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LEXICAL ANALYSIS IN CATHERINE MCCAFFERTYS A CROWN FOR ATTA

A PAPER
Submitted to the Department of English Education, Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences University of Swadaya Gunung Jati Cirebon, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Sarjana Pendidikan (S1) Degree

Arranged by
TITA HERNITA PRATIWI

106060096

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHING AND EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES SWADAYA GUNUNG JATI UNIVERSITY CIREBON

2010

LEXICAL ANALYSIS IN CATHERINE MCCAFFERTYS A CROWN FOR ATTA

APPROVED TO BE PRESENTED TO THE EXAMINATION COMMITTEE

Supervisor I

Supervisor II

Hj. Nurani Hartini, Dra., M.Hum. NIK. 410 900 095

Jaufillaili, S.Pd., M.Hum. NIK. 00017

ACKNOWLEDGED BY:

Dean of Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences

Head of Department of English Education

Prof. Dr. H.Rochanda Wiradinata, MP. NIP. 19590718 198503 1 004

H. A. Ghozali Nurkalam, Drs. NIP. 19500825 198203 1 001

A FRUITLESS LIFE IS A USELESS LIFE

This paper is dedicated to


My Beloved parents, Nanang Suhendar, SH, and Wiwi Wiatmah, that always give me strength, light in my life, and never ending pray ers for me. My lovely, Yadie Syarif Hidayat, SP . Thanks for care, love, and supports. I couldnt finish this paper without your help. My great family, my brother, Krisna Wibowo, my sister, Dewi Hermawati and her husband, Ivan . Thanks for your supports. And also my cute nephew Zaki undul who always disturbs me. Mrs. Herlina, thanks for your care and suggestion, Mam. You opened my mind in making this paper . Mr. rojak, Mr. wendi, And Mr. Iyay. All my best friends: Novita Ikasari, Siti Dewi Aminah, Siti Nuarzizah, Nurhayati, Egiz Febri Theresa, Dini Nurdianti, Deniyanti, Rani, Ratih, Sasih, Eka, Rere, Dedew, Ninik, Wulan, Wati, Idah, Cahyani, Fany, Fatma, Yuni, Linda, Fikri, Endah, Maftuha, Lina, Ipul, Riza, and Dian. And all my friends in class 4A-4G (We can do it!!!). Thanks for nice friendship and togetherness. Indah, Nicky, Puput, and Nely who is far away in Germany (I miss you). Thanks for your supports. I love you all. Mr. Januri,, thanks a lot for your helps and information. Asdi who always gives me information, thanks a lot. And for all who helped me in finishing this paper, thank you so much.

STATEMENT

Herewith I acknowledge that this paper entitled Lexical Analysis in Catherine McCaffertys A Crown for Atta is my own writing. I took some quotations from some sources by using the acceptable scientific methods of writing. I make this statement to ensure that this is really my own work. I will be responsible for any risk happens in the future if it is proved to offend to the ethics of scientific writing.

Cirebon, June 2010

The Writer

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Praises and thanks are to Allah the Almighty. By His mercies, blessing and help, the writer has been able to finish this paper entitled Lexical Analysis in Chaterine McCaffertys A Crown for Atta. Grateful acknowledgements are due to some of the people, who have made this paper finished in time, her great thanks are dedicated to: 1. Dr. H. Djakaria Machmud, SE., SH., M.Si., Rector of University of Swadaya Gunung Jati Cirebon. 2. Prof. Dr. H. Rochanda Wiradinata, MP., Dean of Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences, University of Swadaya Gunung Jati Cirebon.

3.

H.A. Ghozali Nurkalam, Drs., Head of the Department of English Education of Unswagati Cirebon.

4.

Hj. Nurani Hartini, Dra., M. Hum., The first supervisor who has given guidance, comments and correction in writing this paper.

5.

Jaufillaili, S. Pd., M. Hum., The second supervisor who has given guidance, comments and correction in writing this paper.

6.

All lecturers of English Department of Unswagati Cirebon for giving their knowledge, experience, guidance, and support during her study. Finally, the writer sincerely hopes that this paper will contribute something

to the readers in general and to the writer in particular. Cirebon, June 2010 The Writer

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PREFACE

Bismillahirohmannirohim, Alhamdulilahirobil alamiin, all praise and gratitude may be to Allah SWT the Beneficent and the Merciful, the writer has been finished writing this paper. The paper entitled Lexical Analysis in Catherine McCaffertys A Crown for Atta, is a partial fulfillment of the requirements for Sarjana Degree at the English Department of FKIP UNSWAGATI Cirebon. As we know vocabulary as one of the language aspects has to be learned when people are learning a language. Mastering vocabulary is the ability to get or to receive a lot of words. By having and mastering vocabulary we will know the meaning of vocabulary in the context. Therefore the writer tries to make this paper entitled Lexical Analysis in Catherine McCaffertys A Crown for Atta. In this paper, the writer analyzes the noun word categories in storybook A Crown for Atta. The writer hopes through understanding the noun words categories, it can help the writer in particular and the readers in general in mastering vocabulary.

Cirebon, June 2010

The Writer

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ABSTRACT TITA HERNITA PRATIWI: LEXICAL ANALYSIS IN CATHERINE MCCAFFERTYS A CROWN FOR ATTA The ability to comprehend English is necessary for people and also to understand English. Vocabulary as one of the language aspects has to be learned when people are learning a language. Mastering vocabulary is the ability to get or to receive a lot of words. By having and mastering vocabulary we will know the meaning of vocabulary in the context, beside that it can helps the students make school work easier and more rewarding. According to S. H. Burton cited in Ikah (2006: 15) said that without a large vocabulary, it is impossible to use English language precisely and vividly. To achieve those purposes the learners have to understand lexical categories such as noun, adjective, verb, and adverb in mastering vocabulary. Through lexical categories they can differentiate word that will be used in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The purpose of this research is to find out the noun word categories in storybook A Crown for Atta. There are many kinds of noun words categories; proper noun, common noun, concrete noun, abstract noun, countable noun, and un-countable noun. The writer limits the research only to analyze four noun word categories: proper noun, common noun, concrete noun, and abstract noun . This research belongs to qualitative research, because there are no numbers involved. Starus and Corbin (1997: 11) state that qualitative research is a research that procedures findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other means of quantification. This research also employs descriptive method. It aims to describe noun word categories that the author uses in storybook A Crown for Atta. The result of the research shows that there are four types of noun word categories; proper noun, common noun, concrete noun, and abstract noun . Proper noun gains 8 words, common noun gains 46 words, concrete noun gains 41 words, and abstract noun gains 13 words. After finishing her research, the writer concludes that noun words categories that the author uses in storybook A Crown for Atta is proper noun, common noun, concrete noun and abstract noun.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL SHEET REVISION SHEET DEDICATION PAGE STATEMENT ......... ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .. PREFACE ... ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENT .. LIST OF TABLE . LIST OF APPENDICES . CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Research . 1.2 Formulation of the Problem .. 1.3 Research Objective ... 1.4 Limitation of the Research. 1.5 Research Methodology . 1.5.1 Procedures of the Research . 1.5.2 The Object of the Research 1.5.3 Techniques of Data Analysis .. CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL REVIEW 2.1 Lexicology 2.2 Lexical Analysis 2.3 Lexical Categories . 2.3.1 Content Word . 2.3.2 Function Word 8 9 9 10 11 1 3 3 3 3 5 6 6 i ii iii iv v viii ix

2.4 Noun .. 2.4.1 Definition of Noun .. 2.4.2 Function of Noun 2.4.2.1 Noun as Subject ... 2.4.2.2 Noun as Predicate Nominative 2.4.2.3 Noun as Direct Object . 2.4.2.4 Noun as Object Complement .. 2.4.2.5 Noun as Indirect Object ... 2.4.2.6 Noun as Prepositional Complement 2.4.2.7 Noun as Noun Phrase Modifier ... 2.4.2.8 Noun as Possessive Modifier ... 2.4.2.9 Noun as Appositives .... 2.4.2.10 Noun as Adverbial ... 2.4.3 Types of Noun .... 2.4.3.1 Proper Noun ..... 2.4.3.2 Common Noun .... 2.4.3.3 Concrete Noun ..... 2.4.3.4 Abstract Noun .. CHAPTER 3 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 The Analysis of Types of Proper Noun ............ 3.2 The Analysis of Types of Common Noun 3.3 The Analysis of Types of Concrete Noun . 3.4 The Analysis of Types of Abstract Noun .. 3.5 Discussion . CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 4.1 Conclusion 4.2 Suggestion . BIBLIOGRAPHY CURRICULUM VITAE

11 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 18 19

21 24 37 50 57

60 60 62

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LIST OF TABLE

TABLE 3.1 Classification of Types of Noun in the Story Book ... A Crown for Atta

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Data Analysis Appendix 2 Letters ...

64 82

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Research Nowadays, the ability to comprehend English is necessary for people and also to understand English. Student has to master the four basic language skills in learning English as a foreign language. They are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Besides such basic skill, the student has to master some vocabularies as well as possible. Vocabulary as one of the language aspects has to be learned when people are learning a language. Good mastery of vocabulary is important for anyone who learns the language used in listening, speaking, writing, and reading besides grammar. A learner of the foreign language will speak fluently and accurately, write easily, or understand what he or she reads or hears if he or she has enough vocabulary and has a capability of using it accurately. S. H. Burton (1982: 98) cited in Ikah (2006: 15) said: without a large vocabulary, it is impossible to use English language precisely and vividly. Through a good vocabulary and ability to use words correctly and effectively can help the students make school work easier and more rewarding, and also many tests that they take in school include vocabulary questions. The more vocabularies they know the better their chance to do well on an English test.

