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Lecture 6 – OneWay Slabs
A oneway slab is supported by parallel walls or beams, and the main
tension reinforcing bars run parallel to the span. It looks like the following:
The slab is designed as a series of 1’0” wide beam “strips”. The analysis
is similar to rectangular beams, except the width b = 12” and the height is
usually on the order of 4” ÷ 10”. The main tension bars are usually #4, #5
or #6 bars. There are no stirrups in slabs, however, additional bars are
placed perpendicular to the main tension bars to prevent cracking during
the curing process. These bars are referred to as “shrinkage” or
“temperature” bars and are also usually #4 or #5 bars.
Maximum spacing between main tension bars = smaller of
Spacing reqd. for moment
or
3 x slab thickness
or
12”
Maximum spacing between shrinkage bars = smaller of
Spacing reqd. by analysis
or
5 x slab thickness
or
18”
Lecture 6 – Page 2 of 13
Design of Main Tension Bars:
As previously mentioned, slabs are designed as a series of 1’0” wide
rectangular beam “strips” as shown below:
Assuming the slab strip is a rectangular beam, then:
M
u
= 0.9A
s
f
y
d(1 


.

\

c
y act
f
f
'
59 . 0
p
)
where: M
u
= Usable moment capacity of slab strip
A
s
= Area of tension bars per 1’0” width of slab
f
y
= yield stress of rebar
f’
c
= specified compressive strength of concrete
p
act
=
bd
A
s
Alternatively, the “Design Aid” Tables 1 and 2 from Lecture 4 may be used
for analysis OR design.
Span
Tension bars
d
h
b = 12”
Slab strip
Support
beam
Lecture 6 – Page 3 of 13
Example 1
GIVEN: A oneway slab has a simple span = 8’0” and the following materials
and loads:
 Concrete f’
c
= 4000 PSI
 #4 Grade 60 main tension bars and shrinkage bars
 Concrete cover = ¾”
 Superimposed floor SERVICE dead load = 38 PSF (not incl. slab wt.)
 Superimposed floor SERVIVE live load = 125 PSF
REQUIRED: Design the slab, including thickness, main tension bars & shrinkage
bars.
Step 1 – Determine slab thickness “h” based on Table below:
Minimum Suggested Thickness “h” of Concrete Beams & OneWay Slabs
Member: End Conditions
Simply
supported
One end
continuous
Both ends
continuous
Cantilever
Solid oneway slab L/20 L/24 L/28 L/10
Beam L/16 L/18.5 L/21 L/8
Span length L = inches
h =
20
L
=
20
) / " 12 ( " 0 ' 8 ft ÷
= 4.8” ÷ USE 5” Thick Slab
Span = 8’0”
Tension bars
d
h = ?
b = 12”
Slab strip
Support
beam
Lecture 6 – Page 4 of 13
Step 2 – Determine maximum factored moment, M
max
, on slab:
Factored uniform load w
u
= 1.2D + 1.6L
= 1.2(superimposed dead load + slab wt.) + 1.6(live load)
= 1.2(1’(38 PSF) + (5/12)(150 PCF)) + 1.6(1’(125 PSF))
= 120.6 PLF + 200 PLF
= 320.6 PLF
= 0.32 KLF
Maximum factored moment M
max
=
8
2
L w
u
=
8
) " 0 ' 8 )( 32 . 0 (
2
÷ KLF
M
max
= 2.56 KIPFT
= 30.72 KIPIN
= 30,720 LBIN
Step 3 – Determine depth to tension bars “d”:
d = h” – conc. cover – ½(Tension bar dia.)
= 5” – ¾” – ½(4/8”)
= 4”
5”
d
b = 12”
NOTE: No stirrups are
required in slabs
Lecture 6 – Page 5 of 13
Step 4 – Using Design Aid Table 2 (see Lecture 24), determine A
s
:
Determine the corresponding p from
2
bd
M
u
o
:
2
bd
M
u
o
=
2
) " 4 )( " 12 )( 9 . 0 (
720 , 30 IN LB ÷
= 177.8 PSI
Use p
act
= p
min
= 0.0033
p
act
=
bd
A
s
Solve for A
s
:
A
s
= p
act
(b)(d)
= 0.0033(12”)(4”)
= 0.16 in
2
per 1’0” width of slab
Step 5 – Determine #4 bar tension bar spacing reqd. for moment:
Bar spacing reqd. = 12”


.

