=21171 I%edkting Rewvoir Quality in the Cretaceous Maoei6 Member of the $wgipe - Alagoas Basin, Northeast Brazil by Carlos

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the deeply buried Macei6. Porosity and permeability of the aandstmes of tlw Crl?tacecxla Macei6 Mmber of the kribeca Formation wxe studied in 51 cores in the northeastern half of the Sergipe-Albaain of Brazil’s passive continental margin. ‘r= ‘k Mscei6 lknber is a feldspsthic sandstcm that thickna offshore to mm than S.(KOn, W Macei6 includes seven facies ranging fran alluvial to sutmrine fans and includes lacustrine and evaporite envirmnents. Iksults of this investigate ion have been guiding encharged for ~ the exploratory geologists locations of W1lS in the Mscei6 Fkmber. RmmKx.m

the mst porosity d pemability are important properties of a reservoir for hydrocarlxx accmlaticm H=e j their ~ppi% SIId Prediction ~ either with depth or lateral l.y, is of paramunt llxee recent exploration. for importance (he hundred and thirteen thin secti.ms fmm publications subject are ‘‘C~t ic this aht plugs w-e used to systematically quant ifj !2 we Diagenmis” edited by Mhald ~~ %rd~ ; G types and ste@e regression helped to identlfij the special of mineral diagmes is in ‘‘Clq issue best predictors of plug pmneability - intergranular Minerals” edited by Hsrrism and Morgan2; SIU clean ~res, intergranular pores with residual I~iwwsis of ~~entav ~quences” d i ted b) solids, and intergranular open pores with carbcuzte MSMJha113.n mmy of these studies, -r, I W cement. &er 90 clay mineral analyses w?rc wade and one core or one or two wells were studied rathel to the understanding of diag=netic t~ ~ Siwle fomtion Wer ~ entire Ixisin. contributed history of the sandstones. The mast iqxmtant concluaim include the following: Everywhere in the Macei6 porosity and pemability are best at the top SIXIhighest values occur there it is shallw @ near the ~tcropt Intergranular secondaty porosity is pwkxninsnt at the top thm.@wt the Mscei6 and is the best predictor of permeability. M3st of the intergramlar porosity, especially *m the Macei6 is shallow, was formal by invasion of mtworic waters t However, minor porosities pssibly formal by organic acids i n References and illustrations at eml of pnper — This investigation reports on the Macei6 FknbeI of the hi.mikca JM,, a feldswthic sandst~ o @tac~s *, that occurs along 200 kilansters 0: the Sergipe-AlqwAs basin, in mrtheast fJr=il (FUI 1). Ojectives we twofold: to map and predic’ porosity and permabil ity with depth and lateral~ in the Macei6 WEr, md secondlY, to obtain a equaticm to predi~% prmability using the types an mxnt of porosity masured in thin section. Such a equation could be mst useful when plugs are no available, in the Maceid resemoirs *

although its total thickness is mt sandstones contain nwerial formal due exact ly known for the entire exploration area of pseuda-atrixb.ly in the top of fluvial and te in the sandstones of the shallow hlsceid are 47. reservoirs. with an hmmer. Ar 5 . Lithologic averages of 30 inc~vlde w!lls are: coarse elastics that conglcmrates and sandstones. Total cartite (corr@s@@nt tcJ @Lim.ithic ad sufilithic arenites. because they are volmtricallj except chlorite. While there is marginal dissolution of grains.. fran S5 to 91 percent. ranging fran6 to % since the sixties. 21..000 rrreters in Mow tlw to~ofhlaceio. . shales 4C percent. Seven sedimentary facies ~re recognized in the Mscei6 Mnher based on criteria discussed by I@ading+and Walker5. as shm thin sections impregnated with blue epxy. 2 ~rcent. and structures to trap twice as abundant as polycrystaliine oil. good results on a drillstem test. and evapxites. 80rxc@-rc&a. because it contains good fian 21 to 86 percent. 1/S. 25. turhid. 18.OQO inters. Mnocrystalline quartz is quartz. 