European Microfinance Program 2009-2010

INTERNSHIP REPORT

Burkina Faso – May-July 2010
Evaluate the social impact and sustainability of two projects of social business supported by microfinance institutions

CAMMARERI Baptiste Internship supervisor : Laetitia RAGINEL

I. A. 1. 2. 3. B. 1. 2. 3. II.

The NGO – « Entrepreneurs du monde » (EdM)

3

Entrepreneurs du monde France ....................................................................................3 The vision and the actions...........................................................................................3 Sources of funding ......................................................................................................4 Key Figures.................................................................................................................5 Entrepreneurs du monde Burkina Faso...........................................................................5 The partners MFI.........................................................................................................5 The Team....................................................................................................................8 The activities ...............................................................................................................9

Field activities and research results............................................................................13 A. Cost and Impact analysis ..............................................................................................13 B. C. D. 1. 2. 3. E. 1. 2. 3. F. 1. 2. 3. G. Field inquiries – Impact of Improved stove ....................................................................16 Impact barometer ......................................................................................................17 The SROI analysis ....................................................................................................18 The methodology ......................................................................................................18 Critics on the methodology........................................................................................20 Results of our analysis (see appendix 3 for more details).........................................20 Sustainability analysis according to McGill methodology...............................................21 Why this methodology? .............................................................................................21 The methodology McGILL .........................................................................................21 The results ................................................................................................................22 SPI audit .......................................................................................................................22 Different steps ...........................................................................................................23 The SPI for LSK ........................................................................................................23 The SPI for Microstart ...............................................................................................23 Research results .......................................................................................................24

III. Professional and personal experience acquired ........................................................24 A. From Burkina Faso........................................................................................................24 B. C. From Entrepreneurs du Monde .....................................................................................25 From my missions .....................................................................................................25

IV. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................26 V. Appendixes ...................................................................................................................27

Baptiste CAMMARERI –

Internship report - Entrepreneurs du Monde

2010

2

I.

The NGO – « Entrepreneurs du monde » (EdM)
A. Entrepreneurs du monde France 1
1. The vision and the actions

Entrepreneurs du Monde (EdM) is a French NGO created in 1998 and is based in Poitiers. Their main goal is to help an increasing amount of very poor men and women, to create or develop an income generating activity and then creating access to employment. They reach their goal by providing access to microcredits, savings and skilled training in 10 countries in south Asia, west Africa and Haiti, serving close to 60 000 people among the poorest. Their key actions are : • To encourage economic initiative through microcredit to start or develop small businesses • To target the poorest region of the world, especially the slums in Asia and rural area in Africa. • To provide a personalized follow up of the beneficiaries, adapting the products to their specific needs • To Train people : social trainings as well as economic training to favor the success of micro-enterprises • To structure and professionalize the local teams through the hiring of local managers, frequent follow up and powerful information systems. • To target the sustainability of each program on the middle term: 5 to 7 years so that the financial aspect don’t take over the social aspect.

1

Entrepreneurs du monde - Annual report – 2009 downloadable at :

http://entrepreneursdumonde.org/downloads/RA2009_LANG.pdf

Baptiste CAMMARERI –

Internship report - Entrepreneurs du Monde

2010

3

A particular attention is given to the adaptation of the products to the local needs and capacity, which is ensured by a systematic measure of impact in order to follow the beneficiaries living condition on the middle and long term. In order to reinforce this impact on the families, EdM contribute to the organization and structure of value chains with social or environmental value added, that microcredit can help to spread. Depending on the countries, EdM’s approach is different; In south asia, in the area where the poorest where not served, they have set up microfinance institutions. In west Africa, they have supported the creation of two MFI in Benin and Ghana because their was a real lack of services, while in Burkina Faso, which is more served by MFIs, they only provide technical assistance, and financial support to existing MFIs. The team is composed of 17 employees , but the global projects of EdM are hiring more than 500 local employees with local contracts. 2. Sources of funding

EdM is financed through several sources of funding. In 2009, 291 000€ came from the general public, 820 000€ from corporate foundations, that are selected for their social responsibility. 635 000€ come from public subsidies (AFD) , a total of 1,9 million euros are collected, among which 1,3 million are used for the projects as follow:

93 000€ are dedicated to seek fundings and 140 000€ to general administration

Baptiste CAMMARERI –

Internship report - Entrepreneurs du Monde

2010

4

AsIEnA. and the setting up of economic trainings. LSK and Microstart. thus there were no need to create a new MFI however. Ouagadougou (peri-urban areas) Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .3. AsIEnA has been supported by 3 concrete initiatives: the creation of mutual health group. Entrepreneurs du monde is working with 3 different MFIs : AsIEnA . AsIEnA is the result of a collaboration between 38 religious women institutes in Burkina Faso especially targeting women and targeting the 2/3 of the population in Burkina Faso that are living with less than 250FCFA per day. The partners MFI Implemented in Burkina Faso in 2008. the creation of savings and deposit institution. Entrepreneurs du monde Burkina Faso 1. Key Figures B. Diébougou. “Association Inter-Instituts « Ensemble et Avec »”. was created in 2003 and is present in Burkina Faso and Niger with a double mission of solidarity and self reliance. Especially in rural areas : Dédougou. The choice of supporting existing MFIs rather than creating a new one was justify by the large offer of Microcredit in Burkina Faso.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 5 . Koudougou. there is a strong need for technical assistance and financial support for the MFI that have a very social vision.