\

s
s
A
bar one per A _ _ _
= 12”


.

\

2
2
16 . 0
_ 4 _# _ 20 . 0
in
bar per in
= 15” apart
Lecture 6 – Page 6 of 13
Step 6 – Determine MAXIMUM tension bar spacing requirements per ACI318:
Use #4 Tension bars @ 12” o.c.
Step 7 – Determine “Shrinkage bar requirements by analysis”:
Shrinkage bar A
s
= 0.0020bh
= 0.0020(12”)(5”)
= 0.12 in
2
per 1’0” width
Bar spacing reqd. = 12”


.

\

s
s
A
bar one per A _ _ _
= 12”


.

\

2
2
12 . 0
_ 4 _# _ 20 . 0
in
bar per in
= 20” apart
Spacing reqd. for moment
or
3 x slab thickness
or
12”
Maximum spacing between main tension bars = smaller of
= smaller of
15” (see prev. page)
or
3 x 5” = 15”
or
12” ÷ USE
Lecture 6 – Page 7 of 13
Step 8 – Determine MAXIMUM shrink. bar spacing requirements per ACI318:
Use #4 Shrinkage bars @ 18” o.c.
Step 9 – Draw “Summary Sketch”:
SLAB PLAN
Maximum spacing between shrinkage bars = smaller of
Spacing reqd. by analysis
or
5 x slab thickness
or
18”
= smaller of
20” (see prev. pages)
or
5 x 5” = 25”
or
18” ÷ USE
#4 Tension rebar
placed at bottom
of slab
Slab span = 8’0”
Wall (or beam)
5”
#4 Shrinkage rebar
placed in center of
slab
#4 Shrinkage bar
spacing = 18” o.c. Tension bar
spacing = 12” o.c.
#4 Shrinkage rebar
@ 18” o.c. placed in
center of slab
#4 Tension rebar
@ 12” o.c. placed
at bottom of slab
Lecture 6 – Page 8 of 13
Continuous (Multspan) Slabs
Concrete structural members are typically poured integrally together.
Beams and slabs often span multiple supports and are not “simply
supported” as steel and wood framed beams are. As discussed in AECT
360, these concrete beams and slabs are continuous and have both
positive moments and negative moments.
The location of tension bars in the members is related to the location of
moment:
Tension bars are located in the BOTTOM for M
pos
Tension bars are located in the TOP for M
neg
2 Equal Span Condition:
0.375L
0.375L
) (
128
9
2
wL M
pos
= ) (
128
9
2
wL M
pos
=
R1
R2
R3
L L
w
Moment
Diagram
) (
8
1
2
wL M
neg
÷ =
Bars at top
Lecture 6 – Page 9 of 13
3 Equal Span Condition:
Rebar Placement:
At the transition between the M
pos
and M
neg
zones, a minimum overlap of
bars is required per ACI 318. These overlaps are required for developing
the full bar strength in tension. The friction developed between the
concrete and the ribs of the rebar must equal the tensile strength of the
bar. The necessary length of the bar embedment to achieve this friction
force is called the “Development Length”, L
d
, and is specified as a multiple
of bar diameters. For example, the L
d
for a Grade 60 rebar and concrete
f’
c
= 4000 PSI = 38 x bar diameter.
L
d
Tensile Strength
M
pos
= 0.025(wL
2
)
M
pos
= 0.08(wL
2
)
M
pos
= 0.08(wL
2
)
0.5L 0.5L
0.4L
R4
R2 R3
R1
w
L L L
0.4L
M
neg
= 0.1(wL
2
) M
neg
= 0.1(wL
2
)
Bars at top
Friction force
Rebar Tensile strength = Friction force
Lecture 6 – Page 10 of 13
Below are schematic crosssections of required overlap dimensions for
bar placement in continuous slabs (beams are similar):
Lecture 6 – Page 11 of 13
Example 2
GIVEN: A 1’0” wide “strip” concrete slab that is 6” thick and a 3span condition
is shown below. All loads shown are already factored and includes slab weight.
Use concrete f’
c
= 4000 PSI and Grade 60 bars. Use “d” = 5”.
REQUIRED: Determine if the slab reinforcing steel is adequate for both the
positive moments and negative moments.
Step 1 – Determine maximum factored POSITIVE moment, M
pos
:
From above, M
pos
= 0.08(wL
2
)
= 0.08(1.0 KLF)(9’0”)
2
= 6.48 KIPFT
Step 2  Determine maximum factored NEGATIVE moment, M
neg
:
From above, M
pos
= 0.1(wL
2
)
= 0.1(1.0 KLF)(9’0”)
2
= 8.1 KIPFT
M
pos
= 0.025(wL
2
)
M
pos
= 0.08(wL
2
)
M
pos
= 0.08(wL
2
)
0.5L 0.5L
0.4L
6”
R2 R3
R1
w
u
= 1.0 KLF
L = 9’0” L = 9’0” L = 9’0”
0.4L
M
neg
= 0.1(wL
2
) M
neg
= 0.1(wL
2
)
#5 @ 10” o.c.
bars at top of
slab
#4 @ 8” o.c.
bars at bottom
of slab
Lecture 6 – Page 12 of 13
Step 3 – Determine usable moment capacity of slab in POSITIVE moment:
The slab is reinforced with #4 @ 8” o.c.:
We must get the reinforcement A
s
in terms of 12” width of slab:
A
s
per 1’0” width = 12”