20 and 12 percent of tht total clay fractior respectively.tri. feldspar and rock fragment ampositicm is !). 17 and 14. and pxes are R&m?wrk (grains) varies.. homver. kaolinite and 1/S decrease with derbham! contacts at the topof the Macei6. 16 percent subarkose arenites and 4 percent l.— . fine interstitial 7.. The sttdy area is lwated in the on and respectively. Textwm permeability. and their rela... ?heir average quartz. but it is knownto be as deep as 3. of more than 5. 11. range granite ani with a producticm of 380 bbl/day. 6 percent.. 2 and 8 pwcent.(M) square kilmeters. average of 340 micra. cement.. Macei6 The sandstones of the Mmher petrographically are 80 percent arkosic arenites. mcas are preckxninantl~ located in the shallow~c of the Mscei6.. Here the Jrilled sequence of the %mmt varies frm zero to 39 psrcent.-— .erals fonred authigenically. .2 !mDYAmA MAC@mlBE21 Q PREDICITN2 KEm Cm qIALrrY ‘RIE umKmJs m CF ‘Im SFwFE-ALJ!LwSEASIN. Howver. for all fmr claj minerals to occur in the sam sandstone.-.7. 7he thin form clay bridges. ?. res~tivelyand 38.. There is also one Al in the deep Mscei6 (ALS-39) that had biotites. 1). ‘Iheil absolute anmnts in the SSndstom VEre ml quantified.r pmneability. It is rare. wherea! Kaolinite The analyses of sandstones wre msde using 101 chlorite ‘illite. m.w mmnts averqg 43.. ~lorites Mween odd and even @ sections wre fran plugs with m?asured porosity and by the relation intensities of chirxite in X-ray pattern. is an quartz in the Mscei6 averages 57 percent and ranges exploratory play. of the fcw types of clay minerals are typical oi rrrir. “hmwer. the Taia. M only t-m terrigenous Mscei6 Maim of the Alagoas Stage ~rcent of the samples are canpletely free of cement decreases with depth xmmt.mdness is subangdar to 24. ti. Sixty-three percent of the i%rn a few meters to mre 17 percent of zero to thickness. off shore Alagoas pm cicm of the Sergi~Alagoas 8asin (Fig.te cycles. illite.ich in a f= insignificant. ‘l%is field is fran zero to 4“ wrcent and aremstly gneiss. and of parallel the —. . illite! and kaolinite.deiro dos Martins Field percent. and incremesw~thdepth. as reprted b! Wilson and Pittmn8) M detrital clays fra ‘l’hegrarnhmtry of the sandstones of the sand-sized shale clasts my exist in the framework detrital and suthigenic clays wrenol Macei6 ranges frcm very fine to very coarse.. Cmpaction is average denoted by the predaninance of tangential grains not a pronmnced difference in these values. Seismic data hcwever. .ent.NOmJEYmBRAZIL SE 2117 Average values of fmmwork. 1). only one field has been discovered Feldspar averages 30 percent. fills pores. In general. occurrence in the——— . and l@olinican k fcund local. tiich has manynomsl ad transcurrent faults.ZO&of kaolinite .Fkx. and 11..4(X3ra?ters below sea-level. 52 percent. but the angularity rnaybeexageratedby in samktmes of the deep Macei6.his great variatm reflects the cmplex tectonics of the Sergi~Alagoas Basin. and mixed layer 1/S coat grains am are ferroan.hallow mtacts in deepsr-intenfals. indicates a thickness framwrk fragmnts. Itwk flagmmts average 8 percent. because it is incompletely to the strong deformation and squeezing of soft drillei. X-ray diffracticm analyses of ninety-four cl% samples fran the sandstone reservoirs of thehlscei< they chloritel that cmsist of shwed interstratified illite-mectite clay (1/S).x 7’9. although good sorting Averages of chlorite. . the Macei6 are poorly sorted.. The Mzcei6 mtcrops onshore (Fig. angular.:30: 13. Total ‘TheMacei6Mmber of the Mmibeca Ftn. the sandstones of quantifiwl separately. carbonates. These facies were de~sited in envircmmts ranging frcnr alluvial to sulxnsrine fans and include lacustrine and eva~zitic. sandstones causes considerable decrease i. -r &@taC@CUS) Vd@S than 3.

