Chapter 1 Overview

1.1 History of GSM
1.1.1 GSM Development
Mobile telecommunications technology began as early as 1920s when the mobile telecommunications system for shortwave developed first at that time. The first public bus telephony system in 1946 served as the basis for modern public mobile telecommunications system. Following the development of telecommunications technologies such as mobile radio transmission, channel management and mobile switching, various mobile telecommunications systems like cellular phone, mobile call, land cellular mobile telecommunications and satellite mobile telecommunications also emerged rapidly. Since 1980s, cellular mobile telecommunications has developed from the first generation of simulation cellular mobile telecommunications system to the second generation of digital cellular system. Established in Europe, 1991, GSM is a global system for digital cellular mobile telecommunications and has gained unprecedented development because of its public standards worldwide and strong roaming ability. According to global mobile telecommunications system institution, the number of GSM subscribers is expected to reach 1 billion in over 206 roaming countries by early 2004. GSM mainly provide voice service and low speed data service. Compared with the first generation, GSM has such distinct features as high security, strong anti-interference ability, high spectrum effectiveness and capability with the mean frequency reuse coefficient less than 7.

1.1.2 GPRS Development
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a new bearer service based on the current GSM system. It can be regarded as the application of GSM in IP and X.25 data network, and also as the application of internet in radio service. GPRS can be used in FTP, WEB browser, E-mail etc The primary difference between GPRS radio packet data system and the current GSM voice system is that GSM is a circuit-switched system while GPRS is a packet switched system. The basic process of packet switching is to divide the data into several small packets and transfer them to the destination in a storage-

2kbit/s. burst. EDGE has the following primary features: 1) EDGE has a high rate.6kbit/s or 14. 3) EDGE supports both symmetric and asymmetric data transmission. and for circuit switched service. It is a . GPRS can theoretically combine a maximum of 8 slots together and provide a bandwidth as high as 171. internet browsing. The timeslot rate of packet switched service with EDGE is as high as 11. GPRS is a great leap for GSM system in radio data service which provides a convenient and highly efficient radio packet data service at low costs. which generally meets the requirement of the third mobile telecommunication system and all kinds of radio application. The second stage defined the improved multimedia and real time services and standardized in 2000. EDGE enables network operators to make full use of the current radio network equipment during the transition from GPRS to 3G/UMTS. EDGE is a high rate mobile data standard with a data transmission rate as high as 384kbit/s. As a transition from GPRS to 3G/UMTS. 2) EDGE supports both packet switched data transmission and circuit switched data transmission at the same time.69. Different from the current GSM system. EDGE adopts Octal Phase Shift Keying (8PSK) modulation with a rate of 384kbit/s in mobile environment and 2Mbit/s in static environment. Combining several slots together provides higher rate. this rate can reach 28. The current GSM network mainly uses Guassian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation.2 . EDGE finished its feasibility study and got ETSI approval in 1997. Each channel can only provide a transfer rate of 9. GPRS is especially for interrupted. GPRS can be divided into two stages after commercial use. In the first stage. Radio channel is a very rare resource in GSM system. EDGE can greatly improve the efficiency of GPRS channel coding and fully meet the requirement for broadband in the future radio multimedia application. The first stage focused on the enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) and enhanced circuit switching digital service (ECSD) and standardized in 1999. Most mobile internet protocols have such features. EDGE adopts a modulation technology recommended in the 3G mobile telecommunications.4kbit/s in circuit-switched system.8kbit/s. it offers services such as E-mail. and then arrange into complete data. frequent or small data transmission. Packet switched GPRS can arrange the mobile channels in a flexible way to serve many GPRS data subscribers and make full use of the radio resource. but it can only be enjoyed by one subscriber and is not feasible considering cost-efficiency. It is also adopted in burst large data transmission. The second stage of GPRS is based on EDGE (E-GPRS). According to the GPRS proposal made by ETSI.switch way through different routes.2kbit/s shared by many subscribers. The standardization process of EDGE consists of two stages.

integration. EDGE is an improvement for radio interface. —— medium and low speed land mobile: FDD and TDD: terminal at medium and low speed provides a transmission rate of 384kbit/s. Europe. In EDGE system.very important feature for mobile network and other data services. South Korea etc The TD - SCDMA standard resolution proposed by China is one of the ten land mobile 3G RTT resolutions. Japan. 2000. —— specifications based on CDMA: . key parameter confirmation and finally approved five technical specifications (including that proposed by China) for radio transmission in Turkey ITU-R plenary meeting in May 5th. emulation. ITU-R had received sixteen 3G RTT standard resolutions consist of six resolutions for satellite mobile and ten resolutions for land mobile from America. subscribers can enjoy a downlink rate higher than uplink rate. 4) Technically. Among these five specifications. the calling deadline for the standard of the 3G mobile telecommunications radio transmission technology (RTT).1. three are based on CDMA and two are based on TDMA. it can be regarded as an effective general radio interface technology which promotes the 3G evolution for cellular mobile system. ITU-R raised the following requirement for the 3G: —— high speed land mobile: FDD: terminal at 500km/h mobile speed provides a transmission rate of 144kbit/s. By June 30th. According to 3G standard requirement. —— land walking and indoor fixed terminal FDD and TDD: terminal at walking speed or in fixed condition provides a transmission rate of 2Mbit/s. 1998. International Telecommunications Union -Radiocommunication Sector ( ITU - R ) began the study on the 3G mobile telecommunications 14 years ago. realize 3G global roaming. 1. To a large extent. and improve the spectral efficiency and the data service transmission rate to meet the requirement of multimedia service.3 Evolution to 3G In order to uniform the global mobile telecommunication standard and telecommunication band. ITU-R carried out a two-year study on ten land mobile standard resolutions in terms of evaluation. TDD: terminal at 120km/h mobile speed provides a transmission rate of 144kbit/s. China.