.

\

Spacing
bar per A
s
_ _
= 12”


.

\

" 8
_ 4 _# _ 20 . 0
2
bar per in
A
s
= 0.30 in
2
per 1’0” width of slab
Determine p
act
=
bd
A
s
=
) " 5 )( " 12 (
30 . 0
2
in
= 0.005
Determine M
u
by formula:
M
u
= 0.9A
s
f
y
d(1 


.

\

c
y act
f
f
'
59 . 0
p
)
= 0.9(0.30 in
2
)(60 KSI)(5”)(1 

.

\

KSI 4
) 60 )( 005 . 0 (
59 . 0 )
= 77.4 KIPIN
M
u
= 6.45 KIPFT ~ M
pos
= 6.48 KIPFT ÷ ACCEPTABLE
8”
6”
d = 5”
b = 12”
#4 @ 8” o.c. at
BOTTOM of slab
Lecture 6 – Page 13 of 13
Step 4 – Determine usable moment capacity of slab in NEGATIVE moment:
The slab is reinforced with #5 @ 10” o.c.:
We must get the reinforcement A
s
in terms of 12” width of slab:
A
s
per 1’0” width = 12”


.

\

Spacing
bar per A
s
_ _
= 12”


.

\

" 10
_ 5 _# _ 31 . 0
2
bar per in
A
s
= 0.37 in
2
per 1’0” width of slab
Determine p
act
=
bd
A
s
=
) " 5 )( " 12 (
37 . 0
2
in
= 0.0061
Determine M
u
by formula:
M
u
= 0.9A
s
f
y
d(1 


.

\

c
y act
f
f
'
59 . 0
p
)
= 0.9(0.37 in
2
)(60 KSI)(5”)(1 

.