intercrptaliim microporoaity m inferred using the difference between plu~ toroeity and thin secticm porosity in smples that era total ly cemnted. C. carbmates. the greatest void in the grains of Seccmly. intrwmlar. Finally.qpnular pores. Tney are. secondary with a ccmplete dissolut icn of cemnt snd/m grains. before the twelve types of Pres are described. Authigenic clays that occur m the surface of grains wre not counted. because they are very thin. bec=e renegers of petroleun cmqxnies have beccsm mare of the importance of the pm system of rmervoirs to enhance existing production @ to diminish exploratory risk. Like pore type II . lithicf the seccmd . where this zms is cmly about 300 inters *low the top. 2).Wse intergranular . cemmt are the mly materials inside the pores. The twelve nmt frequent types of pores in the Macei6 wre ccunted and stqwise regression k 1s 1f 4. and formtion of new rnirkwals in pmre spwe. The 12 types of pores are outlined in Figure m described bekw ~~ 2 3 !scei6 extemk to abmt 1. residues. in both the shallow and deep Msceid. Chlorite and illite imreaae with ie@. tih problems are Presently considered in the hlmleim &s Msrtrns Tield and should also be xmsidered in any new oil field in the Mscei6 -r.These intergranular pores mlxmate csrmt we reduced by carbmate cement mly. The porosity classification mainly &script ive. kt the average of the ten largest FOres is 210 micra.210 inters belw the top imccmfonnity). quartz. those smaller than 2 micra. me samlatms *re classificatim of Schnidt ml Mlmald 11 is and dces not erqhasize essentially genetic micropcms.These are mmg the mst cmm intergranular mea. Most of the subtypes recognized in the Msceid can also be fmrd in the literature.Intergranular. 2. 3Intergranular pores reduced by quartz overgrowth (13) . Fractures and shrinkage prosities are overgrowth am! carhmate cment (14) .Intergranular pes with residual solids :~ ) . nuch gceater then in the deep isceid.J. do not contain dissolution. IWmtial problma these clay minerals can cause IQ reservoirs Wll krlcwn910d are fairly klude decrease of porosity and permwbility. * of water saturation calculatd fran electric logs. of sizes. URImmIm m+g the last ten yuars the understanding cf proaity and ~rmability of sandstcmes has greatly M. with average of 240 micra. Included ic this clas~ *of pores is the pore pictured in the NW W average size of the ten largest kkmir 37 pores of this* class is 120 micra. becmee it it . 6. with an average size of 630 micra.- Intergrsnular totally opm pores ~ti. Pores were initially enlarged by marginal dissoluticm of the grains and later reduced by carbonates.?nEergranular pores reduced by both quartz was used to determine ths best predictors of permahility.te. The average size of the intergranular pores reduced by overgrwth is 160 micra.th 5(T+) . Intergranular with residual solids pm% nay occur in a wide rang. ~ micropores (Fig.A13REU.h= afi largest pores recognizedin the Mace id. sam ccmmts are meded. diqymet ic quartz. Pittmn Is 12 classifcatim is mm descriptive than genetic and discusses micropores and the concept of pore throats as applied to oil production+ Later chssificatim aml additional criteria to recognize secondary pmsity were @lished13. ~ are pxes that cmtain smll fra~ts >f feldspars.te( fran the ccmplete dissolution of feldspar. These fragmnts in general xsmsnts of a strong dissclut ion of grains of the frammk. lkwver. me mataee . etc. totally open pore (12) these intergranular pmw are canpletely fms of in ~ral. with their original pore space reduced b> quartz fran residues overgrowth. this kind of pore has a wide range of size. Rm?lypee The twlve types of pores identified bekng tc three groups: intergranular. residues or crystals. ltm resin classification of types of pores in published in 1979.ores. k mallest size distinguishable with the optical icroscops. and are genetically classified as reduced prinwy pes.Wse twes rare in the Meceid as they are in mat sandstone of pores are not ccmm. M they are free of and quartz overgrowths and carbonate reservoirs ~1 12 ] 7 hence they w?re not considered. feldspar and lithics was considered the size o: int . C&w ical ly tky are reduced primary Pres. here presented is Cmsidered as intergranular are al 1 pxes xween grains that are ccmected to others. c+cice or dolani. but not by quartz overgrowth. Six ~ ~s of intergrmular are described: 1 . ‘No micra twe considered ths upper. thich will be referred to. liqit for the micrqxms size. They resul.Moldic intergranular pores (16) .