Mastering vocabulary is the ability to get or to receive a lot of words. By having and mastering vocabulary we will know the meaning of vocabulary in the context. Measuring vocabulary helps to avoid making mistakes in understanding. To achieve those purposes learners have to understand lexical categories such as noun, adjective, adverb, and etc in mastering vocabulary. Through lexical categories they can differentiate words that will be used in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In an article, How to Learn Vocabulary, Paul (1996-2007) states that:

Usually the first things you learn about a new English word are what it means and its translation in your own language. But there are other things you need to find out before you can say that you know a word like a native speaker does. For example, you have to learn: how it is spelled, how it is pronounced, and how it is inflected (i.e. how it changes if it is a verb, noun, or adjective). Therefore to achieve successful in mastering vocabularies,

understanding in lexical categories is one of the important factors. According to what the writer has mentioned above the writer is interested in studying noun word categories, the writer conducts a research entitled LEXICAL ANALYSIS IN CATHERINE MCCAFFERTYS A CROWN FOR ATTA.

1.2 Formulation of the Problem In this study the problem to be investigated will cover: What noun word categories does the author use in the storybook A Crown for Atta?

1.3 Research Objective Based on the research questions above, the objective of the research is to find out the noun word categories the author uses in storybook A Crown for Atta.

1.4 Limitation of the Research The study will be only limited to analyze the noun word categories that are constructed in Catherine McCaffertys A Crown for Atta. The writer limits four noun word categories from seven noun word categories simplified by Heather MacFadyen (2010.02.19), they are proper noun, common noun, concrete noun, and abstract noun.

1.5 Research Methodology This study will deal with of literary work and no numbers involved. It also means that this research method used will be descriptive one. According to Knupfer and McLellan (1996) in W. S. Cheung and K. F. Hew (2009: 158) state that, descriptive research is mainly concerned with what is type of

questions that describe events focusing on a particular issue or phenomenon. Basrowi and Suwandi (2008: 28) also state that, in descriptive research, the data collected can be words, pictures, but not numbers. The research employs the Descriptive Method, as Basrowi and Suwandi and also dictionary.sensaget.com simplify that a research answer the question who, what, where, when, and how in which the data collected can be words, pictures, but not numbers is considered as descriptive one. In this research, the writer applies Qualitative research because of the nature of the research question. In qualitative research the research question often starts with what therefore describes what is going on. Based on Cresswell (1998: 15) states that: Qualitative research is an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem. The researcher builds a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, report detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in natural setting.

Qualitative research takes much longer, requires greater clarity of goals during design stages, and cannot be analyzed by running computer programs (Berg, 2006: 2). In the same line Dabbs (1982: 32) in Berg (2006: 3) sates that, qualitative research refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols, and description of things.

Starus and Corbin (1997: 11), also state that Qualitative research is a research that procedures findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other means of quantification.

1.5.1 Procedures of the Research In conducting this research there are some steps taken as follows: 1) Determining the storybook as the source of data that is a Crown for Atta. 2) Reading the storybook to find the noun form. 3) Deciding the noun word categories to be analyzed in the research. 4) Identifying common form of noun word in the storybook. 5) Taking notes to develop tentative perception while reading. 6) Looking for and understanding the literatures relevant to the types of noun. 7) Analyzing the research finding based on the noun categories theory. 8) Classifying data in the form of tables. 9) Drawing the conclusions and suggestion.

1.5.2 The Object of the Research In this research, the writer chooses Catherine McCaffertys storybook namely A Crown for Atta that was published in 1998 by Advance Publisher, United States. It consists of 45 pages. The storybook entitled A Crown for Atta is chosen to be the object of the research based on conceptual classification since it provides one of word categories that is noun. The storybook above has been chosen to become the data sources of the research because many noun word categories are found in the storybook.

1.5.3 Techniques of Data Analysis Based on method presented in the sub-chapter above, the writer applies some techniques, such as Library research that is used to get information about the theory of type of noun. Then, the writer applies content analysis to analyze the information gathered from the storybook. According to Holsti (1968: 608), states that content analysis is any technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying special characteristics of messages. Based on Leedy and Ormrod (2005); Neuendorf (2002) state that, content analysis is a careful, detailed, systematic examination and interpretation of a particular body of material in an effort to identify patterns, themes, biases, and meanings.

In analyze the data through content analysis the writer follows some steps based on Bruce L. Berg (2007: 326) in Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences and Monina (2008) in How to Do Content Analysis, that related to the research, the steps are taken as follows: 1) The writer identifies research question. 2) The writer determines analytic category by reading the literature and links to the research question. 3) The writer reads the storybook while jot down the noun form. 4) The writer analyzes the data into the type of noun word categories based on the type of noun theory. 5) Classifying data in form of table.

CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

2.1 Lexicology Lexicology is a branch of linguistics the science of language. Lexicology is important for the students in which they can study of words. The term Lexicology comes from Greek, lexic means word, phrase and logos means learning a department of knowledge. Thus the literal meaning of the term Lexicology is the science of the word. According to Noah Webster (2008: 4), an American Lexicographer an author or editor of a dictionary, in Distance Education and Training Council High School Seminar, Lexicology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the signification and application of words. In the same lines Todd (2000: 49) states that, lexicology is the study of words. Lexicology studies the choice of specific lexical items in a text, their distribution in relation to one another, and their meanings. Based on the statement above, the writer concludes that lexicology is a branch of linguistics that study about words, concerned with the signification and application of words, such as an orthographic, a morphological word, a lexical word, and a semantic word.

2.2 Lexical Analysis Analysis usually is done by the students or analyst who wants to study of something by examining its parts. According to Todd (2000: 50), Lexical word comprehends the various forms of items which are closely related by meaning. Johnson and Zelenski (2008: 1) state: Lexical analysis or scanning is the process where the stream of characters making up the source program is read from left-to-right and grouped into tokens. Tokens are sequences of characters with a collective meaning Based on the statement above, the writer concludes that lexical is word that has a closing meaning. For example the word chair and chairs are two morphological words but it has only one lexical word. And lexical analysis is a process of investigation of component of part where the text message is broken into part and will be grouped into token.

2.3 Lexical Categories One of the most basic things we do in grammar is identify and name the part of sentences, and the most fundamental part of this is to classify the words. We will assign each word to a particular word class (otherwise known as lexical category), such as noun or verb. Traditionally, word classes have often been referred to as parts of speech.

Mark and Kirsten (2005: 33) state that, Lexical category is basic information about a word, but there is much more that, as linguists, we want to say. Mark and Kirsten (2005: 33) also state that: Word like noun, verb, adjective, and adverb refer to what linguists call lexical category. They are labels that tell us how a word is generally used in a sentence. A noun can be the subject of a sentence, but not so a verb. In many cases, identical-sounding or identical looking words can belong to multiple categories. Based on the statements above the writer can conclude that lexical category is part of speech/word class such as, verb, noun, adjective, and adverb. Every word can belong to multiple categories, for example word help, it can belongs to verb and noun, depend on the sentence. According to David and Gloria (2001: 18) in the Grammar of Englishs book state that, there are two different kinds of word: content word and function word.

2.3.1 Content Word David and Gloria (2001: 18) state that: Content word is some words in English, namely nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverb that contribute substantially to the meaning of the sentences. Content word is also called as Open Classes it is possible to invent new content words, and in fact new verbs and nouns are being invented all the time. In the same line, Fromkin, Blair, and Collins (1999: 64) also state that, in English, noun, verb, adjectives, and adverbs called as content

word of a language, which are sometimes called the open class of lexical items because we can regularly do add new word to them.

2.3.2 Function Word David and Gloria (2001: 18) state that: Function word is the smaller words like a, the, she, his, of, for, but, and and, that help to establish the structure of the sentence but have less inherent meaning of their own. Function word is also called Closed Classes it is not generally to invent new function words.

In the same line, Fromkin, Blair, and Collins (1999: 64) also state that, function word or grammatical such as, conjunction, preposition, determiners, and pronoun referred to as closed class word. It is not easy to have recently entered the language.

2.4 Noun 2.4.1 Definition of Noun What is noun? This is a surprisingly difficult question to answer. Many people are told in school that a noun is the name of a person, place, or thing. While this definition is useful for school children because it is simple and clear, there are a large numbers of noun for which it does not work.

According to Heather MacFayden (2010: 1), noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. According to Marcella Frank (1972: 6), Noun is one of important parts of speech. Its arrangement with the verb helps to form the sentence core which essential to every complete sentence. In the same line Todd (2000: 53) states that, noun has often been defined as the name of a person, thing, animal, place, or concept. Based on the statement above the writer concludes that noun is not only the name of a person, place, and thing, but also the name of activity, concept, abstract idea, and etc. 2.4.2 Function of Noun Heather Marie Kosur (2009) classified function of noun into ten functions. The following functions are: 2.4.2.1 Nouns as Subjects The first grammatical function that noun can perform is the subject. For example, the following italicized noun function as subjects:
y y y

The Baby cried. Dogs and cats make excellent pets. I will have extensively studied English grammar.

2.4.2.2 Noun as Predicate Nominatives The second grammatical function that noun can perform is the predicate nominative. Predicate nominatives are defined as

nouns that follow a copular or linking verb such as be and become and refer back to the subject. For example, the following italicized noun function as predicate nominatives:
y y y

My grandfather is a farmer. Our favorite pets are dogs. The woman whom you are looking for is she.

