This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
“Produce Electricity from Nuclear Power Plant”
Prepared By: Md. Raisul Karim Riad ID # 09207042 Program : BSME
1. Excutive Summary
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Page-04 Page-06 Page-05 Page-07 Page-08 Page-10 Page-12 Page-13 Page-14 Page-16 Page-24 Page-25 Page-27 Page-28
Nuclear Fuel (Uranium) List of Nuclear power plant History Early Years Types of Reactors Uranium Processed Uranium Preparation of a Nuclear Reactor (PWR)
10. Parts 11. 12. 13. 14.
Life Cycle Conventional Fuel Resources Water Waste Radio Active
15. Comparing 16. 17.
Page-30 Page-31 Page-32
Reprocessing Depleted Uranium
18. 19. 20. 21. 22.
From Fission to Electricity Development Economics Future of the Industry Nuclear Power Plant In Bangladesh
Page-34 Page-35 Page-37 Page-38 Page-40
“The Nuclear Power Plant”
5 meters (11. It can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. the control rods. the water heated by the reactor core turns directly into steam in the reactor vessel and is then used to power the turbine-generator. When they are fully lowered into the core. This kind of uranium is used as fuel because its atoms are easily split apart. engineers have developed different types of nuclear power plants. These control rods are connected to machines that can raise or lower them in the core. Just as there are different approaches to designing and building airplanes and automobiles. Outside the core are the turbines. the water heated by the reactor core is kept under pressure so that it does not turn to steam at all — it remains liquid. In nuclear fusion. There is enormous energy in the bonds that hold atoms together. These rods are each about 3. when they are pulled out of the reactor. An example of such a material is cadmium. Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. fission can start again anytime a stray neutron strikes a 235U atom. the moderator. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. Two types are used: boiling-water reactors and pressurized-water reactors. and the coolant. These are grouped into large bundles of a couple hundred rods called fuel assemblies. The fuel assemblies are collections of fuel rods. These rods have pellets inside that are made of very efficient neutron capturers. and part of the cooling system. referred to as U-235. But first the energy must be released. A nuclear power plant uses controlled nuclear fission. Nuclear plants use a certain kind of uranium. A typical nuclear reactor has a few main parts. In a pressurized-water reactor.5 Executive Summary: A nuclear power plant harnesses the energy inside atoms themselves and converts this to electricity. The fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission is uranium. Inside the "core" where the nuclear reactions take place are the fuel rods and assemblies. Inside each fuel rod are hundreds of pellets of uranium fuel stacked end to end. However. Also in the core are control rods. which are then placed in the reactor core. In a boiling-water reactor. Nuclear power plants use this energy to produce electricity. . energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom. thus . the heat exchanger. fission cannot occur because they absorb free neutrons.48 feet) long. They are each about a centimeter in diameter.
It is primarily composed of unconverted uranium as well as significant quantities of transuranic actinides (plutonium and curium. scientists are experimenting on how to recycle these rods to reduce waste. hand tools. although still dangerously radioactive. Russia 17 and United Kingdom 14 per cent. . and (upon decommissioning) the materials of which the reactor itself is built. Another component of the reactor is the moderator. Today. while South Korea gets 29 per cent of its electricity from nuclear plants.3% of all natural uranium).9% lower than it was the moment the spent fuel was removed. fast breeder reactors use uranium-238 (99. India and Pakistan generate 2 per cent of their electricity from nuclear reactors.000 MW nuclear power plant for its operation and maintenance after its installation. Most low-level waste releases very low levels of radioactivity and is only considered radioactive waste because of its history. Unlike fossil fuel-fired power plants. after 40 years. nuclear power plants produce no air pollution or carbon dioxide. The most important waste stream from nuclear power plants is spent fuel. United States 20. et cetera. spent nuclear fuel becomes less radioactive over the course of thousands of years of time.6 releasing more neutrons. The nuclear industry also produces a huge volume of low-level radioactive waste in the form of contaminated items like clothing. Spent fuel is highly radioactive and needs to be handled with great care and forethought. Bangladesh would need at least 500 nuclear scientists for a 1. In the United States. Japan 25. A large nuclear reactor produces 3 cubic meters (25–30 tones) of spent fuel each year. water purifier resins.7% of all natural uranium). However. mostly). the radiation flux is 99. the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has repeatedly attempted to allow low-level materials to be handled as normal waste: land filled. Bangladesh wants to set up first nuclear power plant at Rooppur in Pabna and the land was acquired in 1963. After about 5 percent of the rod has reacted the rod is no longer able to be used. Spent fuel rods are stored in shielded basins of water (spent fuel pools). and starting a chain reaction. In the meantime. about 3% of it is made of fission products. usually located on-site. recycled into consumer items. In addition. As opposed to current light water reactors which use uranium-235 (0.
we should have an idea of the fission process and how it works. It can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use this energy to produce electricity. Nuclear explosion In nuclear fission. we will explore how a nuclear power plant operates and the manner in which nuclear reactions are controlled. A nuclear power plant uses controlled nuclear fission. There is enormous energy in the bonds that hold atoms together. atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms. typically via nuclear fission. Energy from Atoms: Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. In nuclear fusion. nuclear power plants convert the energy released from the nucleus of an atom. Just as many conventional thermal power stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels. and we will discuss a few important designs in this text. releasing energy. This electricity is used by all of us. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. A nuclear power plant harnesses the energy inside atoms themselves and converts this to electricity. energy is released . By now.7 Introduction: There are many different kinds of nuclear power plants. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. But first the energy must be released. In this section.
Nuclear plants use a certain kind of uranium. This kind of uranium is used as fuel because its atoms are easily split apart.8 when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom.S. Fusion is the subject of ongoing research. Uranium is nonrenewable. U-235 is relatively rare. but it is not yet clear that it will ever be a commercially viable technology for electricity generation. though it is a common metal found in rocks all over the world. referred to as U-235. about 100 times more common than silver. Nuclear Fuel: (Uranium) Uranium Ore The fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission is uranium. Most U. Though uranium is quite common. This is how the sun produces energy. uranium is mined in the Western United States. Nuclear Fission .