~refore.’hese micropores consist of an ap#mmate of suthige’tic kaolinite groin within w~ intragramlar This grcupof pores incluc% mly Lwotypes. The 11 .Tntragranular nultiple or single macropcxes large. 3).500 inters pxosities are smiler than 1[ Pray2~ but later mdifiedbyrnany authors depending prcent. ‘Ihey can be intergranular. These are crystal-crystal interfaces of carbcmte cement ant rimmd by feldspar or clay ramants after the cemnt-grain. m 12. except il microscopic study. G. facilitating direct ins~tim.Intergranular intercrystalline porosit] (M12) . Intragrmlar pores electron image. porosity values and the thinner its porous interva intragranular or (Fig.Intragranular nmldicrnicro~rosity (MIO)l. Fcur types of m. intergranular. ‘lh?re is not a linear relation bet(intragrmular rm]ltiple or single mcroporeo). pxcd. and are not as goal as the mldic OF AND FIN’EABIUTY intergranular (IG) for DEINEUITUN IQKIWTY permeability. where the unconformity at the to recognizant. a term first used by CImquette and below 2. This is the only spite of the very lw values in thin sections.th arnicroscope. See figure 09 of l.Msceh5 Pores in this class are similar to types G7 um. 10. U dissolutimof the feldspar cores. for another good in a grain (G. and in figure 5 of Siebert . poorly connected pre.~ The third group of pores are those with inters is mch less. its ammt is inferred imclirectly frcm are related to lcwalized unconformities.cmporoai~ than 20 percent and scm values are as great as 2/ pxcent (Al-5 andrIM-21 wlls). Ckmrip W ad is entirely absent in the shallo I . no matter ha 7. type ~. It can be said with confidence that th m their objectives. Figure 4 of Lmoy provides a @ exmple of this type of pore. and their average IMxinun size is abcut 1(XI icra. except for the size of the voids tiich are smaller than ? micr. the mailer th one micra in diameter. Micropnres of this type resulted Fran the authigenic Also. of the Maceid is obscure. I%ey are rare.mo~+. figure 1! a backs~$tterec “&slg. of t@—G7are zh( most alamdant.icrqmes were the Cmurips Lm. mldic pm”enuc~t like type G8 md probably ::his is and Ge (Fig.randar. Pores of this types b! sum connection with other intergranular ps q the blue epoxy impregmtion is easily seen. plq difference fran pores with fully connected mldic ~rosities of this type were masured in tightl~ intergranular. t~qtal~ys occur ina fine Prirdty reduccd pmosity occurs msinly in th grid hardlj discernible wi.ty and present depths (Figo 4). usually less than 20 percent diamters smaller than 2 micra and are called and nuch of it is less than 10 patent. pores are the lack of. examples of intergramlar microporosities cccur ir ‘1’koemrples of this kind of pore are ~oto42 byDe Godchild and Whitaker 2S. pemability. in additia micropores. The best typ o prosity. Pittmn12 used deeper the top of the Mscei6.l%is type of pxosity is difficult tc 8-Wldic intragranular (~)his is also a identify with the microscope. this class includes all pores intragranulc”hr mldic rnicropmes. The good porosities at the topof the hfacei~ themfOre. IXXSUSC they are in an intragranular.4 PREDmmU m?LmmIR C&lALm:N ‘ml?CRIm4ms I(5 I W OF‘IWE SEWPE-AL4.cmformity. or pmrconnectionmmg itself kaolinite diminishes because the pores. When this network is the intergranular types. 3). Hence. but gigantic cemnted samples.Intragranular.XMS&m.Intragranular pores may occur in example of irm-agranular mldic microporosity. the larger the pres. ~croporosity was cmputed using the difference between plug prosity and thin section prosity.’ecogmizd due to its mt line preserved after ccmplete dissolution of feldspars. HWever. The shape of the grain is cleariy T. are also in the topof th SMI decrease gradually with depth belcw th 9. ‘Ihemin characteristics of these me of the vmst types of pares for pemability.Intergranular microprosity (Ml~ stronger their dissolution. Mlo. 2). the pines occur in a network of feldspar kaolinite infillingof intergranular pores of anyof mmants after dissolution. ~ E w~ MfM3ER % 2117 ad mm quartz. cutcrop (Fig.dly. nui~iplemicrqmes (M9 ) . hmwer. and sech. TWOgooc greater than two micra except three that aremldic. a:ldFi@re 5 in Sie&rt20. co ~~ipient feldspar dissolution. ‘ihey are genetically relate?. Probably this typ of pax aiso dissolved a pore with a fw or only one void is mre effective for permeability thar results. Cktstanding exanples of this type of preare shmnby Figure 5 of Fittmn21 and by The highest values of porosity in the Maceif Member occur Mere its top is shallcw and near thf Fi&re 220f Imcka22.) . mny situatmns because they depend exclusivelyon the degree of dissolution of the grains. for instance. Here porosity is cmmmly mm Mi. in mm thti class of macropcms that result&1 Fran an advanced sections the blue epoxy penetrates into * stage of feldspar or lithic dissolution. with an average size of NN micra. Porosity belcn+ 1.. intercrystal-inter”. resulting in extremly Lcwpemeabilities.

