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Abstract: The lab objectives to be realized were to construct an on-off control system using suitable temperature and light

sensors. The characteristics of a temperature control system as well as a light controlled system were understood. The lab work consisted of two parts; the first part dealing with a temperature controlled on-off system and studying its characteristics, where as the second part of the experiment dealt with a light controlled on-off system and its characteristics. The overall outcome of the lab experiment was to differentiate between the two methods and suggest applications were these setups could be used. Also the range, the steady state error as well as the precision of the setups were understood.

Brief Introduction: Before we start with specific control system, lets discuss the control system in general. A control is systems goal is to keep the output (controlled variable) close to desired value or state. This can be accomplished by different ways each of which suits certain application or environment. There are two main categories of control systems, the open loop and the closed loop. In closed loop control systems the input keeps monitoring the controlled output through the negative feedback mechanism, whereas in open loop there is no feedback from the output. The figure on the right shows the basic closed loop control system, the error detecting the difference between the actual and the desired (reference) value of the controlled variable. This error signal represents the input to the controller which produces an actuating signal to change the controlled variable such that the error is reduced to minimum value, ideally, to zero. Temperature controlled ON-OFF system This is a closed loop system, where the system tries to maintain the reference voltage. Initially, the heater will be ON and the temperature will rise exponentially from its ambient state. When the desired temperature is reached, the heater will be switched OFF. The temperature will continue to rise for a time (due to the residual heat in the heater) but will eventually fall, the rate of the fall increasing with time. When the temperature has fallen below the desired value, the heater will again be switched ON but the temperature will continue to fall for a time before the heater has any effect. The resulting characteristic will be as shown right with the temperature varying continuously between two limits, provided that there is no change in the operating conditions.

Light controlled ON-OFF system The system uses the drop in the light level below a preset value to cause switching in the output state. The system is to operate a solenoid. The solenoid is to be automatically turned OFF when the light level exceeds a preset level. The graph of this system is very similar to the graph obtained in the previous setup with the change being in the y-axis being light intensity level.

Procedure: Part A. Temperature Controlled ON-OFF system The circuit is connected as shown right. The necessary parameters are set. The power is switched on and further parameters are adjusted. Reference voltage corresponding to temperature equals 20 degrees is set. The values were noted below. I.C. temperature sensor output voltage = 2.99 V Reference voltage setting = 3.16 V The heater element, after applying input starts to heat whenever the temperature of the object goes below a certain threshold value, and switches off when the value exceeds the threshold. We record the values in to the tables below at the intervals of 30seconds. Time 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 (minutes) Heater state on On On Off On on On On Off I.C. sensor 3.170 3.18 3.194 3.199 3.193 3.176 3.181 3.189 3.195 O/P (V) Temperature 44 45 46.4 46.9 46.3 44.6 45.1 45.9 46.5 Time 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 (minutes) Heater state off On On On On Off Off On On I.C. sensor 3.194 3.183 3.177 3.180 3.191 3.199 3.194 3.181 3.177 O/P (V) Temperature 46.4 45.3 44.7 45 46.1 46.9 46.4 45.1 44.7 The characteristic curve for the data above is plotted and various parameters are indicated on the graph.

Temperature vs Time
47.5 47 Temperature 46.5 46 45.5 45 44.5 44 43.5 0 2 4 Time 6 8 10

Based on the plot the following questions were answered. Q1) What is the range of the temperature variation? Ans) 46.9 44 = 2.9 degrees Q2) What was the average temperature of the setup? Ans) 45.6 degrees Q3) How is the average temperature different from the reference settings? Ans) The reference setting was 3.16 V = 43 degrees. Therefore, the temperature control system is fairly accurate, running at less than three degrees off the actual desired value. This may be due to human or system error. Q4) Based on the above results would you recommend an ON-OFF system control suitable? Ans) Yes, the system was quite accurate and stable, it provide reasonable time constant, which can be sufficient for various applications. Part B. Light controlled ON-OFF system. The circuit is connected as shown right. The necessary parameters are set. The power is switched on and further parameters are adjusted. The slide was moved to the optimum point at which the

solenoid is just de-energized. This corresponded to the voltage w.r.t. ambient temperature. Next it was noted that the solenoid changes its state even with a slight change in the light input. This was expected. Now the box is covered to exclude the ambient light, this results in immediate change in the solenoid state since the light level has fallen below the threshold value. Then the slide is moved to attain new equilibrium. The voltage to the filament is applied for the settings as shown below and recorded in the in same table. Lamp Filament Voltage Slide Resistor Setting 0 9 1 8.9 2 8.7 3 7 4 5 5 3.2 6 2.9 7 2.5 8 2.1 9 1.9

A plot of the slide resister Vs lamp filament voltage level is plotted.

Voltage vs. Resistance
10 8 Voltage 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 Resistance 6 8 10

Conclusion: The experiments main objectives were understood and achieved. This lab dealt with control systems as a whole comprising of small components (transducers) which we have learnt in previous lab. The oscillatory nature of the heater on off system was especially interesting. The system though easy to build, had various parameters to take care, such as the band in which the system is to oscillate, the frequency of oscillation etc. The sensitivity of the light based transducer for control was also high. The output was as predicted for the light transducers as the characteristics were non-linear and quite sensitive. This lab was definitely the most practical, and teaches us that a very complex situation can have a very simple solution.