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Field activity report in Wajale, Hargeisa, and Berbera

Sheikh Technical Veterinary School

NAME: Ali Mohamed Ali iye Registration No: 00101

June/2011

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ii Acknowledgement First, I would like to thank Allah who allowed me to achieve my goal and made easy for me to write this field work report in Wajale, Hargeisa, and Berbera which I gained a lot of experience, practical knowledge and skills. I am also passing my virtue to my honorable tutors those devoted and took lions share improvement of my education and all STVS academic and administration personnel. In addition, I would like to give special thanks to Dr Hassan Issaq to whom I was attached; He was mutual person and he helped me a lot. Lastly, my acknowledgment is to the owners and workers of the intuitions we visited for their hospitality and willingness to help us.

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iii Table of Contents Page NO. Title page…………………………………………………………………………………..i Acknowledgment ............................................................ iError! Bookmark not defined. table of contents ………………………………………………………………………... iii Declaration ......................................................................vError! Bookmark not defined. Section One: Introduction, Aim and Objectives, Methodology and Expected outputs ...... 1 1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Background to the Study............................................................................................... 1 1.2 Aim and Objectives....................................................................................................... 4 1.3 Methodology ................................................................................................................. 4 1.4 Expected Outputs .......................................................................................................... 4 Section Two: Activities carried out .................................................................................... 5 2.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Activities carried out in Wajale .................................................................................... 5 2.1.1 Wajale Livestock Market ....................................................................................... 5 2.1.2 Veterinary Institutions in Wajale ........................................................................... 6 2.1.3 Clinical Examination, Treatment and Vaccination of animals for Export............. 6 2.1.4 Constraint and challenges facing wajale veterinary institutions ............................ 7 2.2 Activities carried out in Hargeisa ................................................................................. 7 2.2.1 Hargeisa Livestock Market .................................................................................... 7 2.2.2 The Municipality.................................................................................................... 9 2.2.3 Hargeisa Milk Market ............................................................................................ 9 2.2.4 Maandeeq Slaughterhouse ................................................................................... 10 2.3 Activities carried out in Berbera ................................................................................. 12 2.3.1 Berbera Quarantine Station .................................................................................. 12 2.3.2 Divisions in the Quarantine ................................................................................. 12 2.3.3 Berbera Quarantine Station Laboratory ............................................................... 13 Section Three: Conclusion, Recommendations and Lessons learnt ................................. 14 3.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 14 3.1 Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 14 3.2 Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 14 3.3 Lessons Learnt ............................................................................................................ 15 Annexes..............................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined. Annex 1: Proof of activities carried out (photos)...............Error! Bookmark not defined. Annex 2: Interview Guides .............................................................................................. 15 List of figures Figure 1: Map of Somaliland showing the study areas ....................................................... 2 List of tables Table 1: Price of sheep and goats ....................................................................................... 8 Table 2: Price of camel ....................................................................................................... 8

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Declaration I Ali Mohamed Ali Iye declare that this is my original work and it has not appeared anywhere else in any other form.

Student’s signature: …………………………………….. Date: ……………………… Supervisors signature………………………………….. Date……

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Section One: Introduction, Aim and Objectives, Methodology and Expected
outputs 1.0 Introduction This section entails the background to the field study and the study area that includes Wajaale, Hargeisa and Tog Wajaale. In this section, the main aim, objectives, methods used in data collection and the expected outputs are highlighted. 1.1 Background to the Study The curriculum of sheikh technical veterinary school (STVS) is spiral and integrated system in which the studying courses are system based on such as integumentary, respiratory system, circulatory system etc. The courses operate both theoretical and practical performance; the theory part and small amount of practices were taken in classes through lectures and practical demonstrations in the school premises and surrounding areas. However; at the end of every academic year field work activities is carried out since the practical sessions in the school are not enough according to the requirements of the study and also there is need to know how veterinary activities operate outside of STVS and also to collect data from different sites that were visited. Therefore second year students are always sent to three different areas: Tog Wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera with supervisors. Initial planning of the fieldwork, student were divided into three groups of 10 members each. However; all groups visited the same place within a same time by taken special interview. the report contains a lot of information about the veterinary infrastructures, institutions and the general activities of the attached areas. Thus this report represents the activities that were conducted in three weeks.