the roller percents@ anddepthbehm the top of the Macei6. because percolation of mteorit calculated by the equatim for the Macei6. This waters dissolved the feldspars. i. intragramlar variable: first. contrilmtes mgatively for 2 percent (both with a level of significance at 0. Macei4.on porosity.1 mmmts of microprosities. Therefore. The best values of Stqwise regressim &nuns trates that the above permeability are at the top of the !lsceid. Plug intergranular porosities calculated with his equation are zero to predaninate. it seam thal less microporosity. -TmSAs PmICmScFPmmm’Y The correlaticm mstrix for permeability st~s re~ssi~ dete~~ the best types predictors all denmstrates that almst of pores that control permeability in the Mscei6. pre size controls porosity.hree majo~ regression. !llms. then the secmd. but three t~s account for 68 pcent of the total because ~-ility data are fewr than those for variability of permeability and that cemnt pcmity. penreabilities in an intergranular pore system. totally open intergramlar porosity. Despite this large size of lCX micra. in starples with considerable microporosity. the man size of the intragranular multiple or single mcropres (G. In the tm reascm: the lack of connectim of such pores. intergramkir with resi~l solids (I 1). 240 micra. size has no control m pmmability b intragramlar pme system. permeability only in imergranular Version 6 Eiition. 5 Macei6.e. ~ity and permeability were &m the plug fran *ich the thin section was taken. of MS Instit. Here one can see that intergramlar camted to maluate the relative amunt of their porosity is the best predictor of permeability. types . DeBm of feldspars.e. ad mmunt of cement identified.= imn ABREl.minate. besides pore size. a size canpatible with secticm porosity. ~: Sam procedures Wre adopted to even in sqles with large pores. wtme enlarged intergranular. pore Ste@e regression was nm with the w progran. variatim is explained by the change in the relative intergramlar. across sectim is not shorn. to enter and run ste@e ~ the data The relative mrxmt of each of the !. the permeability. because of process goes cm iteratively 14 15 16 26 .70+0.6 nil). types of pores that ccmtrol permeability is sham ir secondly.) i! gcm Microporosity = total plug porosity . ever i. but occur also in its shallow part. W. typeh$. vhereas the — equation for the’ Macei6 better fits stmples with After reviewing the literature. First. all micropores defimd by blue epoxy were Figure 5. and irttergradar totally OWI ~th cartmate cement (15). cement depth frcin the top (DIOP)of the Mscei6. etc. Permeability is low. rcqmrts me for the sub rkoses of dissolution tmever.J. the third. Also. no significant Pmneabilities occcur in tht equation to correct thin secti. I&ailts: Amng the twlve types of porosity occurring in the Maceid only three are gmd pmlictors of pmmability (Table 1): intergrala totally open (I z). inters~~l~ sizes types and pm porosity Ste@se regression is a statistical tml that correlate positively with pxneability. ml the ccrrelate negatively with permeability. Fkrmahilities follow the m trend as &scribed {Or pmosities. This is evaluates the importance of a set of independent because intergranular pores are better connected variables for predicting the value of a dependent than intragranular pines. and not microporosity was determined by subtrac~ing thin permeability is extremly low where intragramlax section porosity frcm plug porosity as shcwn belmw mmxqmrosity is h&h. } tiere sec-ry solid! pores’ with residual the Sergi Fomstion in the Rec&mvo Basin. intragranular pore system Plug porosity =5. Such pores occur Wre the top of ttx twnty percent hi@er than the plug porosities Macei6 is shallow. Finally.05). completely open porosity p~. Stepwise regression shcmd that /“ predictor.thin atmt 100 micra. it seam fair to us analyzed. Seccnwily. secondary porosity with r%idual solids ad intergranular.. it is recmmded to the Macei6 ccntainsmst of the t~s af pores thal define a s~ific equatim for the @stone an arkose mi@ bve. the indepemient variableswwe defined by and because cement fills pores and isolates them muitiplyic~ the percentage of types of Fe tires The regressicm also confirm that the greater the total plug porosity. the mst important variable is multiple micropores. ‘Ihif value is nearly half the value for the intergranular Sinple linear regression was used to define an (12). in &my. Intragramlar gmeities are predmimn t in the deeper Macei6.80x (thin section the besl porosity). i! less important in samistoms with a high degree 01 Similar ~2$i h’ s aze ram in the literature. intragranular ml mmmImPElm4B~ m AIUUJ61C m mmU16T.C. 9%s equation of k Roa better fits ~ @ sanples with high rnicroporosity. W. but that to quantify porosity. results fran the Mscei6 to infer permability fro . below 1.