belonging to the MFI. it allows granting credits to those who need it. Thus a more accurate and strict management is required. Indeed. but this box is funded by external funds. the red box is used for emergencies to finance a taxi to go to the hospital. during the meetings where all members have to be present. This technique has proved very efficient and adapted to rural areas where the MFIs have difficulties to go. train the women at the beginning. and slowly let them manage the money by themselves.AsIEnA is one of the only MFI in Burkina that is using the principle of MUSO (MUtuelles de SOlidarité). It is based on 3 boxes and organized among a group of 15 to 40 people (97% women): The green box is used to collect a regular amount of money which is determined in advance by the members and paid every two weeks or every month. The Red box is the solidarity box: a fixed amount of money is collected during every meeting and put in the red box… but this money is not recuperated. the blue box works like the green box. the management of a MUSO only need one loan officer that coordinate the meetings every month or every two weeks. The Blue box is set up only once the green box is managed well. Indeed. to pay for medicines or help pay funerals. It is a way for the members to get used to self-management of money. The MUSO technique was designed to address several issues : • Make savings • Learn how to manage money with exterior need • Ensure the safety of their savings • Experience solidarity • Share experience • Experience the democratic model. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . based on their own savings.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 6 . The green box is used as a micro fund so that members can lend money to those who need it.

has made the SPI audit in 2009. to reinforce their management capacity. to help them reach financial sustainability providing saving services. has implemented the PAT tool for 60% of the loans. Microstart started its activities in 2000. there are more that 100 MUSO that gathers more than 4000 members in Burkina Faso. work with them on value chain and provide credit lines to help AsIEnA develop their activities. EdM is providing technical assistance for accountancy and general management. to create jobs and improve the living conditions of the beneficiaries. Microstart’s objectives is to become a professional MFI that offer financial products.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 7 . and was created by 10 women that were all previously working in microfinance for 10 years and that wanted to use their knowhow and experience to serve the poor women having a business and seeking adapted financial products to develop their activities. advices and training to help create or develop income generating activities for women. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .Women gathered in MUSO group Up to now. with fast development partly due to the support of EdM.

The Team In order to fulfill its mission. EdM – Burkina Faso .Up to now. EdM-BF is composed of 10 employees that have been recruited locally.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 8 . help bring new clients through the selling of products (improved stove) and will set up the PAT tool. Each activity has one manager and can be divided into 4 main branches of activity. 2. and has done the SPI Audit 2010. EdM is providing them new opportunities of clients by granting microcredits for improved stove. provides financial help to develop social performance. LSK (Laafi Sira Kwieogo) is a young MFI that started its activities in 2008 and target very poor people in peri-urban and rural areas.Organization chart July 2010 Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . a coordinator and a volunteer in charge of the development. EdM has done the SPI audit 2010. For now. Microstart’s credit and savings program has supported the creation or development of 8000 business hold by women.

The activities a) Financial and non financial services It is managed by a microfinance expert that provides technical assistance to the partners when needed and create training support. The whole training activity relies on this branch and has trained more than 2000 people in 2009. gaz stove and banco stove that have a multiple benefits and can thus be considered as Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . The trainings are as various as business planning. 1 forest” : is a program that promotes improved stove. and one is in Armel manages 2 programes: process: “ 1 women. nutrition. management). social trainings (VIH/AIDS. alphabetization) b) Social entrepreneurship one program that is already running. gender issue. Malaria.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 9 .3. 1 stove. enterprise development (marketing.

they have to save money. and reduce health problem allowing a better combustion of the wood and charcoal. they reduce the expenses of the families on wood consumption. they only use ground earth and water. The advantage of this technique is that is 90% of the price of the house is Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . and offering a special financial product to buy it in partnership with the MFIs partners : the “Savings-objective” : the concept is based on a daily saving of 100FCFA (that can be made on 2 or 3 month if women cannot save everyday).social entrepreneurship products : The improved stove create employment and are a profitable business for the craftsmen. Training session on improved stove “One roof for all “: The project deals with housing through microfinance in partnership with an existing association that uses a specific building technique called “ voûte nubienne”. It is an inverted credit : the beneficiaries don’t have to borrow money to have it. (with gaz the health is even more improved). EdM is promoting the use of improved stove by providing trainings to poor women. once the saving card is full (= has reached 30 days). the women can exchange their saving card against an improved stove. For Improved stove that are more expensive or those dedicated to professionals. These houses don’t need wood or steel to be built. This is an ancient technique adapted and standardized to fit local needs. a special microcredit product has been created to facilitate the purchase of the stove.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 10 . they help fight deforestation.

Once the women have sold the bags. women sell Spirulina as a side activity. in order to reach the poorest.e. Besides the traditional commercial way.man power. A project is now running to grant credits to build these types of houses. the door and windows. They only need 150 000 FCFA to pay the mason. EdM and AsIEnA are providing credits in nature to women (they lend them Spirulina 25g bags). I. EdM has implemented a “social price” for Spirulina. For the moment. but some of the 30 women trained are beginning to specialize in Spirulina selling. train them to sell these products (1 bag cost 350FCFA and is sold 500 FCFA).Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 11 . c) Microfinance and health Gnalou is in charge of the pole microfinance and health. The aim of this project is to promote Spirulina consumption through the training of vendors and consumers. The Spirulina is bought to the farms at a lower Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . the owner can gather friends and relatives to build the house. it is working especially on one project : “Spirulina for all” Spirulina is a micro alga with high nutritious power. they can reimburse the loan with 2% interest per month. The Spirulina is produced by local farms and ordered by EdM according to the vendors need. which is produced locally and can be one solution for people victims of malnutrition.

during a training session Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . Spirulina vendors.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 12 . as every actors benefit from this activity.price and packed with a different bag. to be sold to the poorest people at 350 FCFA / bag Pilots project are developing now and model should grow rapidly.