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2 Background Information of the Study Areas

Berbera

Wajaale

Hargeisa

Figure 1: Map of Somaliland showing the study areas Tog Wajaale: is a major city situated on the border between Ethiopia and Somaliland. It is among the busiest cities of the country. Some of imports destined to Ethiopia from the major port of Berbera go through this strategic border. This place is situated in Gabiley, northwest of Somaliland, its Geographical coordinates are 9° 34' 0" North, 43° 29' 0" east. It is one of the main sources of revenue for Somaliland Kalabaydh and Jijiga. Wajaale people are mainly agro-pastoralists who involved both farming and rearing of animals especially cattle and small number of sheep, goats and camel. Hargeisa: is the capital city of Somaliland and located in a valley in the western section of the country. The city is in a mountainous area because it is situated in an enclosed valley of the Galgodon (Ogo) highlands, at an elevation of 1,334 meters (4,377 ft) above sea level. This altitude gives Hargeisa and the surrounding area a milder climate than the Gulf of Aden coastal area (one of the hottest areas on earth) and the Hargeisa region has a fairly equable climate. The temperature ranges between 13 and 32 degrees Celsius. Hargeisa receives larger amounts of rain, and used to be surrounded by forest when the city was smaller but the countryside around the city still has small juniper forests. Hargeisa is the financial hub to many entrepreneurial industries ranging from food processing, gem stonecutters, construction, retail, import and export, Internet cafes, and 2

3 companies that process remittances from relatives abroad who send money. Some families have moved back to the city, living in mansions in the hills during the summer. Animals that can be found in Hargeisa include the Kudu, wild boar, Somali Wild Ass, warthogs, antelopes, the Somali sheep, wild goats, camels and many different types of birds. South of Hargeisa is a grassland savannah, which attracts many types of wildlife to the area and normally pastoralists are settled the sides of the city. Berbera: as the capital city of Sahil region and the main port of Somaliland, Berbera is one of the significant livestock areas. It lies in the northern side of the country; and it borders Gulf of Aden. It is the only seaport, with the only sheltered harbor on the south side of the Gulf of Aden; its population in 2000 was approximately 100,000. The weather of Berbera is very dry, hot and wet during the rainy season. The landscape around Berbera, along with Somalia's coastal lowlands, is desert or semi-desert where the temperatures in the summertime can approach upwards of 50°C. Most of the city residents are forced to seasonally migrate to the cooler inland cities during these hot times. Berbera is the terminus of roads from Hargeisa and Burco, and an airport now adds to its accessibility. Berbera exports sheep, goats, camels, cattle, gum Arabic, frankincense, and myrrh. Its seaborne trade is chiefly with Aden in Yemen 240 km/150 mi to the north. Berbera city is the site for livestock export in Somaliland. The infrastructure for livestock export in Berbera city includes the quarantine station, private enclosures and exportation port.

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1.2 Aim and Objectives

Aim The aim of this study was to enable students put into practice the knowledge leant in class. Objectives 1. To improve and strengthen the professional skills already learnt and to learn new skills going on in the attached areas. 2. To meet the real veterinary life situation in the field level. 3. To establish the system and infrastructures of the slaughterhouse. 4. To examine the procedure used in livestock for export during inspection and vaccination activities. 5. Identify and discuss the challenges faced by livestock stakeholders in the study areas. 1.3 Methodology 1. Observation: in addition to other methods of data collection, observation of all activities has been used. 2. Inspection: in the cases where by interview is not enough, practical activities were done. 3. Interview: during the field work interview has been used to collect information from the stakeholders of livestock sector.

1.4 Expected Outputs 1. Field report

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Section Two: Activities carried out
2.0 Introduction In Wajaale the students were divided in to three groups A, B, and C and they performed different activities like vaccination, and treatment and also collected data from different veterinary institutions such as wajaale livestock market. 2.1 Activities carried out in Wajale 2.1.1 Wajale Livestock Market The livestock market of Tog Wajaale locates northeast of the city and has an area of 12

2km composed of different sections intended to separate different species of animal sold. The biggest area is the section for exporting cattle; followed by the section for shoats which involves transactions such as buying and selling animals for export (ahmin) and for local consumption(daabax). Another section of the market is for the buying and selling of beef and dairy cattle (dhaqmaad). The market has loading and unloading ramps, good pens, crash and 3 small rooms for the district veterinary office and a toilet. It usually starts operating at 6 am up to 11:30 am, and it is a free market which gathers in different stakeholders from different regions, like Ethiopia and Somalia. When the animals are brought to the livestock market by the producers or retailers (jeeble), they are handed over to middle men (brokers) in order to negotiate and facilitate producer to sell to the trader, when agreement terminates local government takes revenue per herd on legal voucher known as transit letter and is transported to Berbera holding grounds.