2.4.2.3 Noun as Direct Objects The third grammatical function that noun can perform is the direct object. For example, the following italicized noun function as direct object:
y y y

The children ate the cookies. Mr. Liu washed the car. The authorities commended Roberta.

2.4.2.4 Noun as Object Complement The fourth grammatical function that noun can perform is the object complement. Object complements are defined as nouns, pronouns, noun phrase, adjectives, and adjective phrases that directly follow and modify the direct object. For example, the following italicized noun function as object complement:
y y y

We consider our puppy our baby. My aunt calls my uncle sweetheart. America recently elected Barack Obama president.

2.4.2.5 Noun as Indirect Object The fifth grammatical function that noun can perform is the indirect object. For example, the following italicized noun function as indirect object:
y y y

My husband bought me flowers. The child drew his mother a picture. I sent Stephanie the camera.

2.4.2.6 Nouns as Prepositional Complements The sixth grammatical function that noun can perform is the prepositional complement. Prepositional complements are defined as the word or phrase that function as the object of the preposition. For example, the following italicized noun function as prepositional complement:
y y y

My husband bough flowers for me. From her perspective, the meeting was success. He pulled the little red wagon to the store.

2.4.2.7 Nouns as Noun Phrase Modifier The seventh grammatical function that noun can perform is the noun phrase modifier. Noun phrase modifiers are defined as word and phrase that describe a noun or a phrase. For example, the following italicized noun function as noun phrase modifier:
y y

The child actor won an award. The carpenter fixed the broken table leg.

We served twenty hotel rooms.

2.4.2.8 Noun as Possessive Modifiers The eighth grammatical function that noun can perform is the noun possessive modifier. Possessive modifiers consist of a noun or noun phrase and the possessive clitic (apostrophe s or s apostrophe) and describe another noun or noun phrase. For example, the following italicized noun function as noun possessive modifier:
y y y

My brothers apartment is small. The food I spilled is the dogs. The librarians report was informative.

2.4.2.9 Noun as Appositives The ninth grammatical function that noun can perform is the appositive. Appositives are defined as nouns that modify or explain another noun. For example, the following italicized noun function as appositives:
y y y

My grandfather the farmer bough more farm land. The teacher, my uncle, assigns a lot of homework. The musician Stevie Nicks is a singer in Fleetwood Mac.

2.4.2.10 Noun as Adverbials The tenth grammatical function that noun can perform is the adverbial. Adverbials are defined as wors, phrases, and clause that modify an entire clause by providing information

such as time, place, manner, condition, reason, or purpose. For example, the following italicized noun function as adverbials:
y y y

Today the children woke up early. We decided to go home. Yesterday the children slept in late. According Betty Schrampfer (p.131) states that a

pronoun has the same meaning as a noun. In grammar, a pronoun refers to a noun. For example:
y

I know Tony. He is a friendly person. He has the same meaning as Tony.

I like Tony. I know him well. Him has the same meaning as Tony.

The pronouns he and him refer to the noun Tony.

2.4.3 Types of Noun Heather McFayden (2010.02.19) classified types of noun into four types. The following types are: 2.4.3.1 Proper Noun Proper noun always begin with a capital letter, proper noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing, the names of days of week, months, historical documents, institutions, organizations, religions, etc. For example, the following the highlighted words are proper noun:

The Marroons were transported from Jamaica and forced to build the fortifications in Halifax. Marroons, Jamaica, and Halifax are proper noun because Marrons is the name of specific transportation it is begun with capital letter. Jamaica is the name of town and it is begun with capital letter. And Halifax is the name of specific place and it is also begun with capital letter.

Many people dread Monday morning. Monday is proper noun because Monday is the names of days of week and it is also begun with capital letter.

Abraham appears in the Talmud and in the Koran. Abraham, Talmud, and Koran are proper noun because Abraham is the specific name, and Talmud and Koran are the name of specific place. And there are also begun with capital letter.

Hayam Wuruk was a great king. Hayam Wuruk is proper noun. Hayam Wuruk is a name of specific king.

2.4.3.2 Common Nouns A common noun is referring to a person, place, or thing in general sense. Usually, it wrote in capital letter only it begins a sentence. A common noun is the opposite of proper noun. For

example, the following the highlighted words are common noun:


y

A boy and his monster dined at a pizza restaurant. Boy, monster, and restaurant are common noun. Boy and monster are the name of person in general sense. And restaurant is the name place in general place because there are many restaurant in the world.

Many child-care workers are underpaid. Workers are common noun, because workers refer to the name of community in general sense. There are many workers in the world.

Hayam Wuruk was a great king. King is common noun because there are many kings in the world.

2.4.3.3 Concrete Nouns Concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is opposite from abstract noun. For example, the following the highlighted words are concrete noun:
y

Pizza is the Godzillas favorite food. Pizza is concrete noun. We can see, smell, and taste it.

The judge handed the files to the clerk.

Judge, files, clerk are concrete noun because we can see and touch it.
y

Whenever they take the dog to the beach, it spends hours chasing waves. Dog, beach, and waves are concrete noun because we can see, touch, hear, and smell it.

The table was broken. Table is concrete noun because we can see, touch, hear, and smell it.

2.4.3.4 Abstract Noun An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you cannot perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun. For example, the following the highlighted words are abstract noun:
y

Politeness is not one of Godzillas strong points. Politeness is an abstract noun because we cannot see, hear, smell, taste, or touch the politeness it self.

Tillie is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood. Childhood is an abstract noun because we cannot see, hear, smell, taste, or touch the childhood.

He gives her a help.

Help is an abstract noun because we cannot see, hear, smell, taste, or touch it.
y

He is always in my mind. Mind is an abstract noun because we cannot see, hear, smell, taste, or touch it. Another example from abstract noun: bravery,

brightness, darkness, goodness, complaint, deceit, hatred, laughter, agreement, beauty, honesty, advertisement, argument, and etc.

CHAPTER 3 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

In chapter 3 the writer will analyze the data of noun from the type point of view. According to Heather McFayden (2010), there are four types of noun: 1. Proper Noun 2. Common Noun 3. Concrete Noun 4. Abstract Noun

3.1 The Analysis of Types of Proper Noun According to Heather McFayden (2010.02.19) Proper Noun begins with a capital letter, proper noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing, the names of days, week, months, historical documents, institutions, organizations, religions, etc. In this part of analysis, the writer takes some data to be analyzed. The data are chosen because they represent the whole data in the same category. The analyses are as follows:
y

Data 1 Atta 1) Atta held onto her crown as she ran toward the anthill. (Page 6) 2) Atta smiled. (Page 8) 3) Atta jammed the crown on her head. (Page 18)

21

Analysis: From data 1 can be concluded that Atta is categorized into proper noun because Atta is the name of specific person and it is begun with a capital letter.
y

Data 2 Cornelius. She had just met with Cornelius about the harvest. (Page 6)

Analysis: From data 2 can be concluded that Cornelius is categorized into proper noun because Cornelius is the name of specific person and it is begun with a capital letter.
y

Data 3 Flik Flik put his foot down on the air tube. (Page 10) Flik flew into the air. (Page 12) Flik ran ahead of Atta. (Page 18)

Analysis: From data 3 can be concluded that Flik is categorized to proper noun because Flik is the name of specific person and it is begun with a capital letter.
y

Data 4 Petal Poofer Flik, the crown got lost because of your Petal Poofer, explained Atta. (Page 17) Atta and another Blueberry started their search at the Petal Poofer. (Page 34) Analysis: From data 4 can be concluded that Petal Poofer is categorized into proper noun because Petal Poofer is the name of specific thing that is made by Flik and it is begun with a capital letter.

Data 5 Blueberries Hey! Thatll make a great ride for the Blueberries! he said. (Page 13) Blueberries shivered with fear, but they had to find Flik. (Page 33)

Analysis: From data 5 can be concluded that Blueberries are categorized into proper noun because Blueberries are the name of specific colony of ants and it is begun with a capital letter.
y

Data 6 Thorny Now then, said Thorny, when should we have the harvest party? (Page 22) Analysis: From data 6 can be concluded that Thorny is categorized into proper noun because Thorny is the name of specific person and it is begun with a capital letter.

Data 7 Mr. Soil Should my students make invitation? asked Mr. Soil. (Page 23)

Analysis: From data 7 can be concluded that Mr. Soil is categorized into proper noun because Mr. Soil is the name of specific person and it is begun with a capital letter.
y

Data 8 Dot Dot led her group over to the wheat field. (Page 32) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37)

Analysis: From data 8 can be concluded that Dot is categorized into proper noun because Dot is the name of specific person and it is begun with a capital letter.

3.2 The Analysis of Types of Common Noun According to Heather McFayden (2010.02.19) Common Noun is referring to a person, place, or thing in general sense. Usually it is written in capital letter only in the beginning of a sentence. In this part of analysis, the writer takes some data to be analyzed. The data are chosen because they represent the whole data in the same category. The analyses are as follows:
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Data 1 crown Atta held onto her crown as she ran toward the anthill. (Page 6) Atta gratefully took the crown. (Page 41)

Analysis: From data 1 can be concluded that Crown is categorized into common noun because crown is a circular ornament headdress of queen in general sense.
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Data 2 grass crown Picking up strips of grass, he quickly wove them into a crown. (Page 18) I didnt want the others to know, Atta said, taking off the grass crown. (Page 27)

Analysis: From data 2 can be concluded that grass crown is categorized into common noun because grass crown is a circular ornament headdress of queen made from grass in general sense.
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Data 3 anthill Atta held onto her crown as she ran toward the anthill. Thats great, Flik! Atta said as she set off toward the anthill.