the MFI clients that buy products. I interviewed the different actors of the project in order to precise the details of the project itself and its realization. annual reports. the other NGO that are involved in the project For example. The actors of the project include the members of the NGO. In order to do this cost and impact analysis. in order to have a global vision of the project and understand the context and potential limits.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 13 . Cost and Impact analysis The aim of the cost analysis is to identify the economic factors of sustainability or nonsustainability of the project. SROI analysis. the MFI . I have had the opportunity to realize two SPI audits: for LSK and Microstart. national studies. I interviewed : Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . 1 stove. In addition to these missions directly linked to the objective of the internship. on the project “ 1 women. reports from similar projects conducted by other actors. A. according to Cerise methodology and in cooperation with them. Field activities and research results The objective of this internship was to « evaluate the impact and sustainability of the projects supported by Entrepreneurs du monde (social entrepreneurship projects)” This objective has been composed by several missions and steps the value chain cost analysis of the projects.II. I processed with different steps: I gathered all the existing information on the project: market studies. Sustainability analysis according to the McGill Framework. 1 forest”. the suppliers of the products. and mission reports.

It showed that producing improved stove is a profitable business. allowed making a triangulation of the information. thus there is a great need to make producers and consumers aware to produce and ask for good quality products. For personal and professional use The training of the producers: if on the medium term. producing Improved stove is not a profitable activity) The quality of the product % price. the sustainability is not ensured The level of communication to promote the improve stove (social training. else it could ruin the image of the improved stove. The financing possibilities offered by the MFI to acquire an improved stove. The Final Aim of this cost and impact analysis was to estimate the Impacts generated by the projects which were determined thanks to the data and interviews collected before and gathered in a table taking into consideration a maximum of parameters. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . nobody can train new producers to build improved stove. in order to make the impact tool the more accurate as possible.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 14 .- EdM’s general manager GUENGUERE Laetitia RAGINEL + project manager Armel - 15 beneficiaries 4 Stove producers GTZ general manager : Andrea REIKAT (train producers) IRSAT – Dr SANOGO – designer of the stoves The results of these interviews and data collected before. and thus establishing a reliable cost analysis study that showed a first set of economic impacts generated by the projects. or marketing) The level of acceptation of the improved stove in rural/traditional areas. which is a favorable indicator concerning the sustainability of the project It also pointed out that the sustainability of this project depends on several issues: either economic or cultural: Indeed the sustainability of the project depends on: The variation of the price of raw material The difficulty/cost of transport to find raw material (if it’s too expensive.

Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 15 . the improved stove that have been sold from January to June 2010 have generated the following impacts : (see appendix 1 for more details) The same process has been done for the second project : “Spirulina for all” It allowed us to identify the key elements that can make the project fail or success. reduce their cost The level of acceptation of Spirulina in people’s consumption/habits The ability of the Spirulina promoters to make people aware of the interest of Spirulina Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .The results is that up to now. The sustainability of the project depends on : The ability of the farms to be profitable : find new clients.

Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 16 . We went on the field to administrate the questionnaire with the project manager and did it on 15 beneficiaries that had an improved stove for at least 6 months. other reports and previously released studies in other countries.B. and gathering all the data at a same place. I created a questionnaire to be administered to the beneficiaries. each questionnaire took 10minutes to answer. One part of the questionnaire tries to assess the progress that has been made regarding the health improvement. and we considered it was relevant for this analysis. being shared by several people. Field inquiries – Impact of Improved stove For the Value chain cost analysis. This part has been inspired by an existing analysis made on indoor air pollution. being host on the internet (no risk of losing data). I created a “Google spreadsheet” (appendix 2 ) that allow us to seize the data directly and the advantage to automatically generate the graphics . So in order confirm the data and update them to the local context. all the data were found in statistics. Back to the office. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .

and the follow up . (stoves sold in January have more real time impacts than stoves sold in December) To facilitate the communication of these impact.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 17 . but also on : The money saved due to less wood consumption The time saved due to more efficient burning power Amount of wood saved Amount of CO2 saved The revenue generated for the craftsmen The calculus are based on the national statistics and have been confirmed by the data collected during the field inquiries. and it automatically calculates the “theoretical” impacts generated by the project on year 2010.C. Example : How to calculate money saved on wood : = Efficiency of the stove * amount of wood consumed per person per day * nb of persons in the family * price of wood per kg* rate of wood bought vs picked * nb of stove sold * lifetime of the stove In order to follow the real time impacts. I used the data and interviews to estimate the impacts of the project not only in terms of money generated for the producers. I created a barometer of the impacts that is advertised in the office and can be seen by everybody showing how many stoves we have sold and the resulting impacts Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . Impact barometer Besides this cost analysis. I designed a table to be filled every month with the types of stove sold and the location : urban or rural area.

Ex : for 1750 stove sold. The methodology The SROI methodology was created in 2002 in the USA. the SROI allow clearly identifying the activities and the related impacts of each stakeholder of a project.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 18 . Une analyse SROI se fait en 10 étapes clef : 1. The SROI analysis 1. what is the social value created. It will be replicated for the other projects and probably in the other branches of Entrepreneurs du monde. in other words. Introduction of the project 2. For the investors. D. the SROI is an attempt to show the investors how for each euro invested in a project. showing reel impacts rather than just figures on a table. Indeed. Theory of change : how the project will create social value Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . then “monetizing” the final result in order to evaluate the “social value” created. the monetization is useful to estimate if the project create a strong social value or note. the impact generated are : More than 100 30T trucks of wood saved 1750 T of CO2 saved 65 000 000 FCFA saved 1250 days of time saved for women This tool meets a real success and helps motivate the team. it was first design for investors and projects managers.

