..
. .

12

13

PART
Section
,,

II.

VERBS.
1.

2. 3.

Simple or Root Verbs, Classes 1 and 2 Nouns and other words for use with verbs
. .

14, 15

10

Illustrative sentences

17

4.
5.
.,
t>.

Extended
;

list of

simple Verbs, Class


. .

22
24

Verbs which express existence Number Gender Case


;
.

.25,
.

7.

8.

Key

Translation, Yoruba-English to Translation in Section 7


.

26 27 28

PART

III.

NOUNS
Section
,.

GROUPED, CLASSIFIED, AND ALPHABETICAL ORDER.


to to the Universe, Domestic Life

IN
29 30
31

1.

2.

,,

3. 4.
5.

,, ,,

(5.

7.

Relating Relating Relating Relating Relating Relating Relating

and National
.

Life
.

to Religious to Trades to to to

and Civic Life and Commerce Farm and Country Life Political and Legal Questions Anatomy and Diseases
.

32 32 34 35

6
Section

S.

Relating to Theological and

EMUkMl QOMtioiM
..
..

3<>

9.

Sentences for daily


Translatic.n.

u-<
3!t

10.
11.

Yonilia-Kii'.ilisli
in

Key

to Translation

Section

10

..

4O

PART IV. PRONOUNS.


Section
1.

Table

of Pronouns; Euphonic Concord

and
..

Examples
.. ..

of
. .

41.

4i'

2.

Relative,

Demonstrative Interrogative Pronouns


Reflexive,
.

and
.

4i'.

i:i

3.

Illustrative Sentences

43
.

4.
5. 6.
7.

Translation exercise in use of Pronouns Key to Translation in Section 4 Accent with Illustrative Sentences Example of Literal and Idiomatic Translat ion
. .
. .
.

H
4.~>

4i 4S
"<>
~>1

8
9.

Translation, Yoruba-English .. Kev to Translation in Section s

PART V. VARIOUS PARTS OF


Section
1.

SI'KKCH.
with
.

2. 3. 4.

o.

Illustrative 2, Simple Verbs. Sentences Key to Sentences in Section with Notes Adjectives Adverbs; Illustrative Sentences and Notes .. Special Note on Prepositions and Notes ;

Class
.

"-

~>3
.~>4

"

Li

"

" and " Ni

r.x.
.">!!.

.'!

(i.

7.

8.

Conjunctions and Interjections Translation, Yoruba-English .. Kev to Translation in Section

i<>

61

PART
VERBS,
Section
1.

VI.
&c.
;

Extended

of Simple Verbs, Class 2 Illustrative Sentences


list
.
.

with
>>'{

2.

Key

to Sentences in Section

3.

4. 5. 0. 7.
8.
!

Auxiliary Verbs Tenses of the Verb ri = to see Notes on the words n, ri, ko, ki and bi Salutations in common use Appropriate Answers to Salutations.
.

....
.

*>4
'>">

i><i.

<7

68 69
7n

Translation, Yoruba-English Key to Translation in Section 8


. .

70

PART VII.

COMPOUND VERBS.
Section
1.

Page
71

2.

,,

3.

4. 5.
6.

union of verb and noun .. Verbs, Class 1 union of verb and Verbs, Classes 2 and 3 noun and preposition, &c. Verbs, Class 4 object inserted between its two parts, with Illustrative Sentences Key to Sentences in Section 3 Various other Compound Verbs
; ;
.
.
.

74 74 75 76
77

Extended

list

of

Compound Verbs
.
. . .

;
.

with
. . . .

Illustrative Sentences
7.

Key

to Sentences in Section 6
. .

8. 9.

Translation, Yoruba-English Key to Translation in Section 7

78 78 79

PART VIII.
NOUNS.
Section
1.

Nouns formed by Vowel


Examples

2.

3. 4.

5.
6. 7.
.,

s and ri of changes in words Prefixes denoting ownership or possession " " ai . and " alai " Negative Prefixes
.

Prefixes Syllabic Prefixes " "

80 80
81

"

"
.

Nouns formed by

reduplication

composition

8.

9.

Vocabulary of Compound Nouns Translation, Yoruba-English

10.

Key

to Translation in Section 9

82 84 85 86 86 88 89

PART IX.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Section
1.

2.
3.

Numerals, 1 1,000 Notes on the use of Numerals Yoruba Proverbs


. .
.

90 92 93
96 98 99 99

4.

Example

of

Literal

Translation,
. .

Yoruba. . . .

English
5.
,,

6.
7.

Translation, English-Yoruba Key to Translation in Section 5 Examples of Idiomatic Translation

PART X.
Section
1.

Conjugation of the

Verb

ri

to see

..

..

101

LANGUAGE STUDIES

IN

YORUBA.

PART
SECTION

I.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
1.

THE ALPHABET.
The English alphabet Yoruba language.
Capitals
:

is

modified to meet the sounds of the

ABDEEFGGbHIJKLMNOQP R U W
S
$
:

Y.

Small letters
t

abdeefggbhijklmnoQp u w
y.
:

Vowels
a
e

o
:

u.

Diphthongs
ai
oi

an.
:

Consonants
It will

bdfggbhiklmnprs?twy. be
noticed that
c, q, v, x, e,

that

gb, 9

and

s are

added

to,

and z are omitted from, and the English alphabet.

SECTION

2.

VOWELS.
a,

"

has one sound only. a " as in father


(e.g.)

Father =baba.

Shoe

>a in.

Drum=bata.
e,

has the sound of " e " in grey


('.'/)

Mound =ebe.
Language
Seven =eje.
"< It
.

9,

short sound as
(e.g.
)

"

"

in

met

Request = 9*59.
Jest

= $9.
fee
-

i,

Rafter = ek9. has the one sound as " ee " in


(e.g.)

Evil=ibi.

Reason = id I.
Tree=igi.
o,

sound as
(e.g.
)

in

no

River = odd.
Glory =ogo.

Rain = 6j6.
9,

has the sound of


(e.g.
)

''

aw

"

as in law

Monkey =^9.
Day=9J9.

Hoe=9k9.
u,

sound

of
)

"

oo " as in

moon

(e.g.

Prison = tiibu.

Cold = tutu.

Wicked = buburu.

SECTION

3.

CONSONANTS.
b,

and

d,

have the same sound as in English.

g, is

" always hard as in garden."

gb, and p, sounds are the most difficult, gb, is a hard sound, and p, is a soft sound. " " Something of each letter is sounded in gb " pronounced as if written kp."

and " p "

is

X.B.

Only a native can help in the pronunciation of these letters? and continuous practice on the part of the learner is
essential.
is

h,

always aspirated,
soft as in
'*

j, is

jelly."
;

k,

w, and y, have the same sounds as in English but are pronounced as if written thus ki, li, mi, ni, ri, si, " " i ti, wi, yi having the ee sound.
1,

m,

n, r,

s, t,

10

n,

sometimes appears at
i-mling
(<-..'/.)

tli<-

end

of

ii

\vunl.

ami

i-<

merely a nasal

To appear
To work

lum.
''

s.

has the same sound as


(e.g.
)

sh

"

in A/mil

sis^,

pronounced

"
sliislu,'-."

SECTION

4.

DIPHTHONGS.
ai,

sound both
"

letters as in the

"

Daily Mail
(e.g.)

"

Cockney

"

pronunciation of

Unclean =aim9.
Ignorant =aim<>.

Undone =aise.
ai,

"

oi,

the negative participle and takes the place of " in English. " " oi in oil. has the sound of
is

"

un " or

in

au.

sound each lettejvthen unite them, preserving the sound


letter.

of

each

SECTION

5.

TONES OR ACCENT.
The marks over the vowels
a,

indicate tone, or accent.

The tones may be described


full
;

as

a,

acute

a,

open

a,

grave

about a tone. keep an even tone. Grave, a, drop the voice about a tone. " aa." Full, a, lengthen the sound as if written the union of two vowels and carries Circumflex, a, indicates a musical sound.
Acute,

a, circumflex. a, raise the voice

Open,

a,

Ask a native to pronounce 6tp = truth and repeat until the sound is acquired.
N.B.

and SuTU = patience,

Yoruba

is a language of intonation, and it is essential to a knowledge of the vernacular, that the tones be learnt at the time of learning the meanings of the words.

11

SECTION

6.

ELISION OF VOWELS.
1.

When two
them
is

vowels of the same sound come together, one of


-

dropped
)

(e.g.

Buy
Love

cloth
sin

= ra asp = f 9 ese

pronounced ra
pronounced
f9

'sp.

'9.

2.

When two
stronger,

or

vowels of a different sound come together, tho accented vowel is retained and the weaker

dropped
(e.g.
)

Know
Cover

= 1119 ara r^ = bo ara r$ thyself


thyself
;

pronounced m9 'ra rf. pronounced bo 'ra r$.

3.

In some cases euphony seems to rule, and in other instances neither vowel is dropped, but both are exchanged for the " vowel " u
(e.g.
)

To run = sa To
lie

ire;
;

pronounced "sure."
pronounced
"
puri?," etc.

= pa

irp

SECTION

7.

vt
N."

THE PREFIX
"

"
"

n is used as a prefix to form In the following table the letter the present, imperfect, participle of the verb
(e.g.)

To love=f?

loving=nf<?.
:

They are inserted at

this stage for practice in pronunciation only

SECTION

8.

SYLLABLES.
Practice in the vowel sounds until perfect both in pronunciation

and hearing
a

is

essential.

13

SECTION

9.

INTERCHANGE OF LETTERS.
In consulting the Dictionary for the meaning of words,
it

is

necessary to remember that letters are frequently interchanged.


1.

Not a few words

begin, indifferently with as abanij$, or pbanij? an injurer.

"

a " or " o "

2.

Some words
afiyesi,

begin indifferently with or ifiyesi = attention.


"

"

a," or

''

"
i
;

as

3.

"

E G

"

and
:

"

to-day
"
-1.

1'eii,

are interchangeable as 1'eni, or l'oni = = head. or l'ori = upon eii, or oii


; ;

" "

for for
Ci

" "

k
f

"
;

as ge, or ke

= to

cut.

"
.3.'

"
;

as iho, or afo
for

=a

valley.

(5.

''S" for

^";

and"w"
" "

"h";
"

in w6, or

h6 = to

boil.

The interchange of s and s is particularly noticeable in some parts of the country and may be regarded as
dialectical

"

(c.f/.

In words like ese, es^, esin, ese, " " to detect the sh sound.

ise, it is difficult

14

PART
SECTION

II.

1.

SIMPLE OR ROOT VERBS, CLASS


B4=to meet. B$ = to beg or Bf=to beget.

i.

D6=to encamp.
entreat.
Dfr

= to

deny.
wish, love.

B6=to B$=to B6 = to D4=to D$=to D$ = to


Di=to

cover.

F4=to draw. F = to want,


Fl = to swinu.

drop. abuse.
create, or cause.
arrive.

F6=to

fly.
<>r

F^ = to wash (clothes Ge or ke =to cut.

vessels).

ensnare.
tie.

G^=to G$=to

sit in

a grand style.

puzzle.

Gbi = to

receive.
lift.

Gbe-to Qb^=to

excavate.

Gb6 = to bark.

= to fight, = to eat. Ji = to awake. J6 = to burn.


Jtl

Gb$=to

hear.
lock, or fasten.
pick.
boil.

H4=to He = to H6 = to Hp=to

Jp = to resemble. = to throw (as a

ball).

scratch.

KA = to K6 =to K^ =to
JJi

read or count.
roar or bleat.

Hu = to

germinate.

indulge, or cherish. to salute.

K6=to gather. K$=to teach or K6 = to die. L4 = to split.


L4=to L^=to
Li
drive.

Mi=to
learn.

breathe.

M^ = to Mfi = to
Ni=to Ni=to
Nil

know.
take, or catch.

spend. have.
clean.
kill.

= to

patch. have.

= to

L6

'" use.

Pa=to P4=to
P$ = to

call.

Lp = to LA = to

go.

tarry.

beat.

P6=to

mix.

15

P$ = to vomit.

SECTION

2.

NnrXS AND OTHER WORDS


Si.MiM.i-:

!-<>K

CSK WITH TH1.

VERBS.
Well =kariga. Garden =^

Me=mi.
He = o, or DM. Cow m&lu.
Yesterday = l'aii!i.
Cloth =aij9.

Dog

aja.

Night = oru.

Door=il?kun.

Room=iyara.
Beans = ere.

Body=ara.
Plate =awo.

Farm

oko.

Water =omi.
Mother =iya.
Child =91119.

Monkey =^9.
Maize = agbado.

His or her=r$.

TwO = meji.
Street =ita.

World = aiye. Father =baba. House = ile. Animal Load


Their =

Food = onJ9.

Now = nisisiyi.
Enough == to. Rope = okun. To = si, and lati. I=emi, mo (or
i

Town = Hu.
That or the=na.
Request = ibere, ^b^.

future).

Sheep

agutan.

Customary =ama.
Stranger =alejo.

Money =owo.
Very much=gidigidi.
Wood==igi. Bird= <,!>',.
:

Work =196".
Horse =e?in.
To-day =l'oni. For = fun, and
nitori.

You or your = nyin. Axe=ake.

Boy = 9in9k9nrin.

Hawk = awodi.
Upon=l'ori.
Question =9ran.

Away = kuro.
With
ju.

ba,

and

p?lu.

Three =meta.
Friend =9r^.

Very much-=J9J9, pup9

Box -apoti.

= eyi

or

yi.

Nose=imu. Take = niu. c.r muly. River =od6.

17

All=gbogbo.
Cap=fila.

Not = k6, or ki. Both = mejeji.


It

Very good = daradara.


Boots = bata.

= o.

Thief =ole.

Market =9J a.
Paint =pda.

Wound =9gb^. Window =feres3.


Darkness = okunkvm. Very much=biribiri.

Use=lil6.

Cut = jade.

Gun=ibpn.
Idol=ori?a.

Mouth =9nu Egg = 9yin.


Five = marun.

Do not=ma$e.
Foot or feet=<?se. These =wonyi.
Carefully

Leaves = ewe.
Finished = tan.
After =l9hin.

= 19391939.
(ki

That=ki

se),

or pe.

Partridge = apard.

Foul=merin.
Deed=ise. Remain =duro.

Headkerchief = gele.

Head=ori.

Thou=iw9.
Will
(v.)

Red = pupa.
or
o.

= yio,

A-going =lil9-

Daily =lojojum9.

Face=oju.

Evening=ale.

SECTION

3.

SENTENCES SHOWING THE USE OF SIMPLE VERBS.


Ba = to meet.
ba mi li 9na. They met me on the way. O b^ mi.

B$ = to

entreat.

He
Bi = to beget.

begged me.

B6 = to

Malu mi bi lana. My cow calved yesterday.


Fi

cover.

a9 b6 ara. Put cloth cover body.


clothes).
b9"
fell

(Put

on your

B(J

= to

drop.

Awo
Plate

Bu = to

19W9 nii. from my hand.


child.

abuse.

Da = to make.

lya bu 9m9 r^. Mother abused her Ol9run da aiye.

God made

(the) world.

IS

D6=to

arrive.

Baba mi d6

ile.

My
D$=to
Di = to
ensnare.
tie.

father arrived home.

Nwpn

de eran kan.
dl eru wpn.
tied their loads.
tl ilu

They trapped an animal.

Nwpn
They

D6
Di

to

encamp.
deny.

Nwpn d6

nS.

= to

They encamped

against the town.

Fi=to

draw.
love.

O dii ibere mi. He denied my request. Owo li o fi fa a.


With money he draws him.
lya f^
Igi
ti

F$=to
Fi=to

91*19 r$ gidigidi.

The mother loves her


swing.
fly.

child very

much.

mo

nru

nfl.

Wood
F6=to
Bird

that I
19.

am

carrying swings.

iye f6 or scrub.
cut.

flies

away.
or clothes.

F$=to wash
G6, or

L9 f9 as9 nyin. Go wash your cloth


fi

ke=to

ak6 ke

igi.

He
GQ
Gba
t" puzzle. to receive.

cut the tree with the axe.

Gb6=to
Gb
Gbo

lift.

= to

excavate.

t" bark.

Gb$ = to

Qran na g9" mi J9J9The question puzzles me very much. Qk9nrin gb& owo r$. The man received his money. B4 mi gb6 apoti yi. Help me lift this box. Nw9n gb^ kanga li $gba. They dug a well in the garden. Aja gbo li oru ana. The dog barked last night.

hear.

Mo
1

Hi=to
He=to

lock or bolt.
pick.
boil.

H6 = to
Hp=to

gb(? 9rij> ti o wi. hear the word that you speak. Ha ilekun iyara mi. Lock the door (of) my room. Awa he ere li oko. We pick beans on farm. Omi ho bi ? Does the water boil ?

scratch.

Hu

to germinate.
fight.

The monkey scratches Agbado li o hu li oko.

his body.

J4 = to

Jp = to eat.

Corn germinates on the farm. Ajd meji li o j& ni ita. Two dogs fight in the street.

Mo
I

f$ je onj^ nisisiyi.
(to) eat

want

food now.

19

Ji

= to

awake.

Ji

(fm<f na.

Wake
J6 = to burn.

that child.

Jp = to resemble.

Ina ko jo to. The fire does not burn enough.

Ju = to throw.

K& = to
K6 = to

Qmo na jp baba r$. The child is like its father. Ju okun si mi. Throw a rope to me.
a ki emi gb<. it that I (may) hear. Agutan li o ke.

read or count.
roar, or bleat.

Ka

Read
is

It

K = to
K6 = to Kp = to

a sheep which
(is

bleats.

indulge.
salute.

Baba ama k^
Father

mi. in the habit of) indulges me.

Lp Go

gather.
learn or teach.
die.

ki awpn alejo. (and) salute the strangers. K6 as9 ti o wa l'9gba. Gather the clothes that are in the garden.
K(j> lati

ma

se is

re.

Ku = to
L = to
Le = to

split.

Learn to do your work. ]sin r^ ku loni. His (or her) horse died to-day. Qkpnrin la igi fun wa.

drive.

L$ = to patch.

The man split wood for us. Qm9k9nrin 16 eran kuro. The boy drove the animals away. Ba mi 1^ as9 yi. Help me patch this cloth.

Li=to have.
L6 = to
use.

Mo
I
I

li as9 meta. have three cloths.

Mo

Lp = to

go.

owo mi fun u. my money for him. 0r^ mi ama 19 si oko r.


16

used

Lu = to

My friend
beat.

(is

accustomed) goes to his farm.


u.

Ki o

fi

igi

lii

Mi=to

breathe.

Mp = to Mu=to
Nd=to
Ni=to

(That you) take wood (to) beat it (or him). Imu li a fi nmi. (With the) nose it is we breathe.
1119 9m9 na. know that child. Mu esm 19 si od6.

know.
take.

Mo

spend.
have.
clean.

Take the horse to the stream. Mo na gbogbo owo mi. I spent all my money.

Mo
I

ni
f^

fila

meji daradara.
mi.

Nu = to

have two very good caps.

Mo
I

nu bata

want

(to) clean

my

boots.

20

Pa = to
Pfc

kill.

Pa adir
Kill

rm-ji

1'oni.

two fowls to-day.


',"119

to call,

IV
C:ill

mi wa.
child (to) come.
9Ja.

my
p$
li

P*
P6

to tarry, to mix. to vomit.

Ma
Do
Mix

not tarry at the market. P6 $da fun H16.


(the) paint for use.

P*

Emi
"

I will

9 jade kuro li enu mi. ''spue thee out of my mouth. Rev. 3. 16.
o
p<;>

Ra =to buy.

Re = to

fall off

as leaves.

Ra eyin adie marun, Buy five eggs to-day. Ewe igi li o re tan.
Work
tires

loni

(li

oni).

R$ =to
Ri

be
see.

tired.

(The) leaves (of) the tree are Ise li o r$ mi.

all

fallen.

= to

Mo
I

ri

me. aparo merin.

saw four

R6 = to
Ri) Rii

relate.

Nw9n
They

partridges. r6 ise W9n fun wa. related their deeds to us.

= to = to

urge.
carry.

Nw9n
You

r9

wa

ki

a duro.
to remain.
yi.

They urged us Iw9 yio rii erii


will

= Sd= to = 86= to

= S= to

Si= to

carry this load. air. Sa as9 mi Iojojum9. Air my clothes every day. cook. Se onje li ale yi. Cook food this evening. deny, Gbogbo W9n li o s$ e. All of them (it is) denied him for it), be. Always used with the negative participle ko="not."

So= ;to

tie.

89= 86=
=

ti>

speak.

lya mi k6 si. My mother is not (i.e. dead). 50 igi mejeji p<J>. Tie (the) two sticks together. Nw9n 39 9r9 na fun wa.

to be tired of.

They spake the word sii mi J9J91

to us.

am
li

Sa=to wound.

Olo

very tired of it. o sa a l9gb9.


him.

e=to
8$ = to

do.
sin.

A thief (it is) wounded O se ise r^ tAn. He has done his work.
Qkonrin na li o s^ mi. That man offended me.
51 ilekun ati ferese.

Si=to open.

Open the door and window.

21

6 = to be stubborn.

Qni9 na so That child


]

gidigidi.
is

$0 = to watch.
ft

very stubborn.

ma

39 ara yin.

= to

(You should) watch yourselves.


get dark.

Okunkun

su

biribiri.

Darkness gathers, very much.

(It is

very

Ti=to

sell.

Mo
I

dark. ) f^ ta ib9n mi.

Te = to worship.

T$ = to trample.
Ti

want to sell my gun. Orisa ti nw9n (or sin) ko gb(?. Idol they worship does not hear. Mase
t$

mi

li

ese.

Do

= to

not trample on

my

feet.

push or shut.
in rows.

Ti ilekun ki o to jade.

Shut

T6 = to place
T<J

To

igi

(the) door before W9nyi leselese.

you go

out.

= to

straighten.
loosen.

Tu = to

Place these sticks in a row carefully. Ki o se 9na na t9. (That you) make that path straight. Tii eran na sile. Loose that animal.

Wd=to

come.
twist.

Wa

S9d9 mi.

We = to

Come unto me. Fi gele we e 1'ori.


Twist a headkerchief on hor head.

W$ = to wash. Wi = to say. W6 = to
W$=to
look.

L9 w^ li odo. Go and wash

in the stream.

O wi He said

b(j>

fun mi. so to me.


(at)

Wa
W9

wo oko mi. Come and look

my

farm.

put on.
please.

Wu = to
Y& = to

as9 pupa 1'oni. Put on red clothes to-day.

Qm9 na wu mi J9J9That child pleases me very much.


Ya
l9"na fun mi. Give way for me. Adi^ y6 eyin kan. The hen laid an egg.

give way.

Ye=to

lay eggs.

Y$ = to postpone.
Yi = to turn.

Lil9

mi y$

lana.

My

going was postponed yesterday. Yi igi kuro loju cpna. Turn (or roll) the wood out of the way.

Y$=to

rejoice.

Wa

Come

ba mi y9, $r^ mi. rejoice with me,

my

friend.

22

SECTION

4.

EXTENDED LIST OF SIMPLE VERBS, CLASS


Ba=to
B4 = to
hide.

i.

Bu = to

dip or lade (liquids or


)

bend.

solids.

B4=to

perch. B$ = to leap, or cut (e.g. ) Nwpn b$ e

Bu=to
off.
lori.

mildew.
scarce.
off. silr.
it off (lit.