Radioactive decay has been used on a relatively small (few kW) scale. 14% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. the U-235 must be extracted and processed before it can be used as a fuel.to distantfuture. More than 150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built. Chain Reaction Nuclear power: Nuclear power generally refers to electrical power from controlled (ie. In 2007. though technically quite difficult. More neutrons are also released. Both fission and fusion appear promising for some space propulsion applications in the mid. and the process repeats itself over and over again. non-explosive) nuclear reactions. despite concerns about safety and radioactive waste management. Nuclear reactions are widely believed to be safer than fission and appear potentially viable. . which is then used to generate electricity. Commercial plants in use to date use nuclear fission reactions. These neutrons go on to bombard other uranium atoms.9 Once uranium is mined. Electric utility reactors heat water to produce steam. Fusion power has been under intense theoretical and experimental investigation for many years. a small particle called a neutron hits the uranium atom and splits it. using low thrust for long durations to achieve high mission velocities. During nuclear fission. This is called a chain reaction. releasing a great amount of energy as heat and radiation. mostly to power space missions and experiments.
operating in 31 countries.1% of the world's energy and 15% of the world's electricity. Also.S. There were also several other reductions and "unusual outages" experienced in Korea and Germany. nuclear energy provides 30% of the electricity.. France. In 2007. with the U. with nuclear power providing 19% of the electricity it consumes. In 2007. nuclear power's share of global electricity generation dropped to 14%. the main reason for this was an earthquake in western Japan on 16 July 2007.5% of nuclear generated electricity. Nuclear . According to the International Atomic Energy Agency. The United States produces the most nuclear energy. the IAEA reported there were 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world. while France produces the highest percentage of its electrical energy from nuclear reactors—78% as of 2006. nuclear power provided 2. In the European Union as a whole. which shut down all seven reactors at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant. increases in the load factor for the current fleet of reactors appear to have platitude.10 Diagram: Basic function List of nuclear reactors: Chart: Electricity generation As of 2005. and Japan together accounting for 56.
In the US.11 energy policy differs between European Union countries. thereby producing two helium nuclei. France has a large number of these plants. After James Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932. working under Rutherford's direction. and for use in district heating systems. while the Coal and Gas Electricity industry is projected to be worth $85 billion by 2013. History: As the father of nuclear physics. the use of nuclear fusion. using a particle accelerator to bombard lithium with protons. A few space vehicles have been launched using full-fledged nuclear reactors: the Soviet RORSAT series and the American SNAP-10A. nuclear fission was first experimentally achieved by Enrico Fermi in 1934 in Rome. have no active nuclear power stations. Uranium Ore . when his team bombarded uranium with neutrons. In comparison. His team in England bombarded nitrogen with naturally occurring alpha particles from radioactive material and observed a proton emitted with energy higher than the alpha particle. International research is continuing into safety improvements such as passively safe plants. Estonia. Ernest Rutherford is credited with splitting the atom in 1917. a form of nuclear propulsion. and Ireland. In 1932 two of his students John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton. and some. for desalinating sea water. Nuclear Power generators are forecast to be worth $18 billion. Many military and some civilian (such as some icebreaker) ships use nuclear marine propulsion. such as Austria. and additional uses of process heat such as hydrogen production (in support of a hydrogen economy). attempted to split the atomic nucleus by entirely artificial means. with 16 multi-unit stations in current use.
which was a surprising result.12 In 1938. In the United States. things have come full circle with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (see below. A parallel uranium enrichment effort also was pursued. Otto Robert Frisch. known as Chicago Pile-1. combined with what many scientists thought would be a long road of development. where Fermi and Szilard had both emigrated. There was an immediate arms and development race when the United States military refused to follow the advice of its own scientific community to form an international cooperative to share information and control nuclear materials. most reactor research centered on purely military purposes. France. which initially produced about 100 kW (the Arco Reactor was also the first to experience partial meltdown. By 2006." emphasized the useful . Idaho. 1951 at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco. Actually. which achieved criticality on December 2. Germany. conducted experiments with the products of neutron-bombarded uranium. 1942. which were used on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In addition. there were no secrets to the technology. After World War II. and the Soviet Union) to petition their government for support of nuclear fission research. This work became part of the Manhattan Project. created a situation in which the government attempted to keep reactor research under strict government control and classification. In 1952. this led to the creation of the first man-made reactor. "Atoms for Peace. the fear that reactor research would encourage the rapid spread of nuclear weapons and technology. Numerous scientists. They determined that the relatively tiny neutron split the nucleus of the massive uranium atoms into two roughly equal pieces." A December 1953 speech by President Dwight Eisenhower.) Electricity was generated for the first time by a nuclear reactor on December 20. which built large reactors at the Hanford Site (formerly the town of Hanford. including Leo Szilard who was one of the first. Washington) to breed plutonium for use in the first nuclear weapons. German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. a report by the Paley Commission (The President's Materials Policy Commission) for President Harry Truman made a "relatively pessimistic" assessment of nuclear power. a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction could result. along with Austrian physicists Lise Meitner and Meitner's nephew. in 1955). recognized that if fission reactions released additional neutrons. the United Kingdom. This spurred scientists in many countries (including the United States. and called for "aggressive research in the whole field of solar energy.
Calder Hall nuclear power station in the United Kingdom was the world's first nuclear power station to produce electricity in commercial quantities.S. on a course of strong government support for international use of nuclear power." The .13 harnessing of the atom and set the U. Later in 1954. Diagram: Nuclear power plant The Shipping port Atomic Power Station in Shipping port.S. the USSR's Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant became the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid. Lewis Strauss. On June 27. AEC. forerunner of the U. Pennsylvania was the first commercial reactor in the USA and was opened in 1957.S. 1954. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the United States Department of Energy) spoke of electricity in the future being "too cheap to meter. and produced around 5 megawatts of electric power. then chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (U. Early years: Diagram: Nuclear processing plant.