monetary value of the wood saved (very subjective). money saved on health expenses. The impacts et their attribution : we are supposed here to determine for each activity the ratio of impact :i. in benevolent time or in kind donation? 5. The outputs: What are the effects of the project on each stakeholder (a stakeholder can have an output even if they have no input. The indicators: accurate and measurable units to measure the outputs. 7. The activities: what is the role and activity of each actor in the project? What does he do? 6. value given to time saved for women (hard to monetize. The inputs: what are the inputs provided by the stakeholders in money. 8. The monetization : a monetary value is given here to all the data found (ex: money saved by the beneficiaries thanks to the improved stove.) represent the “social value created” 10. beneficiaries. Projection of the results on 2 to 5 years. And determinate the attribution: to what extent the impact is due to your project.3. for example the government can benefit from the program because it will induce less expenses on healthcare.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 19 . This part is very difficult to determinate because it is very subjective and influence a lot the final result. 9.e.. funders…? 4. in order to plan the evolution of the impacts. these monetized value The result is a ratio : (example: SROI = 1. we estimate that 1.973) which means that for 1€ invested in this project. The stakeholders: who are the actors of the project or the people impacted by the project: partners.973€ are generated in “social value” Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .: what is the REAL impact on the project (Vs what would have happened without the project).

Results of our analysis (see appendix 3 for more details) The intermediary results of the SROI analysis on the project improved stove revealed the following SROI : - The SROI has been calculated her from the data collected on the field and from the IRSAT and GTZ data. how to give a monetary value to “ increase in self esteem” or “increase life expectancy”… on certain ethical questions. Critics on the methodology However. indeed sometimes.eu that helped me understand and interpret the results. it is worth noticing concerning SROI that : The decomposition of each activities and stakeholders and their impacts on the actors is very interesting and rich of teachings However. second because the rate of impact and attribution is very subjective. 2.socialevaluator. I have used a tool inspired by the website: www. the monetization is not always appropriate. Thus it is important to be cautious about the results after monetization. because the SROI has no certification by external auditors yet.In order to do the SROI analysis. third. Hence. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . First because everything is not monetizable. the result depends a lot on the accuracy of judgment of the internal auditor (the tendency is often to over estimate the impacts…) 3. the mandatory monetization of the impacts is controversial. some indicators cannot be monetized.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 20 .

1 stove. The methodology McGILL The method is composed of 2 inquiries: One concerning the process leading to sustainability (10 questions) 2 This toolbox is downloadable for free on http://www. and the level of sustainability of a project. We even had to opportunity to meet Valery Ridde. We have decided to test this method for EdM’s projects : “1 woman.- It is made on a 4 years projection including 2 years without financial support of EdM It estimates a sales progression per year of 2000 to 5000 stoves in 4 years A sales repartition of 50% for Gaz. They have created a toolbox2 to help auditors estimate the process leading to sustainability (pérennisation). 1 forest”.cacis. Sustainability analysis according to McGill methodology 1.ca/perennite/index_fr. Finally I found one. that is working in Ouagadougou and gave us more insights on how to conduct the surveys and how to interpret the results. so I looked for an appropriate methodology and throughout my research. and “Spirulina for all” I’ve contacted the researchers that have created this method and have obtained all their support and advice.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 21 . 40% for Multi stove. developed by the university McGill in Canada. This toolbox was first conceived to evaluate the sustainability of public health programs but can be applied to other kind of projects. I realized that very few tools existed.htm Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . 10% for the other stoves Several data need to be analyzed more in depth but the source of information are missing or are too subjective to be accurate : how to calculate the impact attribution of an activité? E.umontreal. Why this methodology? EdM asked me to measure the sustainability of their projects. PHD on project evaluation and co-author of this method. 2.

The results Once their answers has been collected. symbols. a sum up has been done in order to draw an overview of the different perceptions of the same issues. During my internship. (see appendix 4) Time was missing to write the final report during the internship. material. human. KERE (project manager) Microstart : (Operation manager) 3. specific language…) o The rules (supervision.- One concerning the level of sustainability of the project (15 questions) The evaluation of sustainability is based on the evaluation of the « routines » that are : o The memory (Financial. to the barriers) o The values (Objectives. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . two new contracts were signed with 2 MFI partners. regulation) These two inquiries have been administrated to the 6 key persons have been interrogated : EdM: Laetitia (Coordinator West Africa). but further exchanges will probably be made after the internship. F. seen by different actors that are either internal or external to EdM. tasks. thus we offered them to conduct an SPI audit during the month of July. Modeste (Coordinator Burkina) GTZ : M. planning. Jonathan (Manager). SPI audit EdM is working with Cerise for long and is offering to conduct an SPI audit to all its partners.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 22 . other) o The adaptation (to the context. to the effect.

Data collection and report on the excel files 5. The SPI for LSK See conclusions from the SPI analysis in appendix 5 3. thus I had all the tools and methodology to conduct the SPI analysis properly.Before my internship in addition to the course we have had on the SPI. the SPI analysis and synthesis for microstart were not available yet. Meeting with the MFI director to explain what the SPI will consist in. Restitution of the results and insights on the strengths and weaknesses of the MFI regarding social performance 2. I followed a training session with Florent Bedecarrats at Cerise. define a schedule. field visit of beneficiaries and loan officers (3 days) 4. The SPI for Microstart At the time of writing of the internship report. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . Meeting with all the employees (or at least a maximum of person) to introduce the notion of social performance and explain which kind of question will be asked. Analysis of the results and redaction of the SPI report 6. Different steps Both SPI analysis were conducted with the following steps : 1. Conducting of the survey at the MFI . and ask to prepare the required of documents 2.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 23 . 1. 3.