\

KSI 4
) 60 )( 0061 . 0 (
59 . 0 )
= 94.5 KIPIN
M
u
= 7.88 KIPFT < M
neg
= 8.1 KIPFT ÷ NOT ACCEPTABLE
10”
6”
d = 5”
b = 12”
#5 @ 10” o.c. at TOP
of slab
0. Lecture 6 – Page 2 of 13 . then: act f y Mu = 0.Design of Main Tension Bars: As previously mentioned. slabs are designed as a series of 1’0” wide rectangular beam “strips” as shown below: Slab strip Support beam h d Span b = 12” Tension bars Assuming the slab strip is a rectangular beam.9Asfyd(1 .59 f' c ) where: Mu = Usable moment capacity of slab strip As = Area of tension bars per 1’0” width of slab fy = yield stress of rebar f’c = specified compressive strength of concrete A act = s bd Alternatively. the “Design Aid” Tables 1 and 2 from Lecture 4 may be used for analysis OR design.
) Superimposed floor SERVIVE live load = 125 PSF REQUIRED: Design the slab. Slab strip Support beam h=? d Span = 8’0” b = 12” Tension bars Step 1 – Determine slab thickness “h” based on Table below: Minimum Suggested Thickness “h” of Concrete Beams & OneWay Slabs Member: End Conditions Simply One end Both ends Cantilever supported continuous continuous Solid oneway slab L/20 L/24 L/28 L/10 Beam L/16 L/18.Example 1 GIVEN: A oneway slab has a simple span = 8’0” and the following materials and loads: Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI #4 Grade 60 main tension bars and shrinkage bars Concrete cover = ¾” Superimposed floor SERVICE dead load = 38 PSF (not incl. main tension bars & shrinkage bars. slab wt.5 L/21 L/8 Span length L = inches h= L 20 = 8'0" (12" / ft ) 20 = 4. including thickness.8” USE 5” Thick Slab Lecture 6 – Page 3 of 13 .
6(live load) = 1.Step 2 – Determine maximum factored moment.) + 1.6(1’(125 PSF)) = 120.6 PLF = 0.720 LBIN Step 3 – Determine depth to tension bars “d”: d 5” b = 12” d = h” – conc.56 KIPFT = 30.6L = 1. Mmax. cover – ½(Tension bar dia.2(superimposed dead load + slab wt.32 KLF wu L2 Maximum factored moment Mmax = 8 (0.72 KIPIN = 30. on slab: Factored uniform load wu = 1.32 KLF )(8'0" ) 2 = 8 Mmax = 2.2(1’(38 PSF) + (5/12)(150 PCF)) + 1.2D + 1.) = 5” – ¾” – ½(4/8”) = 4” NOTE: No stirrups are required in slabs Lecture 6 – Page 4 of 13 .6 PLF + 200 PLF = 320.
720 LB IN = 2 bd (0.20in 2 _ per _#4 _ bar = 12” 0.8 PSI Use act = min = 0.16 in2 per 1’0” width of slab Step 5 – Determine #4 bar tension bar spacing reqd.Step 4 – Using Design Aid Table 2 (see Lecture 24). = 12” s As 0. for moment: A _ per _ one _ bar Bar spacing reqd.0033 act = Solve for As: As bd As = act(b)(d) = 0. determine As: Determine the corresponding from Mu 30.9)(12" )(4" ) 2 Mu : bd 2 = 177.16in 2 = 15” apart Lecture 6 – Page 5 of 13 .0033(12”)(4”) = 0.
0020bh = 0. = 12” s As 0. Step 7 – Determine “Shrinkage bar requirements by analysis”: Shrinkage bar As = 0.0020(12”)(5”) = 0.Step 6 – Determine MAXIMUM tension bar spacing requirements per ACI318: Spacing reqd.12in 2 = 20” apart Lecture 6 – Page 6 of 13 . for moment Maximum spacing between main tension bars = smaller of or 3 x slab thickness or 12” 15” (see prev.12 in2 per 1’0” width A _ per _ one _ bar Bar spacing reqd. page) or 3 x 5” = 15” or 12” USE = smaller of Use #4 Tension bars @ 12” o.20in 2 _ per _#4 _ bar = 12” 0.c.
by analysis Maximum spacing between shrinkage bars = smaller of or 5 x slab thickness or 18” = smaller of 20” (see prev.c.c. bar spacing requirements per ACI318: Spacing reqd. Wall (or beam) #4 Shrinkage rebar placed in center of slab Slab span = 8’0” Tension bar spacing = 12” o. placed at bottom of slab SLAB PLAN Lecture 6 – Page 7 of 13 #4 Shrinkage rebar @ 18” o. #4 Tension rebar @ 12” o.c.c. pages) or 5 x 5” = 25” or 18” USE Use #4 Shrinkage bars @ 18” o. Step 9 – Draw “Summary Sketch”: #4 Tension rebar placed at bottom of slab 5” #4 Shrinkage bar spacing = 18” o.Step 8 – Determine MAXIMUM shrink.c. placed in center of slab .