for the purpose of propelling submarines and aircraft carriers. Navy..656 for the nuclear reactor. in April 1957. It has a good record in nuclear safety. projecting that "costs can be brought down . Calder Hall in Sellafield. The first commercial nuclear generator to become operational in the United States was the Shipping port Reactor (Pennsylvania. who was the driving force behind nuclear marine propulsion as well as the Shipping port Reactor. England was opened in 1956 with an initial capacity of 50 MW (later 200 MW). was put to sea in December 1954. beginning in 1954. The U. USS Nautilus (SSN-571).. Patent 2. Congress only months before. have been lost at sea. Also. at Ft.." In 1955 the United Nations' "First Geneva Conference". Two U.S. the sites are monitored and no known leakage has occurred from the onboard reactors. Navy has operated more nuclear reactors than any other entity. belatedly granted for the work they had done during the Manhattan Project. The first nuclearpowered submarine. was the first power reactor in the US to supply electrical energy to a commercial grid (VEPCO)..S.14 U. met to explore the technology. Belvoir. 1957). nuclear submarines. .which was secret at the time . The SM-1 Nuclear Power Plant. perhaps because of the stringent demands of Admiral Hyman G. with no publicly known major incidents. Va. when the new nuclear plants did not provide energy "too cheap to meter. One of the first organizations to develop nuclear power was the U. including the Soviet Navy. Rickover. The United States Army also had a nuclear power program. The world's first commercial nuclear power station. about the same as the cost of electricity from conventional sources.S. These vessels were both lost due to malfunctions in systems not related to the reactor plants. Significant disappointment would develop later on.S. In 1957 EURATOM was launched alongside the European Economic Community (the latter is now the European Union). USS Scorpion and USS Thresher.. but whatever his intent Strauss's statement was interpreted by much of the public as a promise of very cheap energy from nuclear fission.S. then the world's largest gathering of scientists and engineers. before shipping port.rather than uranium fission. Enrico Fermi and Leó Szilárd in 1955 shared U.708. The same year also saw the launch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). AEC itself had issued far more conservative testimony regarding nuclear fission to the U.S. December." Strauss may have been making vague reference to hydrogen fusion .
Two types are used: boiling-water reactors and pressurized-water reactors.15 Types of Reactor: Types of Reactor Just as there are different approaches to designing and building airplanes and automobiles. engineers have developed different types of nuclear power plants. .
Uranium occurs in nature in combination with small amounts of other elements. Nuclear . Outside these hot tubes in the steam generator is no radioactive water (or clean water). the water heated by the reactor core is kept under pressure so that it does not turn to steam at all — it remains liquid. Diagram: Basic function Pressurized-Water Reactors: In a pressurized-water reactor. though it is a common metal found in rocks all over the world. Uranium Processed: Uranium is nonrenewable. which eventually boils and turns to steam. This hot radioactive water flows through a piece of equipment called a steam generator. the water heated by the reactor core turns directly into steam in the reactor vessel and is then used to power the turbine-generator.16 Boiling-Water Reactors: In a boiling-water reactor. lakes. A steam generator is a giant cylinder with thousands of tubes in it that the hot radioactive water can flow through and heat up. The clean water may come from one of several sources including oceans. The radioactive water flows back to the reactor core. or rivers. where it is reheated and then sent back to the steam generator.
In naturally occurring uranium deposits. Core Uranium Preparation: Uranium 235U will not be the only isotope of uranium present in a nuclear reactor. When 238U is struck by a loose neutron.05% to 0. less than one percent of the uranium is 235U. by absorbing loose neutrons. the reactor shuts down. and millions of people are without electrical power. In order for a chain reaction to occur. Economically recoverable uranium deposits have been discovered principally in the western United States. Australia. the U-235 must be extracted and processed before it can be used as a fuel. Though uranium is quite common. it absorbs the neutron into its nucleus and does not fission. 238U is not a fissile isotope of uranium. the uranium ore is combined with fluorine to create a chemical compound called uranium . and South America. the pure uranium ore must be refined to raise the concentration of 235U. U235 is relatively rare.20% U3O8. about 100 times more common than silver. as fuel because its atoms are easily split apart. Once uranium is mined. This is called enrichment and is primarily accomplished through a technique called gaseous diffusion. Mined uranium ore typically yields one to four pounds of uranium concentrate (U3O8 or "yellowcake") per ton. Canada. U-235. Thus. In this process. This would be a bad thing because if a chain reaction doesn't occur. or 0. 238U can prevent a nuclear chain reaction from occurring. The majority of the uranium is 238U. the nuclear reactions can't sustain themselves.17 plants use a certain kind of uranium. Africa.
This creates a quantity of uranium hexafluoride with a higher proportion of 235U. Because some of the uranium hexafluoride contains 238U and some contains 235U. The molecules of uranium hexafluoride containing 235U are slightly lighter and thus pass more easily through the filters. nuclear power plants use uranium fuel that is about 4% 235U. The heated gas is then pushed through a series of filters.18 hexafluoride. there is a slight difference in the weights of the individual molecules. This is collected. Usually. Diagram: Two major part of nuclear power plant Diagram: Inside of Nuclear Reactor . the uranium is stripped from it. and the result is an enriched supply of fuel. The uranium hexafluoride is heated and vaporizes.
the moderator. The job of the coolant is to absorb the heat from the reaction. These rods are each about 3. thus releasing more neutrons. Another component of the reactor is the moderator. It must be slowed down to be captured by the nucleus and to induce fission. Inside the "core" where the nuclear reactions take place are the fuel rods and assemblies. but sometimes it can be another material. and starting a chain reaction. However. it passes right through the 235U nucleus. the control rods. fission can start again anytime a stray neutron strikes a 235U atom. These rods have pellets inside that are made of very efficient neutron capturers.19 Parts of a Nuclear Reactor (PWR): A typical nuclear reactor has a few main parts. and part of the cooling system. In actuality. and thus is at a highenergy state. However. An example of such a material is cadmium.5 meters (11. Inside each fuel rod are hundreds of pellets of uranium fuel stacked end to end. If a neutron is moving too fast. These are grouped into large bundles of a couple hundred rods called fuel assemblies. The fuel assemblies are collections of fuel rods.48 feet) long. in many reactor designs the coolant and the moderator are one and the same. These control rods are connected to machines that can raise or lower them in the core. The most common coolant used in nuclear power plants today is water. fission can not occur because they absorb free neutrons. when they are pulled out of the reactor. The moderator serves to slow down the high speed neutrons "flying" all around the reactor core. The most common moderator is water. Fuel Fuel Assembly Rods Containing a Number of . the heat exchanger. and the coolant. When they are fully lowered into the core. Outside the core are the turbines. They are each about a centimeter in diameter. which are then placed in the reactor core. The coolant water is heated by the nuclear reactions going on inside the core. Also in the core are control rods.
thus raising its boiling point above the normal 100° Celsius. a fuel rod transportation canister is in the background (blue arrow). In front of that is the pit where the reactor core would normally reside (red arrow).20 this heated water does not boil because it is kept at an extremely intense pressure. . The Inside of a Reactor Containment Structure One can see the heavy concrete walls from which the structure is made. Also.