How important are the greetings and good relationships with neighbors. Living in Burkina was also an occasion for me to learn more about African culture. From Burkina Faso This internship was a first opportunity for me to go and live in Africa. Discussing with local people. however. thus it is quite hard to acquire personal assets as everything is shared: the houses. meet beneficiaries and talk with them. it allowed me to collect a lot of information and data on the projects of social entrepreneurship and all their stakeholders that have been useful for the thesis. Professional and personal experience acquired A. I began to understand how money is circulating within the family members: those who success have to give money to those who have difficulties. the wages. I realized and understood how important the relationships within the group and within the family are in African culture. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . III. the meals… In Burkina there is a strong issue on women: they are doing everything and working from dawn to dusk while men are more often idle. especially because I’ve been able to go in the countryside. Children and especially girls are very used by their mother and aunt to do housekeeping or small selling in the streets. which is not exactly the topic of my thesis. Indeed. so it was a fruitful experience. Research results The different missions were all related to impact and sustainability analysis. thus it allowed me to compare them and analyze it in the thesis.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 24 . Each project has a different approach and use of microfinance. Spirulina and Voûte Nubienne. as most of them were speaking French.G. all the projects supported by entrepreneurs du monde are based on the support of social entrepreneurs: Improved stove.

In terms of experience It Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . However.B. entering in their house and seeing them laughing. Thus I have been able to better understand how social performance is understood and how transparency is still a taboo among the MFI in Burkina. I had the opportunity also to do two SPI audits at LSK and Microstart. led by a group of managers that have strong personalities and a strong social view. Meeting people that earn less than 1 USD per day despite their hard working.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 25 . I took all the opportunities that were offered to me to go on the field. Working for Entrepreneurs du Monde has been a great experience because it is indeed. so I have had only few opportunities to see the daily life of an MFI because I was there only as a partner. Meeting beneficiaries allowed me to realize their real level of poverty. from project management to training manager. C. I was lucky to assist to several meetings of APIM Burkina Faso . The EdM Team has welcomed me very quickly and easily as one of theirs. meet beneficiaries. From Entrepreneurs du Monde This internship was my first experience with the world of NGOs and with microfinance. trying to always target the poorest in the most efficient way. after 1 week of adaptation to the local uses and to the way of communicating. that were providing trainings on social performance and transparency. they follow their impacts on the beneficiaries very accurately and they don’t count their time and efforts to increase their outreach on the poor. so that I’ve been able to see quickly the different levels of organization: from funds seeking. which were by far the best way for me to understand these two MFI in depth. attend training session or make a follow up of the beneficiaries. joking and living quite happily was a rich immersive experience that I had the opportunity to reproduce several times in urban as well as in rural areas. It was a chance to be able to take an active part of a small NGO . which is something that has to be felt once. to accountancy. They don’t hesitate to try innovative schemes or products. from logistician to branch manager. From my missions My missions were very directed towards social impacts and social performance among an NGO that is supporting MFIs.

Especially in this strange relationship of a “white” bringing a new tool to the local people… But as I chose to make participative audits.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 26 . so I was considered as the “expert” and thus given the tasks to coordinate the audit. to rely on donors and to spend hours writing reports to justify the use of the money… I wasn’t doing my internship in an MFI. Conclusion This internship was a great opportunity to discover West Africa. I organized and did the interviews in collaboration with one colleague but that had no experience on SPI. “Voûte Nubienne” and all the work done considering social entrepreneurship…. compile the data. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . it helped me to be accepted as an expert to “help” and not to “control”. but what I experienced with microfinance institutions was still very interesting because.gave me the first chance to pilot a complete audit: I created the slides for the training on social performance and SPI audit (based on Cerise slides). outreach to the poor and innovative products. I also discover innovative products and methodologies that deserve to be tested and replicated in a close future in other contexts: “MUSO methodology”. A full collaboration of the MFI directors was very helpful and showed a great transparency. thus I learned a lot on the mechanisms that rule an NGO but also the limits it has. Working with entrepreneurs du Monde was a great first step in the world of NGOs because they are particularly pro active in terms of efficiency. IV. and in particular Burkina and Togo. write the reports and do the restitution. “savings-objectives”. realizing an SPI audit allow to go in depth into the organization and probably help to understand more accurately an MFI that if I was doing an internship among this MFI. From this experience I better understood the role of an auditor and the different steps that required an audit. I realized the importance of pedagogy in the audit and began to learn how to teach to adults. their cultures in rural and urban areas thanks to local people that invited me in their families. Meeting different MFIs. Spirulina. so I saw less microfinance than what I was first expecting. which helped a lot.

Appendixes 1. I was happy to learn that the Impact analysis. the SROI methodology and the sustainability analysis will be kept and re-used to measure the impact of the other projects of the NGO… maybe even in the other countries. It is a complementary step to the master and I feel now much more prepared to start working in microfinance knowing what it is in theory and now in practice V. Appendix 1 – Cost and Impact analysis (abstract) Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . So I think my contribution was useful to the EdM Field experience was what I needed to realize the real outreach and power of microfinance.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 27 .Concerning the work I did.

Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 28 .

.. La préparation du repas avec les FA ou à gaz est elle moins longue ? oui non Environ combien de temps gagnez vous par jour ? 5min 15 min 30 min 45min 1h autres : ……… Comment utilisez-vous le temps gagné ? S’occuper de : enfants Tâches domestiques AGR champêtres études (pr les jeunes filles) repos/visite des amis ou des parents Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report ......... UTILISATEURS • • • • • • • Nom et prénom…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............./……/……....... Appendix 2 : Questionnaire to Improved stove beneficiaries QUESTIONNAIRE IMPACT FOYERS AMELIORES – RECHAUDS No : ……… Lieu : ………………………… IMF de référence : …………… Date ….. Zone : Rurale Périurbaine Urbaine Pour combien de personnes cuisinez vous chaque repas ?..2.. Combien de repas faites-vous par jour ? 1 repas 2 repas 3 repas AVANT d’avoir le FA / Réchaud : combien de temps passiez-vous à préparer les repas par jour ?.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 29 .....