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6 2.1.2 Veterinary Institutions in Wajale Veterinary institution in Wajale consist one doctor and four assistants, all of them are employees of the Ministry of the Livestock. It was difficult to ascertain the number of veterinary staff in Wajale due to poor record management. The facilities in Wajaale institutions include one crush for restraining during vaccination, one ramp for loading and de-loading, one Store used to store the drugs and the vaccine. Role of the Veterinary Institution 1. They do vaccination 2. They carry out treatment 3. They do inspection 4. They do surveillance of the animal diseases 2.1.3 Clinical Examination, Treatment and Vaccination of animals for Export. In Wajale students simultaneously treated and vaccinated a lot of animals in villages of Wajale. Animals were treated according to clinical signs observed coupled by physical examination. In tentative diagnosis the degree of abnormality encountered were recorded as positive. Positively sick animals were treated in terms of disease suspected. The drugs being used was: Albendazole and Alamycin its trade name called oxytetracycline. Fotivax vaccination: is the general trade name of FMD inactivated vaccine which is produced by Kenya agricultural research institute (KARI) veterinary vaccine production center. This vaccine is safe and potent and confers immunity for duration of at least one year. It is advisable to perform a booster vaccination after one year of primary vaccination in a risk environment. This kind of vaccine is given hand and facilitated Somaliland by international agencies such FOA and SAHSP. Fotivax (foot and mouth disease inactivated vaccine) is recommended to administer cattle for 3ml injection for subcutaneous. Students participated vaccination activities and ear tagging activities, a total of 50 bulls has been vaccinated within two days (25 in first day, and 25 the next day) the vaccinated cattle are exported to Yemen and they requested Somaliland to vaccinate against FMD because this disease is endemic 6

7 2.1.4 Constraint and challenges facing wajaale veterinary institutions i. ii. iii. Lack of sufficient crushes Lack of sufficient veterinarians Lack of sufficient equipments such as automatic syringes

2.2 Activities carried out in Hargeisa This part contains information about the Hargeisa livestock market, milk market and Maandeeq slaughterhouse. 2.2.1 Hargeisa Livestock Market Hargeisa livestock market is the second biggest livestock market in Somaliland after Burao. Sheep and goats (shoats) and camels are traded for both domestic use and export, while cattle are mostly sold for domestic use (meat). The marketing of each species functions independently and each species occupies a specific location within the market place. Infrastructures of the Market The market has elven small shades for both animals and human and several bens in which the animals are kept before being loaded. There is also municipal office. Market Actors A market actor is any person participating at any level of the market and these are producers (farmers), brokers, interregional traders and export trades. Producers: these are the pastoralists, who keep the animals in the rural areas, and these people participate in the market by bringing the animals to the market. Brokers: the work of the brokers include 1. To provide the buyer with guarantee that the animal is healthy and not stolen 2. To provide the sellers with guarantee and fair price 7

8 3. To seeks buyer, negotiate the price Traders: they are the final link of the chain between the producers and consumers. Interregional traders: these people buy certain class or age group for exporters. Consumers: these are the final users of the products. Source, Demand and Supply of the Animals in the Market Since the market is the second largest, the animals come from different places in the country like Allaybaday, Gabilay, Sallaxlay, Baligubadle and some areas of Ethiopia and southern and central regions of Somalia. The demand of the market depends generally on the export, so the demand is high during June until August, because these months are the main export periods of live animals to the Arabian Peninsula. The demand is also high in the month of Mowliid (October/November) as well as the Idul Fitri and Idul Adha in the Hajj season. Price of animals and taxes: The price is determined by different factors of which the main one is the demand, when the demand is high the price will go high, also body condition is another factor which can influence the price for example the good body conditioned animals are higher price than the poor conditioned ones. This is shown in table 1. Seemingly, during the seasons like holly Ramadan and Hajj animals are very expensive. Grades Price in s/l shillings Grade 1. 360,000 Grade 2. 320,000 Grade 3. 252,000 Table 1: Price of sheep and goats Grades Price in dollars Grade 1. 800 $ Grade 2. 600 $ Grade 3, 450-500 $ Table 2: Price of camel Price in dollars 55.3 $ 49.2 $ 38.7 $