Continuous (Multspan) Slabs Concrete structural members are typically poured integrally together.Equal Span Condition: w Bars at top R1 L R2 R3 L M pos 9 ( wL2 ) 128 M pos 9 ( wL2 ) 128 0. these concrete beams and slabs are continuous and have both positive moments and negative moments. Beams and slabs often span multiple supports and are not “simplysupported” as steel and wood framed beams are.375L Moment Diagram 1 M neg ( wL2 ) 8 Lecture 6 – Page 8 of 13 . The location of tension bars in the members is related to the location of moment: Tension bars are located in the BOTTOM for Mpos Tension bars are located in the TOP for Mneg 2. As discussed in AECT 360.375L 0.
The friction developed between the concrete and the ribs of the rebar must equal the tensile strength of the bar. For example. These overlaps are required for developing the full bar strength in tension.08(wL2) Mpos = 0. The necessary length of the bar embedment to achieve this friction force is called the “Development Length”.4L 0.025(wL ) 2 Mpos = 0.08(wL2) 0. the Ld for a Grade 60 rebar and concrete f’c = 4000 PSI = 38 x bar diameter.4L 0.Equal Span Condition: Bars at top w R4 R1 R2 R3 L L L Mpos = 0.1(wL2) 0. Tensile Strength Rebar Tensile strength = Friction force Ld Friction force Lecture 6 – Page 9 of 13 . and is specified as a multiple of bar diameters.3.5L Mneg = 0.1(wL2) Rebar Placement: At the transition between the Mpos and Mneg zones. a minimum overlap of bars is required per ACI 318. Ld.5L Mneg = 0.
Below are schematic crosssections of required overlap dimensions for bar placement in continuous slabs (beams are similar): Lecture 6 – Page 10 of 13 .
c.4L 0.1 KIPFT Lecture 6 – Page 11 of 13 .1(1.1(wL2) = 0. Use “d” = 5”. bars at bottom of slab wu = 1. bars at top of slab L = 9’0” L = 9’0” L = 9’0” Mpos = 0.5L Mneg = 0. #4 @ 8” o.08(wL2) = 0. Mpos = 0.Determine maximum factored NEGATIVE moment.Example 2 GIVEN: A 1’0” wide “strip” concrete slab that is 6” thick and a 3span condition is shown below.48 KIPFT Step 2 . Mpos: From above. All loads shown are already factored and includes slab weight.1(wL2) 0.0 KLF)(9’0”)2 = 6.c.0 KLF 6” R1 R2 R3 #5 @ 10” o. Mneg: From above. REQUIRED: Determine if the slab reinforcing steel is adequate for both the positive moments and negative moments.4L 0. Use concrete f’c = 4000 PSI and Grade 60 bars.025(wL ) 2 Mpos = 0.1(wL2) Step 1 – Determine maximum factored POSITIVE moment. Mpos = 0.08(wL2) 0.0 KLF)(9’0”)2 = 8.5L Mneg = 0.08(wL2) Mpos = 0.08(1.
Step 3 – Determine usable moment capacity of slab in POSITIVE moment: The slab is reinforced with #4 @ 8” o.0.9Asfyd(1 .005 Determine Mu by formula: act f y Mu = 0.30in 2 (12" )(5" ) = 0.45 KIPFT Mpos = 6.59 ) 4 KSI = 77. at BOTTOM of slab 6” We must get the reinforcement As in terms of 12” width of slab: A _ per _ bar As per 1’0” width = 12” s Spacing 0.0.30 in2)(60 KSI)(5”)(1 .: d = 5” 8” b = 12” #4 @ 8” o.4 KIPIN Mu = 6.48 KIPFT ACCEPTABLE Lecture 6 – Page 12 of 13 .c.20in 2 _ per _#4 _ bar = 12” 8" As = 0.c.9(0.59 f' c ) (0.30 in2 per 1’0” width of slab Determine act = As bd = 0.005)(60) = 0.
0.9(0. at TOP of slab 6” We must get the reinforcement As in terms of 12” width of slab: A _ per _ bar As per 1’0” width = 12” s Spacing 0.Step 4 – Determine usable moment capacity of slab in NEGATIVE moment: The slab is reinforced with #5 @ 10” o.c.1 KIPFT NOT ACCEPTABLE Lecture 6 – Page 13 of 13 .37 in2 per 1’0” width of slab Determine act = As bd = 0.37in 2 (12" )(5" ) = 0.59 f' c ) (0.37 in2)(60 KSI)(5”)(1 .9Asfyd(1 .: d = 5” 10” b = 12” #5 @ 10” o.0.0061 Determine Mu by formula: act f y Mu = 0.c.31in 2 _ per _#5 _ bar = 12” 10" As = 0.0061)(60) = 0.88 KIPFT < Mneg = 8.59 ) 4 KSI = 94.5 KIPIN Mu = 7.
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