..... combien de temps passiez vous à ramassez ou aller acheter du bois ?.................. Pour combien de jours ?: ………… Soit :…. Quel est le prix : D’un tas de bois : ………………...... RECHAUDS A GAZ Combien de jours dure la bouteille de gaz ? …………….……/Jour D’un paquet de charbon : ………… Pour combien de jours ?: ………. Comment vous procurez vous du bois ? Ramassage …….... Quel est le prix de la recharge d’une bouteille de gaz ? 6kg : ……………..Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 30 ...... MAINTENANT....... Combien de temps mettez-vous pour aller chercher la bouteille de gaz ?......... 15jours.... A quelle fréquence allez vous chercher du gaz (tous les 3 jours....…% Achat …………% Allez-vous chercher plus ou moins de bois qu’avant ? plus qu’avant Moins qu’avant AVANT les FA... QUESTIONNAIRE SANTE AVANT d’avoir le foyer /réchaud ? • Est-ce que vous toussiez ? jamais au réveil pendant la journée • Est – ce que vous avez toussé pendant plus de 3 mois par an ? Oui Non APRES utilisation du foyer/réchaud : jamais au réveil pendant la journée Oui Non Est-ce que vous avez des glaires ? Jamais au réveil pendant la journée • est – ce que vous avezeu des glaires pendant plus de 3 mois par an ? Jamais au réveil pendant la journée Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .... combien de temps passiez vous à ramassez ou aller acheter du bois ?................ Soit :……....…/Jour A combien estimez vous les économies par jour en bois ? Pas d’économie 25F 50F 75F 100F 125F 150F plus:……..........FOYERS AMELIORES (NON GAZ) • • • • • • • • • • • • • Quel Foyer Amélioré avez-vous ? Burkina mixte Multi-marmite Banco autres : Ouaga métallique Quelle taille ?..... tous les mois…)?... 12kg :………….....

Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 31 .. Yeux rouges (qui pleurent) Irrités (qui font mal) Gonflés Sensibles à la lumière Ne voit pas bien Nez qui coule Précisions : ………… 3. Appendix 3 – SROI analysis Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .Oui Non Oui Non • Avez-vous eu de l’asthme (sifflement dans la poitrine) ? Jamais Au moins 5 fois au cours de l’année dernière l’année dernière Tous les jours Tous les jours Jamais Au moins 5 fois au cours de Avez-vous des problèmes aux yeux ? Yeux rouges (qui pleurent) Irrités (qui font mal) Gonflés Sensibles à la lumière Ne voit pas bien Nez qui coule Précisions : ……….

Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 32 .Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .

1 FOYER. 1 FORET Évaluation basée sur la méthode de l’université McGILL – Montréal CANADA pierre. constituent une solution pour réduire les dépenses des familles ainsi que la pression sur les ressources naturelles. or .Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 33 . avec ses partenaires (institutions de microfinance = IMF) proposera des sessions de sensibilisation et mettra en relation des producteurs. et distributeurs de foyers améliorés bois et/ou gaz afin de réduire la Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . Objectif : Améliorer les conditions de vie des populations et lutter contre la déforestation grâce à des produits d’épargne et de crédit adaptés pour la production et l’équipement en foyers améliorés et en foyers à gaz. Problématique/domaine d’intervention : l’augmentation du prix du bois réduit le budget des familles les plus pauvres et empêche leur développement économique. constituant une crise écologique majeure et entrainant une crise économique et sociale.cammareri@gmail. 85% de la consommation de bois sert à la préparation des repas. en réduisant la consommation de bois. Appendix 4 – sustainability study – McGill methodology EVALUATION DU PROCESSUS DE PERENNISATION ET DE LA PERENNITE DU PROJET : 1 FEMME.4.pluye@mcgill. Résumé des activités : EdM.com Contexte : Au Burkina Faso. la déforestation(5% de la surface forestière en 15 ans) menace le Burkina de désertification.ca Evaluation par : Baptiste CAMMARERI – baptiste. Les foyers améliorés.

veille technologique par le responsable + formation des formateurs par un organisme extérieur Quels risques organisationnels avez-vous pris en faveur du projet • Le projet a été commencé avant d’avoir tous les fonds • Risque d’etre instrumentalisé par les gaziers et/ou GTZ • FA (Foyers Améliorés) et réchauds convoyés + stockés par EdM risque de vol et incendie • Quelles incitations avez-vous déployé pour encourager les acteurs à effectuer les activités du projet ? Salariés :salaire assuré. dont on reste proprietaire et tourne sur plusieurs formation) consacrées au projet cycles) • recherche multi bailleurs avec engagement sur plusieurs années • Négociation avec plusieurs compagnies gazières pour pouvoir négocier les prix des réchauds et ne pas être dépendant d’un fournisseur RH : Armel en CDD . matérielles. Résumé des ressources : subventions provenant de 4 bailleurs différents : Poweo. augmentation des frais Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . fondation Ensemble.consommation de bois et ainsi les dépenses liés à la cuisson. Lorsque c’est nécessaire. ex. Partenariat avec Compagnie gaziere + négociation des prix Formation : Renforcement des capacités de gestion des IMF. pas de prime d’objectif mais embauche en CDI à la clef stimulation par l’impact social des activités. logique CDI + 1 référent chez chaque partenaire Mat : Achat d’un 4x4. Processus de pérennisation Concernant le programme/projet Événements (p. formation des différents acteurs dans une logique de pérennisation et d’autofinancement a terme . actions entreprises) Favorab le Défavora ble Événements spécifiques à la pérennisation Quelles actions ont été entreprises pour • Fin : logique budgétaire sur 3 ans. création de SA : finance solidaires fonds dispo sur plus long terme stabiliser les ressources organisationnelles • Fond de crédit placé dans les IMF (source d’argent (financières.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 34 . des microcrédits seront proposé par nos partenaires afin de soutenir le développement de cette filière. fondation Amisse. Fondation Terra symbiosis OUTIL 1. humaines.