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9 Taxes In sheep and goats are taxed with 1000 sh/sl, the cattle are taxed 4000 sh/sl per animal and the camel are taxed 5000 sh/sl. 2.2.2 The Municipality The market has one municipal office with eleven workers who have different duties.,

Four of them are tax collectors, four stamp the animals while the other three are security personnel. Function of the Municipality They municipality plays many functions in the market among which are the one listed below: 1. Clearing of the rubbish from the market. 2. Taxes collection. 3. Stamping of the animals. 4. Providing water. 5. Providing shades for both animals and people. 2.2.3 Hargeisa Milk Market Hargeisa milk market (Gobonimo) is located in the centre of the city especially Iddaacadda market. The quantity of fresh milk that is brought in to the market drops during dry seasons. The fresh milk traded in Hargeisa come through three main supply routes: 1. Fresh milk traded by producers (15-20%) 2. Fresh milk supplied to well established market agents (15 – 25%) 3. Fresh milk bought by wholesalers from rural producers (60-65%) Around 2,000 people are engaged in the milk trade in the market, including a number of retailers of various sizes. 9

10 Source, Types and Prices of the Milk in the Market The source of the milk is mainly from the rural areas around Hargeisa and from the other west regions such as Gabilley. Another main source of the milk is the eastern regions of Ethiopia. These are examples of the common areas which the milk comes from, (Gabilley, Geedballaadh, Geed deeble, Allaybaday, Dhagaxley). Camel and cattle milk are the most common types of milk sold in the market. The milk is mainly fresh but some times it reaches the market as sour milk (Sour milk always costs less than the fresh milk). Other than sour milk all types of milk (Camel Cattle Sheep and Goat) have same price which is 2500 sh/sl per liter. 2.2.4 Maandeeq Slaughterhouse Maandeeq slaughterhouse is located in the Eastern part of Hargeisa. It is a private enterprise was and it was founded on March 25th, 2005 by two Somaliland citizens who were interested and devoted to the improvement of the socio-economic situation of the country. Workers of Maandeeq Slaughterhouse Since livestock is the backbone of Somaliland’s economy a lot of people get employed in this slaughterhouse. The total number of workers is 95 with around 350 independent worker, all these workers has different roles. Maandeeq slaughterhouse workers include the men who buy the animals from the livestock market, those who look after them in Hargeisa, those who check the animals when they arrive at the slaughterhouse the men and women who slaughter the animals, those who transport the meat and distribute throughout the city, plus the men who own the trucks in which water is brought, technicians, cleaners and those who keep the slaughterhouse security

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11 Transportation and Distribution of Meat Meat is distributed in the city by workers with tags bearing their names. The meat is transported with especial trunks of which most of them are owned by the Slaughterhouse. General hygiene of the slaughterhouse The general hygiene of Maandeeq Slaughterhouse is good compared to the previous Hargeisa slaughterhouse since there are especial workers who do regular washing of the place using water, chlorine and other detergents. Seemingly, with improved means of transport where covered van vehicles are used instead of uncovered donkey carts and wheelbarrows has contributed improved hygiene. Also, the training provided to the workers about hygiene has helped to sensitize the workers about the best ways of handling the meat. The place also practices good waste management whereby, liquid and solid wastes such as blood, dirty used water, animal fluids, animal abdominal remainders and bones are transported to a designated dump site. New dump sites are dug after every three months and the full ones are covered up. Despite the above, the slaughterhouse is not at the required (international) level at the side of hygiene; for example there is no separation of clean and dirty area, the drainages in the slaughtering hall sometimes become blocked with some internal organs and rumen contents thrown mistakenly. Constraints of Maandeeq Slaughterhouse i. ii. iii. iv. Shortage of water Shortage of electricity especially in the cattle and camel sections Poor hygienic practice and lack of well developed drainage system. Difficulty in the collection of the charges