The metallic pipes conduct the heat from the moderator to the normal water. where electricity is produced. the water is still very hot. It must be cooled somehow. They do not actually house any reactors. This is done through the heat exchanger. which works by moving the radioactive water through a series of pipes that are wrapped around other pipes. the normal water (now in steam form and intensely hot) moves to the turbine. After the hot water has passed through the turbine. the Site of a Nuclear Accident The steam towers are the large objects in the upper part of the picture. Many nuclear power plants used steam towers to cool this water with air. Then. At reactors that do not have . and their only purpose is to cool water after it has passed through the turbines. so it can not leave the inner reactor containment.21 The heated water rises up and passes through another part of the reactor. Three Mile Island. These are generally the buildings that people associate with nuclear power plants. which can then be sent out of the reactor shielding. Its heat must be transferred to non-radioactive water. some of its energy is changed into electricity. the heat exchanger. However. The moderator/coolant water is radioactive.
Basic Function Reactor Cold coolant: After releasing its heat to the steam generator. and cool water is pumped in to replace it. the clean water is purified and dumped into the nearest body of water. .22 towers. the cold coolant returns to the reactor.
Process . Reactor: Tightly sealed area where fission of the fuel is carried out in a controlled manner to release heat. Water Pipes Hot coolant: The coolant extracts heat from the fuel and carries it toward the steam generator. Water turns into steam: The hot coolant heats the water of the generator and brings it to the boiling point.23 Transfer of heat to water: The coolant releases the heat given off by the fission of uranium to the steam generator.
24 Containment building: Concrete building used to collect the radioactive steam from the reactor in the event of an accident. Sprinklers: Devices that are release water to condense radioactive steam. Cooling Tower Dousing water tank: Vat that contains water to cool the radioactive steam in the reactor in the event of an accident. Valve . Safety valve: Devices that are lower the pressure inside the reactor by discharging the radioactive steam to the containment building. this prevents a rise in pressure.
this frees neutrons and releases energy in the form of heat. Heat Transfer Turbine shaft turns generator: The rotational movement of the turbine is transmitted to the generator’s rotor. Generator . which is transmitted to the coolant. Production of electricity by the generator: The generator produces electricity through the movement of the rotor in the stator. Heat production: The fission of atoms releases intense heat (between 575°F and 925°F).25 Fission of uranium fuel: The nuclei of the atoms break up.
as a result. energy losses. the steam cools and condenses into water. Condensation of steam into water: At the turbine outlet. Water into steam generator: After passing through the turbine. Electricity transmission: Using high-voltage lines to transmit electricity over long distances reduces the strength of the current and. . water produced by the condensation of the steam returns to the steam generator.26 Coolant: Liquid or gas (including heavy water and carbon dioxide) that circulates inside the reactor. Water cools the used steam: Cooling of the steam from the turbine is done with river or lake water. it harnesses and transports the heat released during fission of the fuel.
Meter Steam pressure drives turbine: Steam from the steam generator turns the turbine runner. Moderator: Substance (ordinary water.27 Voltage increase: At the outlet end of the power plant. this reduces energy losses during transmission over long distances. the transformer increases the voltage. heavy water. which is connected to the generator. graphite) that slows the fast-moving neutrons emitted during fission to increase the probability of new collisions. plutonium). energy is extracted from it by fission. Turbine Fuel: Matter placed in the core of the reactor that contains heavy atoms (uranium. Life cycle: .
and it can be moved to dry storage casks or reprocessed. the enriched uranium. the uranium ore is extracted. Here. is used to make rods of the proper composition and geometry for the particular reactor that the fuel is destined for. The fuel rods will spend about 3 operational cycles (typically 6 years total now) inside the reactor. usually converted into a stable and compact form such as yellowcake. or insitu leach mines. In reprocessing 95% of spent fuel can be recycled to be returned to usage in a power plant (4). Conventional fuel resources: . After usage in the power plant.28 Life Cycle The Nuclear Fuel Cycle begins when uranium is mined. (1) which is delivered to a nuclear power plant. the yellowcake is converted to uranium hexafluoride. In any case. the spent fuel is radioactively and thermally cool enough to handle. open-pit. then they will be moved to a spent fuel pool where the short lived isotopes generated by fission can decay away. Uranium mines are underground. A nuclear reactor is only part of the life-cycle for nuclear power. The process starts with mining. and then transported to a processing facility.7% U-235. containing more than the natural 0. At this point. the spent fuel is delivered to a reprocessing plant (2) or to a final repository (3) for geological disposition. which is then enriched using various techniques. generally until about 3% of their uranium has been fissional. and manufactured into nuclear fuel. After about 5 years in a cooling pond. enriched.
a doubling of price from present levels could be expected to create about a tenfold increase in measured resources. whereas doubling the price of natural gas would typically add 70% to the price of electricity from that source. Uranium is a constituent of most rocks. Therefore the fuel's contribution to the overall cost of the electricity produced is relatively small. On the basis of analogies with other metallic minerals. Uranium is approximately as common as tin or germanium in Earth's crust. fissioning only the very rare uranium-235 isotope. are enough to last for "at least a century" at current consumption rates. over time. For instance. Nuclear reprocessing can make this waste reusable and more efficient reactor designs allow better use of the available resources. dirt. The fact that uranium is so spread out is a problem because mining uranium is only economically feasible where there is a large concentration. typically a doubling of the uranium market price would increase the fuel cost for a light water reactor by 26% and the electricity cost about 7%. However. so even a large fuel price escalation will have relatively little effect on final price. and of the oceans.29 Fuel Uranium is a fairly common element in the Earth's crust. eventually extraction from sources such as granite and seawater become economically feasible. At high enough prices. . economically recoverable at a price of 130 USD/kg. This represents a higher level of assured resources than is normal for most minerals. the world's present measured resources of uranium. Current light water reactors make relatively inefficient use of nuclear fuel. the cost of nuclear power lies for the most part in the construction of the power station. Still. and is about 35 times more common than silver.