D& = to be

D&=to
head.
(e.g.
)

cast

They cut

off his

Bl=to B6 = to B$ = to
(e.g.
)

push.
peel, or strip.

O da a He cast
bind.

to the

ground).

feed.
off.

D6 = to

B$=to remove or take

D$ = to
(e.g.)

lessen (as pain).

b<J>

asp lara mi.


off

d$

die.
is

He
B^ = to
(e.g.)

took

my

clothes.

It (pain)

lessened.

boil, or to return.

Di = to close up.
(e.g.
)

B$=to shake

(hands).
(with)

Nwpn
They

O b$ 9 !<>w$. He shook hands


him.
idols.

di pna na. closed that road.

Di=to become.
(e.g.
)

Bp = to

Mo di eni nla. I am become

worship
broil.

Bu=to

person. Du = to scramble.

Fd=to
(e.g.
)

shave. O fa ori ati

Gb6 = to
ojii.

ripen.

He shaves head and face.


F$=to
(e.g.)

Gb$ = to flourish. BIa=to bruise.

blow.

H6 = to
(e.g.
)

Afefe nf$.

peel,

boil,

or shout.
boils.

Omi na
pull

ho.

Wind

is

blowing.

The water

F$=to

distend.

Hu = to
Ja
!<>

up

or disinter.

Fi=to dry

(with heat).

break,

or jump.
ja.
-.

F6=to be lonely. F$=to break (vessels). Gbi=to sweep. Gb6=to be or to inhabit.


cackle. Gb Gb9=to dry up. (e.g. ) Odo na gbe
t

(e.g.)

Aiya mi

My

heart quak*

J$ followed by ki=to permit, (e.g. ) J? k'a lp sile. Let us go home.


Jf

let.

= to

steal.

tan.

Jl=to

forgive.

The

river

is

completely

J6=to

dance.

dry.

23

J6 = to

leak.

Ku = to
(e.g.
)

remain over.
Isu
li

Jp = please.
(e.g.
)

ku

diq.

Jp ^e gafara fun mi. Please excuse me.


reap.

A
)

little

yam

remains.

La = to appear. = the sun appears. (e.g. Orun la

Ka=to Ke=to

La=to
(e.g.)

lick.

cry out.

Le = can or may, or

able.

K$ = to set a trap. K? = to grow worse. Ki = to press tight. K6 = to confront. Kp = to refuse or decline. K$ = to clasp.

Mo
I

le se e.
it.

can do
lazy.

L$=to be
L<J

= to

transplant.
grind.

Lp = to

Lu=to Lu = to Mi=to
Pa = to

bore.
dilute.

swallow.

Mi=to

tremble.
build.

rub, quench, hatch or


(perfect).

Mp = to MQ = to

win.

be clean, or holy.
drink.

Mu = to Mu = to
Na=to
Na = to Ni=to

be sharp
flog.

(as

knife).

spread.
say.

Ni = to be.

Emi

ni

= It

is I.

P6=to be complete Pp=to be plentiful. Ra = to putrify. Ra=to creep. Re = to go. Re = to curse. R^ = to agree, to be

friendly.

Nu=to

loose.

R = to
Rf = to

shear.

dye.

Ri = to sink.

gp=to
(e.g.
)

set

down.
load.

R6 = to Ro = to Ro = to

sound.
hoe.

O 39 eru kale. He set down (the)

Su = to break out
a = to pick.
^

(as pimples).

ache.

Rp = to wither. Rp = to rain. Ojonr9 = It rains. Ru = to stir up. Sa = to escape. Se = to shut. g = to strain. S = to throw.

= to

break.
miss.

i= to

O sina = He missed

the way.

Ta = to

kick.

TQ=to
Tu = to

urinate.

ease
seek.

(as

of

pain).

Wa = to

24

Wa = to
Wi = to

dig (a hole).
singe.
fall

Ya=

to

si

pa rate.

W6 = to
(e.g.)

(as

Ogiri

a tree or wall) na wo lul<,-.


fell

The

wall
U1 "
1
-

to

the

W6 = to W6 = to
sun

V
set. sets.

Ye to understand. Ye to live. Ye = to be worthy or yir=to be tough


'

hcfittin-.'.

be crooked.

Orun wp = The

Y6 = to be full. Yp = to melt.
,

Yo

to
)

W$ = to Wu=to
Ya=to

(e.g.

enter.
swell.
tear.

yp wa kuro
delivered his hands.

lo\\o rr.

He

us

from

SECTION

5.

VERBS WHICH EXPRESS EXISTENCE.


These verbs are
:

mbe; wa
1.

ya

je

ri

di

se

gbe

si;

and

li

or

in.

Mbe, expresses absolute existence (e.g.) God is = Ql9run mbe.


It answers the question

How
2.

is

he ?
is.

Mb$=(he)

Wa,

not quite so emphatic (e.g. ) Is he there ?


is

wi = he
3.

is.

Ya, expresses existence under special conditions (e.g.) He is dumb=O ya odi.

He
4.

is

lazy

=O

ya

pie.

Je,

is

perhaps the most


"
)

common

verb of the ten.

It takes

the place of
(e.g.

and " are." It is mine = O je temi, or Temi ni. You are my people = ?nyin je enia mi. Two and two are four = Eji ati eji j? ^rin.
is

"

It also denotes ownership

The money
5.

is

yours =Owo je
bi

ti

nyin.

Ri,

is

used with an adverb

(e.g.) Is it

so? = o

ri

bf

6.

Di, to

become

(<.'.!.)

He

will

become a great person -On yio

di enia nla.

2f>

7.

fjie,

this
(e.g.

verb
)

is

as useful as
is

"
je,"

and akin

to

it

Whose
It is

this? = Titani eyi ise?


ni
ise.

mine = Temi

8.

Gbe, to be, or to reside in a place I lived there one year = Mo gbe ibe l'9dun kan. (e.g. It is also used with other verbs and follows an adverb of place Where is it? = Nibo li o gbe wa ? (e.g.
) )

9.

"

verb is reserved for use with the negative particle ko " to express non-existence (e.g. ) There is no money=Owo ko si. Father is not at home = Baba ko si ni ile (nle).
Si, this

10.

Li or

ni, is
)

(e.g.

He

used in conjunction with other verbs it is who will do it = On ni eniti yio se


is

e.

Who

it? = Ta ni
ni.

It is I

= Emi

SECTION

6.

NOTES ON NUMBER.
Number
The 1. and W9nni
;

Gender

and Case are dealt with at


assist
is

this

stage

to plural

in

translation.
of

number

formed by the use

awpn

wpnyi

(e.g.

Awon
Ilu

baba = the fathers.


hills.

Oke wpnni = those


"

wpnyi= these towns.


"

used with animate objects, and " " with inanimate objects. wpnni

Aw9n

"

is

wpnyi

"

and

2.

Numerals are
(e.g.
)

plural ized by reduplication Qgorun = a hundred. Qgorprun = hundreds.


lj}gberun

=a

thousand.

IjJgbegberun
3.

= thousands.
exist in pairs as eyes
;

Members
(e.g.)

of the

body which
eyes.

hands

feet, etc.,

are used in the singular mostly

Oju

Qw$ wpn = their


you wish to speak mejeji=both is used as
If
;

mi=my

hands.
hands,

specially of both eyes, or both

oju mejeji, etc.

26

NOTES ON GENDERS.
Gender where
1.

it is

not at once apparent

is

shown
and

in

two ways.

By

adding the words pkpnrin = man


(e.g.
)

obirin

woman.

Boy = Qmp-pkpnrin (Ompkpnrin).


Girl- Omp-obirin (Ompbirin). Manservant = Iranse-9k9nrin (Iransek9nrin).

Maidservant = Iranse-obirin (Iransebirin).

By the use of the masculine and feminine prefixes, ako = male abo = female
2.

(e.g.)

Horse = Akp

esin. esin.

Mare = Abo
Bull = Ak9

in:

III.

Cow = Abo main,


3.

etc.

Some words
(e.g.)

are

common

to

both genders

ljlgbpn= elder, applied to any older relative, male or female.

AbutO= younger,
Ana = relations
Ibeji

applied to any younger relative,

male or female.
of both sexes

= twins

by marriage.

of either sex.

NOTES ON CASE.
1.

The nominative or subject


(e.g.
)

of the

verb

is

always placed before

the verb

Awpn

enia

ti

lp

= the

people have gone.


:

2.

The objective case


(a)

is

known by

Its position.

In most instances

it

follows the governing


brother.

word
(e.g.)

Mo

f$ aburo
it

mi=I

love

my

But

in other instances
(e.g.)

(b)

Iwo li The mode of address shows the speaker and the person
spoken to

precedes the governing word a o rl = thee it is we shall see.

(e.g.)

Iwp pkonrin yi=you


near me.

this

man

(i.e.)

you who are

This

is

common mode

Iwp pkpniin na=you that man. of address and is quite

respectful.

27
3. The possessive case is shown by the following that of the thing possessed

name

of the possessor

(e.g.)

Owo baba=money (of) Owo baba mi=money


father's

father.
(of)

father

mine

(i.e.)

my

money.
"

Another way

" of to use the preposition ti horse of balogun (war chief). ti balogun (e.g.) ]j]m
is

Iwe

yi j?

= t'emi = this
ti

book

is

mine.
is

Fila yi ki i?e

aburo mi

this

cap

not

my brother's.

SECTION

7.

TKANSLATION. (FOR CORRECTION SEE SECTION


1.

8.)
loni.

2.
3.

Awpn 9in9de ko tpju asp wpn. Baba fi owo fun pmp r$.
Fila

22.

lya mi k6 Ologbo

ri

agutan r^
ile

23.
24. 25.

wa
yi

gbe.

na

ni

ti

emi.

Ewur^

k6 de
li

4. 5. 6.
7.

Tiyin ni pako wpnyi. lya won ran wpn.

Aburo mi

asp

meta

nyin. dara-

dara.
26.
27. 28.
29.

Nwpn nlu agogo ile pkp wa. Mo ti ri ekeji mi ati aja rp.

He ^u biribiri. Kini se ti pmp na


Orun nran

fi

nke rara?
?

8.

Mu

iwe re wa.
fi

baibai.

9.

Baba wpn
soro.

asp fun wpn.


ise

Emi

li

o se e

baun
bi

10. Ise

wa soro, sugbpn

nyin

30.

Wo

awpn pmp,

nwpn

ti

kd
11. 12.

Alejo de ile wa loni. Oko re jina bi 1

nyara kankan. 31. Aja na roro gidigidi.


32.

l^gbpn mi

li

asp

ti

o ppn

13. Ise 14.


15.

wpn ko

rp

wpn

l^run.

rokiroki.
33.

Mo

ti kp pkp mi. Oju mi ri imple.

Enia pp jpjp leba odo.

34.
35.

Orun mii janjan

loni.

Tiyin li owo na. 17. Fi iwe mi fun mi.


16. 18.

36.
lp si

Qmpde na njo dukeduke. Bi mo ti mbp wa, lojiji 6jo


si rp.
li

Awpn

ara

ile

wa

oko

bprp
37.
afi

wpn.
19.

Lojojump
Qjp

awa

nip

si

oko,

Nwpn nwpn agbado

wpn.

isimi.

20. 21.

Aburo mi wa ni ile r^. Pako rp yi ma dara ju temi

SECTION

8.

KEY TO TRANSLATION
1.

IN

SECTION
is

7.

The

children

do not take

21.

Your board

better than

care of their clothes.


2.

mine.
22.

Father gives money to his

My

mother (does) not see


is lost.

child.
3.

her sheep to-day.


is

That cap

mine.

23.

Our cat

4.
5.
6.

These boards are yours. Their mother sent them. They are ringing our school
I

24.

This goat (does) not come

(to)
25.

your house.

My

younger
has

bell.
7.

sister)

(brother or three beautiful

saw

my

companion and

cloths.
26. It is
27.

his dog.

very dark
?

Bring your book. 9. Their father gives clothes to them. but 10. Our work is difficult
8.
;

What makes
The sun

(at eventide). that child cry

so loudly
28.

29.

How
Look

is shining dimly. did I do it ?

yours
11.

is

not

difficult.

30.

(at) the children,

how

Stranger
Is

came

to our house

quickly they move.


31.
32.

to-day.
12.
13.

That dog

is

very
is

fierce.

your farm far ? Their work is not easy


I

My

elder (brother or sister)

for

has cloth that


33.

very yellow.
(are)

them.
14.

Many

people

by the
hot

have learnt

my

lesson.

side of river.
34.

15. 16. 17.

My

eyes see light.

The sun The


As
I

WiS
(

Yours is the money. Give my book to me.

18

) /

very

to-day.

18.

The people

of

our

house

35.

children
well.

are

dancing

went
19.

to their farm.

very
36.

They

are

weighing
(brother

(or
it

was coming, suddenly

measuring) their com.


20.

My

younger
is

or

sister)

in his house.

began to rain. 37. Every day we are going to farm, except (on the) day
of rest (Sabbath).

PART
ORDER.

III.

NOUNS GROUPED AND CLASSIFIED


SECTION

IN ALPHABETICAL

1.

RELATING TO THE UNIVERSE AND NATIONAL LIFE.


Aborigines = ibil 9.
Alien = ajeji;
alejo.

Grass = ikoriko.

Grave =iboji.
(or

At mcsphere = orufurufu
ofurufu).

Growth = idagbasoke. Hail = yinyin.


Heat = oru.

Black man=enia dudu.


Brass = id 9.

Breeze = at9giin.

Heaven=9ranrHiU=6ke.
Iron=irin.
Island = ereku^u.

Calnness=i

2^=91^.

^
i

= aralu. Cloud = aw9sanma. Copper = baba.


Citizen

Kingdom =

9ba.

Lake = adagun. Lagoon =9sa. Language =ede. Law=ofin. Leaves=ew6.


Lightning = manamana. Mineral =ohun ti a wa
bi
.-

Creator =?leda.

Creature =<?da.

Council = igbim9.
Councillor =9ni igbim9.

Country = 119.

Crown =ade.
Customs = bode. Darkness = okunkun.

wura,

irin, etc.

Mist=ikuku.

Dawn = af 9m9Jum9
Day = 9J<?.
Dew=iri. Earth = aiye. Flower = ltanna.
Forest = igbo.

Month =ou.
,

Moon=o?upa. Mountain =6ke


Night =6ru.

giga.

Nation = oril9-ede.

Noon = 9sangangan.
Prince =91119 alade.

Fresh water =omi tutu.

God=Ol9run.
Gold = wura.

Palace =afin.

= ayaba,

Qba-obirin.

Governor = bal 9 Gomina.

30

Rainbow = 6$umare.
Rock=apata. Salt water = omi
Sailor
iy9.

Sun = 6run.
Throne = it? 9ba Thunder Am.
Tin = tanganran.

= atuk9. Sceptre = 9pa 9ba. Seed = irugbin. Shadow = ojiji. Silver = fadaka. Soldier = agunj agun.
j

Town = llu.
Tree

= igi.

Valley = afonifoji. Village =ileto.

Water = omi. World = aiye.


Year=9duii.

Stars =iraw9.

Stone = okuta.

Storm = lji;

$fufu lile. Spring = orisun omi.

SECTION

2.

RELATING TO DOMESTIC LIFE.


Bed=ibusun.
Domestic animals =?ran 93 In.
Dust, or dirt =
eri,

Bedroom = iyara ibusun. Book = iwe.


Bottle

or ekuru.

= lgo.

Eggs - eyiii.
Father = baba.

Boy = 9m9k9nrin.
Bread = akara.

Fire=ina.
Fish = ^ja.
;

Broom =9W9.
Butter =ori wara
ori-am^.

Floor = ilc?16
Fruit =eso.
Girl

(il9-ile).

Calabash =igba.
Cap=fila. Cat = ologb6.
Carpet =3^9
Ceiling^ aj a.
il?.

= 9m9birin. Grindstone =919.


Husband =9k9.
Knife =9b^.

House, or home=ile.

Chair = aga.
Children = 9m9<le.
Clock, or bell=agogo.

Lamp=fitila.

Man
Matches = iana.
ibiti

Clothes =a9.

Coal=edu.

Cup = ago. Dining room = iyara


nj^un.

or

Marriage = igbeyawo. Milk = wara.

Dog=aja.
Doll = 91119 -langi.

Mortar = od6

(for

pounding).

Mother =iya.

31

Needle =ab?re.

Service

= ism.

Neighbour = aladugbo. Pestle = 9m9-od6.


Piazza =<?d$d9.
Picture

Shelf =pepe.

Sieve

= as 9.

= aworan.
wu.
ibatan.

Spoon =-f?ibi.
Paper
Pail

Plate =awo.

takada.

Pocket = apo
Relations

= ana,

= koroba. Wall = ogiri.


Wie=-aya.
Well = kanga.

Room = iyara.
Saucepan =ikoko.
Servant = 9m9"d9 (91119-949).

Window = ferese.

SECTION

3.

RELATING TO RELIGIOUS AND Civic LIFE.


Barbarian = alaigbede.

Bank=ile owo.
Bible

= idaj 9 619. Minister = iranse, or alufa.


Justice

= Bibe!i.

Moslem = imale.
Mosque = ni9salasi.

Bridge = afar a (afa).


Capital

= ilu 9ba. Civil chief = Ba$9run.


Civil questions =9ran
ilii.

Museum = ile

isura.

Newspaper = iwe

irohin.

Notice = iwe akiyesi.

Civilization

= ilaju.
a^^.

Policeman = 9l9pa.
Police station =ile 9l9pa.

Church = He -Ol9run.

Commandment

Port = ebute.

Prayer =adura.

Decalogue =ofin Doctor = oni^egun. Editor = ak9 we iwe irohin.

Public building = ile apeJ9 Pulpit = aga iwasu.


Registrar =ak9 we
ilu.

11

u.

= aw9n agba. Fetters = Herald = akede. High way = 9na Hospital = ile alarun. Hymn = orin. Idol = ori^a. Idolatry = is in orisa. Improvements = itun?e.
Elders

Religion = is in.
Secretary =ak9we.

opopo.

Sermon =9r9 iwasu.


Society

= 9gb<?.

Student =ak9k9".
Subjection=it?riba.

Taxes = owode (owo-ode). Teacher = olukcpni.

Judge=onidaJ9.

Temple = ile-orisa

ile-Ql9run.

SECTION

4.

RELATING TO TRADES AND COMMERCE.


Account --i^iro ow6.

Maiket = 9Ja.

Axe = ake.
Balance = i^ikh ow6.

Palm
Plank
I
>,

oil

= epo.

Bamboo = aparun,

ppa, pako.

Pincers = %mu.

Barrel=agba. Blacksmith alagb v


Build er= ample,

pako, patako.

Potter

= am9kok(

> .

9111916.

Price =iye.
Profit

Buyer =olura, olubara.


Carpenter = gbenagbena.
Clerk = ak9we.

= ere.

Roof = 6rule.

Rope = okun.
Salt=iy9.
lile,

Cement = am9

simenti

Commerce = iijowo. Cowries = owo 979.


Craftsman = oni^na.
Factory =ile 199. Fare = owo 9k9.
Freight

Sawyer = agb9gi, ala-patnk>. Seller =olut a.

= ile-9Ja.
oyinbo.

Shovel = 9k<
Skins = aw9.

= 9ru 9k9. Goods = ohun tita. Hammer = old.


Kernels =ekur9'.

Specie = o\v6. Spirits = 9ti kikan.


Street =ita, popo.

Labourer = alagba?e, or

Ladder =akas9. Ledger =iwe owo.


Loss = 6fo.

Sugar = iy9-oyinbo. Trader = oni^owo.


Trades =i?9na.
Train = 9k9l9
Vehicle = k9k9.

Machinery =9r9.

Manager =olori

9ga.

Wages = owo Weaver =

i^

SECTION

5.

RELATING TO FARM AND COUNTRY LIFE.


Ant = era; eriin. Banana = 9g9d9.
Basket = agb9n.

Branch = 9ka
Bridle

igi.

Beans = ere.
Bird =9179.

= ijanu. Bush pig = 9ya. Camel = ibakasi9. Cassava = gbaguda,

33

Cocoanut = agb9ii.
Cotton = 6\vu.

= ibaka.
Orange = orombo.

Corn = agbado.

Palm tree=igi
Partridge

Cow = malu.
Crocodile =9111.

= aparo.

Cutlas=ada,

Pawn=iw9fa.
Pepper = ata.

Deer = agbpiirin.

Donkey = kft^k9t<;'. Dove = adaba, oriri.


Elephant = ajanaku
;

Pigeon =?iye?le.
Pineapple =9P<? oyinbo.
criu.

Powder =?tu.
Rat-trap = itakute.

Farm = oko.
Farmer = aroko agb?. Farmhouse = abule.
;

Road, or path=9na. Root = gbongbo.


Saddle =gari.

Field^ papa.
Fowl=adi<?.

Sandals = salubata.

Shepherd = darandaran,
gutan.

olu$a-

Garden = 9gba,

Sheep = agu tan.

Shot=9ta.

Groundnut = <?pa.
Guinea-corn =9ka baba.
Guinea-fowl = etii, awo.

Slave =?ru.

Snake =ejo.
Soil=il?.

Spinach =?f 9.

Herbs = e web 9.

Squirrel

= 9k ^r^.

Hippopotamus = erin omi.


Horse =^in.

Stable =ile-fin.

Sugar cane=ireke.

Tobacco = taba.

Hunter =9d^. Hyaena =ikoko.

Turkey = tolotolo.
kikan.

Lemon = orornbo
Leopard =9kim.

Lime = orombo
Lizard = alamu.

Weeds =epo. Wild animals = ^ranko

Worm = kokoro.
Yam=i?u.

Monkey = 9b9.

SECTION

6.

RELATING TO POLITICAL AND LEGAL QUESTIONS.


Acquittal
i

Jailor

ouitubu.

Adjournment = iijil Ambassador =ikp 9ba. Amity =i?9r^. Amnesty =ifiji ^l^wpn. Ammunition =ohun ija.
Appeal = at ii ii here
Assassin
apania.

Judgment = idaj 9.
Judicial
ti

onidajy.

Jurisdiction

= a9
inejila

lori.
ti

Jury = ema

ida

911! 1(,'J9.

Lawyer = amofin.
Message = i.f 9 riran. Messenger = iran9.
Nullification

^9.

Assignment = iyansil 9.
Assault = ik9lu.

= is9

di

6fo.

Banishment = 116jade.
Bequest = ifi ogun fun.

Oath = ibura. Obedience= igl>9i-ai>.


Office

= iyara.
ija

ak9\ve, <y'-.

Boundary =ala

119.

Palaver =

^9.

Commissioner = aj 9! 9.
Conviction=idal9bi. Defalcation = i j io wo.

Peace =alafia.
Per jury = ibura ek6.
Plaintiff

= olufisun.

Defamation = idulumc?. Defendant = oludahun.


Disobedience = aigb9ran.
District

Prisoner =onde, 9l9\v'9n. Province = igberiko.

Rape

il'a

wundia

J9.

= agbegbe.

Reply = idahun.
Residency =il
Treaty =adehim.

Enemy =9ta.
Exile =isansa.

Falsehood =ek6
Fight =ija.

ir<J.

Treasurer =ohit9Ju

o\\-6,

nlapo.

Term=akoko.
Flag=asia.
Flagstaff =9pa asia.

Theft=old.

Friend =^9.
Gazette =iwe 9ba.
Guilt
Jail

Truth= otit9. Ultimatum =opin

9F9.

