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(see "Symmetry in Physics", J.P. Elliott and P.G. Dawber, The Macmillan Press, London)

Quantum-mechanical wave equation which determines the th energy level of the system using the wave function for the th state : is the Hamiltonian operator for the system. Consider a group of transformations commute with whose elements

is invariant under elements of .

or totally symmetric with respect to the ?

What are the properties of

Symmetry and Quantum Mechanics (2) Examine the effect of on : Hence Two cases: is also an eigenfunction of with eigenvalue . We can thus . label the wave function fully as . In this case we have where is some nondegenerate irrep of . is nondegenerate.

where functions partner and is some representation of .Symmetry and Quantum Mechanics (3) Other case: is -fold degenerate. In this case there are . We can label our wave . Is irreducible? functions as .

Symmetry and Quantum Mechanics (4) Suppose is reducible. for different possible values of and . say But since each is an irrep we now have so the effect of any is to mix only the with the same value of . must be . Then we can reduce it so that all are block diagonal. This will transform the among themselves into a new . except for accidental degeneracy. not with any other value. corresponding to irreducible D representations. basis. and irreducible. So why should different values be degenerate (except by accident)? So our supposition leads to an ambiguity.

Symmetry and Quantum Mechanics (5) So. we can classify the wave functions. wave functions for different energy levels transform as basis functions for irreducible representations of the group . . Further. where . This is the key. the same group-theoretical structure will tell us about the spectroscopy of the system. If we know the properties of .

2. 7. 8.Symmetries of the nuclear Hamiltonian (exact or almost exact) 1. 4. 5. 3. 6. Continuous Translational invariance transformations Galilean invariance (or Lorentz (appear to be invariance) universally valid) Rotational invariance Time reversal Parity (space reflection) Charge independence and isobaric symmetry Baryon and lepton number symmetry Permutation between the two nucleons (imposed by the exclusion principle) Dynamical symmetries apply in certain cases provide useful coupling schemes 1. SU(4) symmetry (Wigner supermultiplet) SU(2) symmetry (seniority) SU(3) symmetry (Elliott model) IBM symmetries . 3. 4. 2.

leptons.aP ˝ Ó h ˛ Total momentum (nucleons. Vectors.a = U rk U r r r r pk '= pk . photons.usual rotations • det(U)=-1 .) Transformation generator .special rotations pseudo-scalars. sk '= sk Ï i r r¸ r U (a ) = expÌ. mesons.Scalars. Tensors… (recollection) Orthogonal transformations • det(U)=1 . etc. axial vectors… Translational Invariance r r r r -1 rk '= rk .

Time displacement Ïi ¸ U (t 0 ) = expÌ t0 H ˝ Óh ˛ Rotations (space isotropy) r rr R ( c ) = exp -i cI { } [Ix .) Total angular momentum Transformation generator SU(2) group! Rotational states labeled by the total angular momentum quantum numbers IM .I y ] = iI z (+ cycl.

. i.e.mk u Ïi r r ¸ r U (u ) = expÌ u MRc.1.m.m . = Â mk rk . M k k r2 P H = Hint r + 2M Such a separation can be done for Galilean-invariant interactions Depends only on relative coordinates and velocities! .u. kinematics is nonrelativistic r r rk '= rk r r r v k '= v k .Galilean (Lorentz) Invariance In atomic nucleus v2/c2<0. Rc .˝ Óh ˛ r 1 M = Â mk . r r sk '= sk r r r pk '= pk .

m .m.) r i 1 r [H .Galilean (Lorentz) Invariance (cont.] = P h M no new conservation laws and quantum numbers! Relativistic generalization • • • Center-of-mass coordinate cannot be introduced in a relativistically covariant manner All powers of c. momentum are present Unitary transformation contains gradient terms and spin-dependent pieces! . Rc.

PR(c ) = R (c )P P Y = p Y .rk = P rk P r r r r pk '= . If one assumes rotational invariance. The simplest of a parity-violated interaction requires a pseudoscalar field.pk . P = 1 ﬁ p = ±1 The ground state of a nucleon is an eigenstate of P Parity is violated by weak interaction. the field looks like 2 1 rr r r rr {spVo d d( r ) + Vo d d( r )sp} (*) mc rr sr is odd with respect to T The interaction (*) produces a very small parity mixing Ip=Ip=+ Parity-violating matrix elements are of the order of 0. This leads to the mixing amplitude of the order of 10-7 . sk '= sk r r r r PU( a) = U (-a)P.1 eV.Space Reflection (Parity) r r r -1 rk '= .

Experminental test of parity violation (Lee and Yang. 1957) r r pb Ii ≠ 0! pseudoscalar Parity violation in a beta decay of polarized 60Co . 1956. Wu et al.

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