as it has abundant thorium reserves but little uranium. It has been estimated that there is up to five billion years’ worth of uranium-238 for use in these power plants. Thorium is about 3. As of December 2005.5 times as common as uranium in the Earth's crust. Another alternative would be to use uranium-233 bred from thorium as fission fuel in the thorium fuel cycle. Also. but the high cost of reprocessing fuel safely requires uranium prices of more than 200 USD/kg before becoming justified economically. at Beloyarsk nuclear power plant.7% of all natural uranium). Russia. fast breeder reactors are not necessary it can be performed satisfactorily in more conventional plants. the only breeder reactor producing power is BN-600 in Beloyarsk. and has different geographic characteristics. Japan's Monju reactor is planned for restart (having been shut down since 1995). Breeder technology has been used in several reactors.Unlike the breeding of U-238 into plutonium.30 Breeding: As opposed to current light water reactors which use uranium-235 (0.3% of all natural uranium). Water: Water Pipes . BN-800. The electricity output of BN-600 is 600 MW Russia has planned to build another unit. This would extend the total practical fissionable resource base by 450%. India has looked into this technology. fast breeder reactors use uranium-238 (99. and both China and India intend to build breeder reactors.
AZ is the only nuclear generating facility in the world that is not located adjacent to a large body of water.637. nuclear power plants generate large quantities of waste heat which is expelled in the condenser.31 Like all forms of power generation using steam turbines.306 m³ a year (figures from the Environment Agency) of fresh water from Waste Water is still abstracted to use on site for various processes. plutonium.4 m³ a day (over 4 million gallons) and 6. The Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station near Phoenix.184. or oceans. two-thirds of the energy produced by a nuclear power plant goes into waste heat (see Carnot cycle). a maximum of 18. and curium) are responsible for . The most important waste stream from nuclear power plants is spent fuel. Like conventional power plants. It is primarily composed of unconverted uranium as well as significant quantities of transuranic actinides (plutonium and curium. As with most power plants. The actinides (uranium. which is no longer producing electricity. In addition.000 m³) of wastewater each year. A large nuclear reactor produces 3 cubic meters (25–30 tones) of spent fuel each year. following the turbine. rivers. recycling 20 billion US gallons (76. it uses treated sewage from several nearby municipalities to meet its cooling water needs. Droughts can pose a severe problem by causing the source of cooling water to run out. Coloration of plants that can take advantage of this thermal energy has been suggested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as a way to take advantage of process synergy for added energy efficiency. mostly).000. lakes. and that heat is carried away from the plant in the water (which remains uncontaminated by radioactivity). The emitted water either is sent into cooling towers where it goes up and is emitted as water droplets (literally a cloud) or is discharged into large bodies of water — cooling ponds. Instead. about 3% of it is made of fission products. (Separation of water into hydrogen and oxygen can use less energy if the water begins at a high temperature. At Sellafield. One example would be to use the power plant steam to produce hydrogen from water. nuclear power plants use large amounts of water for cooling.) Solid waste: The safe storage and disposal of nuclear waste is a significant challenge and yet unresolved problem.
As of 2007. scientists are experimenting on how to recycle these rods to reduce waste.000 . High-level radioactive waste: Core Spent fuel is highly radioactive and needs to be handled with great care and forethought. depending on the type of fuel. This interim stage spans years or decades or millennia.S. after 40 years. After 10. where the fuel is stored in steel and concrete containers until its radioactivity decreases naturally ("decays") to levels safe enough for other processing.32 the bulk of the long term radioactivity. Underground storage at Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in U. the radiation flux is 99. waste is currently stored in temporary storage sites requiring oversight.S. usually located on-site.000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors. while suitable permanent disposal methods are discussed. Most U. has been proposed as permanent storage. The water provides both cooling for the still-decaying fission products. spent nuclear fuel becomes less radioactive over the course of thousands of years of time. However. Spent fuel rods are stored in shielded basins of water (spent fuel pools). the United States had accumulated more than 50. In the meantime. although still dangerously radioactive. and shielding from the continuing radioactivity.9% lower than it was the moment the spent fuel was removed. Today. After about 5 percent of the rod has reacted the rod is no longer able to be used. whereas the fission products are responsible for the bulk of the short term radioactivity. After a few decades some on-site storage involves moving the now cooler. less radioactive fuel to a dry-storage facility or dry cask storage.
and therefore this is properly categorized as a long-term problem. In the United States. but maybe in 100 years perhaps scientists will. the waste must be segregated from the environment for one to a few hundred years. France reprocesses its nuclear waste to reduce its mass and make more energy.. There is hope that current waste may well become a valuable resource in the future. The amount of waste can be reduced in several ways. particularly reprocessing. and using fast breeder reactors to destroy by transmutation some of the longer-lived non-actinides as well. and (upon decommissioning) the materials of which the reactor itself is built. the spent nuclear fuel will no longer pose a threat to public health and safety. water purifier resins.'" Further. and the cheapest electricity in all of Europe. "Today we stock containers of waste because currently scientists don't know how to reduce or eliminate the toxicity. Low-level radioactive waste: The nuclear industry also produces a huge volume of low-level radioactive waste in the form of contaminated items like clothing. Sub critical reactors or fusion reactors could also reduce the time the waste has to be stored. However. the remaining waste will be substantially radioactive for at least 300 years even if the actinides are removed and for up to thousands of years if the actinides are left in. according to United States Environmental Protection Agency standards. It has been argued that the best solution for the nuclear waste is above ground temporary storage since technology is rapidly changing. says Mandil. the article continues. It is. then 'I do not see how we can continue our nuclear program...33 years of radioactive decay. Even with separation of all actinides. hand tools. the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has repeatedly attempted to allow low-level materials to be handled as normal waste: land filled. Nuclear waste is an enormously difficult political problem which to date no country has solved. et . nuclear power gives France the cleanest air of any industrialized country. According to a 2007 story broadcast on 60 Minutes. recycled into consumer items. in a sense.. Even so. such as the Union of Concerned Scientists. reprocessing itself has its critics. the Achilles heel of the nuclear industry. If France is unable to solve this issue.