= ebi. = tubu,

War == ogun. War cry=ipe


Witness =

ogun.

ile

9! 9ri.

35

SECTION

7.

RELATING TO ANATOMY AND DISEASES.


Abscess = bu 19.

Anatomy = ip in
Ankle = kokos^.

ara.

Haemorrhage $? j ?. Head=ori. Head-ache =ori fif9.


Heart =pkan.

Arm=apa.
Back=(?hin.

Hearing =igb9.
tfhin.

Backbone =egungun
Bladder =apo
itp.

Intestines

Joint

= if un = orike.

inu.

Blood =

<?je.

Body = ara.

Leg =<?s. Leprosy =?t^.


Lips=ete.
Liver =?d9.

Bone= egungun.
Boil=owo.
Brain =

mudunmudim.

Lungs =$d9foro.
Medicine =6gun, egbogi.

Breast =9mu.

Cheek =<?rek4Chest = aiya.


Colic

Mind = inu. Mouth =(?nu.


Nails

= inurirun.

Consumption = aruu ^dpfor


Convalescence = iwosau.

Muscle =i?aii = ekanna.

Cough = ikp.
Diarrhoea = $iunu.
Digestion =dida onj^.

Neck=9run. Nerve =i?au Nose=imu.


Palate =i
Patient

111

Disease =arim.

= alaisan.

Dose = iwpn. oguii. Dropsy = asunkun.


Dysentery =9rin. Ears=eti.

Rheumatism = lakuegbe.
Respiration = imisinusode

Rib=egunguii
Side=iha,
Sight

ilia.

Elbow = igb9iiw9.
Eyes = 9yin oju. Eyelid = ipenpeju. Face = oju.
Faeces =igb<?.

= iriraii.

Sinew=i?an Sense =im9.


Shoulder =ejika.
Skeleton = egungun ara.

Fever =iba.
Finger =ika QW$. Flesh = ^ran ara.

Skin=aw9
Sore=egb6.

ara.

Skull =agbari.

Foot = ?s 9.

Spleen =919 inu.

Guinea-worm = sobia.
Hair = irun.

Stomach =apo
Taste =it9\v6.

oiij^ inu.
f

Smallpox =ilegb9na,

3H Teeth
chin.

Touch- if^kan
Urine =
119.

(if<,>\vc,>kim).

Thigh nun. Throat yfun.

Vein

Tim i vj(,\

Thumb

atampako.

Wrist = 911111 pw^.

Tongue = ah<^n.
Toes =91119 v s v-

Wound =9gb$.

SECTION

8.

RELATING TO THEOLOGICAL AND BIBLICAL QUESTION-. Faith - igbagbc?. Adoption = =maleka. Fall (the) = i*?ubu i-nia. Angel Fellowship Argument = ijiyan. idapi). Atonement = etutu. Fidelity =619.
i

Attribute =lwa ^ni.

Finality

<>piii.

Baptism it ^bomi, iBarni. Benevolence =it9r^> ami.


ilana. Canon = ofin Character =iwa.
;

Fundamental truth
Future
life

<>tito

ipil<>.

iy>

ti

mb9.

Grace = 6re-9fe.
Godliness
Kristi.

iwa-bi-O^irun.
= ore.
-

Christianity =isin

ti

Goodness
Holiness

Church=iJ9.
Conditions
9iia gbigba.
i

Hva
an

11111119.

Holy

Spirit
it

l^mi
^ni.

M 11119.

Confession =

ew9.
pkAii.

History

Conscience

<?ri

Human

nature =iwa enia.


ara aiye.

Conversion = iyipada.
Counsel
impran.

Humanity

Coveteousness^ ojukok6ro.
Credentials

Humility = ir^l 9 9kan. Image = aworan.


Immutability = aiyipada.
Inspiration = imisi.

=^9

?ri.

Death = iku.
Depravity == iwabuburu.

Interpretation
Institution

= it ump.
idasil*,-.

Descendant = 9m9 -91119.


Discipline =t9, ibaiiiwi.

i^bt'kal^.

Intermediate
iku.

state^=iwa

Ivliin

Divine nature =iwa

ti

O^run.

Doctrine =?k9.

Justification = idalare.

Duty

i.?v

s '"-

Effects ==eso.

Life=lye. Lord's Supper=Onj^

A
(araiye).

Eternity == aiyeraiye.

Evangelist =ojiiji^ ihinrere.ajihinrevo,

Mankind ~ ara aiye Mediator - onilaja.


Mercy = anu.
Mission=ii?9
isoji.

Exaltation

in

soke.
ti

Existence of

God=iwa

Ministry = i?9 alufa.

i^9 iyanu. Morality = iwa rere.

Reward = ere.
Righteous = eiiia
11111119,

olododo-.

Moral law=ofin iwa.


Ordination = iya-sptp.
Origin = ipile;?e.

Sabbath=Qjo-isimi. Sacred writings =iwe


Succession =119! ehin.
Sanctification

11111119.

Omnipotence =lagbara julp. Omnipresence = iwa nibi gbogbo. Omniscience =l9gb9ii jul?.
Pastor = alabojuto
ijp.

= is9diiniiii9.

Sacrifice =9^9.

Salvation = igbala.

Saviour = Olugbala.
Sin

Perfection = iwa pipe.

= ?*??.

Perseverance =

if oriti.

Personality = iwa enia.

Testimony = 91
Theology = iiH
Trinity

Preacher = oniwasu. Privilege = anfani.

= Metal9kan.

Prophet = woli. Providence = ipese

siJe ti

Q^run.

is? ?gun. Trust = igbekele.

Triumph=

Punishment = ij eniya. Redeemer = Olurapada.


Redemption = irapada.
Regeneration = at unbi.

Union = idap9in9. Universe = 9run on Virtue = iwa rere.

aiye.

Wicked

the ) = enia buburu.

Repentance = ironupiwada.
Resurrection = ajinde.

Wisdom = 9gb9"n.
Wrath = ibinn.

Revelation= ifihan.

SECTION

9.

SENTENCES FOR DAILY USE.


Bring hot water for bath = Mu omi gbi 'gbona

wa

lati

fi

w^.

Go buy oranges and bananas = L9 ra orombo ati 9g^d^. Air the clothes and sweep the room = Sa 8^9, ki o si gba iyara.
Give corn and water to the horse =Fi agbado ati omi fun e^in. Saddle the horse =Di ^in ni gari.

Dust the things and scrub the


Clean

floor

= Ki

my

boots quickly = Kiakia, ki o

o nu nkan, ki dan bata mi.

si fip ile.

How many How much


10.

did

eggs did you buy to-day ? = Iyin melo li o ra loni ? you pay for these fowls ? = Elo li o san fun adi?
sil?

Prepare food for four persons this evening = Pese onje


enia merin lale
yi.

fun

11.

12.

Expect me back at six O'clock ^Ki 9 ma reti mi li ago mefa. Come with me to salute the king=Wa ba mi 19 ki 9ba.

38

l.'!.

Call the carriers

and

let

us go

!''

a\\nn alaru.
\Vi fun

si

j<;

U'a
Ui
<>

19.

Tell the clerk to biing the

books to

me

akowr.
<>

mu
i
>.

awnu
For

i\M'

fun mi

\va.
li
<,-

is.

how much will you sell this cloth ? Rl<> Do not make a noise there Masr j>ariwn niix,-. Come early in the morning Larv kutukutu ni ki Do not forget to do the work I gave you Ma 7
-

ta

aso

\\a.
(|

^iia^i..- is

ti

U>.

mo fun How many


fun

so.

boards will the job require?


'.'

1'aku mrl<> ni

in to

isr na.

2o.
-1.

!<' koriko l^gbe oju yna. Cut the grass by the side of the path Remind me that your master is expecting me Ran mi ti. |><-.
l<

ogboni
22.

yio

ma

reti

mi

(rau-leti

= to

remind).
?

23.
24.
2.").

What are you doing there? Kil'o no nil>v Do not stay long at market = Ma?e duro ]>< lyja.
Masai ra akara that you buy bread to-day )ana. Light the fire and cook some food at once lojukanna. Is the food ready P^Onj? ya bi ?

Be Sure

1'oni (hn-adi).
ki
<>

si

so onjv

20.

21.

Come and
I

eat

Wa
=

jyun

28.

am

thirsty,

make some
!

tea quickly

= Ongb^ ngb?

mi, ki

<>

tea, kiakia.

29.
30.
31.

Stand upright Don't be slack

Dide naro
work)
!

(at

-Ma

jafara, or
!

sjira

Show me

32.

33.
:u.
3.").

Fi 9iia pja ban mi way to the market Get out of the way = Ogo Ipna Wait for me heie = Duro de mi nihiu. Go on, I will overtake you Ma 19, ago ba nyin.

the

Bring the gun and ten cartridges


I

Mu

ii>9n ati

9ta

nn,\\ii

\\,i

36.

am

too busy to attend to you

now

I*v ndi

mi

19^-9 na.

nku

37.

38.
3ft.

(ng k6) le r'aye gb9 tir^ iiisisiyi. have no time to do it = Emi ko r'aye ye e. I do not lend money at all = Emi ko ya owo rara. Think about it and let me know to-morrow =Ronu 89 fun mi Ic^la.
I

r(-

ki

>

>i

40.
41.

Well, what have you decided to do ?

= Xje,
ki

kini o

piimu

lat

>.-

42.

You are very kind -O sjeun J9J9. Come and help me do this work \Va,
fje isjv

si

ran mi

low(,'>

lati

yi.

43.

Tell

pc. ki

your father to come and talk with i> \\a lui mi S9r9.
get your

me

Wi

fun balm

r^-,

44.

Come and

money ^=Wa.

<rba

own

nyin.

39

4.">.

I shall

bi o
4(5.

have to fine you ba tun se b(j>.


is it

if

you do so again =Xgo

ma

ke owo

r^,

47.

It is half -past

48. 49.
50.
51.
~>

= Ago melo 16 j? ? = O j? ago meji ab<|> Go away from there = Kuro mb<? (nib?). Light the lamp = Tan fitila Light the fire = Da ina (dana).
What
time
?

two

53.
54. 55.

Wash your hands =Wf 9w<? nyin. Wash your face =69 oju nyin. Wash the clothes =Fp a$9 na.
Go and buy cornflour = L9, da Go and bathe =1.9, si w?.
ek9.

X.B.

" wash " are used with certain tilings, Different words for see 51, 52 and 53.

W$
69 F9

is

used for hands,


,, ,, ,,

feet

and body.

face only.
clothes, vessels, floor, etc.

,,

SECTION

10.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.


SECTION n.)
1.

(KEY, SEE

Ojo r9

die, iba

1-9

pup9, iba dara.

2. 3.

Odo

nsan, o
giin

si jin,

ma wp
si

9.

Awa

oke giga, o

4.
5.
(>.

Ok9nrin ke igi ^?in kan, ati agutan mefa li o ni. Itana na dara, orun r^ si dim J9J9-

dara gba. lule lojude ile wa.

7.

8.

wa Baba inbe
Ilu nla

l9gba, o
si

lehin oke Iphun. si nka eso fun

tita.

9.

lya

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

wa nile, o Kanga ti o wa
mi
li

npese onje

sile

de wa.
si

ni ita,

ko
ki

li

omi

rara.

J9, fun

omi mu,

ng

to 19

oko.

Fun mi Ias9 mi, ki ng le 19 si ile. Fi owo fun 9m9de W9nyi, ti o to Fi 9W9 re se e, ki o mase baje.
^se li a fi rin, ati oju li a fi riran. Malu ko p9 nibi, wara si w<pn ju.
T^r&n, eiye, ati eja
li

t<j>r9

(threepence).

15.
16.

17. 18.

fi

fun enia

lati 39.

Ologb6 dudu

li

le

pa ekute pup9.

lit.

Ivy
|-'j

li

Jn. 21.

(inii

o nui onJV (lini li I,MMI. MMII ikoko, lehin igbati o \i

I'o

o.

Kii eni re, ki o si

gba iyara
lehin, aja

re, kiakiii.

22.
2.'{.

Mo pa

ejo kekere laby ibusiin loni.

Bi oluwa ba

mbe

na yio pa

<,>!><,>.

24.
L'.~i.

1,9 ra igba meji fun

awpn pmpde.

Awmli

l>i

o \\a

lc>ke

ama

ri

ohun gbogbo

ti

SECTION

11.

KEY
1.

TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION

10.

2.
3.

4.
.">.

a little, should it rain much it would be good. (The) river is flowing, and it is deep, do not enter it. We climbed a high hill, and it was very line. (The) man cut a tree down, outside our house.
It rains

One horse and


(The) flower
is

six

sheep

he has

(5.

beautiful,

and

its

perfume

is

very sweet.

7. 8.

large

town
is
is

is

behind yonder

hill.

Father

9.

Mother

in (the) garden, in (the) house,


is

10.
1 1
.

(The) well that


Please, give

in

and he is gathering fruit for sale. and she is preparing food for us. (the) street, has no water at all.

me

12. 13.
14. 15.

Give

me my

water to drink, before I go to farm. cloth, that I may go home.

Give money to these children

about threepence.

16.
1

7.

Put your hand to do it, that it be not spoilt. With the feet we walk, and with the eyes we see. Cows are not plentiful here, and milk is very dear. Animals, birds, and fishes are given to people to eat.
Salt

18.
19.

(The) black cat is able to kill many rats, (or mice). makes or causes food to be sweet to the moutli.

20. 21. 22. 23.

Put water

24.
25.

in (the) pot, after you have washed it. Fold your mat, and sweep your room quickly. I killed a small snake under the bed to-day. If (the) master is behind, the dog will kill (the) monkey. Go (and) buy two calabashes for the children.

(The)

hawk above

sees

all

(the) things that

we

do.

41

PART

IV.

PRONOUNS.
SECTION
1.

TABLE OF PRONOUNS
First

PERSONAL.

Person.
Plural.

Singular. Masc. or Fein.

Masc. or Fern.

Nom.

Case.

= Emi,
or

Mo, Mine

Ng
Mi,

We=Awa,

a.

(future).

Pos. Case.

My

Our or Ours = Wa, Thva.

Temi.
Obj. Case.

Me = Mi.
Second

Us = Wn.
Person.
Plural.

Singular. Masc. or Feni.

Masc. or Fern.
9.

Nom.

Case.

Thou=Iw9,
Thy,
Tire.

Ye,

You=Enyin,

e.

Pos. Case.

Thine=Re,
9.

Your, Yours=Nyin, Tiyin.

Obj. Case.

Thee=Iw9,

You = Nyin, Yin.


Person.
Plural.

Third
Singular.

Masc. or Fern.

Masc. or Fern.

Nom.

Case.

He, She,
9-

It

= On,

o,

They=Nw9ii, awpn,
Their,

a.

Pos. Case.

His, Her, Hers, Its

= T6n,
i,

Theirs =Tiw9n, w9n.

Tir?, R?.
e,

Obj. Case.

Him, Her, It=a,


e,

Them=W9n.

o,

9,

u.

N.B.

Euphony
to take the

form of the vowel in the

requires the pronoun, third per. sing. ; obj. case, verb or preposition which
;

precedes

it.

Do

it

for

fcim=Se

e fun u.
i.

I praise

him = Mo yin

THE
(a)
1.

OF EUPHONIC CONCORD PERSONAL PROXOIX, THIRD


OBJ.

IN

mi:
;

CSK OF
SING.
;

I-KRS.,

CASK.
\\ln-n
In-

With the Verb.


I

met him
&
it

in the

market
<>

lum^ht
it.

it.

Mo ba
2.

Ip"

ja riigbati
si ri

1.1

.1.

drove
le

away and

lie

saw me do

Mo
3.

e kuro, o

pe,

mo

se e.

I like it

4.

5.

I cannot keep it. sugbpn nkd le fi i pamp. I covered it and will use it another time. Mo b6 o, ng o si 16 o iiigba ml (miran). I drew near to it and ground it with my foot.

but

Mo

f^ 9

Mo
6.

sunni9 9, mo si fi es(? mi Bring it here and beat it.

19 9.

Mu
(b)
1.

u wa

sihin, ki o si

lii

u.

With the
I

Preposition.
her.

Mo ba
2.

spoke with him, that he should not do so to a sprp, pe, ki on k'o ma se b<ji si i.
i

Give
Fi

3.

He On

it to him immediately. fun u lojukanna. shut the door against him.

s6 (or

ti)

il^kun ml

1119

9 (or

si i).

SECTION

2.

PRONOUNS.
(a) Relative

Pronouns.
)

Who=Eniti (lit. who it is) Contracted form TIM.A i-Which -Kyin IT which it is) (hi. Whatever =Ohunti (lit. thing which). Whoever= ^nikeni.
i.
T-.
-

"

-.L

Ti."

Whatsoever = Ohunkohun.
(b) Reflexive
I

Pronouns.

myself =Emi tikarami, or Emi ua. Thyself = I vv~9 tikarare, or I wo na.

Himself = On tika-ar^, or Ourselves Awa tikarawa.

On

papa.

Yourselves = Enyin tikarayin.

Themselves =Aw9ii tikarawpn. N.B. Sometimes "1" is used instead of

"r"

as:

"
tikalar^."

43
(c)

Demonstrative Pronouns.
;

Eyi ni=this (it) is. This=Eyi, yi These = W9nyi. That = Na; ohun na=that thing; Those =W9nni. Each =
)

Iwe yi=this book.


also
''

ni."

Every

f
I

Olukuluku.
Pronouns.

(d) Interrogative

Who=Tani?

or tali?

Who Who

did
is

this ?

there ?

= Tali o se = Tani wa

eyi

nibe

Whose = Titaiu ? Whose book is this ?= Iwe titani eyi ? What=Kini ? or kili ? What is this ?=Kili eyi ? What have I done?=Kini mo se Which=Evvo ? 'wo ? Which is good? = Ewo li o dara ? Which house is it ? = lie \vo ni ?

SECTION

3.

SENTENCES ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF PRONOUNS.


1.

2.

The book is mine, as you yourself admitted. Temi ni iwe na, bi enyin tikarayin ti wi. It is ours, and they cannot take it from us.
Ti'wa
o je, nwpn ko si le gba a \<pwq wa. on your giving the money to them. .Mo tenurn9 wipe ki enyin ki o fi owo fun wpn. I will go to them if you will come with me. Ng o 19 S9d9 W9ii bi enyin o ba mi 19. We do not want to remove them to-day. A ko f$ si W9n nipo 1'oni. Thou shalt not disobey your father. Iw9 ko gb9d9 se aigb9ran si baba re. It is thine, and thy brother shall not take it from you. Tire li o je, aburo re ko si ni gba Iqwq re. You must come to see them when they arrive. Ki enyin wa wo w9n nigbati nw9n ba de\ The box is yours but you may let me use it.
li

;}.

I insist

4.

o.

().

7.

8.

9.

Ti'yin
10.

It

1.

na sugb9n enyin. le je ki ng 16 o. and they can do what they like with it. Ti'w9n li o je, nw9n si le fi i se ohunkohun ti nw9n ba He and his wife came to our house yesterday.
li

apoti

is

theirs

f^.

On
12.
*

ati obiriii r

wa

si

ile

wa

1'ana.

She must do her work before she goes to play. *On ko gb9d9 ma sise r^ ki o to 19 sire. Two negatives are employed to make a strong affirmative
rmi

ko

= must

not, not (do)

(i.e.)

must.

44

13.

The man who was hm- to-day

is

my

father.

14.

Ok9nrin iia ti o wa ihin 1'oni, baba mi ni. That which you saw to-day does not belong
Eyiti enyin
ri

to mi-.

1'oni,

ki ise
it

].">.

Whatever you

do,

do
se,

tVmi. with all your

ini^ht.

Ohunti enyin ba
H>.

fi

gbogbo agbara nyin

se

e.

Whoever breaks

the law

must

suffer for

it.

17.

l;'.nikeni ti o ba rufiii, k6 le sai ma jiya. Whatsoever you do, do it to the glory of God. Ohunkohim ti enyin ba se, se e fun ogo Qlpriui.

18.

It is 1,

be not afraid.

1 !).

Emi ni, mase b^ru. Do it thyself and do


Iw9

20.

He On

21.
22.

We
You

it at once. tikarare ni ki o se e, ki o si se e nisisiyi. himself came to visit us last night. tikarar^ li o wa b$ wa w6 1'oru ana. must bear it ourselves without flinching.

23.
24.

tikarawa yio rii u laisi ib^ru. yourselves know that it is so. Enyin tikarayin mp pe, b^ li o ri. It will recoil upon themselves before long.

Awa

25.

Yio pada ba awpn tikarawpn laip^. This horse came from those parts above the river. Esin yi li o ti ile oke odo wa. These towns, and those hills are under him. Ilu wpnyi, ati oke wpnni li o wa labe r^.

SECTION

4.

TRANSLATE:
1.

(FOR CORRECTIONS SEE SECTION


17.

5.)

Emi
Iwp

fc?.

Mo
Iw9

r6.

2.
3.

19.

18.

ke. pe.
f9.

Awa

de.
se.

19.

Emi

4.
5.

Enyin

20.
21. 22. 23.

Nw9n
Iw9

sa.

Enyin Nw9ii

di.

6.
7.

ta.
ftf.

Mo

On 14. Awa fd.

8.

Enyin

ra.

24.

9.

Awa

r^.

25.
26.

10.

27.
12. 13. 14.
15. 16.

Mo sa. Nw9n fa. Awa so.


Enyin
39.
t?.

28. 29.

Mo he. O wa. Nw9n wa. O wi. Mo w$.


Enyin
tii.

30. 31.
32.

Nw9n

Awa ba. O ya. Nw9n ya.

33.

Iwp

ti.

57.
58.

34.

Emi

t^.

Awa se e. Mo se e.

35. Eiiyin $9. 36. so.

59. Obinriii 19 9. T 60. X w9ii so o. 61.


62. 63. 64.

37.

Xvvpn

ii.

Mo

he

e.

38.
39.
40.

O O

na.

Ok9iiriii

ml tu
a.

u.

na.
ni.

Baba wa

Iwp

41.
42.

Mo On
O

ri 9.

65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

43.

44.
45.

pe mi. X\v9u f^ wa. Avva b^ yiu.


ra
a.

Om9 ba a. Nw9ii b6 o. lya bii u.


Mo
Iw9
di
i.

dii u.
a.
9.
e.

Esin ta

46.
47.
4S.

Iw9

ri

wpn.
i.

70. 71. 72. 73.

Enyin
lya ho

39
o.

49.
50.

Mo wo o. Xw9n ti Awa se e.

Ok9nriii s^

Om9k9nrin
Obinrin

le e.
9. u.

51.
52.
53.
54. 55.

Enyin su u. Iw9 k(p 9. Awa ko o.

74.
75.

Enyin

mu

m9

76.
77.
9.

Baba

yi

i.

89 9. Ok9iirin la
i.

a.

A\v9n 9k9iirin y9 Xw9ii wi i.

78.

79.

Qm9-9d9 Iw ni

fa a.

56.

Enyin

19 9.

X.B.

It would be well to practice reading in an audible voice every day, and have your boy to correct you. The Bible, or the Yoruba Readers will serve this purpose.

SECTION

5.

KEY
1.

TO TRANSLATION- ix SECTIOX
16. 17.

4.

I love

(or want).

They

tread.
cuttest.

2.

Thou

3.
4.

We
You

goest. arrive.

I think.

18.

Thou

do. 5. They run.


6.
7.

19. I call.

20.
21. 22.

You wash
They
bind.