Analysis: From data 3 can be concluded that anthill is categorized into common noun because anthill is the area of high land of ants in general sense.
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Data 4 harvest She had just met with Cornelius about the harvest. (Page 6)

Analysis: From data 6 can be concluded that harvest is categorized into common noun because harvest is cutting and gathering of crops on a farm in general sense.
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Data 5 mother Whats that youre wearing? asked her mother. (Page 20) Her mother beamed. What a good idea! The others murmured their agreement. (Page 21) Well, you just started, dear. Its a bit soon to decide that, her mother told her. (Page 26) Analysis: From data 5 can be concluded that mother is categorized into common noun because mother is a female parent in general sense.

Data 6 harvest festival Now she had to meet with her mother and the others about the harvest festival.(Page 6) Look what I made for the harvest festival, Flik said. (Page 8) It will be our entertainment for the harvest festival. (Page 10)

Analysis: From data 7 can be concluded that harvest festival is categorized into common noun because harvest festival is a celebration of cutting and gathering of crops on a farm in general sense.
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Data 7 device He stood next to a strange-looking device. (Page 8)

Analysis: From data 8 can be concluded that device is categorized into common noun because device is a thing in general sense.
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Data 8 air pump Wow, youre really going to like this! See, theres this air pump over here. And it sends air in through this tube. (Page 9) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and the tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37) Analysis: From data 9 can be concluded that air pump is categorized into common noun because air pump is a thing in general sense.

Data 9 air Flower petals flew into the air. (Page 10) Flik flew into the air. (Page 12)

Analysis: From data 10 can be concluded that air is categorized into common noun because air is mixture of gases that we breathe in general sense.
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Data 10 tube The end of the tube poked above the water. (Page 38) But the air pump and part of the tube were gone. (Page 30)

Analysis: From data 11 can be concluded that tube is categorized into common noun because tube is the name of a thing in general sense.
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Data 11 hurry Er, Flik, Im in little bit of a hurry, Atta said. (Page 9)

Analysis: From data 13 can be concluded that hurry is categorized into common noun because hurry is an act of doing something quickly in general sense.
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Data 12 foot Flik put his foot down on the air tube. (Page 10) Her foot came down on the air tube. (Page 12)

Analysis: From data 13 can be concluded that foot is categorized into common noun because foot is a lowest part of leg in general sense.

Data 13 air tube Flik put his foot down on the air tube. (Page 10) Her foot came down on the air tube. (Page 12)

Analysis: From data 14 can be concluded that air tube is categorized into common noun because air tube is a thing in general sense.
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Data 14 flower petals Flower petals flew into the air. (Page 10) They followed the trail of flower petals until it ended among some grass stalks. (Page 34) Analysis: From data 15 can be concluded that flower petals are categorized into common noun because flower petals are the thing in general sense.

Data 15 entertainment It will be our entertainment for the harvest festival. (Page 10)

Analysis: From data 16 can be concluded that entertainment is categorized into common noun because entertainment is something that used to entertain people in general sense.
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Data 16 ride Hey! Thatll make a great ride for the Blueberries! he said. (Page 13)

Analysis: From data 17 can be concluded that ride is categorized into common noun because ride is a short journey in general sense.

Data 17 petal Its not a petal, Flik. Its a crown! exclaimed Atta as she searched the ground. (Page 15) Analysis: From data 18 can be concluded that petal is categorized into common noun because petal is delicate colored part of flower in general sense.

Data 18 queen What is everyone going to think about a new queen who cant even hold onto her crown? Atta cried. (Page 16) Im just no good at being a queen, Atta said. (Page 25)

Analysis: From data 19 can be concluded that queen is categorized into common noun because queen is a woman that leads the community in general sense.
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Data 19 crown detector The crown detector! cried Atta. So Flik had built it anyway! Atta had to smile. (Page 35) Analysis: From data 20 can be concluded that crown detector is categorized into common noun because crown detector is thing that used to detect something in general sense.

Data 20 meeting Im late for my meeting! I have to go. I dont know what Im going to tell them about the crown. (Page 17)

The meeting had already started by the time Atta arrived. (Page 20)

Analysis: From data 21 can be concluded that meeting is categorized into common noun because meeting is an occasion when people come together to discuss something in general sense.
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Data 21 grass When Atta got closer, she saw a strange device in the grass. (Page 34)

Analysis: From data 23 can be concluded that grass is categorized into common noun because grass is common wild green plant in general sense.
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Data 22 head Atta jammed the crown on her head. (Page 19) Atta shook her head. (Page 40)

Analysis: From data 24 can be concluded that head is categorized into common noun because head is one part of body in general sense.
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Data 23 idea I think thats a good idea, said Atta. (Page 24)

Analysis: From data 25 can be concluded that idea is categorized into common noun because idea is a plan in general sense.

Data 24 agreement Her mother beamed. What a good idea! The others murmured their agreement. (Page 21)

Analysis: From data 26 can be concluded that agreement is categorized into common noun because agreement is state of sharing the same opinion in general sense.
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Data 25 harvest party The next day at the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. (Page 43) Analysis: From data 27 can be concluded that harvest party is categorized into common noun because harvest party is the celebration of cutting and gathering of crops on a farm in general sense.

Data 26 students Should my students make invitation? asked Mr. Soil. (Page 23)

Analysis: From data 28 can be concluded that students are categorized into common noun because students are the ants that follow Mr. Soil subject in general sense.
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Data 27 invitation Should my students make invitation? asked Mr. Soil. (Page 23)

Analysis: From data 29 can be concluded that invitation is categorized into common noun because invitation is a request to go somewhere or do something in general sense.
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Data 28 daughter Attas mother looked over at her daughter. (Page 23)

Analysis: From data 30 can be concluded that daughter is categorized into common noun because daughter is a persons female child in general sense.
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Data 29 ants Atta, her mother said, your crown is not as important as how you treat the other ants. (Page 29) Because now you know that the ants in this colony are more important than any crown. (Page 29) The ants split into two groups and began their search. (Page 31)

Analysis: From data 31 can be concluded that ants are categorized into common noun because ants are the animal in general sense.
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Data 30 colony Because now you know that the ants in this colony are more important than any crown. (Page 29) Analysis: From data 32 can be concluded that colony is categorized into common noun because colony is a group of the ants in general sense.

Data 31 help Atta figured Flik must be out searching for her crown. She knew she would need help finding him. (Page 30) Analysis: From data 33 can be concluded that help is categorized into common noun because help is an act of helping somebody to do something in general sense.

Data 32 breath She took a deep breath and said, Flik is gone, and so is my crown. We need to find Flik first. (Page 31) Analysis: From data 34 can be concluded that breath is categorized into common noun because breath is air taken into and sent out of the lungs in general sense.

Data 33 group The ants split into two groups and began their search. (Page 31) Dot led her group over to the wheat field. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 35 can be concluded that group is categorized into common noun because group is a number of the ants together in general sense.
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Data 34 search The ants split into two groups and began their search. (Page 31) Atta and another Blueberry started their search at the Petal Poofer. (Page 34) Analysis: From data 36 can be concluded that search is categorized into common noun because search is an attempt to find something in general sense.

Data 35 wheat field Dot led her group over to the wheat field. (Page 33)

Analysis: From data 37 can be concluded that wheat field is categorized into common noun because wheat field is a place in general sense.
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Data 36 leaves Then they looked over leaves and under tree roots nearby. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 38 can be concluded that leaves are categorized into common noun because leaves are a collective of leaf in general sense.
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Data 37 tree roots Then they looked over leaves and under tree roots nearby. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 39 can be concluded that tree roots are categorized into common noun because tree roots are part of a plan in general sense.
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Data 38 dandelion Dot even climbed to the top of a dandelion. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 40 can be concluded that dandelion is categorized into common noun because dandelion is a small wild plant with yellow flower in general sense.

Data 39 sign But there was no sign of Flik. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 41 can be concluded that sign is categorized into common noun because sign is a thing that shows something is exist in general sense.
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Data 40 trail They followed the trail of flower petals until it ended among some grass stalk. (Page 34) Analysis: From data 42 can be concluded that trail is categorized into common noun because trail is a sign of something in general sense.

Data 41 swamp All right, Blueberries, said Dot, lets check the swamp. (Page 33) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37) Flik must have fallen into the swamp! (Page 37)

Analysis: From data 43 can be concluded that swamp is categorized into common noun because swamp is a soft wet land in general sense.
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Data 42 swamp water Atta was just about to send the Blueberries for help when the swamp water began to ripple. (Page 38) Analysis: From data 44 can be concluded that swamp water is categorized into common noun because swamp water is water of swamp in general sense.

Data 43 under water search suit How do you like my under water search suit? Flik asked. (Page 38)

Analysis: From data 45 can be concluded that under water search suit is categorized into common noun because under water search suit is kind of clothes in general sense.
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Data 44 hug Atta was so happy to see him that she gave him a hug. (Page 38)

Analysis: From data 46 can be concluded that hug is categorized into common noun because hug is an act of hugging somebody in general sense.
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Data 45 family The next day the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. (Page 43) Analysis: From data 47 can be concluded that family is categorized into common noun because family is a group consisting of one or two parents, their children, and close relations in general sense.