Comparing radioactive to industrial toxic waste: In countries with nuclear power. and the differences in exposure lie in the fact that nuclear plants use heavy shielding to protect the environment from the heavily irradiated reactor vessel. Most low-level waste releases very low levels of radioactivity and is only considered radioactive waste because of its history. Coal-burning plants are particularly noted for producing large amounts of toxic and mildly radioactive ash due to concentrating naturally occurring metals and radioactive material from the coal. and any radioactive waste on site. reputable journals point out that coal ash is not more radioactive than nuclear waste. The full potential of reprocessing has not been achieved because it requires breeder reactors. radioactive wastes comprise less than 1% of total industrial toxic wastes. and that the population effective dose equivalent from radiation from coal plants is 100 times as much as nuclear plants. nuclear power produces far less waste material than fossil-fuel based power plants. completely non-toxic. France is generally cited as the most successful preprocessor. putting it into new mixed oxide fuel. which remain hazardous indefinitely unless they decompose or are treated so that they are less toxic or. Overall. and is being done on an expanding scale in Japan. but it presently only recycles 28% (by mass) of the yearly fuel use 7% within France and another 21% in Russia. Unlike other countries. since this is largely short-lived fission products. the . Recent reports claim that coal power actually results in more radioactive waste being released into the environment than nuclear power. fuel rods. ideally. soon will be done in China and perhaps India. However. Reprocessing: Reprocessing can potentially recover up to 95% of the remaining uranium and plutonium in spent nuclear fuel. which are not yet commercially available.34 cetera. France and (formerly) Russia. and reduces its volume by over 90%. This produces a reduction in long term radioactivity within the remaining waste. Reprocessing of civilian fuel from power reactors is currently done on large scale in Britain.
in the U. and bullets. due to uranium's tendency to fracture along shear bands.S. Depleted uranium is also useful in munitions as DU penetrates (bullets or APFSDS tips) "self sharpen". It would be an international effort to reprocess fuel in a manner making nuclear proliferation unfeasible. the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership was announced. The report also states that approximately 70% of ingested DU will leave the body after twenty four hours and 90% after a few days. 2006. . Even so. In January 2003 the World Health Organization released a report finding that contamination from DU munitions were localized to a few tens of meters from the impact sites and contamination of local vegetation and water was 'extremely low'. a new U. reprocessing is now allowed in the U. spent nuclear fuel is currently all treated as waste. initiative. aircraft production.S. and armor—as it has a higher density than lead. such as tank crews and civilians living in areas where large quantities of DU ammunition have been used in shielding. since reprocessed material such as plutonium could be used in nuclear weapons: however. There are concerns that U-238 may lead to health problems in groups exposed to this material excessively. Reprocessing Depleted Uranium: Uranium enrichment produces many tons of depleted uranium (DU) which consists of U238 with most of the easily fissile U-235 isotope removed. bombs.S. radiation shielding. In February.35 US stopped civilian reprocessing from 1976 to 1981 as one part of US non-proliferation policy. missile warheads. while making nuclear power available to developing countries. U-238 is a tough metal with several commercial uses—for example.
and dispute whether the risks can be reduced through new technology. and the disadvantages of centralized electricity production. Critics believe that nuclear power is a potentially dangerous energy source. and that nuclear waste storage technology virtually eliminates the risk of radiation leakage.36 Debate on nuclear power: Proponents of nuclear energy contend that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions and increases energy security by decreasing dependence on foreign oil. Critics point to the issue of storing radioactive waste. are highly radioactive and must initially be stored in specially designed pools resembling large swimming pools (water cools the fuel and acts as a radiation shield) or in specially designed dry storage containers. on the other hand. the continuing possibility of nuclear proliferation. Spent Fuel: The spent fuel assemblies. Arguments of economics and safety are used by both sides of the debate. Proponents advance the notion that nuclear power produces virtually no air pollution. in contrast to the chief viable alternative of fossil fuel combustion. the history of and continuing potential for radioactive contamination by accident or sabotage. Proponents also point out that nuclear power is the only viable course to achieve energy independence for most Western countries. An . Proponents also emphasize that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest technology in newer reactors and that the operational safety record of nuclear plants in the Western world is far better when compared to the other major types of power plants. with decreasing proportion of nuclear energy in production.
not the combustion of fossil fuels. The heat is used to raise the temperature of water. The high temperature and intense pressure steam that result from the boiling of the water turns a turbine.37 increasing number of reactor operators now store their older spent fuel in dry storage facilities using special outdoor concrete or steel containers with air cooling. but oil is also sometimes used. However. A conventional power plant burns fuel to create heat. From Fission to Electricity: A nuclear power plant produces electricity in almost exactly the same way that a conventional (fossil fuel) power plant does. The fuel is generally coal. A nuclear power plant works the same way. thus causing it to boil. a small amount of emissions result from processing the uranium that is used in nuclear reactors. except that the heat used to boil the water is produced by a nuclear fission reaction using 235U as fuel. Carbon Dioxide: Unlike fossil fuel-fired power plants. nuclear power plants produce no air pollution or carbon dioxide. A nuclear power plant uses much less fuel than a . which then generates electricity.
the BWR also has a few advantages. for example. Deuterium is heavier than normal hydrogen. This type of reactor differs from the PWR in that there is only one water cycle. pressurized and boiling. Its core can be kept at a lower pressure. non-radioactive water inside the second loop. This is because the heavy water is a much more efficient moderator than light . The second most popular reactor type is the Boiling Water Reactor (BRW). This produces more hazardous material that needs to be disposed of when a reactor is dismantled. A rough estimate is that it takes 17. However. there are two main water cycles.000 kilograms of coal to produce the same amount of electricity as 1 kilogram of nuclear uranium fuel. Another type of reactor is the Heavy Water Reactor (HWR). A HWR uses heavy water as a moderator instead of normal water. thus causing it to become radioactive too. The advantage of a HWR is that un-enriched uranium fuel can be used. HWR's come in two types. One is the water inside the core that is highly radioactive. which has no neutrons.38 comparable fossil fuel plant. just like normal "light water" reactors. Other Types of Reactors: Although the most common type of reactor is the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This water's heat is transferred to other. The major disadvantage of this is that the radioactive nuclides in the water that cause its radioactivity can be transferred to the turbine. as we described earlier. which is an isotope of hydrogen with 1 neutron. Radioactive water is used to turn the turbine. In the PWR. many other types of reactors are also used. This water is then used to turn a turbine. Heavy water is water with deuterium.
