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(Mechanical Engg.) (Electrical/Electronic Engg.) (Chemical/Avionic Engg.)

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A vehicle or device propelled by one or more rocket engines, especially such a vehicle designed to travel through space.

The thrust generated by a rocket engine comes from two sources the change in momentum imparted to the exhaust gases and from the pressure difference at the exit plane of the nozzle.

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PRINCIPLES • Newton‘s Second Law of Motion • Newton‘s third Law of Motion SPECIFIC IMPULSE • exhaust velocity Ve

• propellant efficiency • propulsion system performance
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BASIC THRUST EQUATION • Expansion ratio F=qVe+(Pe-Pa)Ae

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TSIOLKOVSKY Rocket Equation • holds true for rocket like reation vehicles

• ∆V • Ve

(change in velocity) (exhaust velocity)

• m0/m1 (mass ratio)
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TSIOLKOVSKY Rocket Equation

E.g ........

For the calculation of mass fraction.

• Assume an exhaust velocity of 4.5 km/s & ∆v of 9.7 km/s • single stage • Multi stage
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STRUCTURAL COMPARISON • Model Solid Rocket Engine

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STRUCTURAL COMPARISON • Model of the Liquid Rocket Engine

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BASED OF NUMBER OF STAGES • Single stage • Multi stage BASED ON PROPELLANTS • Liquid propellant rockets • Solid propellant rockets • Hybrid rockets

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Nozzle & Combustion Chamber

Significance • Thermodynamic relations of the processes inside a rocket nozzle and chamber furnish the mathematical tools needed to calculate, evaluate and compare the performance of various rocket systems • This theory applies to chemical rocket propulsion systems (both liquid and solid propellant types), nuclear rockets, and to any propulsion system that uses the expansion of a gas as the propulsive mechanism for ejecting matter at high velocity.

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Ideal Rocket • Working substance (propellant chemical reaction products) is homogeneous & gaseous • Perfect gas laws are applicable • Propellant flow is steady and constant • No heat transfer across rocket walls; therefore, the flow is adiabatic • Friction and boundary layer effects are neglected • Gas velocity, pressure, temperature, or densities are uniform across any nozzle section • Exhaust gases leaving the rocket nozzle have an axially directed velocity

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Designing Nozzle

Known:- pc=Pressure in chamber; Tc=Temperature in chamber
A=area; Pressure at throat=


=Specific heat ratio

pt ⎛ 2 ⎞ γ −1 =⎜ ⎟ pc ⎝ γ + 1 ⎠

Flow rate at throat =

q = At pt

γ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ RTt ⎝ γ + 1 ⎠
γ +1 2( γ −1)

γ +1 2( γ −1)

⎛ γ −1 2 ⎞ M ⎟ 1+ Exit Mach = Ae 1 ⎜ 2 = ⎜ γ +1 ⎟ At M ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠
Exit Pressure=

ve = M γ RTe

pe γ − 1 2 γ −1 = (1 + M ) 2 pt

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Rocket Nozzle- Function

• The function of the nozzle is to convert the chemical-thermal energy generated in the combustion chamber into kinetic energy.

• The nozzle is usually made long enough (or the exit area is great enough) such that the pressure in the combustion chamber is reduced at the nozzle exit to the pressure existing outside the nozzle.

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Types Of Nozzles

• Adapted nozzle (pe=pa) • Under expanding Nozzle(pe>pa) • Over expanding Nozzle (pe<pa)

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Combustion Chamber

The required stay time, or combustion residence time is given by:

where Vc is the chamber volume, q is the propellant mass flow rate, V is the average specific volume, and ts is the propellant stay-time A useful parameter relative to chamber volume and residence time is the characteristic length

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Combustion Chamber

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Performance Evaluation

Combustion efficiency A measure of the combustion efficiency of a propellant can be taken by comparing the measured (delivered) value of characteristic velocity (ceestar) to the ideal value:

Where &

pc At c* = q

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Performance Evaluation

Thrust Coefficient CF

The efficiency in terms of the thrust coefficient is given as

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Specific Impulse Revisited

Specific impulse in different shapes

CF pc At CF c * F I sp = = = qg o qg o go

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Elements Of Liquid Propulsion System



Expected Hazard(s)

Fuel/Oxidant Tank

• Highly Pressurized •Corrosive Resistant

• Leakage •Depressurization

Gas Generator (GG)

• Miniature combustion chamber • Fuel (thrust) loss • Dead mass increases • Raise the pressure of flowing propellants • Thrust variation

• Combustion instabilities

Turbo-pump (assembly of a turbine with one or more pumps)

• Mechanical vibrations • Inherent wear & tear • Cavitation • Condensation over turbine blades

Schematic of a liquid-propellant engine

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Engine Cycles

Typical rocket engine cycles and turbine installations.