Data 46 friends The next day the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. (Page 43) Analysis: From data 48 can be concluded that friends are categorized into common noun because friends are people that Atta know well and like in general sense.

3.3 The Analysis of Types of Concrete Noun According to Heather McFayden (2010.02.19) Concrete Noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. In this part of analysis, the writer takes some data to be analyzed. The data are chosen because they represent the whole data in the same category. The analyses are as follows:
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Data 1 Atta Atta held onto her crown as she ran toward the anthill. (Page 6) Atta smiled. (Page 8) Atta jammed the crown on her head. (Page 18)

Analysis: From data 1 can be concluded that Atta is categorized into concrete noun because Atta is an ant. Atta can be perceived through physical sense. She can be seen, smelt and touch.
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Data 2 crown Atta held onto her crown as she ran toward the anthill. (Page 6) Atta gratefully took the crown. (Page 41)

Analysis: From data 2 can be concluded that crown is categorized into concrete noun because crown is a circular ornament headdress of queen that can be perceived through physical sense. Crown can be seen and touch.
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Data 3 grass crown

Picking up strips of grass, he quickly wove them into a crown. (Page 18)

I didnt want the others to know, Atta said, taking off the grass crown. (Page 27)

Analysis: Crown in page 18 refers to grass crown. From data 3 can be concluded that grass crown is categorized into concrete noun because grass crown is a circular ornament headdress of queen made from grass that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.
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Data 4 anthill Atta held onto her crown as she ran toward the anthill. Thats great, Flik! Atta said as she set off toward the anthill.

Analysis: From data 4 can be concluded that anthill is categorized into concrete noun because anthill is the area of high land of ants that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.
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Data 5 Cornelius She had just met with Cornelius about the harvest. (Page 6)

Analysis: From data 5 can be concluded that Cornelius is categorized into concrete noun because Cornelius is an ant that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt, and touch.
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Data 6 mother

Whats that youre wearing? asked her mother. (Page 20) Her mother beamed. What a good idea! The others murmured their agreement. (Page 21)

Well, you just started, dear. Its a bit soon to decide that, her mother told her. (Page 26)

Analysis: From data 7 can be concluded that mother is categorized into concrete noun because mother is a female parent. Mother is an ant, she is Attas mother that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.
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Data 7 Flik Flik flew into the air. (Page 12) Flik ran ahead of Atta. (Page 18) Flik was not there. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 9 can be concluded that Flik is categorized into concrete noun because Flik is an ant that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.

Data 8 device He stood next to a strange-looking device. (Page 8)

Analysis: From data 10can be concluded that device is categorized into concrete noun because device is a thing that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.
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Data 9 air pump Wow, youre really going to like this! See, theres this air pump over here. And it sends air in through this tube. (Page 9) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and the tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37) Analysis: From data 11 can be concluded that air pump is categorized into concrete noun because air pump is a thing that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.

Data 10 tube The end of the tube poked above the water. (Page 38) But the air pump and part of the tube were gone. (Page 30)

Analysis: From data 12 can be concluded that tube is categorized into concrete noun because tube is a thing that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.
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Data 11 foot Flik put his foot down on the air tube. (Page 10) Her foot came down on the air tube. (Page 12)

Analysis: From data 13 can be concluded that foot is categorized into concrete noun because foot is a lowest part of leg that can be

perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.


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Data 12 air tube Flik put his foot down on the air tube. (Page 10) Her foot came down on the air tube. (Page 12)

Analysis: From data 14 can be concluded that air tube is categorized into concrete noun because air tube is a thing that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.
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Data 13 flower petals Flower petals flew into the air. (Page 10) They followed the trail of flower petals until it ended among some grass stalks. (Page 34) Analysis: From data 15 can be concluded that flower petals are categorized into concrete noun because flower petals are thing that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.

Data 14 Petal Poofer Flik, the crown got lost because of your Petal Poofer, explained Atta. (Page 17) Atta and another Blueberry started their search at the Petal Poofer. (Page 34) Analysis: From data 16 can be concluded that Petal Poofer is categorized into concrete noun because Petal Poofer is a thing

that is made by Flik. Petal Poofer can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.
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Data 15 Blueberries Hey! Thatll make a great ride for the Blueberries! he said. (Page 13) Blueberries shivered with fear, but they had to find Flik. (Page 33)

Analysis: From data 17 can be concluded that Blueberries is categorized into concrete noun because Blueberries are the collective of ants that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.
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Data 16 petal Its not a petal, Flik. Its a crown! exclaimed Atta as she searched the ground. (Page 15) Analysis: From data 18 can be concluded that petal is categorized into concrete noun because petal is delicate colored part of flower that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.

Data 17 petal - Well Atta, said her mother, youre a better queen than you think. Because now you know that the ants in this colony are more important than any crown. (Page 29) Analysis: From data 17 can be concluded that queen is categorized into concrete noun because queen is a woman that leads the

community. It can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt, touch, heard because the queen is Atta.
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Data 18 crown detector The crown detector! cried Atta. So Flik had built it anyway! Atta had to smile. (Page 35) Analysis: From data 19 can be concluded that crown detector is categorized into concrete noun because crown detector is a thing that can be used to detect something and it can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.

Data 19 grass When Atta got closer, she saw a strange device in the grass. (Page 34)

Analysis: From data 21 can be concluded that grass is categorized into concrete noun because grass is common wild green plant that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.
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Data 20 head Atta jammed the crown on her head. (Page 19) Atta shook her head. (Page 40)

Analysis: From data 22 can be concluded that head is categorized into concrete noun because head is one part of body that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.

Data 21 Thorny Now then, said Thorny, when should we have the harvest party? (Page 22) Analysis: From data 23 can be concluded that Thorny is categorized into concrete noun because Thorny is an ant that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.

Data 22 harvest party The next day at the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. (Page 43) Analysis: From data 24 can be concluded that harvest party is categorized into concrete noun because harvest party is the celebration the celebration of cutting and gathering of crops on a farm that really happened and can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen.

Data 23 students Should my students make invitation? asked Mr. Soil. (Page 23)

Analysis: From data 25 can be concluded that students are categorized into concrete noun because students are the ants that follow Mr. Soils subject. Students can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.

Data 24 Mr. Soil Should my students make invitation? asked Mr. Soil. (Page 23)

Analysis: From data 26 can be concluded that Mr. Soil is categorized into concrete noun because Mr. Soil is an ant that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.
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Data 25 daughter Attas mother looked over at her daughter. (Page 23)

Analysis: From data 27 can be concluded that daughter is categorized into concrete noun because daughter is a persons female child. Daughter can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.
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Data 26 ants Atta, her mother said, your crown is not as important as how you treat the other ants. (Page 29) Because now you know that the ants in this colony are more important than any crown. (Page 29) The ants split into two groups and began their search. (Page 31)

Analysis: From data 28 can be concluded that ants are categorized into concrete noun because ants are the animal that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.

Data 27 colony

Because now you know that the ants in this colony are more important than any crown. (Page 29)

Analysis: From data 29 can be concluded that colony is categorized into concrete noun because colony is a collective of ants that can be perceived through physical sense: it can be seen because the member of the colony is ants.
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Data 28 group The ants split into two groups and began their search. (Page 31) Dot led her group over to the wheat field. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 30 can be concluded that group is categorized into concrete noun because group is a number of ants together that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen because the member of the group is ants.
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Data 29 Dot Dot led her group over to the wheat field. (Page 32) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37) Analysis: From data 31 can be concluded that Dot is categorized into concrete noun because Dot is an ant that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.

Data 30 wheat field

Dot led her group over to the wheat field. (Page 33)

Analysis: From data 32 can be concluded that wheat field is categorized into concrete noun because wheat field is a place that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.
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Data 31 leaves Then they looked over leaves and under tree roots nearby. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 33 can be concluded that leaves are categorized into concrete noun because leaves are collective of leaf that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.
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Data 32 tree roots Then they looked over leaves and under tree roots nearby. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 34 can be concluded that tree roots are categorized into concrete noun because tree roots are part of a plan that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.
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Data 33 dandelion Dot even climbed to the top of a dandelion. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 35 can be concluded that dandelion is categorized into concrete noun because dandelion is a small wild plant with yellow flower that can be perceived through physical

sense; it can be seen, smelt and touch.

Data 34 sign But there was no sign of Flik. (Page 32)

Analysis: From data 36 can be concluded that sign is categorized into concrete noun because sign is a thing that shows something exists. Sign can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt, heard, tasted and touch.
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Data 35 trail They followed the trail of flower petals until it ended among some grass stalk. (Page 34) Analysis: From data 37 can be concluded that trail is categorized into concrete noun because trail is a sign that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, touch, smelt, and tasted.

Data 36 swamp All right, Blueberries, said Dot, lets check the swamp. (Page 33) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37) Flik must have fallen into the swamp! (Page 37)

Analysis: From data 38 can be concluded that swamp is categorized into concrete noun because swamp is a place that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt, tasted and touch.
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Data 37 swamp water

Atta was just about to send the Blueberries for help when the swamp water began to ripple. (Page 38)

Analysis: From data 39 can be concluded that swamp water is categorized into concrete noun because swamp water is water that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, smelt, tasted and touch.
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Data 38 under water search suit How do you like my under water search suit? Flik asked. (Page 38)

Analysis: From data 40 can be concluded that under water search suit is categorized into concrete noun because under water search suit is a kind of clothes that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen and touch.
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Data 39 hug Atta was so happy to see him that she gave him a hug. (Page 38)

Analysis: From data 41 can be concluded that hug is categorized into concrete noun because hug is an act of hugging Flik that can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen.
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Data 40 family The next day the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. (Page 43) Analysis: From data 42 can be concluded that family is categorized into concrete noun because family is a group consisting of one or two parents, their children, and close relations that can be

perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, touch, and smelt because the member of the family is ants.
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Data 41 friends The next day the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. (Page 43) Analysis: From data 43 can be concluded that friends are categorized into concrete noun because friends are people that we know well and like. Friends can be perceived through physical sense; it can be seen, touch, and smelt because the members of the friends are ants.