(clothes).

Thou
I

sellest.

break.

He
I

splits.

8.

You

9.

We

buy.
agree.

23. 24. 25. 26.


27.

We jump
He
He
is.

(or fly).

gather (or pick).

10.
11.

They beg. Thou comest

They come.
says.

12. I pick. 13. They draw. 14. 15.

28. I 29. 30.

wash (body).
loosen.
7

We

tie.

You

You

speak.

We

met.

46
31.
:J2.

He

tears.

.">ii.

You
1

m-iiul

it.

33.
34.

They Thou
I

separate. pushest.

.~>7.

.~>s.

\Ve cook shut it.

it.

spread.

">!.

Woman
They
tie

grinds
it.

it.

35.

You

watch.
into balls.

60.

36. It slackens. 37.


38.

They (make)

61. I pick it. 62. That man


63.

loosens
it.

jt.

39.

He He
He

spends.
flogs.

Father seeks

64. Child 65.


Hi;

40.
42. 43. 44.
4").

sayest (or hast). 41. I see you.


calls

Thou

met it. They cover it.


Mother takes
it.
I

(a

quantity of)

me.
us.

They love

H7. 68.

bind

it. it.

We
1

beg you.
it.

He buys
Thou

deniest (or refuneth ) 69. Horse kicks it.


70.
71.

Thou

46.
47.

seest them.
it.
it.

look (at)

You watch it. Man strains (or


Mother
peels
it. it.

Hlteiv)

it.

48. 49. 50. 51.

They push

72. 73.
74.
it.

We We
He

do

it.

Boy You

drives

You
Thou

tire

him.

Woman knows
catch
splits
it.

it.

learnest

7.1.

52.
53.

gather it. turns it.


(over) him.

76.
77. 78.
79.

Father

tells it.
it.

Man

54.
55.

The men rejoice They say it.

Servant draws it. Thou has it, cr you have

it.

SECTION

6.

TONES, OR ACCENT WITH ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCI'/)

-.

The acute accent


tone.

small upward murk is indicated by the over the vowel a and the voice should be raised about a

A few examples will show the importance of its use Ma lp= don't go compared with Ma lp=(you) may go.
;
:

We know
Awa
m<J>

that
pe,

God is holy. mimo li Qlprun.


know.
be clean or holy.
to receive the guests.
alejo.

M$=to M$=to
Gba

Sweep the room and be ready


iyara ki a
si

mura de awon

Gb6=to sweep.
Obi = to
receive.

Boil the rind

69 epo (isu), Bp=to B$=to


*Aya wpn

and then feed the chickens. lehin na ki o b(j> awon adie.


boil.

feed.

His wife was bitten by their monkey.


li o bu aya Aya=wife. Ayd = monkey.

1-9

je.

This

will

emphasize

the

importance

of

strict

attention

to

intonation.
(b)

In regard to the open vowels " a " and others, it is well to give a full even tone to all vowel sounds. The " grave " " " a accent should be treated as if the mark indicated a " " Practise the full acute and " grave " in the stop.
following

way
;
;

ba-ba ha-ha
iia-na

da-da
ja-ja
;

fa-fa

ga-ga
;

gba-gba
;

ka-ka
ra-ra
;

la-la
;

ma-ma
;

pa-pa
;

sa-sa

sa-sa

ta-ta

wa-wa
(c)

ya-ya.
;

The

are one in print but whenever two ) signs (-) and ( vowels come together of the same name, as in the Personal Pronoun, Third Pers. Sing. Obj. Case, it is well to lengthen the sound, as if there was no space between them, thus baa." And as all the vowels are used in this way, practise the following sounds
;
;

'

ba a da a gba a
;

de e
le

fe

bo o
;

bp 9
;

ra a

ta a

o lo o gbe e 19 9 ko o r9 9 pe e se 9 so o se e
e
;

gbe

fo

f9 9
19

bu u lu u
ru u

m9
89 9

9 9
;

mu

tu u.

A FEW EXAMPLES
1.

OF THE USE OF THE CIRCUMFLEX

ACCENT.
Verily, verily I say unto you. L6t9, 16t9, ni mo wi fun nyiii.

2.

God
Be

will protect and keep you. C*l9run yio dabobo, yio si pa nyin

1119.

3.

patient with those who suffer. e suru fun aw9ii ti o jiya.

4.

whatever else you Ohuiikohun ti enyin ba wi,


It is so,

may
b<=>

say.

li

ri.

.">.

li.

not say that you did it. ko \\ipr riiyin li n sr c. If tin- elephant can In' unyry so can tin- ant. Hi inn nilii ajanaku a l)i era pclu.
li

is

not
li

s.i.

<lid

Ueko

ii

ri.

cnii

7.

Why
V.^>
I

do you sn\
ti

that

did
li

it

':

8.

y.

l<>.

o se e ? will come to see y<ni another day. ii wa wo yin li 9J9 ml (niiran). I'ity me and help me if you can. Sana fun mi, ki o si ran mi l9\v<j>, lii You are working very hard to-day.
l.Mivin
nsisi;
I'
1 '

cnyin wipe, omi

|i

11

"">

SECTION

7.

MX AMPLE OF TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH TO YORUBA. TO SHOW THAT CORRECT TRANSLATION GIYKS
INCORRECT IDIOM.
TRANS.
1.
;.

i.

ENGLISH.

2.

LITERAL

IDIOMATIC.
a
certain

Now
Nje
of

there

cried

woman
obirin
ti

2.

nibe
tlir

kigbc
(ninu
of
ti

kan
the

cnikan

Obirin kan
ti

awpn aya pmp


sons of
ti

awpn
the

\\i\cs

prophets
woli

'2.

'!.

n\v9n aya woli) kigbe

awpn

91*19

aw9n

1.

2.

unto Kli.-ha, saying, 89d9 Elisha, invipe. "


si

"Thy
''

servant
9iii9d9

my
mi

husband
9k9

is
ti

Iw9

3.
1.

Eli?a.
;

2.
-'.-

1.

2.
::.

dead ati ku iw9 ku iwQ si nip and the Lord na Oluwa ati
;
;

Iran^ r? pkp mi ti and thou knowest that thy servant did


wipe,

fear
bi -i u
T

iw9 9m9d9 pe m<p pe iranse re b$ru the creditor is come to

se

take

unto

him

na

olowo

ti

d^

lati

mu

9d9 r^

1.

my

2. 3.
1.

Oluwa awpn onigbese si wa lati mu awpn pmp be bondmen." two sons to mi mejeji 9m9k9nrin lati se eru." mi mejeji li eru."
:

And
Ati

Elisha said

unto her,

"What

shall

do

for

th.i

2.
''-

1.

2. 3.

" Kini yio emi sc fun 9 ? Elisha wipe sqdq r, " Kini emi yio se hm 9 P Elisa si wi fun u pe, me what thou hast in the house?" And >hr ^.iid. tell ni na ilc Ati on wi mi kini \\i|>iiw9 ni
'
'.'

Wi

fun mi, kini iwp ni ninu

ile

"

On

si

wipe

49
1.

"
''

Thine handmaid

2. 3.
1.

"

R$

iransebirin.
r?

hath not anything in the house, ni ko nkankan iii na ile,


ni

Iransebirin

ko

nkankan

ni

ile,

2.

save bikose
"

3
1.

of oil." Then he said, pot kan ikoko ti epo (ororo)." Nigbana on wipe, bikose ikoko ororo kan." Nigbana on wipe,

2. 3.
1.

2.

Go borrow thee vessels abroad of all thy neighbours " ikoko lode ti Lp ya (win) 9 aladugbo, gbogbo r " Lp, ki iwp ki o yd ikoko Ipwp awpn aladugbo re kakiri, borrow not a even empty vessels few. aiii ofo ikoko ; ya kise kan die.
;

3.
1.

ani ikoko ofo

ya \vpn,

ki

ise

die.

And when
Ati

thou art come

in,

thou shalt shut the door

2.

3.
1.

wa sinu, iwp yio se na il^kun nigbati iwp ti Nigbati iwp ba si wple, ki iwp ki o se il$kun and shalt pour upon thee and thy sons,
1'ori

2. 3.
1.

iwp
ara
re,

ati
ati

r<=!

awpn

pmpkpnrin,
re,

ati

yio

da

mp

mp awpn pmp

ki

si

da a

2. 3.
1.

2. 3.
1.

those vessels, and thou out into all ati sode sinu gbogbo wpnni ik6ko, iwp sinu gbogbo ikoko wpnni, ki iwp ki that which is full." shalt set aside (o) se kun." yio gbe s'apakan eyiti
o
si

So
B(ji

ft eyiti o kun si apakan. she went from him, and shut the door

2.

on
o

lp
si

3.
1.

B<?ni

lp

kuro on, kuro Ipdp


sons,

ati
r$,

se

na
se

il^kun

1'ori

upon her on
ara r?

si

il<?kun

mp

and upon her


ati
ati

2.
3.
1.

who brought the vessels 1'ori r$ awpn pmpkpnrin eniti mu-wa na awpn ikoko mp awpn pmp r$, ti ngbe ikoko
her
; ;

to

2.

3.
1.

fun on fun on

and she poured ati on ti da wa on si da a.


;

out.

sode.

And
Ati
si

it

came
ti

to
si

pass,

when

2.

o
se,

wa

kpja,

nigbati na

the vessels awpn ikoko

were
ti

full,

kun,

3.
1.

nigbati

that she said

awpn ikoko kun, unto her son,


r$

2. 3.
1.

pe

on

wipe spdp

pmpkpnrin,

o wi fun "
"
'
:

pmp

r$ pe,

2.

3.
1.

"
"

vessel." And he said unto her, Bring me yet a Mu-wa mi sibp kan ik6ko." Ati on wipe spdp r$, Tun mu ikoko kan fun mi wa." On si wi fun u pe, And the oil vessel more." There is not a stayed.

2.
3.

Nibe

si

"

Ko

si

ikoko

Ati na epo (ororo) da. ko kan ikdko mp." kan nip"." Ororo na si da.

1.

2.

3.
1.

2.
3.
1.

2. 3.

yknnrin ti Ol9rua. Nigbana li o wa, o si so fun enia Qlprun na. and pay thy di-lit, And he said, " Go, sell the oil, Ati on wipe, na epo (ororo). ati sail r$ gbese, L>9, ta " On si wipe, LQ, ta ororo na, ki o si san igbese re, of the rest." 2 Kings 4. 1-7. andlive thou and thy children ati wa(je)iw9 ati r^ nrqtKfUUfti na iykii
'

Then she came Nigbana on ti wa

and told
ati

thr

ma a

of

God.

so fun

na

ki

iwo

ati

awon

91119

re ki o

si

j?

owo

ti

o ku."

SECTION

8.

TRANSLATE
I. 2.

(FOR CORRECTION SEE SECTION


28.

Q.)

Ida

li

i'lko.
li

Aroko gbin

iiju.

Qk9nrin

aja.
ile.

29.

3.

Aroko tu
Qm9birin
Onile ra

30.

gba erupe.
if

4.
/>.

Ajayi ra bata.

31. Adigun. 32. Ajayi


33.

a gbaguda.
si

w
i.^u

gun elub9.
19
le.

(i.

ilade

ilu

rt>.

7.

^ oju.
k<j>

:5

mi

8.

ile.

.'!

Ajjutan kekere.
nil
li

9.

Alase se onje.

36. Qk9nriii
rj>.

?e

enia

rere.

10.

Qm9binrin pe abnro

37. 38. 39.

Or9

otit9

o ns9.
ti

11.
12. 13.

Mo

ri

egb9n.
til
f<;>

01119 yi

kuru ju
eyi
.-

9hun

19.

9k9.

40.
41.

14. 15.

ede wa. Oyinbo Ojo s?e i^e.

Mo A Ye
!

ti

ri

to igba enia.
s?s>

tani
!

9r^ mi, inu mi dim

lati

ri 9.

16.
17.

Alaru di
Onile

erii.

42. 43.
44.

wa

agutaii.

O dim mi Ha Iw9
I

pupij).

18.

ologbd. 19. Alapata pa elede.


20.

Mo

ri

ara mi ni. Ki 9 dnro de wa nihinyi


titi

awa

ti

!,.

si

9hun.
si

Qmode ho orombo.
1,-Nin

4.">.

Awa

ri

nyin lana.
t

21.
22.

ta

oluwa

r>\

46.

Qmode, ma mA
enikan.

yajn

Ewur^

j^ koriko.

23. Iransje j^ i^^ 24.


2">.

r.
r^.

47. 48.
41).

Ka
Ko
Iv-je

si

nkan
nkan.
91119

Qm9>9d9

s6 ilekun.

si
ti

lya pe enikeji

na

fi

wa

sinu

2(>.

kl timtiia.

ile

\\.i

27.

y6 eyln.

51

SECTION

9.

KEY
Man

TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION
27. 28.

8.

Sword has sheath.


has dog.

Hen

lays egg.

Farmer plants yam.


draws water.
(or receives)

Farmer

tills ground. Ajayi buys boots. Girl washes her hands.

29. Girl

30.

Worker takes mud.

Housekeeper buys yam. Boy washes face.

31. 32. 33.

Adigun cuts cassava. Ajayi pounds yam flour.


Akilade goes to his town.

Worker builds house. Cook cooks food.


10.

34.
35. 36. 37.

My body
That

(is) well.

Girl

calls

her

younger

Small sheep.

(brother or sister). 11. I see elder (brother or sister).

man is
is

(a)

good person.
truthful

He

speaking
is

Child writes copy. 13. Canoeman poles canoe.


12.
14.

words.
38. This

child

shorter than

White

man

speaks

our
39. I

(the one) yonder.

saw about 200


!

people.
?

15.

Ojo does work.

40.

16. Carrier ties load.


17.

41.

A who did this Ah! my friend, I am pleased


to see you.

Housekeeper seeks sheep.


Butcher
kills pig.

18. I see cat. 19.

42. It pains 43.

Ha

me much. thou art my

relative.

20. Child peels orange.


21.

44.

You

await us here until

we

22.
23.

Horse kicks his master. Goat eats grass.


Messenger delivers his message.

go yonder.
45.

We saw

(see)

you yesterday.

46. Child,

do not be saucy to
?

anyone.
47. Is
calls

24.

Servant shuts door.

25

Mother

her

partner

48.
49.

anything (wrong) Nothing


!

(friend)
26.

companion.

How

is it

that child comes


?

Man

stuffs mattress.

into our house

PART
SECTION

V.
1.

SIMPLE OR ROOT VERBS OF THE SECONI

<

WITH
D4n=to
Gail
t

ILLUSTRATIVE

SENTENCES.
2.

SEE KEY, SECTION


1.

polish.

2. 3. 4.
5.

despise.

(Ompkpnrin, dan bata mi.) (Mase gan nti'i re.)


(Idl r$ han gbangba. ) (Mase fi ow/i kan mi.) (Ran on in na 19 si 9Ja. )
)

Han Kan
Ran

i" appear.

tn

touch.

ID send.

6.
7.

8. 9.

T&n=to be finished. (Owo mi tan patapata. Y4n=to neigh. (Nigbati esin yan, o nki nyin. Din i" subtract. (Ki o din owo fun mi.)

10.
11.
12.
13.

Gbin=to sow. (A ma gbln agbado lemeji I'pdun.) Pfn=to divide. (Ki o pin owo yi larin nyin.) Rin=to walk. (Lana, mo 19 riri kiri l'9Ja. Sin=to serve. (Ol9run li o to sin.) Wfn=to lend or borrow. (Jc?, ki a win ikdko fun mi.
)

14.
15. 16.

Yin = to

praise,

Bim = to Qim=to

give.

17.

Ktm= to
Run
Sim
to
t"

18.
19.

20.
21.
22.

F^n=to P$n=to

(twa nyin da, mo yin 9.) (Oba li o bun mi 1'ebun. ) ride. (Balogun li o gun esin dudu. ) murmur. (Nw9n kirn si oluk9ni W9n. ) (Ina run gbogbo llu. ) destroy. (M4 pariwo, baba sun.) sleep. scatter. (F<^n ihin rere ka kiri.) sharpen. (P<?n ake fun ise nyin.)
measure.

W^n=to

(Nw9n w4

lati

w^>n

ile.

SECTION

2.

KEY TO
1.

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES.

SECTION

i.

2.

Boy, polish my boots. Do not despise thy enemy.

3. 4. 5. 6.

The reason

of

it

plainly appears.

Do

not touch me. Send the child to market.


is

My money

altogether finished.

53
7.

When

the horse neighs,

it is

saluting you.

8.

9.

10.

11. 12.
13. 14. 15.

That you lessen or reduce the money for me. We usually plant or sow maize twice yearly. That you divide this money between yourselves. Yesterday I walked about the market. God is (great) enough to be served (worshipped).
Please (that you) lend

me

a pot (earthen vessel).

16.
17. 18. 19.

Your conduct is good, I praise you. The king gave me a present. The war chief rides a black horse. They murmured against their teacher.
Fire destroyed
all

the town.

20. 21. 22.

Don't make a noise, father sleeps. Scatter the good news about. Sharpen the axe for your work. They came to measure the land.

SECTION

3.

ADJECTIVES.
Adjectives usually follow the nouns (e.g.) A white cloth=as9 funfun kan.

The usual three degrees of comparison exist, and are formed by " " " " to the positive and to the comparative the addition, of ju 19
(e.g.)

Dara=good. Dara ju= better. Data julo=best.

Buru=bad. Buru ju= worse. Buru julp= worst.

ADJECTIVES.
_, ,

Dara

(of things

and persons).

Sweet = Dun.

Rere Black = Dudu.


}

(of persons).

White = Funfur
Short

Great = Tobi, nla.

Small =Kekere, wewe.

High = Giga. Deep = Jijin. Narrow =T6r6.

= Kukuru.

Much = Pupi).
Little=Die.

Wide=Gb5ro. Bitter =Kor6. Red = Pupa.


Fierce=Ror6. Dear = W(?n.

Kind = Seun.
Cold = Tutu.

Young=Ewe.

New=Tit.un. N.B. " Rere " of persons implies moral goodness. Da, Dara, Daradara= any thing, from good to beautiful.

Hot=Gb6na, Gbigbona. 01d=Agba, gbo. Many=Qp9.

NOTES ON ADJECTIVKS.
1. Exceptions to the rule that adjectives follow nouns, are found in concrete nouns placed in opposition to other concrete nouns (e.g.) Qlogb^n enia=wise person.

Otosi eles$=poor sinner.

Agidi

pmp= stubborn

child.

Onrord enia= fierce person.


Ika enia= cruel person,
2. The words denoting placed before the noun
(e.g.
)

etc.

many

persons, or tilings, are sometimes

Gbogbo enia = all people.


Qpolopp enia=many people.

Olukuluku enia= every person.

The numeral adjectives, when they are round numbers, as 3. twenty, thirty, and so on, come before the noun
(e.g.
)

Ogun enia= twenty

persons.

Qgbpn malu= thirty cows. Ogoji isu= forty yams, and so


4. Sometimes the preposition to a noun to form an adjective
(e.g.
)

on.

"
li

"

or

"

ni

"

is

used as a pn -fix

lpr^=he
lagbara

is

rich
is

(lit.

he has
(lit.

riches).

he

strong

he has strength).

SECTION

4.

ADVERBS, WITH ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES.


i. (a)

ADVERBS OF TIME.
Then=nigbana, or nje. When=nigbati, or nigbawo tete. Early = kutukutu
;

Uow==nisisiyi. To-day =l'oni.

'!

To-morrow =l'9l a
Yesterday =l'ana.

Instantly =lojukanna, lesekanna.

Ever=lailai,

lai,

bibi

lai.

Late=p$. Always = nigbagbogbo. Often=nigbakugba.


Daily =lojojum9. Again = ?w e, m$, tun.

Once=l^kan. Weekly = 1 psos 9.

55

(b)
1
.

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES.
e e nisisiyi.

Do

it

now =
it

2. 3.

came to pass = Nigbana o si se. Then, he became angry = Xje, o binu. N.B. Xje is equivalent to " well,"
Then
angry).

as

(Well, ho
li

became

4.

To-day or to-morrow

will

do=L'oni, tabi
e

1'pla

o dara.
ki p teto wa.

5.
6.
". 8.

When you come, come early =Nigbati He is very late On pp ju. Do it instantly = e e lojukamia.
You
are often disobedient

ba wa,

9.

10.

Always Once again


o se
e.

speak the truth


I tell

you

= Nigbakugba e nse aigbpran. = So 6tp nigbagbogbo. to do it = Lpkan si mo sp fun 9


li

ki

11.

Do Do

it

daily,

not weekly

=e e lojojump, ki
ni
se

ise Ipspsp.

12. 13.

It is

ever the

same ==69

ima

in.

not do SO

again=Ma

bp mp, or

Ma

tun. se bf.

2.
(a)

ADVERBS OF PLACE.
nibi.

Here = nihiii, or

Everywhere = nibikibi. Near = nitosi.

There=nibp. Yonder = Iphun. Far = jina, or lokere.


Elsewhere = nibo miran.

By

the side=l<?ba.

Backward =sehin.

Forward=siwaju.

Upward=soke.

Downward =sisale.

(b)
1.

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES.

2.
3.

Here it is, come and get it=Nihin li o wa, wa It was there yesterday=Nibe li o wa I'ana.

mu
gbe

u.

Everywhere
li

go

it is

the

same= Nibikibi
jina

ti

mo

lp,

bakanna

ri.

4.
5. 6.
7.

It is

very far from

town=O

pupp

si ilu.

He

is

near by,

call

him=O wa

nitosi,

pe

e.

wa leba odo. by the side of the river Elsewhere things are not so=Nibo miran, nkan ko
It is

=O

ri

bf.

8.

He
Lift

is

going

backwards=O npada

sphin.

9.

Go on

10. 11.

We

in front of me=Ma lp siwaju mi. your eyes upward = Gbe oju nyin soke. were going downwards =Awa ti nip sisal e.

3.
(ft)

ADVERBS OF DEGREE.
Much^ pupp Enough -to. Too p 9! u
.

Only

kiki. nikanfjioijo, pere, o^odr.

p<J>.

Almost^ f?rv.
Altogether = pat apata.

So=b?;
Quickly
Iattle

bayi.

As-=bi.

y a ray ara, kiakia.


diedie.

Gently
First

JvJv.
lev,

pelep?le.

= die,

<'kini.

(6)
1.

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES.
On
nikansjo.o
li

He

only

is

there

w&

nilx,-.

2.

Only gold and


oini yio

silver will I receive--

Kiki wnra

ati

fadakn

ni

til>a.
!

3.
4.

have seen enough

= Mo

ti ri

to

He was
Do
So
it

altogether lost =

On

ti

391111

patapata.
si

6.
6. 7.
8.

I too shall be
SO,

there=Emi pelu
will please

and

it

me^=

yio wa nibe. e bayi, yio fj>e

dim mp

rni.

it is

always

69

li

ri

nigbagbogbo.

9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

As it was in the beginning =Bi o ti wa li atetekp^e. Come quickly Kiakia ni ki o \va. Walk gently, the road is rough= Rln p^l^p^lf ijma na ?e pnlapala

The

grown a little=Ohun 9gbin ti dagba di?. cocoanuts only do I see=Agb9n meji pere ni mo ri. Only trouble do I meet with=Ogede wahala ni mo b&. The first born and the first fruits are God's = Ak9"bi ati akp'so
plant has

Two

ti

Ol9run To je (or bi Ql9run

ni).