. Non : Besoin de la filière (pas besoin spécifique des bénéficiaires) Avez-vous mis en place le projet en lien avec les objectifs d’EdM ? La communication entre EDM et les partenaires du projet a-t-elle été de nature transparente ? Quel est le niveau de partage d’une culture de l’artefact (mythes. FA = Produit d’appel microcrédit = + de clients . • EDM partenaires : Oui car EdM veut montrer l’exemple • Partenaires EdM : parfois non car reporting prennent du temps partenaires ne sont pas tjrs volontaires à transmettre les informations • Ne souhaitent pas toujours être transparent % compétition • Parfois manque de compréhension • les IMF ne connaissent pas les fonds alloués à EdM pour le projet • Les bénéficiaires ne savent pas que l’IMF prends une marge sur les FA. IMF : Incitation financière : EdM octroi des fonds de crédits et finance certains salaires des IMFs. tarifs préférentiel pr achat de FA. Projet rentable. Norme de gestion du portefeuille Mais : différentes conceptions de la solidarité/humanitaire Européen/africain • Nom du projet : 1 femme. • Travail avec les fournisseurs de gaz locaux – pr ne pas changer les habitudes des bénéficiaires • Pas de subvention à l’achat des foyers pour ne pas créer de dépendance et favoriser l’appropriation. rituels. symboles. + de revenus Sté gazières : + de revenus. Bénéficiaires :sensibilisations avantages économies Economies en bois. valeurs) entre EdM et ses partenaires Oui : les objectifs d’EdM sont : fournir des produits générant des impacts sociaux positifs sur les familles et favorise les emplois locaux par la microfinance et la formation. • Langage/culture communs : Mooré-Mossi • Même outils : SPI. • Adaptation des produits aux beneficiaires (peu cher) + financement adequat (microcrédits) + produits localement • Choix de ne pas développer les fours solaires car ne correspondent pas aux habitudes et attentes locales. économie de temps Artisans : formations gratuites. + de revenus gratuites. +de parts de marché Avez-vous essayé d’adapter le projet au contexte local en fonction des compétences de votre équipe et des besoins des bénéficiaires ? Oui : • approche participative. normes. métaphores. 1 foyer. 1 forêt utilisé par EDM mais pas par ses partenaires Augmentation des remboursements de frais de déplacement mais pas spécifique au projet . motivation mission sociale.• • • • de déplacements pour répondre aux réalités du terrain. Loan performer. multi acteurs et équipe locale • appui sur des réseaux existants. meilleure santé (%fumées).Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 35 . réponse à • Avez-vous cherché à intégrer les règles relatives au projet dans celles d’EdM? Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . PAT.

rencontres mensuelles avec partenaires Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . une part attribuée à la gestion globale. en CDD et CDI. tous les projets repondent à un besoin identifié EDM accepte le choix des IMF même si ce n’est pas pertinent dans tous les cas : Microstart est uniquement avec Oryx. 1 forêt . Présence de rituels ” “ Rencontres annuelles avec tous les acteurs. Degré de pérennité Concernant programme/projet Ressources financières l’organisation Ressources humaines ” Ressources matérielles ” Autres ressources ” le Oui Non Indicateurs (justifier vos réponses oui / non) Dépendance aux bailleurs de fonds exterieurs.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 36 . liées au projet. LSK uniquement avec Sodigaz. étude d’impact outils de collecte d’informations et de suivi des bénéficiaires (PAT) Les projets ou réalisations non adaptées ne sont pas retenues. centralisation des commandes et livraisons assurées par la GTZ et les cies Gazières Adaptation constante. 1 foyer. mais pas utilisé dans toutes les IMF et peu utilisé au quotidien. logique de progression. OUTIL 2. petite équipe. très adapté au contexte (équipe locale) Suivi mensuel. objectifs definis. cadre logique. rapport trimestriel. le reste au projets Contrats plein temps. annuel. existance du nom 1 femme. alors qu’il serait plus pertinent d’etre mutli fournisseur Mémoire (indicateurs spécifiques) de “ “ “ Adaptation (indicateurs spécifiques) Adaptation au contexte Adaptation aux effets Barrières à l’adaptation Valeurs (indicateurs spécifiques) Congruence avec les objectifs de l’organisation Présence de symboles dans l’organisation Reunions mensuelles.une demande globale Avez-vous effectué des investissements dans des ressources adéquates pour réaliser le projet Est-ce que les pratiques ou techniques liées au projet étaient compatible avec les activités d’EDM? • • • Achat d’échantillons Embauche Armel Formation du chargé de projet Oui : appui sur des acteurs existant localement. réalité du terrain qui prime (sur les demandes des financeurs) Projet lié aux cultures locales. et savoir faire d’EdM Le projet a été rendu compatible avec les activités d’EdM par une étude préalable de faisabilité et l’embauche d’un responsable nouveaux produits apportant les compétences techniques spécifiques. suivi des indicateurs Charte graphique de tous les documents Pas de log spécifique. formation du personnel EdM est propriétaire de tout le matériel et des véhicules utilisés pour le projet Location des locaux Dépendance aux partenaires : Coordination des artisans.

Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 37 . + mise à jour 1 fois par an pas de manuel de formations/sensibilisations procédures. sauf pour les Standards institutionnels (indicateurs spécifiques) Correspondance avec politiques publiques des Par rapport à la déforestation . Non. Règles (indicateurs spécifiques) Nomination d’un superviseur de l’organisation Inclusion dans la planification Description de tâches Procédures écrites 1directrice en CDI avec engagement minimum sur 3 ans + 1 responsable programme (burkinabé) Respect des chronogrammes. langue locale parlée par 90% de l’équipe : Mooré . les FA étaient mis en avant en 1983 % déforestation mais plus maintenant Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . MUSO (mutuelles de solidarités).Langage spécifique ou jargon Vocabulaire spécifique de la microfinance. et à la promotion de la microfinance. ce n’est plus d’actualité. des plannings et des cadres logiques Fiches de postes. + IRSAT (Public) Ministère de l’environnement : discussion régulière en réponse à appels à projets Microfinance : EdM : inclus dans la stratégie nationale : fait appel à des IMF existantes.

Appendix 5 : SPI audit conclusions for LSK Synthèse SPI pour LSK Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 38 .5.

Cependant. en insistant sur l’épargne. Un ciblage des pauvres non formalisé Dans les faits. l’ouverture d’une nouvelle agence se fait. Par exemple. Améliorer la fidélisation des clients Le taux de clients inactifs (ou d’abandon) de LSK est significatif et doit être analysé par l’IMF. les prêts de groupe et les dépôts à vue qui représentent respectivement 83% du nombre de crédits octroyés et 93% de l’épargne collectée ne laisse que peu de place aux autres produits. LSK obtient un très bon score sur cette dimension. Une bonne adaptation des produits et des services Un des points fort réside dans la diversité des produits qu’offre LSK. En effet. le conseil d’administration. Après une récapitulation des points forts. Un engagement fort de LSK pour la participation de ses clients Depuis son origine. cependant en considérant la taille et l’ancienneté de l’IMF (5 ans). LSK travaille dans des zones de marché où la majorité des commerçants sont pauvres et issus du secteur informel. Améliorer la protection du consommateur Le grand nombre de produits proposé par LSK. Néanmoins l’absence d’un conseil d’administration pour l’ensemble de la structure ne permet pas aux clients d’avoir un pouvoir de décision sur des questions stratégiques comme la mise en place de nouveaux produits ou l’implantation de nouvelles agences. La mise en place pour les clients d’une procédure de plainte et la mise en place d’enquêtes de satisfactions pourraient permettre de comprendre les raisons du nombre élevé de comptes inactifs des clients et d’augmenter ainsi leur fidélité en mettant en place des mesures correctives adaptées. 2. nous évoquerons quelques mesures d’amélioration de la performance envisageables. qui a besoin d’être structurée en fonction des priorités de l’IMF. permettrait de formaliser et de rendre plus objectif l’adaptation des produits en fonction des besoins des clients. aujourd’hui plus par des données informelles que par une étude formelle identifiant une zone particulièrement pauvre. 5. l’IMF ne dispose pas d’un outil et d’une méthodologie qui permettraient de justifier ce positionnement et de mesurer les bénéfices pour les clients (outils type PAT). Ainsi pour chaque agence. tout en proposant des produits tels que l’épargne-objectif. 3. ces résultats sont honorables et confirment que LSK est engagée dans une démarche proactive concernant la performance sociale. un recueil d’information utilisé de façon plus systématique.Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 39 .Les résultats obtenus par LSK au questionnaire SPI sont assez hétérogènes avec une forte disparité selon les dimensions. Toutefois. et le manque de documents d’informations sur ces produits (transparence du TEG. 4. LSK a inclus ces clients comme partie intégrante des décisions prises par l’IMF. 1. conditions générales. les prêts à long terme et les divers produits financiers standards.…) peut entrainer un manque de clarté pour les Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report . les prêts d’urgence. De manière générale. le comité de crédit et le comité de contrôle sont composés uniquement de clients élus en assemblé générale.

n’a pas encore mise en place un manuel de gestion formelle du personnel. Baptiste CAMMARERI – Internship report .Entrepreneurs du Monde 2010 40 . Le développement potentiel de son équipe nécessitera à terme une formalisation de la politique de ressources humaines incluant la mise en place d’une grille salariale. pour lutter contre le surendettement croissant au Burkina Faso.clients. En outre. Améliorer la responsabilité sociale vis-à-vis des employés LSK en raison notamment de sa petite taille. une participation des employés dans les décisions stratégiques et une couverture santé pour tous. Ainsi. la redéfinition du manuel de référence crédit permettrait aux agents de crédit de proposer des produits standardisés et de transmettre ces informations en toute transparence auprès de la clientèle dans un souci de protection du consommateur. Pour rappel. le taux d’impayés et le taux de comptes inactifs relativement élevé pourraient être réduits par la mise en place de ce type de prime sur la qualité de ces portefeuilles. ces recommandations ont pour objectif d’amener l’IMF à explorer les pistes envisageables d’amélioration de la performance sociale. Par ailleurs. L’adéquation entre les objectifs de la direction et ceux du personnel pourrait être renforcée par la mise en place de prime sur objectifs. 6. Elles doivent être adaptées à la politique générale de la structure et au contexte local. LSK pourrait inclure dans le montage du dossier un calcul de la capacité à rembourser des bénéficiaires qui est faite aujourd’hui de manière informelle. Ainsi la mise en place d’une communication adaptée et ciblée permettrait d’augmenter l’attractivité et la bonne compréhension de chaque produit. des entretiens individuels annuels d’évaluation.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful