Submitted to Submitted by

June 14

Sir Arif Naveed Ali



Improving Capacity & Coverage in Cellular Systems

Section Roll no #

T.E 8th 052

Any base station channel may be assigned to any zone by the BS (base station). Capacity improvement is achieved by reducing the number of cells per cluster. thus increasing frequency reuse. 1 sectoring keeps R untouched and reduces the D/R.A handoff is not required at MSC(main switching center) when the mobile travels between zones within a cell.The Micro Zone Cell Concept Q no. it retains the same channel. 1 . In microcell zone approach. (ii) The increased number of handoffs required when sectoring1 is employed results in an increased load on the switching and control link elements. when a mobile travels from one zone to another within the cell.1:-Why microcell zone is in cellular system. Why it is needed. discuss it should be there in cellular system or not? Ans:-(i) The microcell zone concept is used in cellular systems to specifically increase the capacity and coverage in cellular systems.

it retains same channel. 2 .   A cell is divided into zones with a single BS sharing the same radio equipment Zones are connected through coaxial cable.  Co-channel interference is minimized because: Large BS is replaced by several low powered TX Improves S/I A given channel is active only in the particular zonein which the mobile is travelling. fiber optics or microwave links to the BS Superior to sectoring since antennas are placed at outer edges of the cells and any channel may be assigned to any zone by BS  As mobile travels from one zone to other. Particularly useful along highways or along urban traffic corridors. BS simply switches the channel to a different zone. and the base station radiation is localized and interference is reduced.

Each hexagon represents a zone and 3 hexagons represent a cell.a D/R of 4. Capacity of system related to distance between co-channel cells and notzones. No extra handoffs.6 was shown to achieve this. Increase in capacity (since smaller cluster size can be used).: cell splitting or sectoring etc. Therefore z/R z=4. Zone radius=One hexagon radius. the microcell zone concept should be used in the cellular system as it is much superior to the other improvement techniques i. D/R = 3 corresponds to N=3 Reduction in cluster size from N=7to N=3 Increase in capacity is 7/3=2. ‡ Illustration of extent of Capacity Increase by an example ± Suppose the desired S/I=18 dB with path loss exponent of n=4. No loss in trunking efficiency (all channels are used by all cells). transmission at any instant is confined to one zone.6. Reduced Interference (Zone radius is small and directional antennas are used). Shown as D. ± How much capacity increase can occur if we use Microcell Zoning of 3 zones/cell??? In zone microcell system. ± For a system of N=7.e. Value of co channel reuse is 3.Advantages: (iii) Yes.33 times 3 .

When a call is routed from one end to another. or the likelihood of a call experiencing a delay greater than a certain queuing time. (ii) The grade of service (GOS3) is a measure of the ability of a user to access a trunked system during the busiest hour. it will pass through several exchanges. It was first used by telephone companies to determine the number of telephone circuits that need to be allocated for buildings. The GOS is an important benchmark used to define the desired performance of a particular trunked system. It is the wireless designer¶s job to estimate the maximum required capacity and to allocate the proper number of channels to meet the GOS. One Erlang represents the amount of traffic intensity carried by a channel that is completely occupied.The fundamentals of trunking theory were developed by Erlang. in which transmission system grade of service is needed? Ans: -(i)Transmission systemsrely on trunking to accommodate a large number of random usersin a limited radio spectrum (fixed number of channels or circuits). If the Grade of Service is 2 3 4 .Trunking theory provides the statistical behavior of users. The Grade of Service can be measured using different sections of a network. If the Grade of Service is calculated based on the number of calls rejected by the final circuit group.The measure of traffic intensity2has the unit ofErlang. then the Grade of Service is determined by the final circuit group blocking criteria.Trunking and Grade of Service Q no: -Why transmission systems rely on trunking. GOS is typically given as the likelihood that a called is blocked.

The Grade of Service should be calculated using both the access networks and the core networks as it is these networks that allow a user to complete an end-to-end connection. This will cater for most scenarios as the traffic intensity will seldom exceed the reference level. then the Grade of Service is determined by the exchange-to-exchange blocking criteria. for example guaranteed maximum blocking probability and outage probability.calculated based on the number of rejected calls between exchanges. The grade of service is a measure of the ability of a user to access a trunk system during the busiest hour. ============================= END============================= 5 . The busy is based upon customer demand at the busiest hour during a week month or year All the telephony transmission systems like high fidelity transmissions and transmission capability for encrypted voice. Furthermore. data transmissions isgrade of service (GoS) requirements. which comprises aspects of a connection relating to capacity and coverage of a network. the Grade of Service should be calculated from the average of the busy hour traffic intensities of the 30 busiest traffic days of the year.

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