4.

ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION, NEGATION AND


DOUBT.
!

(a)

Yes=b^ni, en
Certainly

No=b^ko, ndao, agbed9.


Verily
I

= dajudaju.

T .,

Indeed

Perhaps = bpya.

Undoubtedly = laiijiyemej i.

Not=ki, or k6.

(b)
1.

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES.

Yes, I shall be there

2.
3.

Did you do
It is

this P

not so

Yes Hr-kn li o

= Be"ni, emi = Iw9


!

li

yio wa nibe. o $e eyi ?

Jjln

ri.

Did you take it ? No Did you steal the money


<>.

= Iw9
?

li

No

o mu = Iw9

u
o

li

ji

Ndao owo bi

Agbed9

(emphatic). Indeed, I shall not go = Lot 9, emi ko ni


Verily I say unto

19.

7.

you=L6t9, mo

\vi

fun nyin.

H. 0.

He

certainly
is

is

guilty

= On

jebi dajudaju.

Hi. 11.
12.

no doubt about it=K6 si iyemeji rara. Undoubtedly it was he = Laisiyemeji, on ni. It was not he, but I = Ki ise on, sugb9n emi ni.
There

He cannot go
5.

but I will = On ko

le 19,

sugb9n emi yio

19.

INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS.
Wherefore
?

Where

= nibo ?
?

= ese ti

How? = bawo 9iia wo How many? = melo ? When ? = nigbawo ?


(b)
1.

How much?=elo ? Why ?=ni tori kini ?

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES.

2.
;?.

Where is it? = Nibo li o wa ? Wherefore do you go? = Ese ti iw9 fi 19 How do you do it? = Bawo li o ti se e ?
li

4.
").

(>.

7.

How much is it ?= filo li o je ? How many are there ?=Melo o wa nibe ? Why do you speak so ? = Nitori kini iw9 %e 39 When will he come ? = Nigbawo o le wa ?
li

bayi
or,

Nigbawo

li

on yio de

NOTES ON ADVERBS.
much
1.

There are distinctive adverbs which take the place of " very " in English and almost every verb has its own peculiar adverb
(<?</) Igi

ga
yi

fiofio

= tree

is

very high.

2.
li.

4. 5. 6.
7. 8.

flies very high. p$n rokiroki=this cloth is very yellow. Oelodo pupa roro = flower is very red. Kiniun nke ramuramu = lion is roaring loudly. gb$ sakasaka=he hears perfectly. dun mi J9Jp=it pains me greatly. duro sinsin=he stands firmly.

lj!ry e

6 tiantian=bird

Asp

9.

QniQ SQ r 9 botibdti- child talks pratingly.

10.
11.

A?9

ja fut$fute

cloth tears easily.

gbadura tpkantpkan
yi

he prays earnestly.
is

12. 13.

A$9
11$

dudu perepere = this cloth yo bambam=-it is very full.

very black.

14. 15.

$u biribiri=it is very dark. Aiya mi nja fuk$fuke = my heart

is

beating furiously.

N.B.

Almost every reduplicated word which follows a verb be regarded as an adverb.

may

SECTION

5.

PREPOSITIONS.
In=H, or
iii.

To=si, fun.
Into=sinu.

Unto=s9d9.

On = lori.
From=lati,
ti.

With = pelu, ba, Within =m'nu. Without = lode. Above =loke. Under =nisale.
Beneath = lab^.
After =1 chin.
ti.

By=nipa,

nipase.
1119,

Against=si,
Beside =leba,
Until =titi.

Among=larin.
Before=niwaju, siwaju. For = ni tori, fun, de.
Of=niti,
ti.

Around =yika.
leti.

Except =bikose.

NOTES ON THE PREPOSITIONS.


Ti=from, involves the idea
Li, or

of departure from.

Si=to, involves the idea of motion towards. ni=in, indicates


rest in.

A FEW
Fun
(v.
)

VERBS ARE USED AS PREPOSITIONS.


;

to give

fun, prep.,
;

= to.
spoke to me.
the door against them.
us.

M9
Ba

(v.) to (v.) to

adhere

m$,

prep.,

meet;
)

ba, prep.,

= against. = with.
wpn = he shut
went with

(e.g.

wi fun
ba

mi=he
1119

se ilekun

wa

lp

= he

.59

NOTES ON A FEW PECULIAR PREPOSITIONS.


Pelu=with
(e.g.
)

Ayp

pelu inudidun li a we did it, or did it.


it is

fi

se

e=Joy

with gladness

With joy and gladness we


is

Lpdp = with

(e.g.)

Qmp
Nwpn

na wa Ipdp iya r$ = The child


sprp
ti

with

its

mother.

Si= against
Ti

(e.g.

si

pba wpn = They spoke against their

king.

= against

(e.g. (e.g.

duio

Nitori=for

Nitori r$ ni

De = for

(e.g.

the expense, or For his sake I spent the money. Duro de mi=Wait for me.

mi=He stood against (by) me. mo se inawo = For him I incurred

DuTO de oluwa

re

= Wait for

your master.

NOTES ON
" " " "

"

LI

"

AND

"

NI."

and ni are used, both as verbs and prepositions. For Li sake of euphony the consonants are interchangeable. In ordinary conversation both forms are used indiscriminately ; but it will be helpful to remember the following rule " That li changes into ni ,' both as a verb and a preposition " before the vowel i.'
the
: '

'

'

'

1.

(</) Emi

li

esin=I have a

horse.

2.

Emi ni isu=I have some yam. wa li Qgba=He is in the garden. wa ni ile=He is in the house.
to this rule are few

The exceptions

and

may

be disregarded.

SECTION

6.

CONJUNCTIONS.
And=ati, on, and
(e.g.
)

"
si,"

(used only before a verb)

si

lp si

pja

= and

he went to market.

But=sugb9n.
If=bi, followed by ba,

"

bi o ba."

Ot=tabi,
Also
)

'abi.

Still=sibe, sibesibe.

Moreover

[=pelupelu.
)

Because = nitoriti.

Therefore= nitorina.

60

Although = That=ki, ti,


Unless
ati.

"

bi o tileJ9pe

"

(a phrase), bi

ti

je pe.

pe.

Then=nje.

INTERJECTIONS.

= o pain or surprise. A = of surprise. W6 = behold. Kai = cf wonder. $ip = of ridicule. Dak? = silence. $pa = of astonishment. Oro =
Ye
! ! ! ! !
!

Igi da

its.

Ko

s$

= Wonderful.
!

T6 = Satisfaction. Ago = Make way

Pasidari !==

And many

others.

SECTION

7.

TRANSLATION. (FOR CORRECTION SEE SECTION


1.

8.)

Nko
Bi o

ri

enik^ni
ile.

1'

9na,

mo

si

1.

Mase

reti

pada wa
2.
ti

wi fun mi lana, beiii sugb9n on ko gb<? rara. 3. Afi bi iya r^ ba de, iw9 ki yio 19 si ile nyin nitoripe \wa r^ ko dim m$ mi. 4. T9 mi wa l9la, ki a le J9 89 oran 9m9birin na b9ya mo le gba a S9d9. 5. Tay9tay9 ni ngo 19 bi o ba

mo

na, nitoripe r^ 19W9".


12.

iran^wp on ko le ran ara

se,

^sin k6 je koriko rara, o dabi 9nipe, o saisan. 13. Aw9n agbalagba li o 1119 bi
aiye
ti
ri,

nitoripe,

nw9n

ti

ngb aiye li 9dun pup9. 14. Ni ijeJ9 nw9n ti ina b9


nigbati awa awa jade 19
15.
si ri
hit
i

ile,

i,

lojukanna,
a.

ran mi.
C.

pa
?

9r9 kan, o fi is mi sile, nitorina ng ko ni san owo kan fun u. 7. Mu iwe yi 19 fun eyibo (oyinbo), ki o si duro de
Liii-.i

Nigbawo na ya per^pere
1'ori,

ni kiniun fa

agutan

16.

17.

Tani yio fi ade de 9ba na 9k9nrin ni, tabi obirin ? si i. agbado, yka baba, own,
I

idahun (or
8.

esi)

ati ere oniruru

as9 ib6ra kan fun alaisan yi ti o nki'i 19. 9. Emi ko mo bi o de ihin, tabi
1'

Fun mi

oko,
18.

ti

li

li o jasi eso ere 19P919P9 ninu.

Nw9n wa
ri

agutan
1'osi
i.

ti

nil,

I'viia

9tun, ati
9r<;>

bi

ko de,

si i.^

linn

mo
to,

sugb9n
si

ba a

ni

nw9n k6
19.

ita.

Mase gba

buburu

10.

Bi omi ba tutu

a tete pa

ongbe.

enikeni gb<J, sugb9n ranti pe n\\ on le 89 In; si 9.

01
20. Ijafara
je,

li

le

ba

ise
fi

nitorina

ma

^pra, ki o si

oju
21.

si ise re.

Suru yio fun wa iii is^guii lori ohun ti o soro se, 16t9,
yio bori

Oni iwa tutu li o le tu enia ninu 1'9J9 ibanuje, onror6 enia ko le se e. 23. A ko le sai 16 sum, li ede
22.
kik(?,
k<;>

nitoriti

ohun gbogbo.

o soro ju

lati

ede miran.

SECTION

8.

KEY
1.

TO SECTION
14.
fire

7.

I did not see

'2.

way, and I As you told me yesterday, so I did, but he did not listen at
all.

anyone by the returned home.

Eight days ago,


to (a) house,
it
(kill it)

they set

saw
to
15.

and when we instantly we went out


put
it

out.

At what time
lion
?

Unless your mother should come, you will not go homa, because your conduct does not please me. 4. Come to me to-morrow that we may discuss the question of that girl, perhaps I may take her. 5. I will go joyfully if you send me. 6. Without saying a word he left my work, therefore I will not pay him any money.
3.
1.

(or

when) did
sheep
to

the
16.

tear

the

pieces

Who
Yam,

will

crown the king, a

man
17.

or a

woman
corn,

guinea-corn, cotton and beans, of many kinds, are the fruit of the farm which are very profitable.

18.

They searched for the lost sheep by the right road and left, but did not see it.

19.

Do

not believe bad words

Take this letter to (the) white man, and wait for an


Give

answer.
8.

against anyone, but remember that they may speak so against you.
(evil report)

me

a covering cloth for

20. Slackness

may

spoil

much

this sick person, who is dying. 9. I do not know if he came

work, therefore, watch, and put your eye to your work (be
attentive ).
21. Patience
will give us the victory over difficult things,
(it)

here or not, but I met him in the street. 10. If water is cold enough it

soon quenches thirst. Do not expect help from that child, because he is unable to help himself. 12. (The) horse cannot eat any grass, it is as if it were sick.
11.

verily,

will

overcome

all

things.
22.

The meek-one -can comfort people in the "day of sorrow, but the fierce (austere ) person
cannot do it. We cannot

13.

The aged know what the


is

23.

do

without

earth
years.

like,

because
it

they

have been living on

many

patience, in learning languages, because it is very difficult to learn another language.

62

PART
SECTION

VI.

1.

EXTENDED LIST OF SIMPLE VERBS OF THE SECOND


CLASS, WITH

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES.
2.)

(KEY, SEE SECTION


1.

Gan

i"

sew

coarsely.

(Gan asp

yi fun mi.)

2.
.'{.

4.

5.
6.

Han = to be unfruitful. (Igi orombo yi Han = to scream. (Ompde yi ban goro. Kan = to drip. (Epo ti o nru ni nkan. devolve upon. Kan (Qran na kan Ran = to spread (as fire or disease).
(Ina, tabi
I

ban.)
)

iiyin.

arun na kd ran).
si

>.

Ran=
(

to spin. , to sew.

) r
)

(Obirm ni nran owu, o


fitila

,,

nran

aao.)

8.

Tin = to

9.

10. 11. 12.

(Tan iyara mi.) (Osupa ni ntan imyle 1'oru. Tan (preceded by ba) = to be related to. (Emi k6 ba 9 tun.) Tan=to run aground. (Ok$> tan leti odd.)
)

light or shine.

ni

13.
14.
1").

(Mo ti yan 9 I'^r?.) (Ki o din 9g<?d<=> agbagba fun mi.) Gbin = to breath with difficulty. (Ok9nrin na ngbin, Pin = to terminate. (Ko si <J>na mc^, o pin.)
fry.

Yan=to Din=to

choose.

\'u

>

ai

ku.

Ifi.

17.

18.
10.

= to = to Sin = to Yin = to Yin = to


Sin

string as beads.

(Qm9
oku r$
li

ni nsin ileke.)
ti

Sin

accompany.
bury.
attract.

(Mo
sin

sin alejo

o
)

wa

ki mi.)

(Nw9n

1'oni.

lay eggs.
to beat

(T6lot616

ym
1(

eyin mewa.)
)

(As9 na yin mi
(

loju.

20
21.

Gun=

'

Nwon "S"11
(Old
li

isu

?Ja.)
)

-{

{to pierce.
22.
2:5.

o gun u l'obe.

Kun = to fill. (O to, ma fi si m<J, apo kun.) Kun = to set on fire. (Aw9n pt4 r$ kun ile r^.) Run = to emit an odour. (Aw9 W9nyi li o nrun.)
Sun = to
Sun
roast.

24.

(Ki o (ma) sun pran

1'oni.

25.
2(i.

t" accuse.

(O

fi

mi sun niwaju

pba.
li

P^n = to carry (on the back).

(lya 9019

o p<?n

'1119.)

03
27.

28. 29. 30.

Dun = to grieve or give pain. (Oran na dun mi Dun = to be sweet, or pleasing. (O dim nip mi.) Dun = to sound, (llu dun 1'ode, nwpn iiki nyin.

Wpn = to

be dear or scarce.

(Isu w<j>n 1'pdun yi.

)
)

pupp.

SECTION

2.

KEY
1.

TO ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES IN SECTION


this cloth for

i.

Sew

me.

2. 3. 4. 5.
(>.

This orange tree is barren (unfruitful). This child screams loudly.

The palm oil you are carrying is dripping. The question devolves upon you.
Fire, or disease (the) did

not spread.

7.

The woman The moon


is

is

spinning the cotton and sewing the cloth.

8.

Light the lamp in

my

room.

9.

10. 11. 12.


13.

shining (light) by night. I am not related to you. The ship or boat is aground in the river.
I

have chosen you as

my

friend.

(That you) fry plantains for me. The man breathes with difficulty, and will

die.

14. 15.
16.

There

is

no way
is

(again),

it

ends.

The
I

child

stringing beads.
to salute

17.

accompanied the stranger who came They buried his dead (corpse) to-day.

me.

18. 19.

The turkey laid ten eggs. That cloth attracts my eyes.

20.

21. 22.
23.

They are beating (pounding) yam in the market. The thief pierced (stabbed) him with a knife. It is enough, don't put more (again), the sack is full.
His enemies set his house on
fire.

These skins smell.

24.
25.

That you roast the meat to-day.

He

accused

me

26.
27. 28.

The mother

before the king. of the child carries the child (on her back).

Yams

are scarce this year.

That question grieves


It pleases

me much.

29. 30.

me

(lit.,

sweetness knows mi).

Drums sound

outside, they are saluting you.

SECTION

3.

AUXILIARY VERBS.
and prefixes the present imperfect tense of the verb.
1.
(''.</.)

The consonant

"n"

"

in

"

are used

denote

e=to do;

nge-=d<iini:.
lie
is

nse e Ipwp"

doing

it.

mbp
2.

lpna = he

is

coming on the road.


:

Ti

is

(e.g.

the sign of the complete tenses Mo ti $e i?$ mi tan = I have done my work completely.

Mo
3.
(e.g.
)

ti

nip

sib?

=I

have been going


:

tlu-iv.

" " are O, and yio

signs of the future tense


will go.

Nwpn

yio lp
lp

Awa
Euphony governs
4.

= they = we will

go.

the change of form.

"

Ma
is

"
)

is

almost equivalent to may.

(e.g.

Ma

? ma lp = you may go. a negative, and emphatic " not."


)

(e.g.

or ma ti lp = don't = do not go. lp Ma?ai lp = don't fail to go.

nia lo

go, or don't

g<>

ye;.

Mase

Ma
5.

is

also used as
)

(e.g.

Iwp ma

an adverb " very." ?eun jpjp=you are very kind indeed.


is

Ama

denotes what

customary.
Ip
si ile

(e.g.)

Qmpde ama

^k<J

(school)

childn-ii

are

acciustomed to go to school.
6.

Aba and
(e.g.)

iba imply duty or obligation. ti aba $e = things that we ought to do. Awa iba ti lp = we should have gone.

Ohun

is also used for would and should. Proverb illustrating the use of " ama " and " iba " " iba Ql9gb<^n ama wipe, talakA ko gb<^n
;

"

Iba "

ul>vn,

iba lowo."
"

The wise man


not wise
;

is

if

accustomed to say, the poor anthey were wise, they would have

money."
7.

"

"
1.

is

prefixed to verbs to indicate


is

What

customary

(e.g.)

Bayi ni

nwpn

ir4

sothey

usually buy.

(Ifi

2.

"

"

is

used after
)

"

kd "=not
ide

(e.g.
3.

Nwpn ko

= they

to give emphasis have not arrived.

"

"

is
)

(e.g.
8.

sometimes used for the sake of euphony Eyi ki i?e temi = this is not mine.
:

Tile gives emphasis to propositions, thus

Emi
9.

tile

ri

i=I have indeed seen


" "

it.

It

is

equivalent to the English may," placed before verbs, thus: (e.g. )


is

Le

can " and " might."

Mo
It
is

le

e e
le lp

Nwpn
also

= I can do = they can


ma
kpja

it.

go.
sai

used with the negative participle "

"
(e.y.
)

ko

le

?ai

nibe=We must

(cannot do

other than) pass there.

SECTION

4.

TENSES OF THE VERB.


Present.

Emi

ri

=1
)

see.

Emi

nti

= I am

seeing.

Emi

le ri

Mo

le ri

= 1 may
j

or can see.

Ki ng ri Ki emi ri Ki emi ki o
Bi

^=Let me
see.
?

see.

riJ

mo

ba ri=If I

Emi ri bi?=Do Awpn ri mi =


I

I see

A ri mi Kiawpntip
Ki a
ri

They

see me.

p
ri

=T hatthevseethee.

Bi a ba

Emi

li

mi=If they see me. ri=Me it is they see.


|

Iwp ri Ki iwp

ri ri

Iwp

ma

^=See
j

thou.

Bi a ba

ti ri

mi= Though they should have seen me.

(Present Perfect. )

06
Post,

Emi

ti ti

ri

Mo

n
ti

=1

saw.

Emi

ti

nn = I have been

seeing.

Emi ko

'ri

=I
]

have not seen.

ti

ri

mi

Awpn ti li mi Emi li a ti ri
Emi
til? ri

=They have
'

seen me.

=I

have seen (emphatic).

Future.

Emi yio ri Emi o ri Ng o ri Emi yio ti

=1
ri ri

shall see.

=I
mi

shall
I

have seen.
will see

Awpn yio A o n mi
Emi Emi
X.B.
yio yio

t
i

= I hey

me.

ma ri = I shall be seeing. ti ma ri = I shall have been


full table of

seeing.
<>f

this

kind

Verbs is not deemed necessary in a book but for the sake of those who wish it, see Part

SECTION

5.

NOTES ON THE VERB


1.

"

FI."

"

Fi

"

when
)

followed

by "fun"

fi-fun,

becomes the
to me.

vcrl>

and " fun " becomes a


(e.g.

preposition.

Fi iwe put,

na fun mi=give that book


is

2.

"Fi" = to
(e.g.
)

very common.

Mo Mo

n
ft i

sil$

=I

put

it

down.
(to)

se

ppa = I put

it

make

(a)

walking

-i i<-k.

3.

"

Fi

"

is

used as a particle, which has no equivalent


:

in Kniilixli.

and follows such phrases as


(e.g.
)

fise

ti

ft

lo?
o
ft

= why

Kini

ti

did you go? duroP = what made you stay

Duro
4.

titi

fl

d6 = wait until he comes.


syllable in

Then

it is
)

used as the

first

many compound

words.

(e.g.

Fia?^fun = to empower. Fiarahan = to show oneself.

07

NOTES ON THE WORD

"

RI."

We

have seen

Reduplicated
adverb.
(e.g.
)

use as a verb, ri=to see, and ri = to drown. and following wa = to tremble, it becomes an
its

wa
it

riri

= he

trembled exceedingly.
cloth
is

In

this

form
(e.g.
)

also indicates a condition of filth.

A0
is

na

riri

= that

dirty.
it
is

But there " " = never ri


(e.g.
)

another use to which


ri

put as an adverb,

before.

Awa ko

nkan b?

ri

= we
KO

have not seen such a

thing before.

NOTES ON THE WORDS


"

"

"

AND

"

KI."

K6

"

is

the simple form of the negative.


)

(e.g.

K6 si=not
Baba ko
"
e

lives.

id6

= father
"

has not arrived.


or denial
is
?

"

K6

"

changes into
(e.g.
)

kp

when doubt

intended.

"

Ko

eyi? = did you not do this Emi kp = not I. " " " " ki before the vowel i." changes into = not him. (e.g. ) Ki i6 on

Iwo ko

"

Ki

"

Emi ki ie egb$ r$ = I am not his companion. " " " that in order that." used also as a conjunction, = In order that father Ki baba ki le fun mi 16wo (e.g.
is
;

may
Ki awa
"

give

me money.
ki-to

ki a le lp to,"

Ki " followed by "


(e.g.
)

Mo

sun ki on to
an.

= In order that we may go. = before a certain time. d6 = I slept before he arrived.
may
"
or shall.
?

"

Ki

"

is

used also as

auxiliary verb,
I go

(e.g.)

Ki nlp?=shall

NOTES ON THE WORD


1.

BI."
bi

Its first use, other


is

than in the form of a verb,


of a conjunction.

= to

beget,

and so on,

in the

form

Bi = as.
(e.g.
)

Bi baba
"

ti

wi,

li

As father
2.

said,

awa yio se. we will do.


ni Ip.

Bi, followed
(e.g.
)

by

ba," bi-ba=if.
r<j>

Bi ojo ba

emi ko

If it rains, I shall

not go.

:t.

Bi ito a,k.
Mi,

followed by
('.'/.)

lere,

"bi-lere" = to ask a question.


lere.

bi

mi

--he asked me.

Bi aburo re

Ask your younger (brother or


4.
is

sister)

a question.

Bi,

coming at the end


(<'.</.)

of a sentence, indicates that a question


':

asked.

Iw9

ti

Have you taken

tpju adie hi care of the fowls

':

SECTION

6.

SALUTATIONS.
" Salutations with the prefix " oku form a distinctive feature " " of the Yoruba language ; others begin with odi and some " " are formed by adding nk9 at the end of a phrase.
;

The most useful of these ars given here but. the prefix oku can be used with almost any verb. The full form, the con/m< </ form in brackets, and the meaning of each salutation is here set
:

"

/>

forth.
1.

2.
'$.

4.
~>.

<>.

1. 8.
ft-

10.
11.

12.
13.

14. 15.
16. 17.

18
19.

20. 21. 22.