but results wre not satisfactory because thin sectims were not @regmted with blue epoxy and because they t msidered mly the ~t of porosity ad mt its tms of pores. pores.4ecause it is a ~~r cmtri~t~r to permeability.fan-deltas. pmmsbility is given in tillidarcies (the antilog of K) and 11. CXN738xI@ 15 Xj!f) cement) 2.003693 + (0. Porosities less p3rcent average 58 percent microporosity.~1738 - 12 X@) + (0. The three best predictors of permabilit” open pores. Finally.500 inters. wlx?retotal prosity. ~ deeper the top of smaller the prosityand a. Predicting ~rmability fran pormity obtained in thin sections has been atteqted before.m 2. types of porosity and cant are all given in ~cent~.!XXltrecers. interval. turbidites evaporates. Paumr30 correlated visual porosities of thin sectims wizh permeability and presented a fairly satisfactory equation for evaluating pernmbility. (0. it is pssible to quantify the porosity of the wxlstcm in a~-rcrximately 30 minutes and thus estimte its permeability.qs intergranular for permeability. k equation to calculate permabilit. Netto for instance. Similar situations occur for Carbona% reservoirs. tc@%er they accmnt for abmt 68 prcent of the total variation of plug permeability.y using ~ro~ity ad types of p&es in tte. First. totally are intergranular intergranular pm?s with residual solids ad with intergramlar totally opm pres carbonate camnt.~e SUpprt of petr~br&i ~ a~mciate the valuable arc! the best of mny professors of the University 01 help and of colleagues of Rtrohmial Cincinnati the Macei6. intergramlar totally open pxes.lUEN1’ BRAZIL @ porous S33 2117 typ and mcunt of pores recognized in thin sectims of other wfdes of the Macei6.001256x (0. %XTE ccmaideratims ~. Ohio. and intergranular totally open pores rwduced by carbcnate cemmt. 23 percent intergranular and 19 percent intragranular mcrbporosity.mast of which wan to have had little control W. MicroPorosity is also daninant for total porosities between 10 to 20 percent. C01417’K1: Xff) + + (0.500 to 2. Fhi is the porosity frm thin section corrected to plug porosity ~ tith the squat ion sh~ before the Mscei6 or with an squat im for the formt im being studied. observed porosity in thin sect.~ld first be stated. because increase with prosities intragranular depth.iV@ly. ~rosity ~{1~ ‘This paper iv part of a thesis defended at ti University of Cincinnati. thanks tc ! .0Cd693+ (0. Using an $utanat ic point-cmnter. !). %rdatmes with pmsiti~+ greater than 20 percent contain an averafy2of 57 percent aecmdary intergmnular pcrosity. This mthal easily canpensates for a lack of ~trophysical analysis of prosity ad ~ability.th depth in the Nacei6. :. 12 ad 15 are intergramlar pcres with residual solids. PmOsities greater than 20 ~rcent are in samistcms shalher than I.001417 x I > x @ x d. (0.~1256 X 15X@ g’ h.im of subsrkoses in the RecOncavoBasin.020944 x percent cenmt). md pmosities mailer than 10 percent cxcur bel. Ihe equat ica &fined by stqxriae regres~ion for the Macei6 is: log K= -0. and pmmability. the sandstones of the Fkiceid are arkosic ad subarkosic arenites tad minor sublitharenites. c. and wsre ck?psitf?d in seven dqositional facies . !~orosities and pmmlbility at the top of the Ftscei6. compaction after dissolution of f~lds~r + is negligible as it aeenw to be in mny other f~~tions. - (0.5@ inters. e. permabi. Secondly. and breccias . the especially to Farid %1-ira for t~ the thinner critical reviewof the msmscripts. last year.6 PREmcl’m REsERmR CJJALITY ‘nlE mE’lmmJs IN MAW16 !@lBEl? OPm SEmLFE-AUUXMS EM-N. lore size alone is a poor predictor of ~] .Macci6 samlstones was defined: log K= -o. kia29 did mt find a sat is factory equat im for carbmstes. lacustrine. flwio delntied shelf. ~Im —— 1. ccrnpctim md lack of feldspar dissolutim explain tk low pxosit~wi. types of pores are wighted !wc:]use the total prosity values of the plug varies and affects penmability also.li~y decreases with depth. + f.020944 x percent Petrogra@ically. taic%wlian. prosities ranging fran 10 to 20 percent CWcur in sandstones in tl= interva 1 1. the wader should note that Mis eql@ion doesntt include depth. &rbmate cemntatim. Porosity and pmneability in the laterally Qxtunsive Mcei6 -~follcw broad patterns. resFect. I . M he predicted pnmability using only plug porosity. ?8 percent microporosity and 15 percent intragranular than 10 rnacroporosizy.