This more efficient moderator makes up for the greater abundance of the neutroncapturing 238U. Since the late 1980s worldwide capacity has risen much more slowly. Thus. Development: History of the use of nuclear power and the number of active nuclear power plants Installed nuclear capacity initially rose relatively quickly. and 300 GW in the late 1980s. More than two-thirds of all nuclear plants ordered after January 1970 were eventually cancelled. more than 50 GW of capacity was under construction (peaking at over 150 GW in the late 70s and early 80s) — in 2005. Inside of Power Plant . around 25 GW of new capacity was planned. A total of 63 nuclear units were canceled in the USA between 1975 and 1980. rising from less than 1 gigawatt (GW) in 1960 to 100 GW in the late 1970s. Between around 1970 and 1990.39 water. more stray neutrons can be slowed down enough to cause fission in 235U. reaching 366 GW in 2005.
respectively. nuclear proliferation.) and 1990s (Europe). the much more serious Chernobyl accident did not increase regulations affecting Western reactors since the Chernobyl reactors were of the problematic RBMK design only used in the Soviet Union. Many of these reactors are still in use today. During the 1970s and 1980s rising economic costs (related to extended construction times largely due to regulatory changes and pressure-group litigation) and falling fossil fuel prices made nuclear power plants then under construction less attractive. the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl disaster played a part in stopping new plant construction in many countries. The 1973 oil crisis had a significant effect on countries. A general movement against nuclear power arose during the last third of the 20th century. In the 1980s (U. which had relied more heavily on oil for electric generation (39% and 73% respectively) to invest in nuclear power. Unlike the Three Mile Island accident.40 Inside of Power Plant Washington Public Power Supply System Nuclear Power Plants 3 and 5 were never completed.S. nuclear power supplies about 80% and 30% of the electricity in those countries. and on the opposition to nuclear waste production. Perceived risks on the citizens' health and safety. Today. flat load growth and electricity liberalization also made the addition of large new base load capacity unattractive. fears of radiation as well as the history of radiation of the public. However. for example lacking "robust" containment buildings. because the Institution's research concludes they cost 15–30% more over their lifetime than conventional coal and natural gas fired plants. based on the fear of a possible nuclear accident as well as the history of accidents. transport and lack of any final storage plans. changes were made in both the reactors themselves (use of low enriched uranium) and in the control system . such as France and Japan. although the public policy organization Brookings Institution suggests that new nuclear units have not been ordered in the U.S.
. In July 2009. Sweden (1980) and Italy (1987) (influenced by Chernobyl) voted in referendums to oppose or phase out nuclear power. if enacted by government. An international organization to promote safety awareness and professional development on operators in nuclear facilities was created: WANO. or construct additional reactor blocks in existing facilities. It is therefore usually more economical to run them as long as possible. In 2009. and construction time could reduce the gap. Opposition in Ireland.S. Carbon emission credits. new nuclear power plant construction costs were rising faster than the costs of other types of power plants. However. A prestigious panel assembled for a 2003 MIT study of the industry found the following: In deregulated markets. can give nuclear power a cost advantage. ranged from $6 to $10 billion. Future of the industry: . while Austria (1978). and Poland prevented nuclear programs there. plausible reductions by industry in capital cost. Economics: The economics of nuclear power plants are primarily influenced by the high initial investment necessary to construct a plant. estimates for the cost of a new plant in the U.41 (prevention of disabling safety systems) to reduce the possibility of a duplicate accident. In 2008. the Italian Parliament passed a law that canceled the results of an earlier referendum and allowed the immediate start of the Italian nuclear program. operation and maintenance costs. World Association of Nuclear Operators. nuclear power is not now cost competitive with coal and natural gas.
and authorized the Department of Energy to build a reactor based on the Generation IV Very-HighTemperature Reactor concept to produce both electricity and hydrogen. and by the year 2015 this rate could increase to one every 5 days. Department of Energy's solicitation under the Nuclear Power 2010 Program and were awarded matching funds—the Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorized loan guarantees for up to six new reactors. fossil fuel price increases.42 Head of Reactor As of 2007. nuclear power is of particular interest to both China and India to serve their . commercial nuclear reactor to go on-line. was the last U. all actively developing both fast and thermal technology. 1996. Watts Bar 1. As of the early 21st century. Many countries remain active in developing nuclear power. According to the World Nuclear Association. developing thermal technology only. three consortia responded in 2004 to the U. South Korea and the United States. Japan has an active nuclear construction program with new units brought on-line in 2005. globally during the 1980s one new nuclear reactor started up every 17 days on average. while some other member states continue to have a ban for the nuclear energy use. developing versions of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR).. Japan. and South Africa and China. However. even in the U.S. China and India. Several EU member states actively pursue nuclear programs. new technology such as passively safe plants. and some nuclear industry experts predict electricity shortages. which came on-line in February 7.S. and national energy security will renew the demand for nuclear power plants. investment in research and in the nuclear fuel cycle has continued. In the U. and throughout Europe.S. global warming and heavy metal emissions from fossil fuel use.S. This is often quoted as evidence of a successful worldwide campaign for nuclear power phase-out. including Pakistan.
The one . China goes for an additional 20 plants and Japan. There is a possible impediment to production of nuclear power plants as only a few companies worldwide have the capacity to forge single-piece containment vessels. Inside of Head This graph illustrates the potential rise in CO2 emissions if base-load electricity currently produced in the U. which reduce the risk of a radiation leak. which may have to be filled by either new nuclear plant construction or maintaining existing plants beyond their programmed lifetime. Korea or Eastern Europe add a few units.S. or finding ways to make a similar item using alternate methods. (See also energy development). Other manufacturers are examining various options. Other solutions include using designs that do not require single-piece forged pressure vessels such as Canada's Advanced CANDU Reactors or Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors. including making the component themselves. it will be difficult to maintain or increase the number of operating nuclear power plants over the next 20 years. Note: graph assumes all 104 American nuclear power plants receive license extensions out to 60 years. by nuclear power were replaced by coal or natural gas as current reactors go offline after their 60 year licenses expire.43 rapidly growing economies—both are developing fast breeder reactors. In the energy policy of the United Kingdom it is recognized that there is a likely future energy supply shortfall. Utilities across the world are submitting orders years in advance of any actual need for these vessels. the overall worldwide trend will most likely be downwards over the next two decades". The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009 states that "even if Finland and France each builds a reactor or two. With long lead times of 10 years or more.