3.4 The Analysis of Types of Abstract Noun According to Heather McFayden (2010. 02.19) Abstract Noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you cannot perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. In this part of analysis, the writer takes some data to be analyzed. The data are chosen because they represent the whole data in the same category. The analyses are as follows:
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Data 1 air Flower petals flew into the air. (Page 10) Flik flew into the air. (Page 12)

Analysis: From data 1 can be concluded that air is categorized into abstract noun because air is mixture of gases that we breathe.

Air cannot be perceived through physical sense: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell.
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Data 2 hurry Er, Flik, Im in little bit of a hurry, Atta said. (Page 9)

Analysis: From data 2 can be concluded that hurry is categorized into abstract noun because hurry is an act of doing something quickly. Hurry cannot be perceived through physical sense: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. But it can be imagined.
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Data 3 entertainment It will be our entertainment for the harvest festival. (Page 10)

Analysis: From data 3 can be concluded that entertainment is categorized into abstract noun because entertainment is something that used to entertain people. Entertainment cannot be perceived through physical sense: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell because it hasnt been done.
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Data 4 harvest She had just met with Cornelius about the harvest. (Page 6)

Analysis: From data 4 can be concluded that harvest is categorized into abstract noun because harvest is cutting and gathering of crops on farm. Harvest cannot be perceived through physical sense; it can not be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard because it has not been done.
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Data 5 harvest festival

Now she had to meet with her mother and the others about the harvest festival.(Page 6)

Look what I made for the harvest festival, Flik said. (Page 8) It will be our entertainment for the harvest festival. (Page 10)

Analysis: From data 5 can be concluded that harvest festival is categorized into abstract noun because harvest festival is a celebration of cutting and gathering of crops on farm. Harvest festival can not be perceived through physical sense; it can not be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard because it has not been done.
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Data 6 ride Hey! Thatll make a great ride for the Blueberries! he said. (Page 13)

Analysis: From data 6 can be concluded that ride is categorized into abstract noun because ride a short journey. Ride can not be perceived through physical sense: it cannot be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard. But it can be imagined.
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Data 7 meeting Im late for my meeting! I have to go. I dont know what Im going to tell them about the crown. (Page 17) The meeting had already started by the time Atta arrived. (Page 20)

Analysis: From data 7 can be concluded that meeting is categorized into abstract noun because meeting an occasion when people come together to discuss something. Meeting can not be

perceived through physical sense; it cannot be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard. But it can be imagined.
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Data 8 idea I think thats a good idea, said Atta. (Page 24)

Analysis: From data 8 can be concluded that idea is categorized into abstract noun because idea is a plan. Idea can not be perceived through physical sense; it cannot be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard. But it can be imagined.
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Data 9 agreement Her mother beamed. What a good idea! The others murmured their agreement. (Page 21) Analysis: From data 9 can be concluded that agreement is categorized into abstract noun because agreement is an arrangement. Agreement cannot be perceived through physical sense; it cannot be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard.

Data 10 invitation Should my students make invitation? asked Mr. Soil. (Page 23)

Analysis: From data 10 can be concluded that invitation is categorized into abstract noun because invitation is a request to go somewhere or do something. Invitation cannot be perceived through physical sense; it cannot be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard.
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Data 11 help

Atta figured Flik must be out searching for her crown. She knew she would need help finding him. (Page 30)

Analysis: From data 11 can be concluded that help is categorized into abstract noun because help is an act of helping somebody to do something. Help cannot be perceived through physical sense; it can not be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard. But it can be imagined.
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Data 12 breath She took a deep breath and said, Flik is gone, and so is my crown. We need to find Flik first. (Page 31) Analysis: From data 12 can be concluded that breath is categorized into abstract noun because breath is air taken into and sent out of the lungs. Breath cannot be perceived through physical sense; it can not be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard.

Data 13 search The ants split into two groups and began their search. (Page 31) Atta and another Blueberry started their search at the Petal Poofer. (Page 34) Analysis: From data 13 can be concluded that search is categorized into abstract noun because search is an attempt to find something. Search cannot be perceived through physical sense; it can not be seen, smelt, tasted, touch, and heard.

Table 3.1 Classification of Types of Noun in the Story Book A Crown for Atta

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Noun Form Atta Crown Grass crown Anthill Cornelius Harvest Mother Harvest festival Flik Device Air pump Air Tube Hurry Foot Air tube Flower petals Petal Poofer Entertainment Ride Blueberries Petal Queen Crown detector Meeting Grass Head Idea Agreement Thorny Harvest Party Students

Proper Noun

Common Noun

Concrete Noun

Abstract Noun

No 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Noun Form Mr. soil Invitation Daughter Ants Colony Help Breath Group Search Dot Wheatfield Leaves Tree roots Dandelion Sign Trail Swamp Swamp water Under water search suit Hug Family Friends

Proper Noun

Common Noun

Concrete Noun

Abstract Noun

3.5 Discussion 1. Discussion Based on Data Analysis From the data above the writer draws conclusion that the most noun words categories used is Common Noun since it gains 46 words. Common noun used by the author in this storybook to describe a person, place or thing in general sense and usually written in capital letter only in the beginning of a sentence.

The second place is attended by Concrete Noun since it gains 42 words. Concrete noun is used when the author finds words refer to the noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. Abstract Noun in third position as it gains 13 words. Abstract Noun refers to the noun which names anything (or anyone) that you cannot perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. The last position is Proper Noun which gains 8 words. Proper Noun represents the name of specific person, place, or thing, the names of days, week, months, historical documents, institutions, organizations, religions, etc. It begins with a capital letter. From the data above the writer finds that the noun words belong to more than one type. It can be proper noun and concrete noun, like Atta, Flik, Mr. Soil, etc., common noun and concrete noun, like crown, anthill, students, sign, etc., then common noun and abstract noun, like invitation, help, idea, agreement, etc.

2. Pedagogical Implication The study has some implication for students, teacher, and may be for others who interest in analyzing the storybook. However two of them are referred to here. 1) The first implication for students.

Can improve students vocabulary. For example: Hey! That will make a great ride for the Blueberries! he said. (Page 13). In general the meaning of ride is sit on a horse, bicycle, etc and control it as it moves. But in context ride here is short journey.Ride is categorized into abstract noun. It can be seen that the students not only know the literary meaning of words but also they will understand the specific kinds of noun (abstract, proper, common, concrete).

Can improve reading comprehension skill. By analyzing kinds of noun in storybook, they can improve their reading comprehension skill. For example, their understanding of the word ride will be wider.

2) The second implication for teacher. The analysis of kinds of nouns using storybook as a media can help teacher in convey new vocabulary, reading comprehension, because the students are motivated to analyze a text by themselves rather than the teacher rules only as instructor.

CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

4.1 Conclusion After analyzing the data in previous chapter, the writer can draw the conclusion as follows: The noun word categories that the author uses in storybook A Crown for Atta are proper noun, common noun, concrete noun, and abstract noun. Proper noun gains 8 words, common noun gains 46 words, concrete noun 41 words, and abstract noun 13 words.

4.2 Suggestion Referring to result of the research, the writer suggests: 1. For the readers especially college students who are interested in analyzing the same topic, they can analyze the noun words categories in other object not only in storybook A Crown for Atta but also in other storybooks, novels, articles in newspaper, drama texts, movie texts, and etc. In

storybook A crown for Atta not only noun word categories that can be analyzed but also kinds of preposition, pronouns, adverb, function of the noun, imperative sentence, simple present tense, and etc. 2. For students, by analyzing the noun words categories it can improve students vocabulary and reading comprehension skill.

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3. For teacher, by analyzing the noun word categories using storybook as a media can help teacher in convey new vocabulary, reading comprehension, because the students are motivated to analyze a text by themselves rather than the teacher rules only as instructor.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Basrowi, Suwandi. 2008. Memahami Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Berg, Bruce L. 2006. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Boston: Pearson Education Inc. Bodgan, Robert C, Taylors K.B. 1992. Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Ally and Bacon Inc. Cheung, W.S, K.F. Hew. 2009. A Review of Research Methodologies Used in Studies on Mobile Handheld Devices in K-12 and Higher Education Settings. Nanyang Technological University. Creswell, John W. 1998. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design. Sage Publication. Deterding, David H, Gloria R.P. 2001. The Grammar of English. Prentice Hall Pearson EducationAsia Pte Ltd. Escalada, Monina. 2008. How to do content analysis: a step-by-step guide. From http://devcompage.com/?p=132, 6 Mei 2010. Frank, Marcella. 1972. Modern English. New Jersey: Printice-Hall. Fromkin, Victoria. David Blair and Peter Collins. 1999. An Introduction to Language. Australia: Southwood Press. Ikah. 2006. The Correlation between Students Achievement in Vocabulary and Reading Ability. Universitas Syarief Hidayatullah: Jakarta. Johnson, Maggie, Julie Zelenski. 2008. Lexical Analysis. Kosur, Heather Marie. 2009. The Ten Function of Nouns in English Grammar. From http://languagestudy.suite101.com/article.cfm/english_noun_and_noun _phrases#ixzz0jLY1a99g. MacFayden, Heather. 2010.2.19. What is Noun? From http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/nouns.html, Maret 2010. 29

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Marek, A. Susan. 2008. Distance Education and Training Council High School Seminar. Arizona. McCafferty, Catherine. 1998. A Crown for Atta. United States: Advance Publishers. Paul Shoebottom.1996-2007. How to Learn Vocabulary. http://esl.fis.edu/learners/advice/vocab.htm, 1 Mei 2010 From

Straus, Corbin. 1980. Basic of Qualitative Research Technique and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Todd, Loreto. 2000. An Introduction to linguistics. Pearson EducationAsia Pte Ltd.