S. Mineral. l%’?. 1984.. R. p. K* Productive sandstone Capability of ‘Iliagenesis of a Deeply Buried Sandstm Reservoirs”. A. read at a mating m “Features of Mineral 776 p. D. 4231RO06. Pub. De Fos. Pittmn. R. G. V 1979. Geological society. C. Davis. ‘Wyaning”. L.. in Scholle. Offshore G&n”.. Brom. M. 25. ~ ~ing.. SandStmes”. V. Pub. 1986. Petrographic Study of 13. No. G. . c.. L. AAFC Fkmir 37.: “Porosity. A.. Z. 1970. P. eds. Sp. p. Se& R. D.: “ the RX1iegende 1979. Sol@... Clay Minerals. p. Minerals”. D.. G. J.: ‘~l%i( S&Luger. ii5-137.. 207-250.in: MXkmsld. Paleoenvircxmmtal Analysis”. R. 54 26. 317 p. Powder River Baain. 26.. 1987. Crystal Structures of Clay &plora@o de Petr61eo.. 1960. V. p. } E’ ‘Regional Cmtrols cm Diagemsis ~ Cunpilat icm for the Q. 21.. and King. 21. Krurrbein. 1984.5. Clay Minerals. Reading. R. ‘lfjtatis~ics MSrWJ”.. A. eds. G. K. 1986. Reprint Series 1. C.. p... Econ. G&logy”.. A. and Mxfield.. Pub.. 557 p. Dickinson. Lmoy. and Rohlf. C. p. the Petrobr4s ‘ResearchCenter (-s). 1980. F. Schnidt. S.?r Jurassic Reservoir No. 26. Mineral. E. Cm?. Pakont. ). 3-31. Nxthern North Sea” p. 1481 Inc. eds. 459-477. Umquette. and htxgan. Il. ?f Porosity within Upp.. W. Oxford. tic de Janeiro. Davis.. W. V.. Fonnst ion Dmsge Control. tin No 26. p. m 23. 21. A. E. Aspects of Diagenesis. G. R... Clay Minerals. Godchild. J. 10. ds. Diafym2sis in Hy&ocartxm I@servoirsl’. R. R. Palemt. J*. San Francisco. and Galloway. and Mitaker. C. and Facies”. Cbdge. W. No.: ‘Tetrolwia e Qracterfsticaa de ?. 36. cd. 695-707. 646 p. : ‘~iagenesi.Aity in -r Tertiaq Geology d . 12. Namclature and Classification of Porosity i %x. At&CMermil Petrology.: “The Developmentand Destruction Sequences”. 429 p.: “Interpreting Detrital Modes C. ‘%imtry”. Sot. p. Nw York. Momgra@ No.~~::s . M. 1986 Prwmance”. of Graywcke ad Arkose”. ed.. Se@c Brasil. 1970. C. Brasil.. W. F.. 64%94* !978.. p. Market. j. Sp. NATOASI Series. 1%5. Provenance of Arenites.: ‘?lkxture anc Clastic Diagenesis. I). M. and Ci@ncia T6cnica Fetr61eo. 19. in: Scholle. P. Akselsm. 1984. in: Zuffa. and SUfUMM.. . R.. Canoridge. Paleont. E.. and Pray. 305-360. M. ‘Bacia ‘do Re@3ncavo”. Second and Evolution of Secmdary Porosity in Upper Edition. Clay Minerals. %amugan.C. MQonald.: ‘~-ray Res&at6rio da Form@o Sergi (Jur4ssico) nc Diffraction Procedures for Clay Mineral Canpo de Sesinsria. McD. Clay Minerals. Aspects of Diagewsis. Econ. Rblished bj Minerals and tlx?ir X-ray Identificat icm Min. l@idel 11. eds: ‘Wlay 5. Ali. R. Pub. A. R. Blackwll Eki. G.: ‘~s of Porosity in Sandstone: SamiStone Resewoir (Lam Pm&m) in th and their Significance in Interpreti~ RoughGas Field. W. 6. Alnm. Sp2cial Pub. R. 1979. D. Writ if ication”. 1984.No. W to Hydrocarbm Exploration and Prcduct ion. L. 1986. 21. G. in R@p.J. ?.: ‘~iagenesis j. 107 p. J. A. Gmscience Canada.iblishing Co. F. fdS. p. V.. and A1-Shaieb. 1986. Jour Se& Petrol.. t~cch Sea”. Minnalusa Smdsmnes. A. 8. k!. 497-511. J. Wilson. ed. Oxford. At: “h 1. McGraw-Hill‘200k@npany. M. I .: ‘kgicnal 21. D: “Authigenic 20. F. 1986. 221 p. Jour. * Graybill. Pittnm. G.. kmkecht V. Fwmsn and Co. in: Mkmald.SE mn AIWEU. Spi!cinl issue devoted to papers ii. G. Harrism. H. p. W. Sp. K.. MPG&mir 37. p. 2 . dS. !.. }. 4. 1984.: ‘‘Sedimmtary Envircmmlts (Special issue on aiagenesis) V. Burley. cd. %x.. 1981. J. 21. and Brindley. p. Geology”. 209-22. v* 47. ]. E... p. J. J3rwn. G. sedimentary f%rbonates”. w p* Outer bray Firth. Dep. P.of Sedimentary 7. in: Brindley. and Surdan. .S:is:g $ly. D. and sudan... G. A. 1986. and surdan. 40.. V.. M. E. D. A Lalw% R. p P~ognit ion of Secmdary Porosity ir 1545. Clastic Diagenesis. Blackwell Scient. Mineral..: ‘T%cies Ik&ls”. 427-826.. 7 1985.sandsmne. Mmcure. ANT2 Bk?mir 37. Marshall.. V. A. D. and Davies..: . 37. D. wm. Clastic Diagenesis. D. Sandstones Along The Texas Qlf @ast”... R. Siebert. 781-790. Diagenesis ti 24. and nittrnsn. G. 288 p.. UK. 475 p.. K. p. Mcbald. W. ad FMXmald. D. Dover Publicatims Series C: mthemstical and I%ysical Sci.: ‘Petrology m Diagemt ic Trends in the Low River Basin”. D. NewYork. clays W: “A ‘Iheory of Franwork Dissolution ir Recognitim and in sandstones: Inf lwmce on Reservoir Properties and Sandstones”. P. and Schlugerj Reservoir: Hild Field. 379-400.. Up~r Cretacem: Sot. Walker. York. D. 163175. 1977. G. Applicat ims 22* bucks. AAPG Bull$. 159-173..: “SandstcnW Diagenesis. 5. 24 April 1985.. i9. SSkI: Pkxlels in to Statistical Introduction “Cl&~tic Diagenesis”. W. sandstorms of the Piper and Tartan Fields. H.ervoir Interpretation Departrrent of &lf Co”. R. 434 p.