France now gets 77 per cent of its total electricity from 55 nuclear plants. the project will not get momentum. and return to power for the second term in a row is not guaranteed as evident in election results since 1991.44 exception to this outcome would be if operating lifetimes could be substantially increased beyond 40 years on average. Further. and plans to build more than 30 new ones are under consideration. provided that safety can be maintained. the U. However. while Bangladesh’s lone project area turned into a cattle grazing field although successive governments had no dearth of pledges to generate more power and explore new energy resources.S. allowing the project to roll from one government to another. though that would not be enough to increase nuclear's share of electricity generation.S. while in the US the licenses of almost half its reactors have already been extended to 60 years. energy security. as the loss in non-CO2-emitting generation capacity by retiring reactors "may serve to challenge U. China plans to build more than 100 plants. There had been no major opposition from any quarter to Bangladesh’s strides in installing nuclear reactors for power generation. in increments of 20 years. This seems unlikely since the present average age of the operating nuclear power plant fleet in the world is 25 years. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) predicted that nuclear power capacity could double by 2030. Nuclear Power Plant in Bangladesh: The Pakistan government undertook the nuclear power project in 1961 at Rooppur in Pabna and the land was acquired in 1963 even before France had its first nuclear power plant in 1964. and contributing to an imbalance between electric supply and demand. Department of Energy have initiated research into Light water reactor sustainability which is hoped will lead to allowing extensions of reactor licenses beyond 60 years. potentially resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions. Lack of political will and bureaucratic tangles held back the . NRC and the U.S. The concerns that who will laugh the last matter most in leading the project to success as development of a nuclear electricity plant takes at least seven years — longer than the five-year tenure of an elected government." In 2008. The issue came up for discussion during each regime since then and soon fizzled out. Unless the head of the government interferes properly.
Japan 25. Bangladesh would need further preparations for the project as it involved a lot of matters ranging from environmental aspects to reactors safety. In 1980. morphological analysis.100MW from nuclear reactors by 2015 to meet the growing power demands. who deals with the present negotiation with Russian authorities. the country obtained green signal from the International Atomic Energy Commission. Bureaucrats are not directly involved in the process of research of nuclear science. They are not well equipped with information. Russia is the last country with which Bangladesh signed n MoU earlier this year. Russia 17 and United Kingdom 14 per cent. though the work is yet to get desired pace. Pre-implementation phase activities for construction of the units on Rooppur site were done over the years by the BAEC with supports from the IAEA and other national organizations.45 project for decades. expressed optimism. Bangladesh has signed agreements with a few countries for cooperation for peaceful use of nuclear energy.’ Though the Rooppur site now looked ready. but it may take seven years to implement the project once the government signs contact with any reactor suppliers. Now the government hopes to get 1. The governments conducted a number of feasibility studies and identified nuclear power generation appropriate and viable for Bangladesh both technically and economically. South Korea and China over the decades. India and Pakistan generate 2 per cent of their electricity from nuclear reactors. protocols and conventions for required for developing nuclear energy and the IAEA has given green signal to go ahead with the project. Bangladesh has signed all the treaties. but not impossible. The site safety report by the international authorities for the proposed Rooppur plant was finalized early this decade and some additional investigation into hydrology. United States 20. Almost every government endorsed the experts’ suggestion that early implementation of nuclear power project would add more value to national development as at least 30 countries are now considering nuclear power as a viable option for energy security. It may seem difficult. Meanwhile. while South Korea gets 29 per cent of its electricity from nuclear plants. Russia. Asked whether Bangladesh would be able to begin project work by 2010. apart from assurances of technical supports from a number of countries including France. Even then the scientists are to concede to their decisions. USA. a joint secretary at the science and information technology ministry. a 125MW plant was approved after a study that suggested for two units of 300MW nuclear plants. subsoil .
Bangladesh would need at least 500 nuclear scientists for a 1. Another point is that under 'take back option'. It is the fuel supplier who may consider this take back option. reactor supplier will take back high level wastes. About the cost involvement in nuclear power plant.’ meaning that the reactor suppliers will take the high-level radioactive wastes back. Nuclear power plant cannot a prestige issue. For nuclear waste disposal. The safety report was also updated. It must be realized that the reactor vendor has nothing to do with radioactive wastes. Bangladesh stands in a position for pursuing ‘take back option. these substances are now being recycled to produce metal oxide fuel. About reactor’s safety and probability of accidents. the third generation reactor has the highest safety mechanism with probability of one accident in a million year. is not a suitable site. Other than scientists. but experiences in other countries say electricity production is cost effective in comparison to other natural resources. The site in Rooppur in Pabna. Most of the world's NPPs are either in coastal areas or in remote inland areas. Authorized discharges of radioactive liquid and gaseous wastes will affect surrounding population and cancer incidence will go up drastically. But there is no decision about low and intermediate level wastes. Moreover. which are considered commercial commodity nowadays. but then it will contrary to the international treaty. Bangladesh and Russia have signed in Moscow a protocol on cooperation on peaceful use of atomic energy.000 MW nuclear power plant for its operation and maintenance after its installation. A successive government dithered in taking a positive decision on the nuclear power plant (NPP) issue. the BAEC is fully ready to work for setting up a nuclear power plant with its existing resources. But. seismic studies and radiological dispersion were also carried out. . its initial cost is higher. It will get 4-5 years to take our own preparations following the signing of an agreement with any state for setting up a nuclear power plant. surrounded by dense population. it is the credit to the successive governments that no decision had been taken without adequate consideration. The Moscow protocol was signed in the backdrop of Bangladesh planning to opt for a nuclear power plant to meet the crippling shortage of electricity in the country.46 investigation.
online book by Bernard L.S.org . the National Digital Science Library at Washington & Lee University. "The Economics of Nuclear Power: analysis of recent studies"PDF (305 KB).wikipedia.47 Bibliography: http://www.com • • • • • An entry to nuclear power through an educational discussion of reactors The Nuclear Energy Option. Cohen. UK Nuclear power information archives from ALSOS. Steve Thomas (2005). PSIRU.thinkquest. Nuclear Plants since 1970s http://library. University of Greenwich. Texas Will Host First New U.
google.html http://www.com/images .doe.com http://tonto.doe.eia.eia.48 http://visual.gov http://www.gov/kids/energyexplained/sources/non-renewable/nuclear.merriam-webster.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.