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INTRODUCTION to NURSING RESEARCH NURSING RESEARCH Research y Studies inquiry or examination, investigation or experimentation aimed at discovery and interpretation

of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical applications for such new or revised theories or laws. (Webster) y A formal, systematic and rigorous process of scientific analysis particularly conducted for the purpose of discover y and development of a structured and organized body of knowledge It is essentially a problem-solving process: a systematic, intensive study directed toward fuller scientific knowledge of the subject studied Faye Abdellah 1. Research is conducted by nurses 2. Research is about nursing care a research conducted by nurses through scientific inquiry on areas of causes, diagnoses and prevention of diseases, promotion of health across the lifespan.

Research (old French word) cerchier = seek or search Prefix re = again y Research Definition: - formal, systematic, rigorous and intensive process used for solutions to nursing problems or to discover and interpret new facts and trends in clinical practice, nursing education or nursing administration

- scientific study or investigation that is pursued to discover theories and concepts based on new facts and information and its practical application. A systematic collection and analysis of data to illuminate, describe or explain new facts and relationships Problem-solving process that utilizes scientific discovery, and develop ideas and theories that give meaningful answers to complex questions about human beings and their environment Difference between nursing research and research in nursing

Nursing research deals with studies on the process of providing care and the concomitant problems Therein; Research in nursing deals with the wider study of the profession in general its historical, ethical and developmental aspects

y Types of Research 1. Pure or Basic research - establishing fundamental theories or relationships among facts, which are not intended for immediate use in real life situations. 2. Applied research - involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge in solving a problem, making a decision, developing or evaluating a program, procedure or product 3. Action research - study of a certain problem and, from that experience, decisions, actions and conclusions are drawn - findings are limited to settings actually studied y 1. 2. 3. 4. Tasks: 1. The systematic study of nursing problems or phenomena, using the nursing process of assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating nursing care. 2. Improving nursing practice and patient care through creative and scientific studies, knowledge of health and the promotion of health throughout the life-span 3. Identifying nursing interventions that can help individuals respond efficiently and effectively to actual or potential health problems 4. The initiation and assessment of change as a result of nursing care to clients, and incisive 5. efforts to make these new knowledge useful in nursing practice y Reasons for conducting research in nursing 1. Gathers data or information on nursing situations or conditions about which little knowledge is available 2. Provides scientific knowledge base from which nursing theories emerge and develop 3. Helps correct, clarify and validate perceptions and expand these 4. Provides theoretical and scientific basis for nursing 5. Defines the parameters of nursing and identifies its boundaries 6. Documents the social relevance and efficacy of nursing practice to people and health care providers 7. Describes the characteristics of the nursing situation about which little knowledge is known 8. Predicts probable outcomes of nursing decisions in relation to client care 9. Provides knowledge for purposes of problem solving and decision making 10. Develops and evaluates nursing theories and concepts, and practices for clarity and validity 11. Prevents undesirable client s reactions 12. Develops a considerable degree of confidence Goals of Nursing Research Efficiency and effectiveness in nursing care Worthiness and value of the nursing profession to society Identifying, implementing and evaluating effective health care modalities Clinical nursing research, has the potential for providing quality care of clients.

y General Purposes of Research 1. Answers questions to solve problems 2. Provide tools for observation in order to generate knowledge as basis for predicting and controlling the phenomenon y Specific purposes of research 1. Description - describes a phenomenon that relates to the nursing profession as well as to observe, define and document nursing situations under inquiry 2. Exploration - explores the phenomenon being investigated by observing and recording events or situations occurring in that phenomenon 3. Explanation - seeks clarification of a prevailing situation to answer questions that ask : WHY a phenomenon occurred 4. Prediction and control - research anticipates possible psychological and physiological reactions to nursing interventions Control nursing actions or interventions that respond to patient needs in order to prevent undesirable outcome y Alternative Routes to Problem -Solving 1. Ignore or redefine the problem 2. Faith, habit or traditional practice 3. Authority 4. Human experience 5. Trial and error 6. Logical reasoning 7. Common sense 8. Problem-solving and nursing process 9. Research and problem-solving y Major Characteristics of a Good or Major Research Systematic - conduct research in a step by step process or procedure Empirical - objective data should be observable/measurable or readily collected using your senses Controlled/ manipulated - Methods/tool of controlling is research design Critical investigation/fact finding investigation - In order to answer the data is by using facts. - Looking for human beings who can give us facts

y Purpose of Research in Nursing Profession [DEED] Descriptive - observe, describe and record - gain richer familiarity regarding the phenomena - 100% known to RN Exploratory - Explore to those areas that are unknown - Observe more - 50%-50% (50%known to nurses and 50% unknown to the nurses Experimental - Active intervention, active manipulation - Want to find out cause & effect - Done something before observing results Developmental - To improve the system of care for the your patient. - Develop and improve existing system Conducting research is for the benefit the pt or patient care/pt focus Ethics of a Researcher S Scientific Objective conductive research for a good purpose or object for your pt C Cooperation and Consent. Do not conduct data/experiment w/o a consent (legally the patient owns the chart. However the hospital owns the chart) I Integrity worked hard on the research E Equitable acknowledging works or contribution of others N Nobility protect the rights of your subjects Right not to be harmed y (physical, mental, moral harm) usually done during experimental research y Physical Harm/ Negligence - undeliberate physical harm Commission done outside the standard practice of nursing (eg. urinary catheter placed on the nose of the pt) Omission from the very start, you did not do something about it.  Moral Harm y Assault mental fear/threat without physical harm y Battery physically you harm the pt  Restraint is never an independent nursing order y physical restraint eg. Jacket y chemical restraint eg. use of psychotropic drug  Moral harm y Slander oral defamation y Libel published or placed in the newspaper o Right to self-determination o Right to privacy y Anonymity identity of subject may not be disclosed.

Confidentiality information acquired must be disclosed. Privacy of the information eg. conduct a study on HIV pt. but the pt wants the nurse should only know y T Truthfulness put only the data you have collected y I Importance importance to the nursing profession y F Factual facts or data y I Ideal (follow the 11 steps of research) y C Courage Florence Nightingale y Birthplace Italy y Training Ground Germany y Greatest Contribution environmental Theory, training RNs in Crimean War y School Saint Thomas School of Nursing study on HIV pt. but the pt wants his name to be written in the newspaper as Mr. X, Mr. Y or Mr. W