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Fuel Tanks Arrangement

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Injector Designs

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Preliminary design analysis algorithm for turbine

Final turbine design state conditions and geometry shall be based on tradeostudies of design control parameters.

• Perform design optimization studies with the parameters that influence the selection of turbine type, arrangement, size, number of stages, and performance. • Establish the effect of pressure ratio, inlet temperature, number of stages, pitchline velocity, • and velocity ratio on turbine Performance. • Determine how variations in mass flowrate, inlet temperature, pressure ratio, and speed • influence developed turbine horsepower. • Investigate blade height requirements for changes in mass flow, inlet pressure, and number • of stages. • Study the influence of pitchline velocity on pitch diameter, velocity ratio, and turbine • efficiency. • Establish preliminary blading stresses. • If the primary concern is maximum performance, special care should be directed to the • limiting parameters of staging, pitch diameter, speed, and blading stress. • Establish parametric data plots.

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Preliminary design analysis algorithm for turbo-pump

Final pump design state conditions and geometry shall be based on tradeoff studies of design control parameters

• The headrise and flowrate delivered by the pump shall be adequate for the engine to produce its design thrust. • The pump net positive suction head shall be suitable for the particular application, shall be adequate for stable and predictable pump performance, and shall minimize vehicle overall weight. • The turbo-pump design shall reflect the impact of the properties of the individual propellants and of the propellant combination. • The turbo-pump shall be compatible with the turbine drive cycle. • The turbo-pump efficiency shall be adequate for the engine to meet its requirements. • The weight and size of the turbo-pump system shall be minimal consistent with other requirements.

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Liquid Propellants

Desirable properties (a) Low freezing point (less than -400 deg Celsius ) (b) High Boiling Point/High decomposition temperature (c) High specific gravity (d) High specific heat and thermal conductivity (e) Low vapour pressure and low viscosity (f) Low temperature variation of viscosity and vapour pressure and low coefficient of thermal expansion (g) Good physical and chemical stability (h) High performance (i) Smooth and stable combustion (j) No smoke at exhaust (k) Less toxicity and safety in handling (l) Easy availability

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Liquid Propellants

• Petroleum fuels are those refined from crude oil and are a mixture of complex hydrocarbons • Cryogenic propellants are liquefied gases stored at very low temperatures, most frequently liquid hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel and liquid oxygen (LO2 or LOX) as the oxidizer. • Hypergolic propellants are fuels and oxidizers which ignite spontaneously on contact with each other and require no ignition source.

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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON FUEL USED • Chemical Rockets • Nuclear Rockets • Solar Rockets • Electrical Rockets BASED ON APPLICATIONS • Weather forecasting • Military rockets • space exploration • Booster rockets • Retainer or sustainer rockets
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ELEMENTS • Basic Configuration • Burn Rate • Thrust Profile & Grain shape • Rocket engine performance • Classification based on fuel types

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Cylindrical Channel Channel & central cylinder Five Pointed Star profile Cruciform profile Double anchor profile Cog profile

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TYPES • Composite & heterogeneous propellant FUEL : ( plastic, polymers, PVC ) OXIDIZER : ( nitrates & perchlorates ) • Homogeneous mixture of organic substances ( nitroglycerine & cellulose nitrate )

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It should be / have • Available raw materials & cheap • Chemical properties un changed • Release large amount of heat energy • Higher density & comparatively low mol. weight • Not be poisonous & hazardous • Non-corrosive, so handling and storage is easier • Non hygroscopic ( non absorbent of moisture ) • Smokeless & flash less

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MERITS • Easy Construction • No moving parts • High payload capacity • Compact in size • Low specific impulse • Minimum vibration • Can’t be re-used • Short range & small size • Short life due to erosion • Servicing problems are less • Nozzle cooling is impossible
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DE MERITS • Decrease of speed is impossible • Storage & transportation req. care • malfunctioning & accidents can’t be rectified easily

MERITS • Control combustion • Re-used & Recharged • Variation in speed is possible • Storing & transportation is easy • Accidents can be identified • Flexibility in shape • Economical for long range • High specific impulse
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DE MERITS • Complicated construction • Low payload capacity • Careful handling is req. (poisonous) • Req. proper heat insulation (cryogenic) • Large volume • More vibration (rotating parts)

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