Oku ile (Ku 'le o) = At home to you. Oku di ile (Oku di 'le) = For a person's absence. " Oku ab$ (K' ab$ or K' abo)=Used for " Welcome Oku atiJQ (K' atijp) = After long absence. Oku lailai Oku irin (Oku 'tin O) = Walking or travelling. Oku pkg = On canoe, ship, train, motor, or carriage. Oku $i?e o (Oku '?e o) = Working. Oku lala = Strenuous toil. Oku jokd = Sitting, or waiting. Oku isimi = Resting. Oku aj6 = Anxiety or solicitude. Oku daro = Sympathy. Oku owurp 6rg arp (K' ar9) = (Good) morning. Oku al$ o (K' al? o) (Good) evening. Oku 9san (K' asan) (Good) day. Oku O ;=(! am) goinp. Oku na owo (Oku na 'wo)^= Spending money. Oku tita (Oku 'ta) = Selling things. Oku alejo (Oku~alejo) = Visitors or strangers. Oku pf9 = (For those) bereaved. Oku Superior, or elder to inferior or younger.
;

09
2:5.

'24. 2.). 2<>.

Odi OWUTQ ; orp ; arp ; (Od' arp) Until Odi pla ; (Od' pla) = Until to -morrow.

moriiin;j;.

Odi igba kan ; (Odi 'gba kan) = Until a time. Odi igba miran ; (Odi 'gba mi) = Until another time,

27.
2S. 29. 30.

Odi abp ; (Od' abp = Until (you or I) come. Odi igbose ; (Odi 'gbose) = Until another time, or good-bye. He nkQ ? = (How is your house ? )
)

Ompde nkp? = (How

are the children?)

X.B.

may be used about almost any person, animal or thing. There are yet other forms of salutations, a few of which are

This form of enquiry

31. 32.

here quoted. n wa o = To persons going for a walk. Ago le o = On entering a house.


ri il?
;

33.
34.
3-">.

Ma wo ^ r 9r *

(Ma wo
sympathy
I

'le)

= Look
first

to the ground.

= Be

careful.

P?l? o = Of
P$l$pele

or at

meeting a person.

36.
37. 38. 39.

= Gently,

gently.
.-

40. 41. 42.


43. 44.

Ara re ko le bi ? = Is your body not well ? Ara 'o le bi? Ara pmpde ko le bi? = Are the children not well ? K' a si nkan 'le o? = Is anything wrong at home K'a soro bi? = Is anything difficult? Ki sun re o. = That you sleep well.
Alafia k'o

wa bi?=Have you
o.= (That you)
of

peace

Ki
X.B.

ki

'le

The name

any

salute your house. " ki o ki." person may follow

SECTION

7.

APPROPRIATE ANSWERS TO SALUTATIONS.


Those numbered
1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19,

20, 21,
!

22, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36,

may

all

be acknowledged by saying

Those numbered 4, 5, 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, answered by repetition of the salutation addressed to you.
(e.g.
)

O or Ho may all be
!

5.

Be mb$

or

ile

Oku lailai repeat, Oku lailai wa = House is (all is well).


!

37,

Omode wa = Children are (well). Ago ya 0=A11 is ready (come). 38. Ara mi le, or Ara mi ko da, (or
well.

le)

= I am

well, or I

am not

70
'<!'.

Ara wpn
are
I

le, <>r Hit

Ara wpn k6 da

(or le)

= They
It

are well, or

They

well.
!

40.
41.
4
4:*.

K6 K6
!

si

nkan

Nothing wrong!
SOro di$ = Not diflicult. <r often followed by Oluwa $$
is

?oro, or

little diflicult.

or

Ho
!

wa

Lord uateh

us.

Alafla

= Peace!
SECTION

44.

Repent the salutation.


8.

TRANSLATION, YORUBA-ENGLISH. SECTION 9. Bi mo ti nriii 1'pna, mo kiyeei 9k9nrin kan


Eisin
;

SEE KEY,
leba esin ati kyke.

na nf& eru k^k^ pelu irpriin esin na yo, o si 1'agbara. Xwon ntpju r tob<j> ti o fi ye keke pba. Mo bi pkpnrin na lere, j><-. In " o si ni, T'emi ni." O si tun wipe, " ni^bati tir$ li esin na je mo ses^ ra a, o burujii, ki if^ sis^ rara, sugbpn emi ko ji; na a, enyin si ri bi o ti ri nisisiyi." 0r9 yi wii mi J9J9, mo si iif<> ki a\v9n timailu esin W9n, ki o 019 pe, nipa iseun a le 39 esin buburu di rere. ^sin gbcpri ju aw9ii eran iyoku 19, nw9ii si le ranti iwa ti a hit si W9ii.
;

ibase rere, tabi buburu. Pelupelu kiyesi, bi N\v9ii si nlo agbara W9ii fun isin enia, lai gba

nw9n ti l'ajzl>ara to owo 19W9 oluwa wpn.


:
%

le

tp ki a se iranti esin lakoko onje tabi omi mimu nitoripe on ko " Bi owe Yoruba ti mvi bere nkankan lywQ wa. l^lesin li <> di eru esin," eyi ni pe l'9san 1'oru a ko le sai ma t9Ju r( >.

SECTION

9.

KEY

TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION

8.

He also said, I bought and he said It is mine." was bad, and did not want to work, but I would not flog it, and you see what it is like now." This word pleased me much. and I am wishing those who beat their horses, to know that by kindness we can change a bad horse into a good one. The horse is wiser than other animals and they can remember the way we treat And them, whether well or ill. Also notice how strong they are they are using their strength in the service of men, without taking money from their masters. It is right that we remember the horse at the time of eating and drinking because it cannot ask us " The owner of the for anything. As the Yoruba proverb says horse is the horse's slave," that is by day and night he must not
was
it,

As I was walking on the road, I noticed a man by the side of s horse and cart. The horse was drawing the load with ease, and the horse was fat, and strong. They were caring for it so well that I asked the man if the horse it was fit for the king's carriage. " " when
his
:

it

fail

to care for

it.

71

PART
SECTION

VII.

1.

COMPOUND VERBS.
1.

These verbs are formed by the addition of a noun to a verb (e.g. B$ = to request; $b$ = a request; give the compound verb b$b$ = to supplicate.
)

Ba = to meet
to fear.

^ru = fear

give the verb

b?ru =
:

The following list contains the most Bade = to arrive with.

useful of these verbs

Bile = to light upon (as a bird). Bal? = to touch the ground. Bar$ = to agree with. Bere = to ask a question.

B?WO = to Binu=to

visit.

vex.

B6ju=to veil the face. Bole=to thatch (a house).

Bomi=to

take or dip water.

Bora = to cover the body. Bori=to cover the head.

Bpju = to wash the face

(face only).
floor).

Bpl9 = to beat the floor (earthen Bosi = to enter. Bpwa = to come.

Bpw$=to Bpw9=to
Bula = to

shake hands.
honour.
dilute.

Bul?=to patch. Bupa = to vaccinate. Busi=to add to.

Bue = to

be nearly

finished.
to.

Buyin = to give praise

Daba = to suppose,

to propose a motion.

Dagba=to grow.

72

Dahun
Dako

to

answer.
farm.

Dajp = to judge.
to

make a
faint.

Daku=to
to

make a

fire.

to mix.

Dari = to turn or steer.

Dar6 = to think or sympathise. Da wo = to contribute money.

Daw$ = to

stay the hand.

Dena = to block the way. D$ru=to tie a load (or pack). D$ru = to scare.
Dija = to quarrel, (or cause a quarrel).

Diju=to shut the


Dip6 = to succeed,

eyes.
(or

become a

substitute).

Domi=to become
Dopin = to come

watery. to an end.

Dup$ = to give thanks. Duro = to stand still.


Fagi = to plane wood. Fan = to shave the head.

F$ju = to be blind. o break into a house.

= to
Gbe?

wash clothes
fast.

(clothes or vessels).

Gbaw$ = to

t" incur guilt.


fire.

Obina=to catch

Gb^ro = to reckon or consider.

Hun$Q, or wun?Q = to weave cloth. Jagun = to fight (as in battle). Jaiya=to be startled.

J^ = to deliver a message.
Jlya=to
suffer.

J6na=to burn.
Jpba = to reign.

Kaw6 = to

read.

Kede = to proclaim. KOI in = to sing.


Ladi = to explain. Laja = to settle a dispute.

Lala = to dream.

Lana = to make a road.

Loyun = to

conceive.

Lul$ = to strike the ground. Mpju = to be tame (lit. to know the face

1119

and

oju).

Mple or kple=to build a house. Pag$ = to pitch or erect a tent. Pania=to murder.
Pa$? = to command.
P6jp = to assemble. P?ja = to
fish
(lit.

to

kill

fish).

P6we = to speak a

proverb. Ran?$ = to send on an errand.

Ranti = to remember.

R?le=to

plaster a house.

Riran = to see a vision.

Rpbi = to

travail.
rain.

Rpjo = to

Rufm = to break

the law.

Rulu = to stir up the town. San wo = to pay money. Sar6 or sur6=to run.
Sinku = to bury the dead. miss the way.

work (from
be friendly.
rebel.

= to

do

if=work).

print.

break up the ground. Wadi = to search out the cause.


1

to
>

wash the hands.

= to put on clothes. Wple = to enter a house. Yanu = to wonder at(from ya = to open Y$na = to clear a path of weeds. Ypju = to show the face.

$nu = mouth ).

74

SECTION

2.

COMPOUND VERBS.
2.

second class

is

formed by the union

of a verb,

and a noun.

preposition being inserted between


(e.g.
)

them

Bilere=to question, from bi = to ask; li = in regard to gre = a question. Dalebi = to condemn, from da=-to make
;

li

= in
= on

regard to
ile

ebi

Kpsile = to forsake,
si
;

= guilt. from kp = to
(lit.
)

refuse;

= ground

to leave

on the ground.

COMPOUND VERBS.
3.

third class

is

formed by the union of a verb, a noun, and

a second verb
(e.g.)

Maraduio

to endure, from mil = to cause; ara duro (compound verb) = to stand (lit.) to body; maintain one's position.
;

Mutiy6 = to be drunk, from mu = to drink pti^ yo = to be fu]l = to be full of liquor. liquor


;

Daraya = to be lively, from da = to make ya= lively. body


;

ara=the

N.B.

It

is not necessary to multiply instances, but the study of derivation will prove both fascinating and profitable.

SECTION

3.

THE COMPOUND VERBS.

(FOR

CORRECTION OF
4.)

SENTENCES IN THIS LESSON SEE SECTION


4.

The objects
(e.g.)

of the fourth class of

compound verbs

are placed

in the

middle of the word

Mu-wa=(W<.) take

bring.

1.

2. 3.
4.

money. (O ba. 9019 mi j$. ) Ba-j$ = to spoil. = to startle. (O ba. esin mi leru.) Ba-l$rtl (O bd $r^ mi 19.) Ba-lp = to accompany. Ba-rin = to walk with. (Wd ba mi rm 19 sode. )

Mu owo wa= bring

75

5.
').

7.

8.

visit. (Awpn <;>r^ nyin b$ nyin. wo.) Da-lohun = to answer. (0*1119! da mi lohun. Da-nil = to throw away. (Wa, da omi nu. Da-sil$ = to release, (Ol9pa, da onde sil^.
)

B$-w6 = to

9.

Da-Sil$ = to

spill.

(O da wara
i

sil?.)

10.

11.

12.
13.
14.

15.

hold. mu sinsin.) (Di = o rescue. (O gba 91119 kekero l^wcj) r^. Gba-l<j>WQ Gba-gb$ = to believe. (Mo gba Qlprun Olodumare gb<J. Gbe-kuro = to take from. (Gbe okuta kuro loju pna. Le-kuro = to drive away. (Le aw9n agutan kuro !<;>gba. Mu-binu = to provoke. (Mase mu baba binu.
t
)
) ) )

Di-mu = to

16. 17. 18.


19.

Nu-kuro = to wipe
Pa-m<J = to keep. Pa-da
)

off.

(Nil eri

9W9

r^ kuro.)
ibi.
)

(Pa enu re m9 kuro ninu /Pa iwa re da. \ y =to change. I , T \Yi ara r9 pada. Yi-pada)
. '

20.
21.

22. 23.
24.

25.
26.

Ra-pada = to buy back. (Mo ra 9ru kan pada.) R$-sil$ = to humiliate. (R9 ara r^ sil9 niwaju Qlprun. T$-bomi = to immerse. (L9 tq 9ran bomi. T$-mpl$ = to trample upon. (Ma t^ mi m9l9 atel^s? (Aja ama t9 oluwa r9 l^hin. T^-l$hin = to follow. (IjJl^in, 19, tii 93111 sil^. Tu-sil^ = to set free. Ya-kur6 = to separate. (Ya 91119 ^raii kuro l9d9 iya r^.
)

li

r9.

N.B.

The examples given of the use composition and translation.

of these verbs will assist in

SECTION

4.

KEY
1.

TO SECTION
11.

3.

2.
.

He spoilt It startled

my child. my horse. He accompanied my friend.


Come, walk out with me.
friends visited you.

He

rescued

(the)

little

child

from him.

12
I

: believe in

God Almighty.

4. 5.
(i.

13
!

Take stone awa y from the


Drive

Your

14.

Child answer me.

away

(the)

sheep

from
(the)
!

(the) garden.

7.

Come
-

throw

away

15
16.

Do

not prov oke father.


the
dirt

water
8.

Constable,

release

Wipe

from your
evil.

(the)

prisoner.
9.

He

17
18.

spilt (the) milk.


it

10.

Hold

th mout h from Change thy conduct.

firmly.

70

19.

20. I 21.

Turn your body round. redeemed a slave.

24. 25.

(The) dog follows IIH mii>t-r.

Horseman

go,

s,-t

Un-

Humble your body


<

(self)

horse free.
26.

before God.
_:.'.

!<>

23.

Do

immerse the animal. not trample me under


feet.

from

Separate (the) youM- animal its mother.

your

SECTION

5.

COMPOUND VERBS.
A fifth class is formed by the union of two vt-rlis, lu-tween which the object is placed, and the second verb is followed by ;i noun which becomes part of the new verb
.").

(e.g.

ft

mi

$l$ya=ne
;
.

ridicules

me, from o = he be;

fl

makes; mi = me
possessive prefix )
6.

$e

= to

eleya (noun with

A
;

verb

formed in the following order of words a second verb a noun another verb, and lastly a noun
sixth class
is
:

(e.g.)

egbedegbeyp = to interpret, from $e = to do = to hear to hear fede = language gb<J


;
;

gb$ =
$yp =

a turning over.
7. A seventh class is formed by the union of a verb a noun and a compound verb separated into two parts by its object Ronupiwada = to repent, from tO = to think; inu = (e.g.
;
;

mind;

pa-da = to change;

iwa = conduct.

An eighth class 8. compound verb


(f,.g.)

is

formed by adding a noun to each part of


fl
.

Foiibal0 = to worship, from

= to

put;

ori

= head

ba = to meet
9.

il$

= ground

to

A ninth class is formed by a simple verb, followed by a noun, which a preposition and another noun are added Daniloju = to be certain, from da = to flash; $ni = (e.g. a person; li = in OJU = eye (lit. ) to flash in the
)
;

eye.

X.B.

These instances
words.

will suffice to

show how words

and afford material help

in arriving at the

are built up, meanings of

77

SECTION

6.

EXTENDED LIST OF COMPOUND VERBS AND


SENTENCES. CORRECTION SEE SECTION (FOR
ILLUSTRATIVE
1.

7.)

-. 3.

4.
5.
t>.

Ba-dar6 = to sympathise. (Mo ba nyin daro. ) Ba-gbe = to abide. (Wa, ba mi gbe, ale fere 19 tan.) Ba-ja = to fight with. (Nwpn ba ara W9n ja. ) Ba-l6 = to advise. (Tal'o ba 9 ro 9ran na. )

(Mo f^ ba alufa 8919.) Ba-Sprp = to speak with. Ba-wi=to rebuke. (Mase ba 91119 re wi tobiji. )
Ba-wijp = to judge.
(Ql9run yio ba gbogbo aiye wiJ9Ba-yQ = to rejoice with. (Ba mi y<|>, mo ri 91119 mi.) B$-lori = to behead. (Iw9 b^ ewure lori. ) B6-mQle = to cover up. (Nw9n bo oku m9le.
) )

7.

8.

9.

10.
11.

Bu-je = to

bite.

(Aja r$

li

o bu

91119

mi

je.)

12.

Da-lebi = to condemn.

13.
14. 15. 16.
17.

Dd-loju = to be sure. Dd-loro = to torture.

D&-lamu = to

upset.

D&-S9 = to mention. De-lade = to crown.

(A da 9k9iirin lebi.) (Ohun na da mi loju. ) (Mase da enikeni loro. (Ihin na da mi lamu. ) (O da 9r9 na so-)

18.
19.

De-lewpn

to chain.

D^-lara = to soothe.

(Nw9n de ak^bi r^ lade.) (A de aw9n old Iew9n.) (O d$ mi lara.


)

20. 21.
22.

Fa-gun = to spin

out.

(Mase fa

^9

re gun.)

fi Fi-han = to show. (J(j>, 9na 9Ja han mi.) = to put down. (Fi em re feile l9d9 mi.) Fi-sil$

23. 24. 25. 20. 27. 28. 29.

(Emi k6 f^ gbe agb^n mi kale.) Gbe-kal? = to set down. Gbe-dide = to raise up. (Ol9run yio gbe enikan dide. )
Je-niya=to punish.
K<Jl-sile

(O je 9ni9 buburu niya. )


(Je ki enia buburu
kip <)na

= to = to = to

forsake.

r^

sile.

La-ja = to pass through. (Nw9n la odo ja.) (Le eran 19 kiakia. ) Le-lp to drive off.

Ni-lata

annoy.

(Qran na, ni mi lara.)


)

30.
31. 32.

(Ngo pe 9k9nrin na leJ9. Ran-lpw^ = to help. (Qr^ mi li o ran mi l9w9". ) R6-k9Ja=to pass over. (Emi yio re nyin k9Ja.
Pe-lejp

summons.

33.
34.
3;i.

= to become. (O T$-bomi = to immerse.


Sp-di

39

wa

di 91119 r$.

(A t$ Jesu b9mi
(Oiije

1'oclo
)

Jordan.)

T^-lprun = to satisfy.

na

mi

Iprun.

78

SECTION

7.

KEY
1.

TO ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES IN SECTION


is

6.

sympathise with you.


almost
spent.

2.

3.

4.
;">.

I.

Come, abide with me, the evening They fought amongst themselves. Who advised you in that matter. I want to speak with the minister. Do not rebuke your child so much.
(Jod will judge all the world. Rejoice with me, I have found

7.

8.

my

child.

9.

You beheaded a
His dog bit

goat.

10.
1
1
.

They covered up the dead

(body).

my

child.

12. 13.
14.

The man was condemned.


Of that thing I am certain. not torture anyone. The news upset me. He mentioned that word. They crowned his firstborn. The thieves were chained. It soothes me. Do not lengthen out your words (speech).

Do

15. 16.
1

7.

18. 19.

20.

21. 22. 23.


24.

Please,

show me the way

to the market.

25.
26. 27.

Leave your load with me. I do not want to set my basket down. God will raise someone up. He punished the naughty child. Let the wicked man forsake his way.

They
Drive

28.
29. 30. 31.

crossed (or passed through) the river. off the animal quickly.

That question annoys me. I will summon that man.

My

friend helped (or helps) me.

32. 33. 34. 35.

over you. us (to become) his children. Jesus was baptized in the river Jordan. That food satisfies me.
I will pass

He made

SECTION

8.

TRANSLATION, YORUBA-ENGLISH.

KEY, SECTION

9.

LAB AL ABA.
Iyin kekcre kan ti k6 ju ori (pin) lo, li o ndi labalaba. Nighati eyin yi ba f6, kokoro kekere kan ama jade nibe. Bi kokoro no. ti O nfi ese wonyi kere to, o l^se merindilogun, o si 16 ju mejila.

79
oju wpnyi riran. Lojukanna ti o jade ninu eyin o b^re igbagbogbo ni ima fi j euii, nitorina o tete dagba. Ewekewe li o nje fuu on.J9 r$. Awp r^ ko si dagba bi ara r$, a si ma b<p awy r bi ejo ti ma b<j> awp tir$. Nigbati o ba se e, o b$re si ta okun bi olowu yi ara r$ ka, ati ninu okun yi, a yi ara r$ pada patapata. A di I;>9r9ku, ko si li ori, ko si li 939, sugboii a dabi oku. Lakoko diq si, a b9 of9 ikehin, a si mura jade bi labalaba. Nigbana ama hu apa k9l9k9l9, a si ma b^r9 si f6 soke, a si ma ba sori itana kiri lati " ma mu oyin r$. Bi owe Yoruba kail ti wipe Tinu, tehin, ni
si nfi
;

rin,
si
j

9un

labalaba

fi

ifi

iyin fun Qlprun."

SECTION

9.

KEY
A

TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION

8.

THE BUTTERFLY.
small egg not larger than a pin's head becomes a butterfly. the egg breaks a small grub comes out thence. As small as the grub is, it has sixteen feet and twelve eyes. It walks with these feet and sees with these eyes. At once when it comes out from the egg it begins to eat, it is always eating therefore it soon grows. Any kind of leaf it eats as food. Its skin does not grow as its body, and it sheds its skin as the snake sheds its skin. In time it begins to spin cotton round its body like a spinner, and in this cotton it changes altogether its form. It soon becomes dead, and has no head, and no feet, but is as if dead. In a little time it sheds its skin for the last time, and prepares to come out as a butterfly. Then it grows wings gently, and begins to fly up and settle on the As the Yoruba proverb flowers round about to gather their honey. " Within, without, the butterfly gives praise to God." says

When

80

PART
SECTION

VIII.

NOUNS.
1.

NOUNS FORMED BY VOWEL PREFIXES ATTACHED


TO A ROOT VERB.
(e.g.
)

K6=to
Bfi

cut.

Ake^an
E;mi-

axe.

= to abuse. Mi = to breathe. Wa = to be. J6 = to drip.


D$ = to hunt. Ba=to meet.
Gb6 = to
i

fibu= abuse.
spirit.

lwa= existence.
C)jo=rain.

Qd? = a hunter.
Iba = a meeting.

perish.
fault.

Egb6 = perdition.
ES $ = fault-finding.
L?inu

F$ = to find

= to

Ro = to R6 = to

open. cause pain.


narrate.

= an

opening.

Or6 = pain.
0rp==word.
!??

*^ = to

work.
is

= work.

*ise

the present form of the verb.

By adding different vowels to the same root different words are formed
(e.g.)

W6 = to
Owe = a

fold.

Ew6=leaf. Iwe = book.


proverb.

SECTION

2.

NOUNS FORMED BY SYLLABIC PREFIXES.


1.

Aba = prefix
Abata, from ti = to sell=a market place
(lit.

\vc

meet

to sell).

Alabapade, from pade = to meet = a chance occurrence.

81
2.

Abi
(e.g.
)

Abil(?k9=from li=to married woman.)

have;

pkp=husband.

(A

Abiy?=from iy$= feathers. (A feathered creature.) Abiwo = from iwo = a horn. (A horned animal.)
3.

Abu
(e.g.
)

Abum$=from
AbuSQ = frorn

= against. = to speak. sp
mQ*

N.B.
4.

Abul6=from ile= house. The idea of adding to is conveyed by the

(An exaggeration.) (A falsehood.) (A farm village.)


prefix
:

Ada
(e.g.
)

Adaniduro=from 9ni= a person, and duro=to stand


still. (A detainer.) Adalu = from lu = to mix. (Adulteration.) Adap9 = from po=to mingle with. (Union,

or

fellowship.
5.