APPENDICES

Appendix 1. List of Data

Data of Atta 4) Atta held onto her crown as she ran toward the anthill. (Page 6) 5) She had so much to do now that she was a queen! (Page 6) 6) She had just met with Cornelius about the harvest. (Page 6) 7) Now she had to meet with her mother and the others about the harvest festival. (Page 6) 8) Not wanting to hurt Fliks feelings, Atta stopped and waited. (Page 7) 9) Atta smiled. (Page 8) 10) Wow, youre really going to like this! See, theres this air pump over here. And it sends air in through this tube. (Page 9) 11) Atta turned and stepped closer. (Page 12) 12) Relieved, Atta reached up to straighten her crown. (Page 15) 13) Thats when she noticed it wasnt there! 14) Its not a petal, Flik. Its a crown! exclaimed Atta as she searched the ground. (Page 15) 15) What is everyone going to think about a new queen who cant even hold onto her crown? Atta cried. (Page 16) 16) Atta jammed the crown on her head. (Page 18) 17) Its not the same, Flik, she said angrily. Please, just find the real crown. (Page 18) 18) Everyone looked up as she entered. (Page 20)

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19) Um, my everyday crown, said Atta. (Page 20) 20) Im wearing it so nothing will happen to the real one, she explained, thinking quickly. (Page 21) 21) Atta was too worried about her crown to decide. (Page 22) 22) Lets talk about that later, she said. (Page 22) 23) Lets decide that later, too, replied Atta. (Page 23) 24) I think thats a good idea, said Atta. (Page 24) 25) Im just no good at being a queen, Atta said. (Page 24) 26) As the others left, Attas mother turned to her. Is something wrong, dear? (Page 24) 27) Well, you just started, dear. (Page 26) 28) Well, you just started, dear. Its a bit soon to decide that, her mother told her. (Page 26) 29) But look what Ive done already, said Atta. (Page 26) 30) I didnt want the others to know, Atta said, taking off the grass crown. (Page 27) 31) Id feel better if I told Flik I was sorry, said Atta. (Page 29) 32) Atta hurried out and found Fliks Petal Poofer right where he had left it. (Page 30) 33) Atta figured Flik must be out searching for her crown. She knew she would need help finding him. (Page 30) 34) Atta ran to get some of the Blueberries. She took a deep breath and said, Flik is gone, and so is my crown. We need to find Flik first. (Page 31)

35) Atta and another Blueberry started their search at the Petal Poofer. (Page 34) 36) When Atta got closer, she saw a strange device in the grass. (Page 34) 37) The crown detector! cried Atta. So Flik had built it anyway! Atta had to smile. (Page 35) 38) Atta heard someone calling her, but it was not Flik. (Page 36) 39) She came charging over. (Page 36) 40) Atta was just about to send the Blueberries for help when the swamp water began to ripple. (Page 38) 41) Atta was so happy to see him that gave him a hug. (Page 38) 42) Atta shook her head. No, Im sorry, Flik. Im sorry I yelled at you. Besides, I can always wear the grass one.(Page 40) 43) Atta gratefully took the crown. (Page 41) 44) The next day at the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. She felt lucky, indeed. In fact, she felt just like a queen! 45) Flik called to her as she rushed by. (Page 7) 46) Flik ran ahead of Atta. (Page 18) 47) The meeting had already started by the time Atta arrived. (Page 20) 48) He bowed and held it out to Atta. (Page 36) 49) Oh. Right. Ill just show you what it does. (Page 10) 50) Ill help you find it! Flik offered. (Page 15) Data of Crown 1) Atta held onto her crown as she ran toward the anthill. (Page 6) 2) So did Attas crown. (Page 12

3) What is everyone going to think about a new queen who cant even hold onto her crown? Atta cried. (Page 16) 4) Atta was too worried about her crown to decide. (Page 22) 5) Atta figured Flik must be out searching for her crown. She knew she would need help finding him. (Page 30) 6) Atta, Im sorry about your crown, said Flik (Page 40) 7) She could see that Atta was worried about something. (Page 23) 8) Relieved, Atta reached up to straighten her crown. (Page 15) 9) Ill help you find it! Flik offered. (Page 15) 10) Its not a petal, Flik. Its a crown! exclaimed Atta as she searched the ground. (Page 15) 11) Not to worry. Ill find it, declared Flik. Ill just build a crown detector and (Page 16) 12) Its not the same, Flik, she said angrily. Please, just find the real crown. (Page 18) 13) Um, my everyday crown, said Atta. (Page 20) 14) Ive yelled at Flik. I cant decide anything about this harvest party. And Ive Ive lost my crown. (Page 26) 15) You lost your crown? her mother repeated. I though you said- (Page 27) 16) They wouldnt listen to me if they though I couldnt even take care of my crown. (Page 27) 17) Atta ran to get some of the Blueberries. She took a deep breath and said, Flik is gone, and so is my crown. We need to find Flik first. (Page 31)

18) I found the real crown! (Page 41) 19) Atta gratefully took the crown. (Page 41) 20) Thats when she noticed it wasnt there! (Page 15) 21) Im sure its close by. None of the petals ever poofs very far. (Page 15) 22) Its not a petal, Flik. Its a crown! exclaimed Atta as she searched the ground. (Page 15) 23) Flik, the crown got lost because of your Petal Poofer, explained Atta. (Page 17) 24) Atta, her mother said, your crown is not as important as how you treat the other ants. (Page 29) Data of Grass Crown 1) Picking up strips of grass, he quickly wove them into a crown. (Page 18) 2) I didnt want the others to know, Atta said, taking off the grass crown. (Page 27) 3) Atta jammed the crown on her head. (Page 18) 4) Im wearing it so nothing will happen to the real one, she explained, thinking quickly. (Page 21) 5) Besides, I can always wear the grass one. (Page 40) 6) Its not the same, Flik, she said angrily. Please, just find the real crown. (Page 18) Data of Anthill 1) Atta held onto her crown as she ran toward the anthill. 2) Thats great, Flik! Atta said as she set off toward the anthill.

Data of Cornelious 1) She had just met with Cornelius about the harvest. Data of Harvest 1) She had just met with Cornelius about the harvest. Data of Mother 1) Now she had to meet with her mother and the others about the harvest festival.(Page 6) 2) Whats that youre wearing? asked her mother. (Page 20) 3) Her mother beamed. What a good idea! The others murmured their agreement. (Page 21) 4) Attas mother looked over at her daughter. (Page 23) 5) Why dont we just have this meeting some other time? Attas mother suggested. (Page 24) 6) As the others left, Attas mother turned to her. Is something wrong, dear? (Page 24) 7) Well, you just started, dear. Its a bit soon to decide that, her mother told her. (Page 26) 8) You lost your crown? her mother repeated. I though you said- (Page 27) 9) Atta, her mother said, your crown is not as important as how you treat the other ants. (Page 29) Data of Harvest Festival 1) Now she had to meet with her mother and the others about the harvest festival.(Page 6)

2) Look what I made for the harvest festival, Flik said. (Page 8) 3) It will be our entertainment for the harvest festival. (Page 10) Data of Flik 1) Look what I made for the harvest festival, Flik said. (Page 8) 2) He stood next to a strange-looking device. (Page 8) 3) Flik was always building new things. (Page 8) 4) Oh. Right. Ill just show you what it does. (Page 10) 5) Flik put his foot down on the air tube. (Page 10) 6) I call it a Petal Poofer, he said proudly. (Page 10) 7) Flik flew into the air. (Page 12) 8) Flik looked more happy than hurt. (Page 13) 9) Hey! Thatll make a great ride for the Blueberries! he said. (Page 13) 10) Ill help you find it! Flik offered. (Page 15) 11) Not to worry. Ill find it, declared Flik. Ill just build a crown detector and (Page 16) 12) Flik ran ahead of Atta. (Page 18) 13) Picking up strips of grass, he quickly wove them into a crown. (Page 18) 14) Atta hurried out and found Fliks Petal Poofer right where he had left it. (Page 30) 15) Flik was not there. Then they looked over leaves and under tree roots nearby. Dot even climbed to the top of a dandelion. But there was no sign of Flik. (Page 32)