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12 2.3 Activities carried out in Berbera In Berbera areas visited included: Berbera livestock quarantine station, inspection centre and its laboratory. 2.3.1 Berbera Quarantine Station It is custody of animals suspected to have communicable disease until they are proved free of infection or show the clinical sign of particular disease, mostly quarantine is used effectively to control the spread of communicable diseases. It has been observed how this quarantine operates under the supervision of Dr. Ahmed Haibe.The time that kept the animal in quarantine varies 7 to 21 days and the most of disease’s incubation period is not more than 21 days, example incubation period of FMD (Foot and Mouth Disease) is 2 to14 days. Berbera quarantine is called gulf international quarantine station it was built by “Suleiman Aljabir”. The Only countries that needed to be ensured quarantine animals and accept to import animals that are passed and inspected in this quarantine station are UAE, Oman, Jordan and Yemen. This sophisticated quarantine station lies on an area of about
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4000m it is surrounded by a wall of 2.5m high made of bricks. It can hold up to 300,000 shoats and 150,000 cattle. 2.3.2 Divisions in the Quarantine Reception Area This area is intended for all animals that are meant to pass through clinical inspection whereby, samples are taken and they are there after vaccinated of specific disease. Every animal found infected were not certified rather they were condemned to the rejection area where they are kept under the orders of the medical officer until returned to the owner. The negative animals are allowed to pass to the large of quarantine pens.

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13 Quarantine Pens This is the second part of the quarantine meant to keep animals for a particular period of time in accordance with the requirements of the importing country. These requirements are related to sourcing, pre-export quarantine, treatment, testing. The exporter has to ensure that the requirements of the importing country are fulfilled. The exporter is responsible for loading feeding and watering the livestock in accordance with the approved travel and loading plan. Once the conditions of the 'Permission to leave for loading’ have been fulfilled, the animals are loaded and the health certificate and export permit are issued to the exporter. 2.3.3 Berbera Quarantine Station Laboratory The laboratory of the quarantine station contains one building which contain two departments: one is for serology and the other for bacteriology tests. The over all workers of the laboratory are about ten, six laboratory Technicians and four assistances. Serology department This department is for virus isolation and detection of the common livestock diseases that are requested by the importing countries such as FMD, PPR, RP, rift valley fever and other viral diseases. Bacteriology department The duties of this department are identification, characterization and culturing of bacterial species. This is the busiest department because most of the blood collected from the animals is brought in to this department to perform several tests such as milk ring test and Rose Bengal Test (RBT).

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Section Three: Conclusion, Recommendations and Lessons learnt
3.0 Introduction This section contains information about the conclusion, recommendations and lessons learnt. 3.1 Conclusion The desired result of this field work were successfully achieved and a gained a lot of experiences like; how to interact with the society particularly veterinary stakeholders, learning how to vaccine animals like FMD vaccine, ear tagging of bulls meant for exportation, restraining of heavy bulls and how to inspect animals in Wajale. On the other hand, skills on how to carryout a ante- mortem and postmortem of many animals in a few hours were gained. While through assessment of the quarantine in Berbera, experience was gained on it’s operation and procedures in handling animals for exportation.. 3.2 Recommendations 1. The authority should increase the number of veterinarians and also reinforce their capacity both in Wajaale and Berbera workers since those areas are involved in the inspection and vaccination large numbers of animals. 2. The government should increase the number of the crushes in Wajaale to cover the need of the veterinarians. 3. NGOs and government should train and sensitize pastoralists on basic of animal health treatment and adverse effects of incorrect usage of veterinary drugs. 4. Authority should provide to the butchers of Maandeeq slaughterhouse on hygienic practices so as to prevent or reduce on the level of meat contamination and food borne diseases. 5. Local municipality should supply enough water to Maandeeq slaughterhouse. 6. The local government should construct milk market centers in both Wajale and Hargeisa.

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15 7. The government should increase the capacity of Berbera quarantine station in order to cover the increased work load during Hajj time. 3.3 Lessons Learnt 1. How to vaccine animals like FMD vaccine. 2. Ear tagging of bulls. 3. Restraining of heavy bulls and how to 4. Inspection of animals 5. Relating with different actors in the livestock sector.

Annex 2: Interview Guide
A. Interview guide for traders

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

How many agents work in the market? How do you evaluate the animal? Do the traders have license from the government? Do you give out commission to the brokers? At what season do the animals have the highest demand for the traders? Do you give out any veterinary services to the animal? Do you transport live animals?

B. Interview guide for producers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Under which system do you rear the animals? What is the major purpose you sell your animals? What are the kinds of drugs you give the diseased animal? Which source you do you get drugs from? Which season do you supply your products to the market? Which means do you use for your animals to take to the market? Do you have direct contact with traders?

C. Interview guide for brokers 1. 2. 3. 4. How many animals do you sell per day? Do you have licenses from the government? How do you communicate with farmers and traders? How do you identify whether the animal is stolen or not? 15

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