An
(e.g.)

Aipnahan=from
guide.)

pna=way,

ban = to

shew.

(A

6.

Ibu
<e.g.)

Ibujoko = from joko = to

sit.

Ibugb6 = from gbe = to


Ibuj?

live.

(A resting place.) (A habitation.)

= from J9 = to eat. (An eating place.) (A resting Ibusp = from sp = to set (a load) down.
place for carriers.)

On, prefixed consonants


7.

to

words which have

"

d,"

or

"

gb

"

as

(e.g.

Onde = from de = to bind or

shackle.

Ongb9=from gb? = to

thirst.

(Prisoner.) (Thirst or dryness. )

SECTION
To
of

3.

give an example of the changes that may be made in the form a word and to stimulate further study in this connection, take

the verbs 9$

= to

sin or offend
sin.

and

ri

= to

see.

(a)

$? = sin.

$=to

= to have sin. = sinner. = the act of having sin. = without sin. = freedom from sin.
one who
is

without

sin.

82
(6)

Ri
Ill

t<>

see.

= seeing. Ari = one who sees. Atiri = to be seen (a Biri = a being seen. Airi = unseen.

seeing).

Lairl=not having the sight (unseen).


Atimari = continued seeing.

SECTION

4.

PREFIXES DENOTING OWNERSHIP, OR POSSESSION.


Nouns beginning with a, e, e, i, o, 9 and u, are changed into nouns denoting ownership or possession by the use of distinctive
prefixes.

These prefixes are formed to correspond with the initial vowel of the word. One of the two vowels is silent and the contracted

form
1.

of the

noun
"

is

given in brackets in the following examples


has.

Prefix
;

ala

" = one who

from abd = defence (Alabd) = Defender. from ade= crowned (Alade) = Crowned one. Ala-adi? ; from adi$=fowl (Aladi$) = Poulterer. from aga = chair (Alaga) = Chairman. Ala-aga Ala-agbara ; from agbara= strength (Alagbara) = Strong one. " " = one who has. 2. Prefix ele
Ala-abo
Ala-ad e
;
;

Ele-elubp ; from elub9 = yam flour (Elelubp) = Yam flour seller. Ele-er6 ; from erfc = profit (Elere) = One who makes profit.

Ele-epo Ele-6s6
Ele-e?u
3.

from epO = palm oil (E3epo) = Palm oil vendor. from eso = fruit El ??6) = Possessing fruit. from e$u = demon (B3e?il) = Demoniac.
(

Prefix

"
$1$

"=one who

has.

Ele-^ja ; from ^ja=fish (5l9Ja) = Fishmonger. from 9mi= spirit (51^mi) = A living thing. ; from 95in = horse (51^in) = Horseman, or owner of horse. $?in $mu ; from ^mu = palm wine (51^mu) = Palm wine seller, from ^ran=meat (^l9ran) = Meat seller. ^ran from 9rp= machinery (51$rp) = Engineer. ?rp ; = ?9^ ; from $$$ = sin (5199^) Sinner. 9WQU ; from ewpn= shackle (El9W9n) = Prisoner.
; ;

83

4.

Prefix
;

"

oni

" = one who

has.

from dundu = fried yam = Seller of fried yam. Oni dundu from igbagbp" = faith (Onigbagb$)= Believer. Oni igbagbp" from bata = shoe = Owner, or maker of shoes. Oni bata from bode = customs = Customs official. Oni bode from idajp = judgment (OnidaJQ)= Judge. Oni idajp from ile= house (Onile) = Householder. Oni ile from ilu = drum (Onilu) = Drummer. Oni ilu from iyp = salt (Oniyp) = Salt dealer. Oni iyp from iu = yam (Oni?u)=Yam seller. Oni iu from suru = patience = Patient one. Oni suru from iona = craft or trade (Oni?pna) = Craftsman. Oni i?ona
; ;
;

5.

Prefix
;

"olo" = one who

has.

Olo obi

Olo Olo Olo Olo Olo Olo Olo


6.

from obi = kola (01obi) = Kola nut dealer. obirin ; from obirin = woman (Olobirin) = A married man. from ohun = thing (Olohun) = Owner. ohun omi ; from omi= water (Olomi) = Water seller. orin ; from orin=song (Olorin) = Singer. = truth (016tp)= Truthful one. Otitp ; from otitp from owo = money (01owo) = A rich person. OWO oye ; from oye = understanding (01oye) = A wise person.
; ;

Prefix
;

"olo" = one who

has.

Olp pb^

from pb$ = soup (01^b$) = Soup maker. from pbp = monkey (Qlpbp) = Owner of monkey. Qlp pbp Qlp pgba ; from pgba = garden (Qlpgba) = Owner of garden, or
;

gardener.

Olp pkp Qlp


Qlp

Qlp
Qlp

Qlp
7.

from pkp = ship (Olpkp) = Shipowner. from pmp = child (Qlpmp) = One having child. from ppa = staff (Qlppa) = Staff bearer or constable. ppa from pp$ = palm tree (QlJp^) = Owner of palm trees. ppe from prp = wealth (Ql^rp) = Weal thy person. prp ; prun ; from prun = heaven (Qlp"run) = God.
;

pmp

Prefix

"

olu

"=one who

has, (the

power

to do, etc.)

Olu ibukun ; from ibukun= blessing (Olubukun)= Blessed one. from if $ = love (Oluf$) = Beloved. Olu if 9 Olu igbala ; from igbala= salvation (Olugbala) = Saviour.
;

Olu igbagbp ; same as Onigbagbp (both forms are used). Olu ikp*ni ; from ik$ni = teaching (01uk(Jni) = Teacher.

M
Old
ipil$$$
;

from

ipil^^ = beginning

(Olupil^) = Author,

or

beginner.

Olu iranlpwg"

Olu irapada Old itunu ;

from iranlpwp" -help (Oluranlpw^) = Helper. from irapada = redemption (Olurapada)= Redeemer. from itunu = comfort (Olutunu)= Comforter.
;

SECTION

5.

THE NEGATIVE PREFIX


"
1.

"

AI."

" is attached to verbs to form nouns of a negative and its use is so common that we give a few examples meaning Aim<j, from m$=to be clean =Uncleanness. = Ignorance. Ainip, from m$ = to know Aidara, from dara=to be good = Unpleasantness. Aidele, from d6 = to arrive =Non -arrival. Aidpgba, from dpgba=to be equal = Inequality. Aidim, from dim = to be sweet = Sourness. Aif, from f$ = to will = Unwillingness. = Unbrokenness. Aifp", from f$=to break Aijiya, from jiya = to suffer = Impunity. Aikii, from kfi=to die = Deathlessness. Ailera, from le=to be strong = 111 -health. Ainireti, from reti=to hope = Hopelessness. Airi, from ri = to see = Invisibility. Aie, from ^e=to do = Inaction. = Crookedness. Aitp, from t^=to be straight from w$=to wash = Unwashed. Aiw$,

Ai

2.

The negative

"
prefix

alai

"

denoting non-possession.

from b$ru=to fear=a fearless person. = an unbeliever. ^, from gbagb$=to believe Alaim$, from m^ = to be clean = an unclean person. Alailprnp, from li=to have pmp=child = a childless person. Sri=filth=a spotless person. Alaileri, from li=to have ede= language = an illiterate person. Alaigbede, from gb^ = to hear
;
; :

Alailobirin,

Alai more,

from li=to have obirin = woman = a bachelor. from or e= goodness m^=to know = an ungrateful
;

person. Alainibaba, from ni


AlaigdtQ,

from

se

= to have baba=father=an orphan. = to do otitp = truth=an unfaithful person.


;

85

The having an
3.

" " ai is also used in the construction of prefix affirmative sense


)

words

(e.g.

ijlemele,

from $e = to do;

im$l$ = indolence = to be
(i.e.)

indolent.

Ai?emel$ = without indolence


iyemej!,'
.

industrious.
;

from e=to do; iye=mind meji=two= to be of two minds (i.e.) in doubt. Aiiyemeji = without doubt (i.e.) certainty.

SECTION

6.

NOUNS FORMED BY REDUPLICATION. = Fisherman. (e-9-) PeJap?ja From pa = to kill $ja = fish. Jagunj agun = Warrior. From ja = to fight ogun = war.
; ;

2.

(e-<7-)

Riri=A

thing seen.

From From
Lilp

ri

= to

see.

Jija=A
ja

fight.

= to fight.
going.
go.

=A

From lp=to

Rira = Something buyable. From ra = to buy.

N.B.
lilp
;

For euphony's sake the


;

first

vowel

is

" changed into

"

in

jija

and

rira.

3.

The words
(e.g.
)

de, iyi, ki or

li

are inserted in the reduplicated

word
Iran-de-iran
(Irandiran)

= From

generation

to

generation. From Iran a generation.

Ekuru-iyi = ekuru (Ekuruyekuru) = This very dust.

Qw$-de-pw<J (Qwp'dpwp' ) = Tradition. From pw^ = hand.

From ekuru = dust.


Eran-ki-^ran

From From

^r an

= animal

(Erank?ran)=Any animal.
.

Eni-ki-?ni
^ni

(Enik?ni)=Any

one.

= person.
(Qmplpmp) = The
child
of

Qmp-li-pmp
owner.

the

child

From pmp= child.

86

SECTION

7.

NOUNS FORMED BY COMPOSITION.


1-

(e.g.

From

Iyemeji=Two minds (doubt). iye = mind; meji = two.


;

?nikeji= Partner.

From $ni= person


2.
(e.g.
)

keji= second.
(lit.
)

Iyp-oyinbo = Sugar

white man's

salt.

oyinbo = white man. Erin-omi= Hippopotamus (lit. ) water elephant.

From

iyp

= salt

3.

(e.g.

= elephant omi = water. = A complete speech. Asptan From a = prefix SQ = to speak; tan = to
From
erin
; ;

finish.

Agb6soke=A lifting up. From a = prefix gW = to


;

lift

soke

ui..

4.

(e.g.)

Iyalero= Hostess.
ile = house ero = traveller. = A sower. Afpnrugbin From a = prefix iru = seed fpn = to scatter: gbin = to plant.

From iya= mother


;

SECTION

8.

VOCABULARY OF COMPOUND NOUNS.


Abaniku-pr=a
Abdni?e
a

faithful friend,

(lit.

one who dies with

us).

co-worker.
(lit.

Ab^nilori=an executioner,

one who cuts

off the head).

Abiamp=a young mother,

(a respectful

mode of addressing a mother).

Abojuto = superintendence. Abpii$a = an idolator.

Adampran

mp = to know; pran = question. who prohibits, from da-l?kun t" forbid. Adurotini = one who stands by (i.e. a supporter.
a counsellor, from
<>nr

Ad&nilekun

fiancee (applied to early betrothals). Agbagba= elders (applied to the older men of a

Ai^spna

community).

Agbawi= advocacy,

(lit.

to take

and speak

for).

87

Agbowode = a tax
ode = outside.

collector,

from gba = to receive

OWO = money

Aj umpe = co-operation.
Akp"bi

= first-born,

from kp"= first

bi

= to

beget.

Atinabple = an incendiary (lit. put fire to house). Atun$e = renovation (lit. to do again).

Ay anf= beloved, from yan = to choose


Ayidayida = changeableness. B$ruk(?ru=any kind of fear.
firekere

f^

= to

love.

= any

Ewekewe=any

kind of image. kind of leaf.


.

Fonif 6ni = neatness

Ibawi = reproof.

Ib6mpl$= concealment, from b6=to cover;


ground. Ibpsarin = mediation, from bp = to come
;

nip"

= against

il?

arin

= between.
;

ara = Ifanimpra = sociableness, from fa = to draw; rap" = against body. Kenukonu=akiss, from fl=to put ; nu=mouth; konu = on mouth. Ifojukoju = face to face (i.e. in the presence of).
If 9W(JSQW(J

= agreement

(lit.

to

put hand to hand).


le = upon. k$ = trust have ogun = possessions. to place on the neck).
; ;
;

Igb?k$le = trust, from gbe = to be;


I J0gun

= inheritance,

from

= to

Ikasil9ru.n= responsibility

(lit.

Imunibinu= provocation, from mu=to cause ibinu = anger. = = IranlpwQ" assistance, from ran to send pw$ = hand. lrobinuje= anguish, from lro= thought; ba-je = to spoil; inu=
;

mind. Jronupiwada = repentance, from lro = thought pada = to inu = mind iwa = conduct. lspdQino = adoption, from sp-di = to become omp = child.
;

turn

any kind

of work.

= satisfaction, = acceptance,
to receive.

from t$ = to press prun = neck. from t$ = to press pw^ = hand


;

gba =
;

= purification,
clean.

from w$ = to wash;

inu=mind

m^ =
food.

Jabajabd= jerked beef. Jadunjadun = an epicurean, from


Janijani

j^

= to

eat

adfln

= savoury

= whitlow.
.1

J?dijedi= piles. crow. Kanakana

38

Kantikanti

knat.

Labalaba

-a
ii

butterfly.

Mutimuti

drunkard, from
a spinner,

mu-to

drink; pti= liquor.


;

Ranwuranwu
N.B.

from ran = to spin


will

owu = cotton.
in

These examples

stimulate interest

studying

the

derivation of words.

SECTION

9.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.


SECTION
1.

(KEY, SEE

10.)
;

si

mi emi
li

lye
fi

si

ih6

imu

r$

enia

si

di alaye okan.

2.

3.

4. 5.
6.
7. 8.

S9kal9 si egbe. Li 9run apadi li o gb6 oju r$ soke, o mb^ ninu 139 or6. Wasu (fry na ma se aisimi li akok6, ati laise akok6. Oniruru abiy^ li o wa ni igbo.

Leses^

Nw9n

to enia m(=>dogb9n

li

abu!6 wa.

9.

10.
11.

12. 13.

14.
15. 16.

Qk9nrin na k6 se, adaniduro li on. Qk9nrin na seun, o se af9nahan lai bere. Lab 9 ojiji igi W9nyi li a ri ibujoko daradara. Nitori ibi 6kunkun aiye W9nni li o kun fun ibugbe Ika. Ona J"181 ^ li ibus9 meji sibi. ^s^ 9niti nw9n fi S9k9S9k9 pa lara a de e ninu irin. Bi 9rimgb9 ba ngb9 9nik9ni, 9 J9 ki o wa S9d9 mi, ki o w4 mu. Alaliu li Ol9run, on yio si dabobo wa.
;

Qm9

alade

li

o pp
li

li

Qy9-

Aladi? nta adio


Igi eles6
Jjll^niu

17.
18.

19.

20. 21. 22. 23.


24.

li a fi bura pe, on k& bu omi la ^mu r$. Aw9n onibode k6 ni nkankan ise m9. Olomi nta omi, bi 9nipe on na li o da a. Ql9gba ko le sai ma J9 eso 9gba r$. Ki a ma w6 Jesu ti ise olupilese, ati olupari igbagb^ wa. Abraham k6 siyemeji si ileri Ol9run.

9Ja li ale. aye fun l9gba.

Lati aiyeraiye

si

aiyeraiye
(li

Iw9

j^

Q^run.

25.

Af9nrugbin kan

o) jade 19 fonrugbin.

89

SECTION

10.

KEY
1.

TO

SENTENCES IN SECTION

9.

And He
became

breathed into his nostrils the breath of


a living soul.

life;

and man

2.
3.

4.
5. 6.
7. 8.

Step by step we descend to perdition. In hell he lifted up his eyes, being in pain. Preach the word 1)3 not restful in season, and out of season.
;

All kinds of feathered creatures are in (the) forest.

The people are about twenty-five at our village. That man is not good, a hinderer (he is). That man (was) kind, he became our guide without

(our)

9.

10.

asking (him). Under (the) shade of these trees, we found a good resting place. For the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of
cruelty.

11. 12. 13.


14.

(The) way is as far as two resting places from here. Whose feet they hurt with fetters he was bound in If anyone thirst let him come unto me, and drink. God is our defender, and He will defend us.
;

iron.

15.

16.
17. 18.

(The) children of the crown (princes) are many in Oy?. (The) poulterer is selling fowls in the market in the evening.

We

give space to a fruit bearing tree in the garden. (The) palm wine seller swears that he does not dilute his wine.
officials

19.

The customs
(The) water
garden.

20. 21.

seller is selling

(Yoruba) have nothing to do now. water as if he himself made it.

(The) gardener cannot do other than eat (the) fruit of his

22. 23. 24. 25.

That we look to Jesus, the author and finisher of our Abraham wavered not at (the) promise of God.

faith.

From

everlasting to everlasting

Thou

art God.

sower went forth to sow.

'.'II

PART
SECTION

IX.

MISCELL ANEOUS.
1.

NUMERALS.
1

91

CHANGE OF PROCESS.
181 182 183

Qkanlel9g9san.
Ejilel9g9san.

184 185 186 187 188 189 190

Etalel9g9san. Erinlel9g9san. Arunlel9g9san. Erinladinigba (14 less 200) ]taladinigba. Ejiladinigba.

191 192 193

Esandinigba.
J9dinigba. Ejedinigba. Efadinigba.

Qkanladinigba. Ewadinigba.

194 195 196 197 198 199 200

Arundinigba.
Erindinigba. ^tadinigba. Ejidinigba.

Qkandinigba.
Igba.

FURTHER CHANGE OF PROCESS.


200
201
Igba.

321
(1

Qrindinu o di 9kan 400


less

210 220 221


225 226 230
231

Qkanlelugba ^walelugba.
Ogunlelugba.

plus 200).

(80

minus

1)

i.e.

minus
330
le

79.

Ogunlelugba o
(220 plus
(220 plus
1).

9kan
331

Ad9rindirinwo than 400).

(70

less

Ogunlelugba o
5).

le

marun
340 350 360 370 380 390

Ad9rindirinwo o di 9kan 400 less (70 minus 1)


i.e.

minus

69.

Qgb9nlelugba o di merin
(230 less
200).
4).

Qgb9nlelugba

(30
le

plus

Qtadinu( 60 less than 400). Ad9tadirinwo (50 less _ than 400). Ojidinu (40 less than 400).

Qgb9nlelugba o
(230 plus
1).

9kan

235
240 250 260 270 280 290
291 300 301

Qgb9nlelugba o

le

marun

Qgb9ndirinwo than 400). Ogundinu (20


400).

(30
less

less

than
than

(230 plus 5). Ojilugba (Ogojilugba). Ad9talelugba. Qtalugba (Qgotalugba). Ad9rinlelugba. Qrinlugba (Qg9rinlugba). Qdun o di ewa (300

Ewadirinwo (10
400).

less

400

Irinwo.

less 10).

N.B. Even numbers are abbreviated from 400 to 500 and the same process as from 200 to 300.
500 600 700 800 900 1000

Qdun
Qdun.

o
o

di
le

esan.

Qdun
plus

9kan

(300

Edegb?ta. ?gbeta. ^degberin.


^gberin.

1).

319 320

Qdun

le

m9kandilogun

_ (300 plus 19). Qrindinu (Qg9rindinirinwo) (80 less than 400).

^d9gberun. Egberun.

92

SECTION

2.

NOTES ON NUMERALS.
1.

The

syllables di=leas or minus,


will
4.

and le=add or

plus, inserted

in the

words from sixteen up,


(e.g.
)

explain the system of counting.

Ij!imdiJogun

= 20
etc.,

$rinlelogun = 20 + 4,
2.

etc.

To say
(e.g.
)

"

two men,"

the letter

"

m"

is

used as a prefix.

pkpnrin meji=two men.

= ten
3.

horses.

To say

the

"

third day," etc., the letter

"

k"

is

used as a

prefix.

(e.g.) ijp

4.

To

k?ta = third day. osu k$wa = tenth month. " two by two," etc., the word two say
)

is

reduplicated.

(e.g.

mejimeji=two by m$tam$ta = three by

two.
three.

5.

To say "once
(e.g.)

or twice," etc., the letter

"1"

is

used as a

prefix.

6.

Ifkan once. = twice. If meji To say " firstly or secondly


(e.g.) lfkini

"'

the prefixes

"

le

"

and " k

''

are used.

If keji

= firstly. = secondly.
FRACTIONAL PARTS.
r$.

NUMERALS.

One whole =gbogbo


i=idameji (idaji). i=idameta. l=idamerin. J=idamarun. i = idam ef a.
-

One-third = idaketa.

One-fourth=idakerin.
One-fifth=idakarun.

= iduinc

j,'.

One -sixth = idak efa. One -seventh = idakeje.


One-eighth = idakejp. One-ninth = idakesan.

4=idameJ9. = idamesan. A = idamewa.


i

One-tenth =idakewa.

93

COWRIE TABLE.
40 cowries
5 strings

10 10 4

= = bunches = = heads = bags

string, called

ogoji
igbio

1 1 1
1

bunch head bag

$gba

pk$

= = = =

}. s

of 3d. of 3d.

6d.
5s.

English money.

In speaking of English pounds sterling, it should be remembered that the native multiplies the number by four to get an idea of
their value.

50 = 50X4 = Igba pkp (200 bags of cowries). to thread forty shells on a string and to five of these together in one bunch.
It

was the custom

tie

SECTION

3.

YORUBA PROVERBS.
1.

is personified in the following proverb Abanigbele k6 mp oju eni. One who lives with us in the house not know the face of anyone. (i.e.) An inmate which cannot be tamed.

Fire

2.

Abaiyeje ki ise ifi To a world spoiler

idi

it is

pran han. not safe to reveal the reason or root

of the question, (i.e.)


3.

mischief

maker
self

is superficial.

A
4.

Abanije

o ba ara rp je. slanderer (it is) spoils his


li

own

(reputation).

Asp funfun on abawpn ki irp rara. A white cloth and a stain never agree.

5.

A play on the

ni ibp iku

words ab$b$ = a fan, and abpbp ni ibp pran


; ; ;

abb$ = an advocate
bi oru

ba

mu

ab^be ni
;

An advocate pleads against death


if

an advocate pleads a cause


it
(i.e.)

the heat be great, a fan pleads against less discomforting.


6.

make

it

7.

Ipa (pna) abpre li okun it$. The path of the needle it is the thread follows. Abetele ni ifp oju onidajp, nitori abetelp k6 le se idajp otp. A bribe blinds the eyes of a judge, for bribes cannot do justice.
Biotiwukori, a ki rerin alaisan, bpya ohun
1'pla. Whatever it be,
ti

8.

o se e 1'oni, a se

iwp

the thing that troubles

we should not laugh at a sick person, perhaps him to-day will trouble us to-morrow.

94
9.

lniti o ba

m$ 9ran He who knows a


(lit.

tel$,

on

matter

ni ibu abuja eke. beforehand confounds

liar.

ibu abuji = cuts short his story).

10.

Adanil6ju ki se

One who
11.

ifi ehin tl. disappoints, does not back trusted.

you up

(i.e.) is

not to be

Adarijini

li

One who
12.

o pari ija. forgives ends the dispute.


fila,

Oba ko
Afenu

ni

ade

li

on

ni.

The king has no


13.

cap, but a

crown he
it is

has.

ni

ti

Iyangb6.
is

To be blown away
14.

chaff

(i.e.

valueless.

J?lede

pa afp

tan, o

nw4

eni rere
is

ti

A
15.

pig having wallowed in mire, to rub against.


ni

yio fi ara yi. seeking some clean person


ni ibatan.
all trees.

Af6m< ko

The
16.

parasite has

gb6ngb6 no root
;

igi
;

gbogbo

it

claims relationship with

Agbari ko ni mudunmudim. A (mere) skull has no brains.