1981.0 N) INTRAGRAWIARMULTIPLE MICROFQRE INTERGR REDUCEDBY QUARTZOVERGR . Space. Austin.030 3.05 INI!EIWR.3 N) MXDIC I ~.002 (’). Eacia de Cmpos. ‘9 0.003 (). !~73.0 DEPTH FRCM TUP OF MACEIO 0.? W . Minas Gerais.N’m CN31WWS MAC@t4Ml?@R (3Pml? SERGLPE—AMXMS R ‘ml 211” —--———. Lo F. 66 p.8 PKlmICITN2 ESERWRQ K UALITYT. AT 0. 28.003 0.—-— — FIA. A..0 INFERGR.STNNTl?lHRM?T’RA7TT —— !~~teri~~ @l@ica tis 27. ‘IWI’AL. 141 p. De h.007 0. Master thesis. Canpo de Bicud>. W/ RESIDUAL SOLIDS 11 0..: 29.2 No K)RE SIZE PSIZE 0. 1988.0 INI’ERGR. . Potentialities of the &a Grands tkzher ~. Rect!ncavo Basin.3 M) ~m~ MICROPOROSITY ‘11 0. Netto. : ‘%trophysical Partun?ters Estimated Reservat6rios da Form@o Sergi m Dan J&o frm Visual Descript icm of Carbonate Rocks”: Internal report. 1984. 141 p.020 2. 1974..: ‘Wetrolem and Reservoir 9 p. TCYMLLY OPEN 12 0. l%t. Brssil”. I@.100 10. Sm. 15 0.550 55. (Cretaceus). Qlro Preto. T. Paper M. p~r. Texw.7 NO 13 0. I. Petrohls Mar-sul”. e o Fk?ioPouoso dos Raservat6rios Maci m @ Master thesis. University of Texas at Austin. -.OPEN W\ C!AN3.! TAl?JX31 ~OFWEI@3TlIlPRES)I_W PLUG~= VARIAELE ~2 100 X R2 SIG. CY1l.uciaj FtJ.R ‘6 0. Universidade Federal de @m Preto.010 1.002 0. S. a Field Clamifcat im of Carbonate Pore Cenp. Rio de Janeiro. : ~lu$~ Dia@ti~a Brazi 1“.0 KNt’ENI OF QWNI’ mP 0. M$L$ ‘~crof~ies.

..’ 1 + TD... m a ./ ‘awlluwt R* !? :....1 (! P*B y + .’ + cow 1’ + ~. ...:’.o~ -- .. ..’! w ~)t) MUIL . + * ML q ’*@ 4s 9 WO191 + q q q t cooollllw 18- I . . . + {t y + “t I : ~s .. .“’P+ + . q .. + PJc ..’ + f { ) .f.SFE 21171 . .. UAcd m Wxx2 m &’*’ apth .

b M!2ROPOROSITY* 5Illfllwrrm of ttw 1 .N E MAP . pmlrrkwEpLtytd . A? j’ “ . A @lTERfJRNWS... q IwlEii?l T?! -El?l - NUMOEROF SAMPLES PER ‘BELL Figure 3 .AR .0 thl’ou par q INTRAQRANULAR ~1 typs of tmx? wrmbi iitY.13istriiartion of pxmity in the Rscoid FkmbQx. 21171 0* 600.. . denfiity am: sonic logs . hosed on koth mras and neutm. ‘. intr~igrcrnul~r porcuity.SPE WELL NUMBER m. q  LOC4TI0.

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