Voice service with 3G network can not only meet the requirement of the increasing subscribers but also help to reduce costs and improve service ability. It is a long term task to carry out GSM network optimization and GSM radio planning for the future 3G building. Therefore. most GSM network operators choose UMTS/WCDMA. the terminal should be GSM/UMTS dualband and support GSM-UMTS roaming and system switching. Therefore. also called one family. together with the uneven development of 3G worldwide. in fact. the current bandwidth is already not in line with the rapid increase of the voice subscribers. GSM network will continue to provide voice service and low rate data service for a long time in future. The three RTT specifications based on CDMA. three members. Meanwhile. CDMA TDD is time division duplex (TDD). TDMA SC and TDMA MC are used as regional standards for upgrading IS-136 and DECT system. Although 3G is called radio broadband multimedia. dualband terminal can enjoy UMTS high rate data service and voice service as well. In China.IMT-2000 CDMA DS(WCDMA、cdma2000 DS) IMT-2000 CDMA MC(cdma2000 MC) IMT-2000 CDMA TDD(TD-SCDMA、TD-CDMA) —— specifications based on TDMA: IMT-2000 TDMA SC(uwc 136) IMT-2000 TDMA MC(DECT) Since TDMA is not a mainstream in the 3G. During the initial stage. therefore. In UMTS coverage area. such as videotelephony. dualband terminal subscribers can still get support from GSM voice service and low rate data service. The overall building costs of 3G network voice service is expected to be just half of that of 2G network voice service. ITU - R assigns independent band for 3G FDD and TDD. UMTS coverage may not as large as that of GSM. In the dead zone of UMTS. FDD and TDD are coexistent and complementary with each other. Both CDMADS and CDMAMC are frequency division duplex (FDD). 1. multimedia and other data services.2 Radio Network Planning Optimization The objective is to build a radio network of large capacity and broad coverage as . Considering core network signaling adaptation and public core network resource. the primary task of 3G is to solve the problem of increasing voice service. in order to solve the problem of service continuity and cross-operator roaming. the high-quality voice service at low costs enables subscribers to explore more services 3G provides. become the mainstream in the 3G.

Network planning is an integrated technology requiring wired and wireless knowledge and abundant practical experiences. class of service.1 Radio Network Planning Optimization Flow The radio network planning optimization flow chart is as follows: Figure 1. income distribution. power amplifier type. terminal type and proportion. and then obtain the configuration (type. and the use of fixed-line phone. The second stage is emulation. service type.best as possible and make it available for future network development and expansion. various maps. The following information is required in order to support network planning: cost limit. coverage area type.1 Radio network planning optimization flow The first stage is call service coverage analysis. to micro view such as cell parameters. available band. and from project low level design to network performance test and system parameter adjustment optimization. address and height of base station. from antenna feeder index analysis to network capability forecast. Network planning optimization is a systematic project covering the whole process of network building from technology system comparison to radio transmission theory. 1. It involves from macro view such as technology system. characteristic of coverage capability and general design idea of radio network. carrier type.2. the development of system capacity. antenna feeder . frequency. Network dimensioning estimate should be carried out on the basis of BSS equipment and the mature planning method after call service coverage analysis to get the coverage areas and the number of base stations. coverage and capability requests of different services. population distribution.

Carry out system installation and debugging according to designed data and make sure the normal system running. network planning deserves enough emphasis and attention. alarm and subjective sense are usually used as optimization measures. extend the network and carry out new analysis of capacity and coverage. neighboring cell plan. Optimization is a refined adjustment and a complementary to project defects. land condition. It also includes resource adjustment of exception conditions such as high-volume traffic burst.2. transmission. and big differences among multi-channel transmissions due to various buildings. Signaling tracing and analysis plays a decisive role in solving tough problems. and coverage forecast. and operating parameters of each cell according to the distribution and type of base stations. Late optimization can hardly change the network architecture and the quality of network running. Carry out field exploration according to emulation result. Decide the frequency. The third stage is survey. Circuit test. other serious interferences such as adjacent signals. Recommend proper resolution for base station address on the basis of the offset range from the ideal address. Early planning is of vital importance to network running. Use planning software for emulation and verify and adjust the estimate result. Ensure the stated coverage and capacity and a certain class of service. therefore. equipment type) of all base stations according to call service distribution. The forth stage is system design. 2) Besides man-made noise. electromagnetic background. With the increase of subscribers. Carry out optimization report and suggestions for future network building. 1. the first four stages are usually called preplanning/planning stages and the last two stages are optimization stages.2 Difficulties in Radio Network Planning Among the six stages above. and decide whether the electromagnetic background is purified or not. intermodulation and other radio jamming have to be considered in . When the traffic volume exceeds the former object. highly fluctuant signals. including power supply.combination. economic return. network requires continuous optimization. The fifth stage is installation and debugging. The main problems of GSM planning optimization are as follows: 1) It is difficult to make theoretical forecast of coverage area because of the complex transmission environment. Record potential base station address following the requirement of base station building. The sixth stage is optimization. Finish the database. traffic statistics. the influence on the future cell splitting.

4) Due to outside influences. . 3) Frequency resource becomes more and more limited with great increase of subscribers. 5) There are some network planning problems in particular situation.project design and controlled within a proper range. the cellular structure and base station placement cannot be carried out exactly according to plan in actual project.

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