17.

Agbo meji

Two rams
18.

ki mu omi li akoto kan. cannot drink water from the same calabash.
le
Unli-.

Bi a
If

kit

ba

ag<

li

a tete pa.
will first pitch

we cannot build a house, we


ile

a tent.

19.

20.

k6 kan ile, nwpn ki ijo ajoran. If house not touch house, they do not easily catch Akamp ekun I'o ni iy9nu. To surround a leopard involves trouble.
Bi

fire.

21.

ama ba eni rere j$. Rags disgrace a good looking person.


Akisa
Aknlii ni
ti

22.

9leran.

The

born (of animals) is the owners. (It is customary for those who own stock to put them in care of herdsmen, hence this proverb.)
first

23.

Alafia

baba <>.
is

Peace
24.

father to friendship.

Tinu, tehin, ni labalaba fi ifi iyln fun Ql9run. It is with both the inner and outer parts of its body that the
butterfly praises God.

25.

Bi alagbara ba je 9 niya ki o fi erin si i. If a powerful man illtreat you, smile at him.

26.

Kd No

si alasa ti it& igboku, gbogbo \vnn ni ita oyin. snuff dealer sells poor snuff, they all sell honey.

95

27.

Am^ran

ti o counsellor
li

1119

owe

ni ilaja pran.

who knows
fi

proverbs, soon ends the dispute.

28.

Enu
With

aparo
only
li

its

mouth
a
fi

ipe pra, ani, kiki pra, kiki pra. the aparo proclaims its fatness, crying, only

fat,

fat.

29.

Diedie
Little

mp
it

apere.
is

by

little

we know (understand)

signs.

30.

Eniti o f^ arewa o f^ iypnu. He who loves (marries) a beauty, loves (marries) trouble. (To love a woman and to be much in her company is, according to native opinion, equivalent to marriage.)

31.

Asa ti o gbe mi li adie, k6 duro, nitori o mp ohun ti o ti se. The hawk which took my chicken, does not wait, for he knows what he has done.
Bale
ile

32.

kii ile di

ahoro.

33.

In the father's absence, the house goes to ruin. Agba ko si, ilu baje, bale ku, ile di ahoro. The elders being dead the town is spoilt, father being dead the house is desolate. Igbo
biribiri,

34.

okunkun

biribiri,

okunkun
is

yio sete igbo.

The

forest

is

very dark and the night

very dark,, but the


(i.e.)

darkness of the night will surpass that of the forest darkness covers everything.
35.

A
36.

Qta enia ni iba oruko rp je. man's enemy spoils his name. Bpla fun agba, awpn ni baba wa. Give honour to the elders, they are our

fathers.

37.

Kokoro li o di labalaba. The grub becomes a butterfly.


Eniti a se Tore

38.

He
39.

to

ko dupe, aba se e ni ibi ko ni dun u. kindness and (he) does not give thanks, should we illtreat him, he will not feel it.
ti

whom we show

Ehoro ni ti plpfa li o soro. The hare says, it is the archer's part that

is difficult (i.e.

It is

easy for the hare to avoid the archer, but archer to catch the hare.
40.

difficult for the

41.

Orukp ti a 39 9019, ni im9" 9m9 1'ara. The name we give a child becomes natural to it. Ekute kd li enu iba ologbo wiJ9. The rat has no voice to call the cat to account.
Elub9" se egbodo
ri,

42.

bfni eru se
soft

91119 ni ile

Yam

flour

was once

yam,

so a slave

baba r$ ri. was once a child

in

his father's house.

96
Eniti o ran ni nl se

43.

He who
him
44.

a ki b 91-11 eniti a ran 9 si. li a bijru sends us on an errand it is we fear, we do not fear
;

to

whom we

are sent.

lyan ni imu eni je eso igikigi. Famine compels one to eat fruit

of

any kind

of tree.

46.

Esinsin k6 mi? ikii, jije ni tir^. The fly heeds not death, to eat is all its own.

46.

Esu k6 ni Iwa, a kp ile r$ ni ita. The devil having no character, his house
(Devil -houses are
"

is built

in tin- street.

common
in the
si

in

the streets,
1

asked why they put them in the

street, I

and when have been asked


:

Who
je,

wants the devil


o re
ile
;

house
;

")
J9,

47.

Ewure

agutan je o
;

re ile

aiwa

ile li

o ba

elede

j$.
;

Goat eats and goes home sheep eats and goes home eating, and not coming home, spoils the (character) of the pig.
48.
If

Bi Olprun ba kf-l es$ si wa Iprun, a gbe\ God should charge sin upon us (on our neck) we perish.
li

49.

Didim

o dun,

li

mba

pr$ je

ef(j>,

ti ile

eni to ni ije.

50.

For pleasure, we eat vegetables with a friend, for we luivo enough at home. Bi eke otosi k6 ito 'de oke I'arp, ato l&le. If a poor man's rafter does not reach the top in the morning, it will be long enough in the evening (i.e.) he will devise

some way

of

making

it

serve his purpose.

SECTION

4.

EXAMPLE OF LITERAL TRANSLATION FROM YORUBA


TO ENGLISH.

PARABLE OF THE PRODIGAL


1.

SON.

Ok9iirin kan

li

omokpnrin meji
:

2.
1.

Man
eyi
this

one had son two

2.
1.

2.
1.

wi fun baba younger within them said unto father r$ pe, baba, fun mi ni iw<n ogiin " father give me have measure inheritance his say,

aburo

ninu

wpn

ti

tori
it

rni."

O
si

2.
1.

which

of

head mine."

2.

fun wpn. unto them.

K6

Ini r$ divide thing possession his to ijp melokan lehin


si

pin ohun

He and

Not and many day few

after

1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1. 2.
1.

pmpkpnrin aburo ko uhuii son younger (gather) thing gbogbo ti o ni J9, o si mu 9na ajo all which he has (ed), he and took way journey r$ p^n 19 si ilu okere, nibe li o his carry go to town distance, there is he gbe na gbogbo ini r$ ni inakuna. spend all possessions his in (any kind of spending). Nigbati o si ba gbogbo r$ je tan When he and (sp) all his (oilt) finish, o si iyan nla wa imu ni ilu na famine great came take in town that he and
eyi,

eyi

this,

this

bre

si

idi

alaini.
(i.e.)

2.
1.

began to become (without having possession) O si 19, o da ara r^ pp m9 91^9 kan

in want.

2.
1.

He and
ni in
ilu

go,
;

he
si

(jo)

body
19
si

his

(in)

against

citizen

one

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

he and send him go to farm his Ay 9 ni iba fi je onje to watch pig. Joy is would put eat food ti aw9n ?lede nje li ajeyo enikeni which they pig are eating in plenty anyone ko si fifun u. Nigbati oju r$ wale, not and give him. When eyes his came to
;

na on town that
39
elede.

ran a

oko r$

lati

"
ni,

ground

2.
1.

he said,

Aw9n "
li

alagbase baba mi The labourers father


o
li

my

2.
1.

2.
J.

onje ajeyo, ati how much more is it have food plenty and " ajeti, emi si nku fun ebi oat and throw away, I and am dying of hunger." Emi o dide, emi o t<;> baba mi 19,
!

melomelo

2.
1.

I will arise,

emi o
I will
ti

si

2.
1.

wi fun u pe, Baba, emi and say unto him, say, '' Father,

I will to father "

my

go,
I

2.
1.

2.
1
.

des$ si 9run, ati niwaju re, have sinned against heaven, and before thoo, emi ko si ye ti a ba ma pe mi I not and fit that we may call me
li

9m9

2.
1.

is

r9 m9" : fi mi se bi child thy again put mi


:

9kan do as one

2.
1.

2.

ninu aw9n alagbase r$." within the labourers thy." O si dide, o si t<j> baba r^ 19. ugb9ii He and arise, he and to father his go.

But

M
1.

uiylxili

<>

li

xvii

li

okrrt.

baba

r<;

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

2.
1.

when ho was at distance. futhrr liis si sure, o rnmo ri aim ^ v, i, saw him, pity du him, he and rail, ho press nu ko o li 91111. 9 li pruii, o si fi him on neck, he and put mouth meet him <m mouth. " Qmp na si wi fun u pe, Baba, emi " Child that and said unto him say, Father, I ti des^ si 9run, ati iiiwaju 19, emi ko have sinned against heaven, and before thec, I nut si y9 ti a ba ma pe mi li <,>"",' n; and fit that we may call me is child thy 019"." ugb9n baba wi fun aw9n But father said unto they again."
<

9m9-9d9 r$

"
pe,

mu

2.
1
.

servant his say,

"You

ayo as9 igumva bring choice cloth

rnl

2.
1.

2.
1.

w&, ki 9 fi wo 9 ; 9 si fi oruka that you put clothe you and put ring HV V' al bata si 939 n; I'V v 9 si on liim hand, and shoe on feet his ; you and
,

Mm

I',

mu

9gb(j>r9

2.
1.

bring fatling

malu cow

al>npa wa, for kill

ki
,

si

that you and

pa a
kill

2.
1.

it
;

ariya
tiiii

9 ma J9, ki 9 si ma se that you may eat, that you and nitori ',>"",' mi yi ti ku, o si
ki
;

may do

2.
1.

merriment

for
ti

child

my

this

was dead, he and


see

ye;

o
;

2.

again live

mu, a si ri i. he was lost, we and

him.

Luke

15,

II--'

I.

SECTION

5.

TRANSLATION, ENGLISH- YOKUBA.


SECTION
6.

SEE KEY,

The hand, more than any other part of the body, is the organ of touch. It is one of the gateways by which the influence's of the
outer world enter into the soul.

In many respects the hand, as the organ of touch, is the most wonderful of the organs of the senses. The eye, the ear and the nostril simply stand open light, sound, and fragrance enter,
;

and we are compelled to see, to hear, and to smell. But the hand selects what it shall touch, and touches what it pleases unlike the eye which must often gaze at horrible sights from which it
;

99

cannot turn, and the


of discordant sounds,

ear, which cannot escape from the torture and the nostril, which cannot protect itself

from hateful odours.


Moreover, the hand cares not only for its own wants, but when the other organs of the senses are rendered useless, takes their duties The hand of the blind man goes with him as an eye upon it. through the streets, and safely threads for him all the devious way. It looks for him at the faces of his friends, and tells him whose It peruses books for him, kindly features are gazing on him. and quickens the long hours by its silent readings.

SECTION

6.

KEY
Ow<;> ni, ju

TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION
ifpkan.

5.

<pna

gbogbo apa ara m! lp li o je ohun kan nipa eyiti ohun ode aiye fi w$ pkan.

je enu

L'pna pup9 9w<j>, bi ohun ti a fi kan nkan, li o j^ ohun iyanu jul9 a fi mi? nkan. Oju, eti, ati imu li o si sile, ki im9le, iro, ati orim didun ki o le w 9 9, a si fi ipa mu wa riran, ki a gb<;>, ki a si gboruii. $ugb9ii 9w<p ama yan. ohun ti o kan, a si ma kan ohun ti o wu u ; oju li o yat<;> nipe, on ko le sai ma tejunup ohun ti o banil^ru, ti on ko si le yi ara r<? pada ; ati eti, ti ko le sa kuro l9d9 iro segesege ti ndiin ni ati iho imu, eyiti ko le pa ara r<j m9 kuro lorim buburu.
ti
-

Pelupelu 9W9 ni nt9Ju, ki si se kiki ami ara r, sugb9n nigbati ohun im9 iyoku ko le sise w9n m9", 9W9 ni nse ise W9n. Owe? ti af9"ju ama ba a 19 bi oju si ita, a si ma ja 9ixa fun u larin 9na wiwc?. Qw9 li on fi wo oju aw9n 9r^ r^, a si ma pe oju aw9n ti ntejum9 9 pelu inu rere fun u. Qwcji ni nka iwe fun u, a si ma mu ki wakati
gigun ki o yara k9Ja, bi on
ti

nka.

SECTION

7.

EXAMPLES OF IDIOMATIC TRANSLATION.


SEE KEY, Lu.
10. 38-42.

O si se bi nw9n ti ni'9na, Jesu fi W9 ileto kan ; obirin kan 1. oloruk9 Martha, To si gba a sile r$. O si laburo kan oloruk9 Mary, ugb9n Martha ni oleyi 16 joko l^se Jesu, o si fi eti gb(J 9r9 r^. " use aniyan ju lati ma salejo f'alejo, o si t9 Jesu wa, wipe, Oluwa, iwo k& nani pe, aburo mi I'o fi mi le, emi nikan, lati ma salejo fun 9 ? " Jesu si da a lohun, o wi fun Wi fun u, pe, ki o wa ran mi 19W9 u, Martha, Martha, iw9 nsajo, o si ns'aniyan 1'ohun pupp ; sugb9n ohun kansoso a kd le se alaini ; Mary To si yan ipa rere na, eyiti
!

a ko ni gba 19W9

r^.

10)

SBH KKV, ACTS


2.

28.

1-6.

li

Nigbati gbogbo won si yp tan, ni nwon wti m^> pe, M.-litu Ki .i se ore die I'IUVOH alaigbede na so fun wa ; erekusu im. wa 89019. nitori 6jo nitoriti n won daiu'i, n\von si gba. gbogbo r'i ati nitori otiitu inu ju. MI) in. Nigbati Paul ti ko idi igi di idant'i jn. ti o si gb ka ina, pamnli; kan t'inu ina jade,
|

Nigbati awon alaigbede ri ejo oloro na l9w<J ri), nw9n I9W9urn won so, wipe, ko siyemeji, apania I'9k9nrin yi, bi o til<; y<,> On si gb^ii ejo 1'oknntan, sib9 ^san ko je k'o wa layo m9. na sina, kd si e e ni nkan. {^ugbpn nw9n nreti po, ara r<; yio wi'i, tabi on iba ^ubu lule, a si ku l9gan sugb9n lehin igbati nw9ii ti wo o pe, ti nw9n si ri pe, nkan ko $e e, mv9ii yi inu <>yo w(,)n pnd:i, nw9n si wipe 9l9run kan 1'oluwa r^.
i

rn<|>

lui

SEE KEY, ACTS


"

26. 24-29.

Bi Paul ti ns9F9 f'ara 1-9, Festus kigbe 1'ohun rara, wipe, 3. Paul, ori r9 baJ9, 9k< akoju To ba 9 1'ori 39." ^ugbpn on wipe, ori mi k6 baJ9, Festus 9l9lajul9 sugb9n 9^- 619, ati ti airekoja 1'emi ns9 jade. Nitori 9ba mfy nkan W9nyi, niwaju 9niti emi 113^9 nitori o da mi loju pe, a k6 fi nkan W9nyi pam9 1'oju l'aib$ru " nitori a k6 se nkan yi nik9k9. nyin Agrippa qh>\ Kabiyesi woli gb<J bi ? Emi m9 pe, iw9 sa gbagb9 " iw9 gba aw9n " Nigbana Agrippa wi fun Paul pe, iw9 f9r9 yi mi pada l'9kan " Paul si wipe, emi b9 Ql9run, ki si se fun ^nyin sigbagb9 Kristi. kansoso, ijugb9ii fun gbogbo aw9ii t'o gb<? $r9 mi 1'oni, pe, ki nwon f9re, ki nw9n si dabi emi na patapata, afi ew9n W9nyi."
;
:

101

PART

X.
RI

" CONJUGATION OF THE VERB ACTIVE VOICE.

"=TO

SEE.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

PRESENT AND PAST INDEFINITE TENSES (ONE FORM FOR BOTH).


Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

2.

3.

Emi ri=I see, or saw. IWQ ri = Thou seeat, or sawest. On ii = He sees, or saw.

Awa ri=We
Enyin
ri

see, or

saw.

2. 3.

Nwon

see,{or saw. ri=They see. or saw.

= Ye

PRESENT IMPERFECT TENSE.


Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

2. 3.

= I am seeing. IWQ nri = Thou art seeing. On nil = He is seeing.


Emi
nri

2.

3.

= We are seeing. Enyin nri = Ye are seeing. Nwpn nri = They are seeing.
Awa
nri

PRESENT AND PAST COMPLETE TENSES


(ONE FORM ONLY).
1.

Emi ti ri= I
IWQ
ti

have, or had seen.


hast, or hadst

1.

Awa

ti

ri

= We = Ye

have, or had have, or had


or

seen.
2.

ri= Thou

2.

Enyin

ti

ri

seen.
3.

seen.
has, or

On

ti ri

= He

had

seen.

3.

Nwpn

ti ri

= They have,

had

seen.

PRESENT AND PAST PERFECT OF CONTINUED ACTION


(ONE FORM ONLY).
1.

Emi
Iwo

ti

nri=I have, or had been


nri

seeing.

2. 3.
1.

2.
3.

= Thou hast, or hadst been seeing. On ti nri = He has, or had been seeing. Awa ti nri = We have, or had been seeing. nri = Ye have, or had been seeing. Enyin NwQn ti nri = They have, or had been seeing.
ti
ti

-Singular.

-Plural.

102

EMPHATIC PAST TENSE.


1.
'2.

Emi
Iwp

til?

ri

have (indeed) seen.

til? ri til? ri

3.
I.

On

Thou hast (indeed) seen. He has (indeed) seen.

Singular

Awa
Nwpn

til? ri

= We have

(indeed) seen.
-Plural.

-.

Enyin

til? ri til?

3.

= Ye have (indeed) seen. ri = They have (indeed) seen.

FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE.


Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

2.

3.

= I shall see. Iwp yio ri = Thou wilt see. On yio ri = He will see.
Emi
yio
ri

2.

3.

ri=We shall see. Enyin yio ri = Ye will see. Nwpn yio ri = They will see.
yio

Awa

FUTURE COMPLETE TENSE.


1.
"2.

3.
1.

2.

= I shall have seen. = Thou wilt have seen. Iwp yio On yio ti ri = He will have seen. Awa yio ti ri = We shall have seen. Enyin yio ti ri = Ye will have seen.
Emi
yio
ti

ri

ti

ri

Singular.

-Plural.

3.

Nwpn

yio

ti

ri=They

will

have seen.

1.

Emi
Iwo

yio
yio

2. 3.
1.

FUTURE IMPERFECT TENSE. ma ri = I shall be seeing. ma ri = Thou wilt be seeing.

-Singular.

2. 3.

ma ri^He will be seeing. Awa yio ma ri = We shall be seeing. Enyin yio ma ri = Ye will be seeing. Nwpn yio ma ri = Thcy will be seeing.
On
yio

Plural.
j-

FUTURE PERFECT OF CONTINUED ACTION.


1.

2.

2.

3.

shall have been seeing. ma ri ma ri = Thou wilt have been seeing. Iwp On yio ti ma ri=Hc will have been seeing. Awa yio ti ma ri=-We shall have been seeing. Enyin yio ti ma ri Y will have been seeing. Nwpn yio ti ma ri They will have been seeing.

Emi

yio

ti

yio

ti

Singular.

Plural.
[
'

103

POTENTIAL MOOD.

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE.


Singular.
1.

Plural.

Mo
Iwp

le ri

=I

may,

or can see. or
see.

1.

Awa le ri = We may, or can see.


Einyin le
see.

-.

le

ri=Thou mayst,

2.

ri=Ye may,

or can or can

canst see.
'!.

On

le ri

= He

may, or can

3.

Nwpn

le ri

= They may,

see.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Here
\ve

have a great variety

of

forms with the same meaning


\

(e.g.)

Ri, or iwp ri. Ki o ri, or ki iwp ki o Ma ri, or iwp ma n.

ri.

See, or see thou.

Ki Ki Ki Ki Ki Ki Ki

ma

ri,

or ki iwp ki o
1

ma

ri.

'

ng ri. emi ri. emi ki o


o
ri.

[Let
ri.
'
I

me

see.

on ri. on ki o

Let him
j"

see.

ri.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Here each variation
Bi=if
;

is

made by

the use of particles


;

ki

= that

bi-tile

= though
1.

iba?epe

if

to say.

Singular.
1.

Plural.

Bi

mo

ri=If

I see.

Bi

awa ri=If we

see.

2.

3.

Bi iwp ri=If thou see. Bi on ri = If he sees.


1st Pers. Sing.

2.

3.

Bi enyin ri=If ye see. Bi nwpn ri=K they see.

Ki emi Bi emi

ri
tile

=That
ri

I see. I see.

= Though

Bikoepe emi ri= Unless

I see.

104

INFINITIVE MOOD.

INDEFINITE TENSE.

PERFECT TENSE.
Atiri, or li a seen.
ti ri

A ri,

or

lati ri,

or lati

ma ri = To be

= To have been
l>\

seen.

X.B. Interrogative and Negative sentences an- forim-il use of particles


:

th-

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE.


1.

Emi
Iwp

ri bi ri bi

P=Do

I see,

or

Emi ha

ri bi ?
ri bi ?

2.
''.

?=Dost thou

see, or

Iwp ha

On

ri bi

= Does

he see, or

On ha

ri bi ?

etc.

NEGATIVE:
1.

PRESENT AND PAST COMPLETE TENSED.

2.
.'!.

Emi k6 ti iri=I have, or had not seen. Iwp k6 ti iri = Thou hast, or hadst not seen. On ko ti iri = He has, or has not seen, etc.

PASSIVE VOICE.
The following
Voice.
table supplies a near equivalent to the

Passive

"A"
(e.g.
)

is

the contracted form of


ri

"

awpn

" = thoy

mi = they
li

see me,
it is

(i.e.) I

am

seen by th.-m.

Emi

ti

ri

=Me

they have seen.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE.


Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

2.

3.

A A A

ri

mi=They

see me.

ri ri

9 = They see thee. i=They see him.

2.

3.

A ri wa = They see us. A ri nyin = They see you. A ri wpn = They see them.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.


1.

ti ri

mi = They have seen

1.

A ti ri wa = They hav.A
ti

>.-rn u-.

me.
-.

A ti ri p = They have seen thee. A ti ri = They


i

2.

ri nyin---T !> you.


ri

lia\.

I?.

have seen him.

3.

ti

wpn -They huve

seen

them.

105

FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE.


1

2. 3.

A A A

ri

mi
9
i

ri ri

They will see me. They will see thee. Thoy will see him.

1.

2. 3.

A O ri wa = They will see us. A ri nyin They will see you. A ori won They will see them.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Ki a Ki a
ri ri

That they see thee. p nyin = That they see you.

(i.e.)

Be

thou, or you seen

by

them.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Singular.
1.

Plural.

Bi a

ri ri
ri

mi=If they

see me.

1.

Bi a

ri ri ri

2. 3.

Bi a Bi a

9 = If they see thee. i = If they see him.


:

wa = If they

see us.

2. 3.

Bi a Bi a

nyin = If they see you. W9n = If they see them.

Other forms

mi = That they see me. Bioba?epe a ri mi = Though they see me. Bikosepe a ri mi = Unless they see me.
Ki a
ri

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.


1.

Bi a ba

ti ti ti ti ti

ri ri ri
ri

mi=If they should have seen me

2. 3.
1.

Bi a ba Bi a ba Bi a ba Bi a ba
Bi a ba

9= If they should have seen thee


i= If they should have seen him

Singular.

2. 3.

ri

ti ri

\ wa= If they should have seen us nyin = If they should have seen you ^Plural. W9U =If they should have seen them j

N.B.
of verbs

The two forms may be used


:

to express the Passive Voice

ri

mi = They

see

me, or Emi

li

ri

= Me

it is

they see,

etc.

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