16) The crown detector! cried Atta. So Flik had built it anyway! Atta had to smile. (Page 35) 17) Flik! she called out, hoping he migh be nearby. (Page 35) 18) Flik must have fallen into the swamp! (Page 36) 19) How do you like my underwater search suit? Flik asked. (Page 38) 20) Atta, Im sorry about your crown, said Flik. (Page 40) 21) But you dont have to, Flik said. (Page 41) 22) Thats great, Flik! Atta said as she set off toward the anthill. (Page 10) 23) Id feel better if I told Flik I was sorry, said Atta. (Page 29) 24) The Blueberries shivered with fear, but they had to find Flik. (Page 33) 25) Atta figured Flik must be out searching for her crown. She knew she would need help finding him. (Page 30) 26) Atta heard someone calling her, but it was not Flik. (Page 36) 27) Atta was so happy to see him that she gave him a hug. (Page 38) 28) No, Im sorry, Flik. Im sorry I yelled at you. (Page 40) 29) Ive yelled at Flik. I cant decide anything about this harvest party. And Ive Ive lost my crown. (Page 26) 30) Flik was not there. Then they looked over leaves and under tree roots nearby. Dot even climbed to the top of a dandelion. But there was no sign of Flik. (Page 32) 31) No, Im sorry, Flik. Im sorry I yelled at you. (Page 40) 32) Its not a petal, Flik. Its a crown! exclaimed Atta as she searched the ground. (Page 15)

33) Flik, the crown got lost because of your Petal Poofer, explained Atta. (Page 17) 34) Its not the same, Flik, she said angrily. Please, just find the real crown. (Page 18) 35) Flik! she called out, hoping he migh be nearby. (Page 35) Data of Device 1) He stood next to a strange-looking device. (Page 8) 2) When Atta got closer, she saw a strange device in the grass. (Page 34) Data of Air Pump 1) Wow, youre really going to like this! See, theres this air pump over here. And it sends air in through this tube. (Page 9) 2) Flik was always building new things. (Page 8) 3) We found something. (Page 36) 4) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and the tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37) Data of Air 1) Wow, youre really going to like this! See, theres this air pump over here. And it sends air in through this tube. (Page 9) 2) Flower petals flew into the air. (Page 10) 3) Flik flew into the air. (Page 12) Data of Tube 1) Wow, youre really going to like this! See, theres this air pump over here. And it sends air in through this tube. (Page 9)

2) The end of the tube poked above the water. (Page 38) 3) But the air pump and part of the tube were gone. (Page 30) Data of Hurry 1) Er, Flik, Im in little bit of a hurry, Atta said. (Page 9) Data of Foot 1) Flik put his foot down on the air tube. (Page 10) 2) Her foot came down on the air tube. (Page 12) Data of Air Tube 1) Flik put his foot down on the air tube. (Page 10) 2) Her foot came down on the air tube. (Page 12) Data of Flower Petals 1) Flower petals flew into the air. (Page 10) 2) They followed the trail of flower petals until it ended among some grass stalks. (Page 34) Data of Petal Poofer 1) I call it a Petal Poofer, he said proudly. (Page 10) 2) It will be our entertainment for the harvest festival. (Page 10) 3) Flik, the crown got lost because of your Petal Poofer, explained Atta. (Page 17) 4) Atta hurried out and found Fliks Petal Poofer right where he had left it. (Page 30) 5) Atta and another Blueberry started their search at the Petal Poofer. (Page 34)

6) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37) Data of Entertainment 1) It will be our entertainment for the harvest festival. (Page 10) Data of Ride 1) Hey! Thatll make a great ride for the Blueberries! he said. (Page 13) Data of Blueberries 1) Hey! Thatll make a great ride for the Blueberries! he said. (Page 13) 2) Atta ran to get some of the Blueberries. (Page 31) 3) All right, Blueberries, said Dot, lets check the swamp. (Page 33) 4) Blueberries shivered with fear, but they had to find Flik. (Page 33) 5) Atta and another Blueberry started their search at the Petal Poofer. (Page 34) 6) Atta was just about to send the Blueberries for help when the swamp water began to ripple. (Page 38) Data of Petal 1) Its not a petal, Flik. Its a crown! exclaimed Atta as she searched the ground. Data of Queen 1) What is everyone going to think about a new queen who cant even hold onto her crown? Atta cried. (Page 16) 2) Im just no good at being a queen, Atta said. (Page 25) 3) In fact, she felt just like a queen! (Page 43)

4) Well Atta, said her mother, youre a better queen than you think. Because now you know that the ants in this colony are more important than any crown. (Page 29) Data of Crown Detector 1) Not to worry. Ill find it, declared Flik. Ill just build a crown detector and (Page 16) 2) Dont build something new to make it worse! she sighed. (Page 17) 3) The crown detector! cried Atta. So Flik had built it anyway! Atta had to smile. (Page 35) Data of Meeting 1) Im late for my meeting! I have to go. I dont know what Im going to tell them about the crown. (Page 17) 2) The meeting had already started by the time Atta arrived. (Page 20) 3) Why dont we just have this meeting some other time? Attas mother suggested. (Page 24) Data of Grass 1) Picking up strips of grass, he quickly wove them into a crown. (Page 18) 2) When Atta got closer, she saw a strange device in the grass. (Page 34) Data of Head 1) Atta jammed the crown on her head. (Page 19) 2) Then Fliks head popped up, too! (Page 38) 3) Atta shook her head. (Page 40) Data of Idea

1) Her mother beamed. What a good idea! The others murmured their agreement. (Page 21) 2) I think thats a good idea, said Atta. (Page 24) Data of Agreement 1) Her mother beamed. What a good idea! The others murmured their agreement. (Page 21) Data of Thorny 1) Now then, said Thorny, when should we have the harvest party? (Page 22) Data of Harvest Party 1) Now then, said Thorny, when should we have the harvest party? (Page 22) 2) I cant decide anything about this harvest part. (Page 26) 3) The next day at the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. (Page 43) Data of Students 1) Should my students make invitation? asked Mr. Soil. (Page 23) Data of Mr. Soil 1) Should my students make invitation? asked Mr. Soil. (Page 23) Data of Invitation 1) Should my students make invitation? asked Mr. Soil. (Page 23) 2) Lets decide that later, too, replied Atta. (Page 23) Data of Daughter

1) Attas mother looked over at her daughter. (Page 23) Data of Ants 1) Atta, her mother said, your crown is not as important as how you treat the other ants. (Page 29) 2) Now she had to meet with her mother and the others about the harvest festival.(Page 6) 3) I didnt want the others to know, Atta said, taking off the grass crown. (Page 27) 4) Because now you know that the ants in this colony are more important than any crown. (Page 29) 5) The ants split into two groups and began their search. (Page 31)

Data of Colony 1) Because now you know that the ants in this colony are more important than any crown. (Page 29) Data of Help 1) Atta figured Flik must be out searching for her crown. She knew she would need help finding him. (Page 30) 1) Atta was just about to send the Blueberries for help when the swamp water began to ripple. (Page 38) Data of Breath 1) She took a deep breath and said, Flik is gone, and so is my crown. We need to find Flik first. (Page 31)

Data of Group 1) The ants split into two groups and began their search. (Page 31) 2) Dot led her group over to the wheat field. (Page 32) Data of Search 1) The ants split into two groups and began their search. (Page 31) 2) Atta and another Blueberry started their search at the Petal Poofer. (Page 34) Data of Dot 1) Dot led her group over to the wheat field. (Page 32) 2) All right, Blueberries, said Dot, lets check the swamp. (Page 33) 3) Atta! cried Dot. (Page 36) 4) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37) Data of Wheatfield 1) Dot led her group over to the wheat field. (Page 33) Data of Leaves 1) Then they looked over leaves and under tree roots nearby. (Page 32) Data of Tree roots 1) Then they looked over leaves and under tree roots nearby. (Page 32) Data of Dandelion 1) Dot even climbed to the top of a dandelion. (Page 32) Data of Sign 1) But there was no sign of Flik. (Page 32) Data of Trail

1) They followed the trail of flower petals until it ended among some grass stalk. (Page 34) Data of Swamp 1) All right, Blueberries, said Dot, lets check the swamp. (Page 33) 2) At the edge of the swamp, Dot pointed to the air pump and tube from Fliks Petal Poofer. (Page 37) 3) Flik must have fallen into the swamp! (Page 37) Data of Swamp Water 1) Atta was just about to send the Blueberries for help when the swamp water began to ripple. (Page 38) 2) The end of the tube poked above the water. (Page 38) Data of under water search suit. 1) How do you like my under water search suit? Flik asked. (Page 38) Data of Hug 1) Atta was so happy to see him that she gave him a hug. (Page 38) Party 2) Weve got a party to plan! (Page 41) Data of Family 1) The next day the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. (Page 43) Data of Friends 1) The next day the harvest party, Atta was surrounded by her family and friends. (Page 43)

Appendix 2. Letters

LIST OF APPENDIX 2 1. SURAT KEPUTUSAN DEKAN FKIP UNSWAGATI CIREBON .. 82 2. Kartu Kegiatan Bimbingan Penulisan Skripsi . 84

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CURRICULUM VITAE

The writers name is Tita Hernita Pratiwi. She was born in Sumedang, on October 28, 1987. She is a Moslem. She lives at Jl. Koramil Blok. Kavling Desa Kebarepan, RT/RW 01/02 Plumbon Cirebon 45155. Her fathers name is Nanang Suhendar, SH and her mothers name is Wiwi Wiatmah. The writers education is started from kindergarten school in TK Handayani Kebarepan. She continued her study in SDN 2 Kebarepan, graduated in 2000. Then, she continued to SMP Negeri 1 Plumbon and graduated in 2003. After graduating from the School she continued her study to SMA Negeri 1 Palimanan and finished it in 2006. To complete her degree, she continued to the English Education Department, Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences, Unswagati Cirebon for Sarjana Pendidikan (S1) Degree.